WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology intervention strategies

  1. Current Trends in Exercise Intervention Research, Technology, and Behavioral Change Strategies for People With Disabilities: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Byron; Young, Hui-Ju; Bickel, C Scott; Motl, Robert W; Rimmer, James H

    2017-10-01

    This review synthesized physical activity and exercise intervention literature for the past 10 yrs for people with physical and cognitive disabilities including intervention characteristics, behavior change strategies, and types of technologies used to improve targeted outcomes. Systematic searches yielded 132 eligible studies. The major disability groups were multiple sclerosis (41%), stroke (15%), and spinal cord injury (12%). Research designs primarily involved randomized controlled trials (61%) versus quasi-experimental designs (39%). Approximately 20% of the interventions used some form of the following technology: information and communication technology (48%), interactive technology (37%), or electronic gauges (30%). Eighteen percent of studies used intervention strategies based on behavioral theory, which was typically combined with technology to promote activity and increase adherence in generally larger study samples. The three prevailing theories included social cognitive theory (58%), supportive accountability theory (21%), and transtheoretical model (21%). Upon completing the intervention, studies reported primarily significant outcomes (80%). Exercise research for PWD has grown in both quantity and quality, but several gaps remain. Study findings provide a roadmap for future exercise trials on understudied populations and highlight technology and behavior change theory as drivers of future intervention research.

  2. Defining the Relationship Between Human Error Classes and Technology Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Rantanen, Eas M.

    2003-01-01

    The modus operandi in addressing human error in aviation systems is predominantly that of technological interventions or fixes. Such interventions exhibit considerable variability both in terms of sophistication and application. Some technological interventions address human error directly while others do so only indirectly. Some attempt to eliminate the occurrence of errors altogether whereas others look to reduce the negative consequences of these errors. In any case, technological interventions add to the complexity of the systems and may interact with other system components in unforeseeable ways and often create opportunities for novel human errors. Consequently, there is a need to develop standards for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the biggest benefit to flight safety as well as to mitigate any adverse ramifications. The purpose of this project was to help define the relationship between human error and technological interventions, with the ultimate goal of developing a set of standards for evaluating or measuring the potential benefits of new human error fixes.

  3. The effectiveness of technology-based strategies to promote engagement with digital interventions: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldi, Ghadah; Hamilton, Fiona L; Lau, Rosa; Webster, Rosie; Michie, Susan; Murray, Elizabeth

    2015-04-28

    Digital interventions provide effective and potentially cost-effective models for improving health outcomes as they deliver health information and services that are widely disseminated, confidential, and can be tailored to needs of the individual user. Digital interventions have been used successfully for health promotion, mental health, and for enabling self-management of long-term conditions. However, their effectiveness is limited by low usage rates, with non-engagement a major challenge. Hence, it is crucial to find effective strategies to increase user engagement with digital interventions. This systematic review will aim to evaluate the effectiveness of technology-based strategies to promote engagement with digital interventions. We will follow Cochrane Collaboration guidelines on systematic review methodology. The search strategy will be executed across seven e-databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL) using the concepts "digital intervention" and "engagement", limited by study type (randomized controlled trial). Grey literature and reference lists of included studies will be searched. Titles and abstracts will be independently screened by 2 authors. Then the full text of potentially eligible papers will be obtained and double screened. Data from eligible papers will be extracted by 1 author and checked for accuracy by another author. Bias will be assessed using the Cochrane bias assessment tool. Narrative synthesis will report on all included studies, and where appropriate, data will be pooled using meta-analysis. All findings will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Sources of heterogeneity will be further investigated if required. Our research is in progress. The final draft of the systematic review is being written and will be submitted before the end of 2015. The review findings will inform researchers and digital intervention providers about optimal use of technology

  4. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  5. Strategy of technology and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Min

    1998-10-01

    This book introduces strategy of technology and innovation which includes design and development of strategy of technology, performance of strategy of technology and building and practice of strategy of development. The contents of this book are form of industrial innovation, act in strategy, advantage of technical innovation, new perspective of studying and innovation, alliance with competitor, cost of transmission and innovation, learning cycle of new product and power of consistency of product.

  6. Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

  7. Technological Strategies and National Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the international and domestic implications of technological growth. Defines three basic national strategies: a broad front approach, scientific and technological specialization and importation. Analyzes the strategies followed by form countries - France, the United States, Sweden, and Japan- to illustrate the alternatives and the…

  8. Technology Strategy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    calculated use of the media to incite an outcry for additional naval resources.163 The Pall Mall Gazette obliged, releasing an article entitled “The...widespread dissemination of professional articles which could have increased familiarity. 512...supporting air coverage, but this approach was discounted.796 However, the chosen strategy was too heavy to minimize the amount of gratuitous

  9. Teaching Strategies in Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, Anthony E.

    Teachers of technology education need to relate their teaching strategies to learning theory, student needs, and Bloom's taxonomy. In learning, students take in information and apply it to the real world through accommodation. Teaching strategies must allow for this process of accommodation. Student needs involve sustenance (physiological needs),…

  10. Integrating technology into business strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The development and application of new technology has been a major factor in the worldwide growth of natural gas use. In an increasingly competitive gas industry, technology will continue to be a major driving force. However, funding for research, development, and commercialization is under pressure as competition puts pressure on all costs. Natural gas R and D budgets have been reduced in recent years in the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan. To sustain the important role of technology and to most effectively use the limited funds available, technologists must learn to address business issues, not just technology issues. This paper will discuss how the Gas Research Institute has aligned its program with the business strategies of its U.S. members. To accomplish realignment, GRI studied the R and D processes of successful competitive industries. As a result, GRI changed its strategic planning, goal setting, program implementation, and results measurement processes. The result is a more focused technology effort that addresses key business needs. The paper describes specific examples where technology development has been aligned with critical business needs and outlines the GRI RD and C stage-gate process used to implement GRI-funded projects. (au)

  11. The EM technology development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Barainca, M.; Kubo, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (TD) supports research and development of technologies that will lower cost, reduce risk, improve safety, and accelerate cleanup of the Nuclear Weapons Complex and provide solutions to currently untractable environmental problems. The TD strategic plan outlines Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT and E) that will provide needed technology products to be used by Environmental Restoration and Waste Management operations (i.e., our customers). The TD strategic plan is derived from EM Goals, Objectives, and Strategy and is incorporated into DOE'S Five-Year Plan for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The TD strategic plan is developed based on integrating customer requirements, and is complemented by a top-down, bottom-up analysis of Site Specific Technology Needs and environmental problems. The execution of TD's strategic plan is implemented largely through Integrated Programs (IP) and Integrated Demonstrations (ID). IDs have proven to be a cost-effective method of managing technology development, testing and evaluation, and implementation of successful technology systems into the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs. The Savannah River ID for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Saturated Soils resulted in a 51 percent cost savings over stand-alone demonstrations, saving over $8 million. The IPs and IDs are selected based on customer needs, technical complexity, and complex-wide regulatory and compliance agreements. New technology systems are selected for incorporation into an IP or ID from offerings of the DOE laboratories, industry, and the universities. A major TD initiative was announced in August 1991, with the release of a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) requesting industry and universities to propose innovative new technologies to clean up the Weapons Complex. (author)

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  13. Intervention strategies for reduction of infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Datta, N

    1985-01-01

    The Government of India has established the goal of a 50% reduction in the infant mortality rate by the year 2000 for the country as a whole as well as for each state and union territory. Experience has indicated that this is an achievable goal provided that the appropriate, cost-effective interventions are introduced. Choice of intervention strategies requires consideration of the contribution of various problems to overall infant mortality, the technical feasibility of various interventions within the context of primary health care, economic feasibility, and cultural acceptability. About 50% of deaths occur in the neonatal period, and the determinants of mortality in this stage differ from those in the postneonatal period. Pilot experiments have indicated that acute diarrheal disease can be reduced substantially by the use of oral rehydration solution. Neonatal tetanus is a completely preventable disease. Preventive interventions have a more limited role in the case of acute lower respiratory infections, although their diagnosis and treatment may be possible at the primary health care level. The problems of protein-energy malnutrition and low birthweight require improvements in maternal health and prenatal care, promotion of breastfeeding and child spacing, and growth monitoring. Longterm gains in this area require attention to behavioral and community development issues, including reduction of the sex and parity related differentials in mortality, enhancement of the status of women, improved female literacy and employment opportunities, improved intrafamilial food distribution patterns, maternity benefits, provision of potable water, intersectoral development to strengthen health care delivery, increased community participation, expanded health services, and enhancement of the pace of development. Pilot experiments and population-based studies carried out in 2 community development blocks in Haryana confirm the effectiveness of well thought-out interventions in

  14. Influence of Information Technology on Organization Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sibanda Mabutho; Ramrathan Durrel

    2017-01-01

    The exponential development of information technology has presented many opportunities to organizations; however, it has also presented several challenges. A key challenge is how do organizations effectively use information technology and incorporate it into their strategies to make full use of its capabilities as an enabler. The fast-changing nature of information technology has resulted in little empirical evidence on how it influences organization strategy. The Strategic Alignment Model wa...

  15. Overweight and obesity interventions and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    To determine what secondary schoolchildren in Jordan want from overweight and obesity intervention strategies and prevention programmes. A school-based, cross-sectional study using a quantitative design was carried out during October 2014. The participants were secondary schoolchildren in grades 11 and 12. Data were analysed using SPSS program version 17. Percentages, standard deviations and means were computed. The main suggestions were for programmes at school, during school hours (n=962, 85.4%), followed by one that involved family and friends (n=951, 84.5%), and a programme at a convenient time free of charge (n=919, 81.6%). The students also suggested many strategies to tackle overweight and obesity, such as: taking more physical exercise (n=925, 82.1%), increasing consumption of more fruit and vegetables (n=712, 63.2%) eating less fast food (n=689, 61.2%). Schools, families, health providers and community organisations should encourage students to adopt healthy lifestyles, and facilitate their selection and participation in health programmes.

  16. Office of Space Science: Integrated technology strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1994-01-01

    This document outlines the strategy by which the Office of Space Science, in collaboration with the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology and the Office of Space Communications, will meet the challenge of the national technology thrust. The document: highlights the legislative framework within which OSS must operate; evaluates the relationship between OSS and its principal stakeholders; outlines a vision of a successful OSS integrated technology strategy; establishes four goals in support of this vision; provides an assessment of how OSS is currently positioned to respond to the goals; formulates strategic objectives to meet the goals; introduces policies for implementing the strategy; and identifies metrics for measuring success. The OSS Integrated Technology Strategy establishes the framework through which OSS will satisfy stakeholder expectations by teaming with partners in NASA and industry to develop the critical technologies required to: enhance space exploration, expand our knowledge of the universe, and ensure continued national scientific, technical and economic leadership.

  17. The Relationship between Knowledge Management Strategy and Information Technology Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Ling Huang; Yue-Yang Chen; Ming-Chi Tsai; Cheng-Jiun Lee

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great number of theoretical frameworks have been proposed to develop the linkages between knowledge management (KM) and organizational strategies. However, while there has been much theorizing and case study in the area, validated research models integrating KM and information technology strategies for empirical testing of these theories have been scarce. In this research, we try to develop a research model for explaining the relationship between KM strategy a...

  18. Towards a National Strategy for Information Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hampton, Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    In the 21st century, our national security and our continued economic prosperity will depend on how effectively we develop national strategies and policies to shape the development and use of information technology...

  19. Sterile Neuroinflammation and Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Banjara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile neuroinflammation is essential for the proper brain development and tissue repair. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of various disease processes. The endogenous intracellular molecules so called damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins or damage signals that are released by activated or necrotic cells are thought to play a crucial role in initiating an immune response. Sterile inflammatory response that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury (TBI creates a vicious cycle of unrestrained inflammation, driving progressive neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism in the progression (e.g., AD and PD or secondary injury development (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, stress, and TBI of multiple brain conditions. Hence, it provides an opportunity for the therapeutic intervention to prevent progressive tissue damage and loss of function. The key for developing anti-neuroinflammatory treatment is to minimize the detrimental and neurotoxic effects of inflammation while promoting the beneficial and neurotropic effects, thereby creating ideal conditions for regeneration and repair. This review outlines how inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of major nonpathogenic neuroinflammatory conditions and discusses the complex response of glial cells to damage signals. In addition, emerging experimental anti-neuroinflammatory drug treatment strategies are discussed.

  20. Determining disease intervention strategies using spatially resolved simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Read

    Full Text Available Predicting efficacy and optimal drug delivery strategies for small molecule and biological therapeutics is challenging due to the complex interactions between diverse cell types in different tissues that determine disease outcome. Here we present a new methodology to simulate inflammatory disease manifestation and test potential intervention strategies in silico using agent-based computational models. Simulations created using this methodology have explicit spatial and temporal representations, and capture the heterogeneous and stochastic cellular behaviours that lead to emergence of pathology or disease resolution. To demonstrate this methodology we have simulated the prototypic murine T cell-mediated autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In the simulation immune cell dynamics, neuronal damage and tissue specific pathology emerge, closely resembling behaviour found in the murine model. Using the calibrated simulation we have analysed how changes in the timing and efficacy of T cell receptor signalling inhibition leads to either disease exacerbation or resolution. The technology described is a powerful new method to understand cellular behaviours in complex inflammatory disease, permits rational design of drug interventional strategies and has provided new insights into the role of TCR signalling in autoimmune disease progression.

  1. Introducing new agricultural technologies and marketing strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing new agricultural technologies and marketing strategies: A means for increasing income and nutrition of farm households in Ethiopia. ... Both the treatment of the nutritional deficits and the decision making criteria defined by farmers are expected to be useful techniques in other developing country technology ...

  2. OSMA Research and Technology Strategy Team Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherholt, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA), and the OSMA Research and Technology Strategy (ORTS) team. There is discussion of the charter of the team, Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and how the teams responsibilities are related to these TRLs. In order to improve the safety of all levels of the development through the TRL phases, improved communication, understanding and cooperation is required at all levels, particularly at the mid level technologies development.

  3. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the reflective...... outcomes, as providers of explanations and observations. The expression `technological strategy as macro-actor' summarizes these findings and the associated implications for research and practice....

  4. Influence of Information Technology on Organization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibanda Mabutho

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The exponential development of information technology has presented many opportunities to organizations; however, it has also presented several challenges. A key challenge is how do organizations effectively use information technology and incorporate it into their strategies to make full use of its capabilities as an enabler. The fast-changing nature of information technology has resulted in little empirical evidence on how it influences organization strategy. The Strategic Alignment Model was a popular model created to assist organizations to align their information technology and their business strategy; however, the growth of technology may have made this model irrelevant in this age. Therefore, organizations need to determine what factors drive this alignment. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted within IBM South Africa to determine real-life drivers that help create this alignment. The themes derived from the interview texts reveal that consumers are becoming more empowered; therefore, organizations need to be more flexible in their business models and strategies. Furthermore, the integration of cross-functional roles in the organization at the management level allow for improved alignment between information technology and strategy as better integrated roles bring a combination of these two elements.

  5. Strategies and technologies for nuclear materials stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.; Hanson, E.M.

    1997-10-01

    A strategy for future nuclear materials management and utilization from proliferation and long-term waste perspectives is described. It is aimed at providing flexible and robust responses to foreseeable nuclear energy scenarios. The strategy also provides for a smooth transition, in terms of technology development and facility implementation, to possible future use of breeder reactor technology. The strategy incorporates features that include minimization of stocks of separated plutonium; creation of a network of secure interim, retrievable storage facilities; and development and implementation of a system of Integrated Actinide Conversion Systems (IACS) aimed at near and far-term management of plutonium and other actinides. Technologies applicable to such IACS concepts are discussed as well as a high-level approach for implementation.

  6. Strategies and technologies for nuclear materials stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.; Hanson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for future nuclear materials management and utilization from proliferation and long-term waste perspectives is described. It is aimed at providing flexible and robust responses to foreseeable nuclear energy scenarios. The strategy also provides for a smooth transition, in terms of technology development and facility implementation, to possible future use of breeder reactor technology. The strategy incorporates features that include minimization of stocks of separated plutonium; creation of a network of secure interim, retrievable storage facilities; and development and implementation of a system of Integrated Actinide Conversion Systems (IACS) aimed at near and far-term management of plutonium and other actinides. Technologies applicable to such IACS concepts are discussed as well as a high-level approach for implementation

  7. Intervention strategies for the recovery of radioactive-contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Vazquez, C.

    2000-01-01

    Following an accident with environmental consequences, intervention may be necessary. The type of remedial actions and the strategy required will be dependent upon, inter alia, the phase and conditions within the contaminated scenario. Leaving aside the basic countermeasures (such as confinement, evacuation), which are based on internationally agreed Generic Intervention Levels (GIL's), the paper deals with intervention strategies leading to a return of the contaminated site to as close to normality as possible with the lowest social cost. The reduction of the damage from the existing contamination must be justified and optimised; the best strategy for applying recovery actions must be selected from a set of potential alternatives. A methodology for intervention strategies analysis, developed in the framework of CEC-CHECIR ECP-4 'Decontamination Strategies', is presented together with some examples of application. (author)

  8. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  9. Explicit Problem Modeling: An Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David; Jones, Sue

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that organizational development consultants should use more explicit representations of the problems they work on with client teams. Offers an approach to overcome difficulties and provides a strategy for intervening in the processes of problem definition in teams. (Author)

  10. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  11. Developing Logotherapeutic Strategies as Effective Interventions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of sexual assault in Nigeria is alarming. This paper highlighted the meaning of sexual assault in the society. It reviewed the literature on the stigmatization associated with sexual assault as well as cultural differences on the subject. It also explained the development of some logotherapeutic strategies such ...

  12. A search strategy for occupational health intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and

  13. A Review of Technology-Based Youth and Family-Focused Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Kathleen Watson; Prinz, Ronald J

    2017-06-01

    In the past 10 years, mental and behavioral health has seen a proliferation of technology-based interventions in the form of online and other computer-delivered programs. This paper focuses on technology-based treatment and preventive interventions aimed at benefitting children and adolescents via either involving the parents and families, or only the youth. The review considered only technology-based interventions that had at least one published study with a randomized controlled trial design. Questions being addressed included: (1) What are the technology-based interventions in the mental/behavioral health area that have been systematically evaluated in published studies? (2) What are the common and unique characteristics of these interventions and their application with respect to sample characteristics, target problems, and technology characteristics (platforms, structures, elements, and communication formats)? and (3) Which intervention approaches and strategies have accrued the greatest evidence? The review identified 30 technology-based psychosocial interventions for children and families, 19 of which were parent or family-focused (32 studies) and 11 of which were youth-focused (in 13 studies). For the parent/family-focused interventions, greatest promise was found in those that addressed either youth behavioral problems or depressive/anxious symptoms, as well as more general bolstering of parenting efficacy. The youth-focused interventions showed some promise in reducing depressive/anxious symptoms. Advantages and disadvantages of the technology-based approaches were considered, and areas for future research and development were discussed.

  14. Early Intervention Provider Use of Child Caregiver-Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…

  15. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inquire into the possible significance of materials in the production of emerging strategic outcomes. The article first sets out to discuss the different ways contemporary strategy research define the identity of strategic actors. It is argued that the various schools...... of strategy research, although different in important respects, operate with a common human centered assumption: Humanity is treated as given - the strategic actor or subject is assumed to be an individual human or a collective of humans.By adding the possible significance of materials and other non......-human entities to the explanatory repertoire of strategy research, another line of inquiry is pursued. The performative perspective thus proposed, is inspired by the classical work of Von Clausewitz and the recent anthropology of science, technology and organizational identities. In the proposed perspective...

  16. Structure strategy interventions: Increasing reading comprehension of expository text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. F. Meyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six categories: comparison, problem-and-solution, causation, sequence, collection, and description. Next, we provide a historical look at research of structure strategy interventions. Strategy interventions employ modeling, practice, and feedback to teach students how to use text structure strategically and eventually automatically. Finally, we review recent text structure interventions for elementary school students. We present similarities and differences among these studies and applications for instruction. Our review of intervention research suggests that direct instruction, modeling, scaffolding, elaborated feedback, and adaptation of instruction to student performance are keys in teaching students to strategically use knowledge about text structure.

  17. Using technology to enhance and expand interventions for couples and families: Conceptual and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Brian D; Feinberg, Leah K; Rothman, Karen; Roddy, McKenzie K; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-12-01

    Technological advances provide tremendous opportunities for couple and family interventions to overcome logistical, financial, and stigma-related barriers to treatment access. Given technology's ability to facilitate, augment, or at times even substitute for face-to-face interventions, it is important to consider the appropriate role of different technologies in treatment and how that may vary across specific instances of technology use. To that end, this article reviews the potential contributions of telemental health (aka, telehealth; e.g., videoconferencing to remotely deliver real-time services) and asynchronous behavioral intervention technologies (BITs; e.g., apps, web-based programs) for couple and family interventions. Design considerations-such as software and hardware requirements and recommendations, characteristics of intended users, ways to maximize engagement, and tips for integrating therapists/coaches-are included for both types of technology-based intervention. We also present suggestions for the most effective recruitment and evaluation strategies for technology-based couple and family interventions. Finally, we present legal and ethical issues that are especially pertinent when integrating technology into couple and family interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Persuasive technology as an intervention programs for Health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intervention programs through computer application should be used to persuade and support health awareness, treatment and prevention. This paper investigate and review studies using persuasive technology in health intervention program in Malaysia. It presents the main objective, the technology persuasive principles ...

  19. A Taxonomy of Information Technology-Enhanced Pricing Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixit, A.; Whipple, T.W.; Zinkhan, G.M.; Gailey, E.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of evolving technology, opportunities for innovative pricing strategies continuously emerge. The authors provide an updated taxonomy to show how such emerging strategies relate to recent technological advances. Specifically, they cite increased availability of information, enhanced

  20. A personal history: Technology to energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1995-01-01

    This personal history spans a half century of participation in the frontiers of applies science and engineering ranging from the nuclear weapons project of World War II, through the development of nuclear power, engineering education, and risk analysis, to today's energy research and development. In each of these areas, this account describes some of the exciting opportunities for technology to contribute to society's welfare, as well as the difficulties and constraints imposed by society's institutional and political systems. The recounting of these experiences in energy research and development illustrates the importance of embracing social values, cultures, and environmental views into the technologic design of energy options. The global importance of energy in a rapidly changing and unpredictable world suggests a strategy for the future based on these experiences which emphasizes the value of applied research and development on a full spectrum of potential options

  1. Educational Cognitive Technologies as Human Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Nesterova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity is characterized by profound changes in all spheres of human life caused by the global transformations on macro and micro levels of social reality. These changes allow us to speak about the present as the era of civilizational transition in the mode of uncertainty. Therefore, this situation demands qualitative transformations of human adaptive strategies and educational technologies accordingly. The dominant role in the dynamics of pedagogics and andragogy’s landscape belongs to transformative learning. The transformative learning theory is considered as the relevant approach to education of the individual, which is able to become an autonomous communicative actor of the social complexity. The article considers the cognitive technologies of social cohesion development and perspectives of their implementation in the educational dimension. In addition to implementing the principles of inclusion, equity in education, an important factor for improving social cohesion, stability and unity of society is the development of cognitive educational technologies. The key factors and foundations for the cognitive educational technologies are transversal competencies. They create the conditions for civil, public dialogue, non-violent type of communication. These “21st century skills” are extremely important for better human adaptation. One of the aspects and roots of social adaptation is social cohesion. Mutual determinations and connections between social cohesion development and transversal competences have been shown. The perspective direction of further researches is to find a methodological base for the further development of cognitive education technologies and platform for realization of innovative services for educational programs. New educational paradigm offers the concept of human adaptation as cognitive effectiveness and how to reach it through educational technologies. The article includes topics of creative thinking, teambuilding

  2. Intervention strategies for the management of human error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1993-01-01

    This report examines the management of human error in the cockpit. The principles probably apply as well to other applications in the aviation realm (e.g. air traffic control, dispatch, weather, etc.) as well as other high-risk systems outside of aviation (e.g. shipping, high-technology medical procedures, military operations, nuclear power production). Management of human error is distinguished from error prevention. It is a more encompassing term, which includes not only the prevention of error, but also a means of disallowing an error, once made, from adversely affecting system output. Such techniques include: traditional human factors engineering, improvement of feedback and feedforward of information from system to crew, 'error-evident' displays which make erroneous input more obvious to the crew, trapping of errors within a system, goal-sharing between humans and machines (also called 'intent-driven' systems), paperwork management, and behaviorally based approaches, including procedures, standardization, checklist design, training, cockpit resource management, etc. Fifteen guidelines for the design and implementation of intervention strategies are included.

  3. Technology-based interventions in social work practice: a systematic review of mental health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex T; Montgomery, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Despite concerns around the use of technology-based interventions, they are increasingly being employed by social workers as a direct practice methodology to address the mental health needs of vulnerable clients. Researchers have highlighted the importance of using innovative technologies within social work practice, yet little has been done to summarize the evidence and collectively assess findings. In this systematic review, we describe accounts of technology-based mental health interventions delivered by social workers over the past 10 years. Results highlight the impacts of these tools and summarize advantages and disadvantages to utilizing technologies as a method for delivering or facilitating interventions.

  4. Clinical trials of health information technology interventions intended for patient use: unique issues and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Song, Mi-Kyung; Myers, Brad; Hawkins, Robert P; Aubrecht, Jill; Begey, Alex; Connolly, Mary; Li, Ruosha; Pilewski, Joseph M; Bermudez, Christian A; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of health information technology (IT) interventions, descriptions of the unique considerations for conducting randomized trials of health IT interventions intended for patient use are lacking. Our purpose is to describe the protocol to evaluate Pocket PATH (Personal Assistant for Tracking Health), a novel health IT intervention, as an exemplar of how to address issues that may be unique to a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate health IT intended for patient use. An overview of the study protocol is presented. Unique considerations for health IT intervention trials and strategies are described to maintain equipoise, to monitor data safety and intervention fidelity, and to keep pace with changing technology during such trials. The sovereignty granted to technology, the rapid pace of changes in technology, ubiquitous use in health care, and obligation to maintain the safety of research participants challenge researchers to address these issues in ways that maintain the integrity of intervention trials designed to evaluate the impact of health IT interventions intended for patient use. Our experience evaluating the efficacy of Pocket PATH may provide practical guidance to investigators about how to comply with established procedures for conducting RCTs and include strategies to address the unique issues associated with the evaluation of health IT for patient use.

  5. Community based intervention as a strategy to combat pipeline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community based intervention as a strategy to combat pipeline vandalization in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. A Rim-Rukeh, GO Ikhifa, IO Imide, D Uduh. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp. 23-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjes.v7i1.2507 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Effectiveness of Motor Skill Intervention Varies Based on Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Taunton, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Background: Young children from disadvantaged settings often present delays in fundamental motor skills (FMS). Young children can improve their FMS delays through developmentally appropriate motor skill intervention programming. However, it is unclear which pedagogical strategy is most effective for novice and expert instructors. Purpose: The…

  7. Structure strategy interventions: Increasing reading comprehension of expository text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. F. MEYER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six categories: comparison, problem-and solution, causation, sequence, collection, and description. Next, we provide a historical look at research of structure strategyinterventions. Strategy interventions employ modeling, practice, and feedback to teach students how to use text structure strategically and eventually automatically. Finally, we review recent text structure interventions for elementary school students. We present similarities and differences among these studies and applications for instruction. Our review of intervention research suggests that direct instruction, modeling, scaffolding, elaborated feedback, and adaptation of instruction to student performance are keys in teaching students to strategically use knowledge about text structure.

  8. Behavioral economics strategies for promoting adherence to sleep interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea are among the most efficacious sleep interventions. Unfortunately, adherence levels are disappointingly low for these interventions. Behavioral economics offers a promising framework for promoting adherence, often through relatively brief and straightforward strategies. The assumptions, goals, and key strategies of behavioral economics will be introduced. These strategies include providing social norms information, changing defaults, using the compromise effect, utilizing commitment devices, and establishing lottery-based systems. Then, this review will highlight specific behavioral economic approaches to promote patient adherence for three major sleep interventions: 1) behavioral treatment for pediatric insomnia, 2) cognitive-behavioral treatment for adult insomnia, and 3) continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. Next, behavioral economic strategies will be discussed as ways to improve health care provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding appropriate prescribing of hypnotics and ordering sleep-promoting practices for hospitalized inpatients. Finally, possible concerns that readers may have about behavioral economics strategies, including their efficacy, feasibility, and sustainability, will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Empiricist interventions: strategy and tactics on the ontopolitical battlefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munk, A.K.; Abrahamsson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably John Law and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept of

  10. Cloud Computing and Information Technology Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mariano Carlos Junior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents a new paradigm that enables the utility computing model in which computing resources are offered and consumed as a service on demand, pay as you go, in a model similar to that of electricity. The objective of this work is to identify threats and opportunities of the cloud computing model and its influence on the strategy of companies that consume Information Technology. To do so, a survey was conducted with leading IT executives from 64 medium and large companies in Brazil. We noticed the influence of cloud computing in migrating the focus of the corporate IT departments to the management of services and contracts, resulting into the demand for professionals with IT analyst integrated and business profiles.

  11. Strategies for Worksite Health Interventions to Employees with Elevated Risk of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Meng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease rates have become more prevalent in the modern American workforce, which has negative implications for workplace productivity and healthcare costs. Offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. This review documents intervention and evaluation strategies used for health promotion programs delivered in workplaces. Using predetermined search terms in five online databases, we identified 1,131 published items from 1995 to 2014. Of these items, 27 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria; reporting data from completed United States-based workplace interventions that recruited at-risk employees based on their disease or disease-related risk factors. A content rubric was developed and used to catalogue these 27 published field studies. Selected workplace interventions targeted obesity (n = 13, cardiovascular diseases (n = 8, and diabetes (n = 6. Intervention strategies included instructional education/counseling (n = 20, workplace environmental change (n = 6, physical activity (n = 10, use of technology (n = 10, and incentives (n = 13. Self-reported data (n = 21, anthropometric measurements (n = 17, and laboratory tests (n = 14 were used most often in studies with outcome evaluation. This is the first literature review to focus on interventions for employees with elevated risk for chronic diseases. The review has the potential to inform future workplace health interventions by presenting strategies related to implementation and evaluation strategies in workplace settings. These strategies can help determine optimal worksite health programs based on the unique characteristics of work settings and the health risk factors of their employee populations.

  12. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy m...

  13. International HR Strategy of Brazilian Technology Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Morilha Muritiba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of Brazilian Multinationals from the information technology [IT] sector were compared in their international Human Resources strategy. The analysis is focused on the development and application of two research models. One analyzes the level of subsidiary autonomy in terms of strategic HR decisions, including difficult decisions regarding coordination in multinationals, following the theoretical approach of the autonomy of subsidiaries (Kidger, 2002; Nohria & Ghoshal, 1997. The other is related to the level of internationalization of HR strategies, defined as the capacity to take advantage of globalization, providing the best resources for the company regardless of where they are located (Sparrow, 2007. Both models were applied in a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and company reports, and analyzed through content analysis. The results show: (a a more centralizing characteristic of the multinational companies examined, despite the limitations of this choice as shown by the literature; and (b that Brazilian IT multinationals tend to rely more on their national competencies when managing human resources instead of going global to aggregate differentiated competencies.

  14. Technology strategy and innovation: the use of derivative strategies in the aerospace industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, DJ; Rogers, MF

    2004-01-01

    Strategy has become an increasingly important theme within the management of innovation. This is reflected in the increasing amount of attention given to topics such as technology strategy within the innovation literature. However research into technology strategy has tended to focus on technology acquisition rather than technology exploitation. This paper focuses on one often neglected way in which companies can exploit the technological resources at their disposal, namely through the use of...

  15. [Thermovalorization: new technologies, impacts and mitigation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Loconte, V L; Signorelli, C

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades the quantity (in weight and volume) of solid waste is grown so rapidly to become a real problem especially in densely urbanized areas. The disposal of Municipal Solid Waste by incineration with energy recovery (WtE) is recognized as the most suitable system to process non-recyclable waste. However in several countries there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental impact of incinerators. Epidemiological studies, developed since the 80s, are still the subject of controversial discussion because the results of research often refer to old incinerators--built a few decades ago--and therefore more impactful. In fact inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control in these facilities tended to risk the health of plant workers and local environment. This situation furthermore contributes to increase public risk perception and the spread of the NIMBY (not in my backyard) syndrome while siting this unwanted but necessary facilities. Actually, new strategies as advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations, have resulted in large reductions in the amount of emissions. So the first aim of this work has been to understand if these high perception of risk have a reason to exist also in modern and new municipal waste incinerators. The second aim is to discover if the law, the new technologies and the mitigation strategies can really set a limit on the negative impacts on human health and on environment and if is it possible to improve or increase these strategies. Work has been divided into two parts. The first part focuses on analysis of waste environmental impact regulations, of plant operation systems and of epidemiological studies results. The second part involves the examination of the actual use of regulatory instruments, the most advanced technologies and the strategies for mitigation in the most effective new concept incinerators plants. For this verification

  16. Design and development of antivirals and intervention strategies against human herpesviruses using high-throughput approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Julia; McGregor, Alistair

    2014-08-01

    Although a number of antiviral agents are licensed for treatment of some human herpesvirus (HHV) infections, effective antiviral therapy is not available for all HHVs. Additional complications are associated with approved drugs, such as toxicity and side effects, and rise in drug-resistant strains is a driving force for new drug development. Success in HHV vaccine development is limited with only vaccines against varicella-zoster virus currently in use in the clinic. In vitro, in vivo and in silico high-throughput (HTP) approaches and innovative microfluidic systems will provide novel technologies to efficiently identify and evaluate new targets and antiherpetic compounds. Coupled with HTP strategies for manipulation of herpesvirus viral genomes, these strategies will greatly accelerate the development of future antivirals as well as candidate vaccine intervention strategies. The authors provide a brief overview of the herpesvirus family and associated diseases. Further, the authors discuss the approved and investigational antiherpetic drugs in the context of current HTP technologies. HTP technology such as microfluidic systems is crucial for the identification and validation of novel drug targets and next-generation antivirals. Current drug development is limited by the unavailability of HTP preclinical model systems. Specific advancement in the development of HTP animal-specific technology, applied in parallel, allows a more rapid evaluation of drugs at the preclinical stage. The advancement of HTP combinatorial drug therapy, especially 'Organ-on-a-Chip' approaches, will aid in the evaluation of future antiviral compounds and intervention strategies.

  17. Food & Mood: Explorations in Technological Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Caroll, Erin; schraefel, m.c.; Czerwinski, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Over-eating is often the result of consuming food for reasons other than needing fuel and nutrients: we eat for pleasure, from habit, for emotional support. Such non-homeostatic eating is an established contributor to overeating towards overweight or obese weight gain that in turn is correlated with numerous non-communicable diseases such as Type II Diabetes Miletus. Traditionally, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal Therapy (IPT) approaches help people develop strategies to...

  18. TECHNOLOGY AND DEAF EDUCATION: POSSIBILITIES OF INTERVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Maria Ninci Martins; Heloísa Andreia de Matos Lins

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about an analysis of the potentials in the use of technology in deaf education, given the elements necessary for the realization of a bilingual education project (Libras-Portuguese), the scarce production in the field and the daily challenges of the so called inclusion process. For this, we present clippings of a case study that aimed to two distinct and parallel projects, but related: a description and analysis of the use of mobile computers (tablets), their implications for te...

  19. Optimal Intervention Strategies for the Spread of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chunyoung; M A, Masud

    2015-01-01

    The present study considers a deterministic compartmental model for obesity dynamics. The model exhibits forward bifurcation at basic reproduction number, ${\\mathcal{R}}_{0}=1$ , that is; for ${\\mathcal{R}}_{0}1$ the model approaches a locally asymptotically stable endemic equilibrium. To control this epidemic and reduce the obesity at the endemic equilibrium, we considered intervention strategies for the spread of overweight and obesity, where Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle...

  20. TA as a theory-driven intervention strategy. The ``Constructive Technology Assessment/CTA`` approach in the social science debate on technology; Gutachten zum Thema TA als theoriegeleitete Interventionsstrategie. Der Ansatz des ``Constructive Technology Assessment/CTA`` in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Technikdebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, L.

    1995-11-01

    Using theoretical motives of the new sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) social sciences have developed a new kind of handling technology. `Success of technology` is no longer self-evident, but it has to be explained; that a technology `works` is not (only) a matter of engineering, but (also) the result of social constructions. The borderline between `technology` and `society` cannot be taken as an ontological phenomenon, it rather has to be grasped as outcome of always changing forms and procedures of demarcation. On these foundations there has been built the approach of the so-called `Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA)` which is meant to open up possibilities for a pragmatic manner in the societal and political shaping of technological developments. TA is now conceived as a social learning-process; technological developments are seen as highly complex processes, taking place in the frame of strategic games. On the background of such empirical topics and corresponding practical experiences, there have been developed new strategies of theorizing, which aim at an `endogenous theory of the emergence of cognitive and social structurations`. It is rather obvious, that there are shortcomings (eclecticism) in the basic theoretical conceptions; but there cannot be any doubt that, by using CTA, there is made science policy in a very skillful manner - especially by opening up a new entrance for the societal handling (shaping) of technology. Power structures are theoretically underexposed, but they are taken quite seriously for practical purposes. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Aufnahme theoretischer Argumente aus der neueren Soziologie wissenschaftlichen Wissens hat sich das sozialwissenschaftliche Verstaendis von Technik grundlegend geaendert. Es ist jetzt gerade der `Erfolg von Technologien`, der erklaert werden muss; dass eine Technik `funktioniert`, wird als Resultat gesellschaftlicher Konstruktionen verstanden. Die Grenze zwischen `Technik` und `Gesellschaft` ist keine

  1. A Review of Technology-Assisted Interventions for Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grock, Shira; Ku, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Julie; Moin, Tannaz

    2017-09-23

    The high prevalence of prediabetes and success of the diabetes prevention program (DPP) has led to increasing efforts to provide readily accessible, cost-effective DPP interventions to the general public. Technology-assisted DPP interventions are of particular interest since they may be easier to widely distribute and sustain as compared to traditional in-person DPP. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of currently available technology-assisted DPP interventions. This review focuses on studies that have examined the use of mobile phone text messaging, smartphone/web-based apps, and telehealth programs to help prevent or delay the onset of incident type 2 diabetes. While there is variability in the results of studies focused on technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions, there is evidence to suggest that these programs have been associated with clinically meaningful weight loss and can be cost-effective. Patients who are at risk for diabetes can be offered technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions to lower their risk of incident diabetes. Further research should determine what specific combination of intervention features would be most successful.

  2. The Cycle of Reciprocity: A Social Capital Intervention Strategy for SSTR Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tolle, Glenn A

    2007-01-01

    ...? The author postulates that an intervention strategy based on fostering "bridging social capital" between two or more competing parties stands a greater probability of success than an intervention...

  3. High technology in developing countries: Analysis of technology strategy, technology transfer, and success factors in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Economical development is highly related to technological development. It is therefore not surprising that many of the industrially developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competence level. Industrially developing countries may even pursue a strategy of

  4. Practical manual for technology transfer strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jae Gwan

    2004-03-01

    This book deals with technical transfer strategy in the 21 century, management period of intellectual property, which includes value of invisible and intangible assets, core topic of management of intellectual property construction of virtuous cycle of intellectual and creative activity, and phase and building strategy of intellectual property management system. It also mentions building of useful patent portfolio and strategy with patent problems in business management strategy, case of patent management strategy of IBM in the Uited Sates and Fujitsu in Japan, and profit process using intellectual property outside of the company.

  5. Research in Learning Technology Strategy 2015-17

    OpenAIRE

    Deepwell, Maren

    2015-01-01

    Research in Learning Technology is the journal published by the Association for Learning Technology (ALT) with Co-Action Publishing. At the heart of ALT’s aims and values is the importance of Learning Technology research in underpinning the intelligent use of technology in support of learning, teaching and assessment. One of our key aims as set out in our 2014-17 strategy is to strengthen learning technology research and practice through collaboration, sharing and networking, nati...

  6. Political strategies concerning technological development after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    1986-01-01

    The twelve contributions compiled in this book are intended to show political as well as technological conclusions to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident. The material presented stands up to the arguments put forward by the nuclear lobbyists, and explains reasons calling for a nuclear shut-down, backing out of the fast breeder reactor technology and of the fusion technology. Brown coal is stated to be the energy source of choice. (DG) [de

  7. Strategies for Programmed Instruction: An Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, J., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to compare, contrast, and evaluate various strategies of programed instruction (PI). The underlying view is that programed instruction implies a systematic methodological approach to education and training, an approach which bases its decisions on facts rather than value judgements. Several strategies for task analysis…

  8. The development strategy of financial and innovative technologies

    OpenAIRE

    R.V. Lavrov

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define and to estimate the forming of expediency of the development strategy of financial and innovative technologies in the context of modern economic space realities.The results of the analysis. The growing importance of the financial sector in the contemporary economic space, as well as rapid changes in it, generates a need for financial innovative technologies. Development strategy of financial and innovative technologies is always asso...

  9. Technology Portfolios as Instructional Strategy: Designing a Reflexive Approach to Preservice Technology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchick, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Describes a reflexive approach to technology training for preservice teachers blending elements from competency-based and integrative models so that students use technology as learner and teacher. Discusses technology portfolios as an instructional strategy, metacognitive strategies for self-understanding, and modeling and peer tutoring. (PEN)

  10. High technology in developing countries: Analysis of technology strategy, technology transfer, and success factors in the aircraft industry

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Economical development is highly related to technological development. It is therefore not surprising that many of the industrially developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competence level. Industrially developing countries may even pursue a strategy of developing high technology competencies. This paper analysis the strategies of some developing countries in a particular high technology industry: the aircraft manufacturing industry. The focus is on Brazi...

  11. Essential interventions: implementation strategies and proposed packages of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Kumar, Rohail; Mansoor, Tarab; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to accelerate progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5, provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions is being considered. Not only should a state-of-the-art approach be taken for services delivered to the mother, neonate and to the child, but services must also be deployed across the household to hospital continuum of care approach and in the form of packages. The paper proposed several packages for improved maternal, newborn and child health that can be delivered across RMNCH continuum of care. These packages include: supportive care package for women to promote awareness related to healthy pre-pregnancy and pregnancy interventions; nutritional support package for mother to improve supplementation of essential nutrients and micronutrients; antenatal care package to detect, treat and manage infectious and noninfectious diseases and promote immunization; high risk care package to manage preeclampsia and eclampsia in pregnancy; childbirth package to promote support during labor and importance of skilled birth attendance during labor; essential newborn care package to support healthy newborn care practices; and child health care package to prevent and manage infections. This paper further discussed the implementation strategies for employing these interventions at scale.

  12. Promoting mental wellbeing among older people: technology-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Nordmyr, Johanna; Matosevic, Tihana; Park, A-La; Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David

    2017-08-30

    This systematic review explored the effectiveness of technology-based interventions in promoting the mental health and wellbeing of people aged 65 and over. Data were collected as part of a wider review commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England on the effectiveness of different actions to promote the mental wellbeing and independence of older people. All studies identified through this review were subject to a detailed critical appraisal of quality, looking at internal and external validity. Twenty-one papers covering evaluations of technological interventions were identified. They examined the psychosocial effects of technologies for education, exposure to, and/or training to use, computers and the internet, telephone/internet communication and computer gaming. Few studies took the form of randomized controlled trials, with little comparability in outcome measures, resulting in an inconsistent evidence base with moderate strength and quality. However, three out of six studies with high or moderate quality ratings (all focused on computer/internet training) reported statistically significant positive effects on psychosocial outcomes, including increased life satisfaction and experienced social support, as well as reduced depression levels among intervention recipients. The review results highlight the need for more methodologically rigorous studies evaluating the effects of technology-based interventions on mental wellbeing. Well-performed technology-based interventions to promote various aspects of mental wellbeing, as identified in this review, can serve as best practice examples in this emerging field. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impact of Gender on Patient Preferences for Technology-Based Behavioral Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Technology-based interventions offer an opportunity to address high-risk behaviors in the emergency department (ED. Prior studies suggest behavioral health strategies are more effective when gender differences are considered. However, the role of gender in ED patient preferences for technology-based interventions has not been examined. The objective was to assess whether patient preferences for technology-based interventions varies by gender. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a systematic survey of adult (18 years of age, English-speaking patients in a large urban academic ED. Subjects were randomly selected during a purposive sample of shifts. The iPad survey included questions on access to technology, preferences for receiving health information, and demographics. We defined ‘‘technology-based’’ as web, text message, e-mail, social networking, or DVD; ‘‘non-technology-based’’ was defined as in-person, written materials, or landline. We calculated descriptive statistics and used univariate tests to compare men and women. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between other demographic factors (age, race, ethnicity, income and technology-based preferences for information on specific risky behaviors. Results: Of 417 participants, 45.1% were male. There were no significant demographic differences between men and women. Women were more likely to use computers (90.8% versus 81.9%; p¼0.03, Internet (66.8% versus 59.0%; p¼0.03, and social networks (53.3% versus 42.6%; p¼0.01. 89% of men and 90% of women preferred technology-based formats for at least type of health information; interest in technology-based for individual health topics did not vary by gender. Concern about confidentiality was the most common barrier to technology-based use for both genders. Multivariate analysis showed that for smoking, depression, drug/alcohol use, and injury

  14. Impact of gender on patient preferences for technology-based behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David J; Choo, Esther K; Ranney, Megan L

    2014-08-01

    Technology-based interventions offer an opportunity to address high-risk behaviors in the emergency department (ED). Prior studies suggest behavioral health strategies are more effective when gender differences are considered. However, the role of gender in ED patient preferences for technology-based interventions has not been examined. The objective was to assess whether patient preferences for technology-based interventions varies by gender. This was a secondary analysis of data from a systematic survey of adult (≥18 years of age), English-speaking patients in a large urban academic ED. Subjects were randomly selected during a purposive sample of shifts. The iPad survey included questions on access to technology, preferences for receiving health information, and demographics. We defined "technology-based" as web, text message, e-mail, social networking, or DVD; "non-technology-based" was defined as in-person, written materials, or landline. We calculated descriptive statistics and used univariate tests to compare men and women. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between other demographic factors (age, race, ethnicity, income) and technology-based preferences for information on specific risky behaviors. Of 417 participants, 45.1% were male. There were no significant demographic differences between men and women. Women were more likely to use computers (90.8% versus 81.9%; p=0.03), Internet (66.8% versus 59.0%; p=0.03), and social networks (53.3% versus 42.6%; p=0.01). 89% of men and 90% of women preferred technology-based formats for at least type of health information; interest in technology-based for individual health topics did not vary by gender. Concern about confidentiality was the most common barrier to technology-based use for both genders. Multivariate analysis showed that for smoking, depression, drug/alcohol use, and injury prevention, gender modified the relationship between other demographic

  15. Markets for Technology and Their Implications for Corporate Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea; Gambardella, Alfonso

    2000-01-01

    Although market transactions for technologies, ideas, knowledge or information are limited by several well known imperfections, there is increasing evidence that, during the last two decades or so, such market transactions have become more common than in the past. These markets bring about new challenges to the firms. This paper examines some implications of markets for technology for the firms' corporate and technology strategies. Markets for technology change the traditional mindset in whic...

  16. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JL

    2014-08-01

    outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale in adolescents involved in the technology-based intervention. All effective interventions utilized dietary and physical activity strategies as part of intervention components. Because of the variation in duration of intervention (range 10 weeks to 2 years, it is not clear what length of intervention is most effective. Future research should assess the long-term impact of technology-based interventions and evaluate mediators and moderators for weight change in adolescents. Keywords: technology intervention, obesity, adolescents, web-based, exer-gaming 

  17. Stimulating technological innovation : problem identification and intervention formulation with the technological innovation systems framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    The technological innovation systems (TIS) framework provides a theory to understand under what conditions technological innovations are successfully developed and implemented. The objective of this dissertation is to further strengthen this TIS intervention framework, which is the part of the TIS

  18. Technology Interventions to Manage Food Intake: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Gemming, Luke

    2017-09-23

    This review describes the state-of-the-art for dietary assessment using smartphone apps and digital technology and provides an update on the efficacy of technology-mediated interventions for dietary change. Technology has progressed from apps requiring entry of foods consumed, to digital imaging to provide food intake data. However, these methods rely on patients being active in data collection. The automated estimation of the volume and composition of every meal consumed globally is years away. The use of text messaging, apps, social media, and combinations of these for interventions is growing and proving effective for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effectiveness of text messaging for obesity management is improving and multicomponent interventions show promise. A stand-alone app is less likely to produce positive outcomes and social media is relatively unexplored. A concentrated effort will be needed to progress digital dietary assessment. Researcher-designed technology programs are producing positive outcomes for T2DM but further research is needed in the area of weight management.

  19. Using Technology to Support Visual Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Blanche; Puckett, Kathleen; Rakes, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Visual learning is a strategy for visually representing the structure of information and for representing the ways in which concepts are related. Based on the work of Ausubel, these hierarchical maps facilitate student learning of unfamiliar information in the K-12 classroom. This paper presents the research base for this Type II computer tool, as…

  20. [Health Technology Assessment--evaluating health care interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Claudia; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of health interventions has become internationally known as Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and has received increased attention as an instrument for supporting policy decisions in health care in recent years. HTA is a multidisciplinary process that summarises information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of new, and established health interventions in a systematic, transparent, unbiased, robust manner. HTA strives to provide pertinent information to help formulate safe and effective health policies that focus on the patient while aiming to achieve the best use of assets available.

  1. Averting catastrophe: Strategies for regulating risky technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morone, J.G.; Woodhouse, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    This nonpartisan study of the imperfect but steadily developing system for containing the risks of such technologies as chemicals, nuclear power, and genetic engineering views regulatory efforts over a period of decades, noting the surprisingly low number of disasters, and finds an ad hoc but intelligent social process at work

  2. Susceptibility to breast cancer Cuban families and intervention strategy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaina, Martha S.; Menendez, Ibis; Valdes, Zodilina; Diaz, Milania

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer, as in most cancers, mutations usually occur in somatic cells, but sometimes occur in germ cells. The carriers of these mutations germ have up to 80% risk of having the disease course of their lives and pass it on to their offspring, they are called hereditary cancers. In this work studied 50 tested history relatives of this neoplasm from consulting advice genetic hereditary breast cancer. The tree was made pedigree of the family of each test and been classified risk using the criteria of Hampel et al. Other malignancies were identified through the analysis of pedigrees and performed syndromic classification of families. It develops an algorithm for the care of breast cancer families hereditary and plotted strategies identified by risk taking that each category implies a different intervention. It recommended to continue studying the value of marking lesions subclinical and train staff to perform this technique for its widespread use in the country. (Author)

  3. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested instructional strategies. Student perceptions give direction to and affirm the benefits of instructional strategies that increase student motivation to engage more actively in their learning. Based on quantitative and qualitative responses through action research in multiple courses, students perceive their learning as more engaging and enjoyable when technology-nested instructional strategies are infused into their classes.

  4. Strategy Development of PT XYZ a Startup Technology Company

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Leila Fatmasari; Mangkusubroto, Kuntoro; Sunitiyoso, Yos

    2012-01-01

    PT. XYZ (XYZ) is an Indonesian startup technology company which provides IT Consulting and System Integration services. In this research, XYZ's strategy for the next three years (until 2015) will be crafted by going through the strategic management process which consists of the following stages: (1) environment analysis of XYZ, (2) setting strategic vision, (3) setting objective, (4) crafting strategy and (5) executing the strategy. Based on the result of the environment analysis, XYZ's visio...

  5. Does Your Department Have a Technology Innovation Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkey, Bill G; Fox, Brent I

    2016-11-01

    There are ways to facilitate the successful implementation of technological innovations. These are especially important in a time of rapid development of new tools to support safe and effective medication therapy. This installment addresses some of the key components of a successful technology innovation strategy.

  6. Stimulating R and D of industrial energy-efficient technology; the effect of government intervention on the development of strip casting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Blok, Kornelis

    2003-01-01

    Strip casting technology in steel-making is known as an innovative energy-efficient technology. Stimulating the development (R and D) of such industrial process technologies is an appealing government intervention strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we analyse (a) the R and D trajectory of strip casting technology and (b) the effect of government intervention on the development of this particular energy-efficient technology. For this purpose we made a detailed investigation of the networks within which the technology was developed. The huge capital cost advantages of strip casting technology were already notified back in the 19th century. However, only after 1975 a robust technology network emerged. There is no single, simple determinant explaining the slow emergence of the technology network: the innovative technology had to become a more incremental improvement to the conventional production facilities before R and D was seriously pursued. Once the technology network emerged, it proved to have a strong momentum of itself. Steel firms maintained their confidence in the strategic cost advantages of the technology and persistently invested in up-scaling the technology. The effect of government intervention was minimal, because the technology network had its own strong momentum. All in all, R and D was only loosely influenced by energy-efficiency considerations or by government intervention. The major policy lesson is that information on technology networks and its momentum--in addition to classic information on energy-efficiency improvements and investments costs--is required to improve the effect of government intervention in the field of industrial energy-efficiency R and D and innovation

  7. Technology-assisted rehabilitation interventions following pediatric brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Narad, Megan E; Shultz, Emily L; Kurowski, Brad G; Miley, Aimee E; Aguilar, Jessica M; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R

    2018-04-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), children experience a variety of physical, motor, speech, and cognitive deficits that can have a long-term detrimental impact. The emergence and popularity of new technologies has led to research into the development of various apps, gaming systems, websites, and robotics that might be applied to rehabilitation. The objective of this narrative review was to describe the current literature regarding technologically-assisted interventions for the rehabilitation of motor, neurocognitive, behavioral, and family impairments following pediatric TBI. We conducted a series of searches for peer-reviewed manuscripts published between 2000 and 2017 that included a technology-assisted component in the domains of motor, language/communication, cognition, behavior, social competence/functioning, family, and academic/school-based functioning. Findings suggested several benefits of utilizing technology in TBI rehabilitation including facilitating engagement/adherence, increasing access to therapies, and improving generalizability across settings. There is fairly robust evidence regarding the efficacy of online family problem-solving therapy in improving behavior problems, executive functioning, and family functioning. There was less compelling, but still promising, evidence regarding the efficacy other technology for motor deficits, apps for social skills, and computerized programs for cognitive skills. Overall, many studies were limited in the rigor of their methodology due to small heterogeneous samples and lack of control groups. Technology-assisted interventions have the potential to enhance pediatric rehabilitation after TBI. Future research is needed to further support their efficacy with larger controlled trials and to identify characteristics of children who are most likely to benefit.

  8. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness,

  9. Carbon capture and storage as a corporate technology strategy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Latest estimates suggest that widespread deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) could account for up to one-fifth of the needed global reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2050. Governments are attempting to stimulate investments in CCS technology both directly through subsidizing demonstration projects, and indirectly through developing price incentives in carbon markets. Yet, corporate decision-makers are finding CCS investments challenging. Common explanations for delay in corporate CCS investments include operational concerns such as the high cost of capture technologies, technological uncertainties in integrated CCS systems and underdeveloped regulatory and liability regimes. In this paper, we place corporate CCS adoption decisions within a technology strategy perspective. We diagnose four underlying characteristics of the strategic CCS technology adoption decision that present unusual challenges for decision-makers: such investments are precautionary, sustaining, cumulative and situated. Understanding CCS as a corporate technology strategy challenge can help us move beyond the usual list of operational barriers to CCS and make public policy recommendations to help overcome them. - Research highlights: → Presents a corporate technology strategy perspective on carbon capture and storage (CCS). → CCS technology is precautionary, sustaining, cumulative and situated. → Decision-makers need to look beyond cost and risk as barriers to investment in CCS.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Universal and Indicated Preventive Technology-Delivered Interventions for Higher Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Colleen S; Durlak, Joseph A; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Zahniser, Evan

    2016-08-01

    The uses of technology-delivered mental health treatment options, such as interventions delivered via computer, smart phone, or other communication or information devices, as opposed to primarily face-to-face interventions, are proliferating. However, the literature is unclear about their effectiveness as preventive interventions for higher education students, a population for whom technology-delivered interventions (TDIs) might be particularly fitting and beneficial. This meta-analytic review examines technological mental health prevention programs targeting higher education students either without any presenting problems (universal prevention) or with mild to moderate subclinical problems (indicated prevention). A systematic literature search identified 22 universal and 26 indicated controlled interventions, both published and unpublished, involving 4763 college, graduate, or professional students. As hypothesized, the overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for both universal (0.19) and indicated interventions (0.37) were statistically significant and differed significantly from each other favoring indicated interventions. Skill-training interventions, both universal (0.21) and indicated (0.31), were significant, whereas non-skill-training interventions were only significant among indicated (0.25) programs. For indicated interventions, better outcomes were obtained in those cases in which participants had access to support during the course of the intervention, either in person or through technology (e.g., email, online contact). The positive findings for both universal and indicated prevention are qualified by limitations of the current literature. To improve experimental rigor, future research should provide detailed information on the level of achieved implementation, describe participant characteristics and intervention content, explore the impact of potential moderators and mechanisms of success, collect post-intervention and follow-up data regardless of

  11. The Impact of Technology-Based Interventions on Informal Caregivers of Stroke Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehaim, Abdulkarim Yousef; Alotaibi, Faisal F; Uphold, Constance R; Dang, Stuti

    2016-03-01

    This article is a systematic review of the impact of technology-based intervention on outcomes related to care providers for those who survived a stroke. Literature was identified in the PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane databases for evidence on technology-based interventions for stroke survivors' caregivers. The search was restricted for all English-language articles from 1970 to February 2015 that implied technology-based interventions. This review included studies that measured the impact of these types of approaches on one or more of the following: depression and any of the following-problem-solving ability, burden, health status, social support, preparedness, and healthcare utilization by care recipient-as secondary outcomes. Telephone or face-to-face counseling sessions were not of interest for this review. The search strategy yielded five studies that met inclusion criteria: two randomized clinical trials and three pilot/preliminary studies, with diverse approaches and designs. Four studies have assessed the primary outcome, two of which reported significant decreases in caregivers' depressive symptoms. Two studies had measured each of the following outcomes-burden, problem-solving ability, health status, and social support-and they revealed no significant differences following the intervention. Only one study assessed caregivers' preparedness and showed improved posttest scores. Healthcare services use by the care recipient was assessed by one study, and the results indicated significant reduction in emergency department visits and hospital re-admissions. Despite various study designs and small sample sizes, available data suggest that an intervention that incorporates a theoretical-based model and is designed to target caregivers as early as possible is a promising strategy. Furthermore, there is a need to incorporate a cost-benefit analysis in future studies.

  12. Technological Advances in Interventions to Enhance Post-Stroke Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Lynne R.; Chae, John

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article provides a comprehensive review of specific rehabilitation interventions used to enhance hemiparetic gait following stroke. Neurologic rehabilitation interventions may be either therapeutic resulting in enhanced motor recovery or compensatory whereby assistance or substitution for neurological deficits results in improved functional performance. Included in this review are lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES), body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT), and lower extremity robotic-assisted gait training. These post-stroke gait training therapies are predicated on activity-dependent neuroplasticity which is the concept that cortical reorganization following central nervous system injury may be induced by repetitive, skilled, and cognitively engaging active movement. All three interventions have been trialed extensively in both research and clinical settings to demonstrate a positive effect on various gait parameters and measures of walking performance. However, more evidence is necessary to determine if specific technology-enhanced gait training methods are superior to conventional gait training methods. This review provides an overview of evidence-based research which supports the efficacy of these three interventions to improve gait, as well as provide perspective on future developments to enhance post-stroke gait in neurologic rehabilitation. PMID:23598265

  13. Pattern of Cleanliness with Technology Intervention for Innovation Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutari Mulyani, Sitti; Hendrik, Billy; Andhika Putra, Rio; Masril, Mardhiah

    2017-12-01

    Environmental solutions around the world today are making people dependent on technological developments. However, the technology cannot be separated from the community either in the form or its influence, therefore the pattern of behavior of society must also get arrangements for technology to occur as an acceleration of life done properly. This study aims to obtain patterns of community behavior on non-organic waste by using technology intervention. Gap exploration is essential for theoretical and experimental analysis of humans who dispose of unorganic and organic waste out of place. But the field of behavior analysis is uniquely tailored to contribute to this body of work. Sustainable development depends on changing technology to achieve its goals. We report on data collected form an on-line survey, which possible solutions for trash problems. In this paper we present an integrated waste management system with IT that we called I-BSC (Indonesia Bersih (Clean), Sehat (Healty) and Cerdas (Smart)). This I-BSC is not only for deposit bottles and systems but the system aims also to create awareness of waste production and management, which serves as an educational platform in urban environments for further life innovation.

  14. Behavioral intervention technologies: evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. This study on the findings of the technical expert panel. Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes. Social media such as online support groups have produced disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received little work in mental health. Research focused on understanding reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. Improvements in the collection, storage, analysis and visualization of big data will be required. New theoretical models and evaluation strategies will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The need for more effective interventions to combat the obesity problem has been expressed by many public health experts. While consumer support is important for intervention effectiveness, little is known about why consumers accept or do not accept food choice interventions. The present thesis

  16. Nutritional interventions for adolescents using information and communication technologies (ICTs: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Rhaisa do Amaral E Melo

    Full Text Available A cost-effective and interactive way of promoting healthy nutrition behaviors among adolescents is using information and communication technologies (ICTs. We systematically reviewed studies to identify technologies and their main characteristics used for nutritional interventions for adolescents, as well as to evaluate their quality and effectiveness. Our full protocol is available on the PROSPERO website (#CRD42016035882. A search was conducted across five databases for articles describing nutritional interventions that used ICTs designed mainly for healthy adolescents. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental and observational studies, and full and original papers, all of them published from 2005 to 2015, were included. Study quality was assessed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Our search yielded 559 titles and abstracts. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Participants were recruited mostly from schools. Study follow-up ranged from two weeks to two years. Four interventions were based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Interventional strategies included computer games, programs, text messages, and interactive CD-ROMs. Nine studies used computer-mediated ICTs. Five studies focused on multiple behaviors simultaneously. Participants were exposed to interventions only once, daily, weekly, or according to a pre-determined number of lessons. Five studies had significant outcomes. Our quality assessment revealed three studies to be weak due to non-representativeness of their samples and usage of non-validated questionnaires. Besides the heterogeneity and poor quality of the analyzed studies, it can be suggested that long-term interventions for adolescents that make use of frequent exposure to technological resources, and that have a theoretical component aimed at a single health behavior change, tend to be more successful.

  17. Nutritional interventions for adolescents using information and communication technologies (ICTs): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral E Melo, Giselle Rhaisa; de Carvalho Silva Vargas, Fernanda; Dos Santos Chagas, Carolina Martins; Toral, Natacha

    2017-01-01

    A cost-effective and interactive way of promoting healthy nutrition behaviors among adolescents is using information and communication technologies (ICTs). We systematically reviewed studies to identify technologies and their main characteristics used for nutritional interventions for adolescents, as well as to evaluate their quality and effectiveness. Our full protocol is available on the PROSPERO website (#CRD42016035882). A search was conducted across five databases for articles describing nutritional interventions that used ICTs designed mainly for healthy adolescents. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental and observational studies, and full and original papers, all of them published from 2005 to 2015, were included. Study quality was assessed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Our search yielded 559 titles and abstracts. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Participants were recruited mostly from schools. Study follow-up ranged from two weeks to two years. Four interventions were based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Interventional strategies included computer games, programs, text messages, and interactive CD-ROMs. Nine studies used computer-mediated ICTs. Five studies focused on multiple behaviors simultaneously. Participants were exposed to interventions only once, daily, weekly, or according to a pre-determined number of lessons. Five studies had significant outcomes. Our quality assessment revealed three studies to be weak due to non-representativeness of their samples and usage of non-validated questionnaires. Besides the heterogeneity and poor quality of the analyzed studies, it can be suggested that long-term interventions for adolescents that make use of frequent exposure to technological resources, and that have a theoretical component aimed at a single health behavior change, tend to be more successful.

  18. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  19. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  20. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Van der Lans, Ivo A; Van Rijnsoever, Frank J; Van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-11-13

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified.

  1. Embracing technology? Using change management strategies to improve the use of continuous lateral rotation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Pamela; Zantinge, Johanna; Abbott-McNeil, Deanna

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to improve the utilization of continuous lateral rotation therapy (CLRT) in a nine-bed community hospital ICU within the context of a nurse-driven protocol. Nursing focus groups, analyzed using a strength, weakness, opportunity, threat (SWOT) approach, resulted in the implementation of four interventions over seven weeks. Change management strategies guided all aspects of the project. Results showed a modest increase in the utilization of CLRT. This initiative demonstrates that change management strategies may assist with the incorporation of technology into nursing practice by increasing empowerment and creating an attachment to and responsibility for outcomes.

  2. Strengthening Inclusion of Learners With Attention Difficulties Through Interventions With Digital Technology In Processes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard; Voldborg, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of digital technologies for strengthening the participation and inclusion of learners with developmental and attention deficits (focus learners) into the mainstream classroom. The paper describes the authors’ approach to the challenge of researching the extent......, to which digital technologies may support the learning process of focus learners – in particular in those aspects of the learning process that deal with the construction of learning products and the communication and dissemination of knowledge to peers, teachers or others. On the basis of the actual...... analysis and a succeeding discussion, the paper concludes that in order to create ownership, pedagogic strategies and interventions with digital technologies (whether viewed from the perspective of teaching or the perspective of learning) should incorporate opportunities for developing digital multimodal...

  3. A Sales Execution Strategy Guide for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gilbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of startups fail to consider sales execution as part of their overall strategy. This article demonstrates how a sales execution strategy can help a company take a product or service to market more efficiently and effectively by focusing on the customers that are key to generating revenue. Combined with techniques for recruiting effectively and measuring sales outcomes, a sales execution strategy helps technology startups exceed growth aspirations and potentially reduce or even eliminate the requirement for external investment. In this article, we first describe the focus of assistance currently given to startups and the reasons why sales execution strategies are often overlooked. Next, we outline recommendations for developing, implementing, and supporting a sales execution strategy. Finally, we summarize the key points presented in the article.

  4. Exploring Coaching Strategies in a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the triadic relationships between the early interventionist, the parent and the child in a parent-implemented communication intervention for toddlers. Specifically, relationships between coaching strategies used by interventionists, parents' implementation of communication intervention strategies, child…

  5. Improving Inappropriate Social Behavior of Autistic Students Using the LISTEN Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Daniel, Cathy; Faulkner, Paula; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    A case study was conducted on the development of the LISTEN intervention strategy for use with autistic students to improve inappropriate social behaviors. The study was conducted in a special education classroom in an autism school in Kuwait. Examination of LISTEN Intervention Strategy applications included: duration of targeted behavior; methods…

  6. Implication of Mauk Nursing Intervention Model on Coping Strategies of Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shoja

    2015-06-01

    descriptive and inferential tests in SPSS software 16. Results: The mean score for coping strategies before intervention was 111.42±11.71, and after intervention was 102.14±12.45 (P<0.05. The physical, mental and social dimensions in the coping strategies showed significant differences before and after intervention. Discussion: Using the rehabilitation program interventions for effectively dealing with stress, changing and unpredictable behavior patterns in chronic patients is an important component of the treatment protocol, and helps deliver an increase in coping strategies for stroke patients.

  7. Strategies to facilitate stakeholder and regulator support for technology deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Implementation and deployment of new and innovative environmental technologies is impossible without regulator, enduser and stakeholder support. Technologies being developed for different needs require different strategies to facilitate this endorsement. Areas addressed will include technologies developed to meet site specific cleanup needs and those developed for multiple site applications. A third area deals with using site specific technologies at previously unidentified locations. In order to expand the application of these technologies to other sites a plan to include potential site regulators and stakeholders early in the development process should be considered. The Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area has developed a Stakeholder Communication Plan. This plan, in addition to lessons learned from current technology development projects that have successfully obtained this type of support, will provide the basis for the information provided in this paper. The object of this paper is to suggest strategies that could facilitate the implementation and deployment of technologies at environmental sites by involving regulators and stakeholders at the proper time for various applications

  8. The application of motor learning strategies within functionally based interventions for children with neuromotor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Wishart, Laurie; Missiuna, Cheryl; Wright, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    To identify and describe the application of 3 motor learning strategies (verbal instructions, practice, and verbal feedback) within 4 intervention approaches (cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance, neuromotor task training, family-centered functional therapy, and activity-focused motor interventions). A scoping review of the literature was conducted. Two themes characterizing the application of motor learning strategies within the approaches are identified and described. Application of a motor learning strategy can be a defining component of the intervention or a means of enhancing generalization and transfer of learning beyond the intervention. Often, insufficient information limits full understanding of strategy application within the approach. A greater understanding of the application, and perceived nonapplication, of motor learning strategies within intervention approaches has important clinical and research implications.

  9. Health information technology vendor selection strategies and total factor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R; Menachemi, Nir; Thompson, Mark A; Yu, Feliciano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare health information technology (HIT) adoption strategies' relative performance on hospital-level productivity measures. The American Hospital Association's Annual Survey and Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics for fiscal years 2002 through 2007 were used for this study. A two-stage approach is employed. First, a Malmquist model is specified to calculate hospital-level productivity measures. A logistic regression model is then estimated to compare the three HIT adoption strategies' relative performance on the newly constructed productivity measures. The HIT vendor selection strategy impacts the amount of technological change required of an organization but does not appear to have either a positive or adverse impact on technical efficiency or total factor productivity. The higher levels in technological change experienced by hospitals using the best of breed and best of suite HIT vendor selection strategies may have a more direct impact on the organization early on in the process. However, these gains did not appear to translate into either increased technical efficiency or total factor productivity during the period studied. Over a longer period, one HIT vendor selection strategy may yet prove to be more effective at improving efficiency and productivity.

  10. Response to Intervention: Employing a Mnemonic-Strategy with Art Media to Help Struggling Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) in many schools across the United States and Canada, many educators have a renewed focus on intervention and assessment programming for students who struggle with academics. One format to manage interventions is for educators to provide these children with mnemonic-strategy instruction. In…

  11. Information Technology Investment Strategy Planning: Balance Scorecard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Hendarti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research are to prepare the IT investment strategy using Balanced Scorecard approach in the company where the appropriate planning of this IT investment strategy can maximize the competitive benefit in the company, and it also to recommended a strategy of IT investment that can be implemented and measure the rate of return from the IT investment in the company. Research Method used book studies, field studies, and analysis system. Book studies from the books and journal. Field studies done by observation, interview, and questioner, and analysis system done by analyzed the ongoing system in the company. The result from this analysis is a recommendation in investment IT such as sales module, payment module, and report module. Then for the conclusion, this information technology investment planning can be develop to another investment implementation such authorized website of the company and using PDA (Personal Digital AssistantIndex Terms - Planning, Information Technology, Investment, Balance Scorecard

  12. Technology Licensing Strategy for Network Product in a Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpei Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology licensing has gained significant attention in literature and practice as a rapid and effective way to improve firm’s capability of technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate a duopolistic service provider competition market, where service providers develop and sell a kind of network product. In this setting, we analyze the innovating service provider’s four licensing strategies: no licensing, fixed fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The literature suggests that when the network products can be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is the optimal strategy of the innovating service provider. We find that when the network products cannot be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is not always optimal. The degree of the product differentiation, the intensity of the network effects, and the R&D cost of the potential licensee play a key role in determining the innovating service provider’s optimal licensing strategies.

  13. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial - Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18-35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 24 [corrected] months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01092364. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  15. Exploring Animal-Assisted Therapy as a Reading Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymen, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This study is an examination of animal-assisted therapy in an attempt to explore the ways it may serve as reading intervention program for struggling readers. Due to the low rate of literacy in the U.S., children are often put into reading intervention programs where they are required to read to an adult; potentially creating anxiety that may act…

  16. A Review of Effective Youth Engagement Strategies for Mental Health and Substance Use Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Tom; Bishop, Lisa; Avery, Susan; Darcy, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The majority of adult mental health and substance use (MH&SU) conditions emerge in adolescence. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment programs targeting this age group have a unique opportunity to significantly impact the well-being of the future generation of adults. At the same time, youth are reluctant to seek treatment and have high rates of dropout from interventions. An emphasis on youth engagement in prevention and treatment interventions for MH&SU results in better health outcomes for those youth. This literature review was undertaken to evaluate opportunities to improve youth engagement in MH&SU programs. The intent was to determine best practices in the field that combined community-level improvement in clinical outcomes with proven strategies in engagement enhancement to inform program development at a local level. The results discuss 40 studies, reviews, and program reports demonstrating effective youth engagement. These have been grouped into six themes based on the underlying engagement mechanism: youth participation in program development, parental relationships, technology, the health clinic, school, and social marketing. A broad range of tools are discussed that intervention developers can leverage to improve youth engagement in prevention or treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mobile technology use and desired technology-based intervention characteristics among HIV+ Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A; Carey, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    HIV positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are retained in HIV medical care at suboptimal rates. Interventions targeted to Black MSM are needed to help to improve their retention in care. The purposes of this study were to investigate the use of mobile technology among HIV+ Black MSM and to explore participants' thoughts about the use of mobile technology for HIV retention in care interventions. Twenty-two HIV+ Black MSM completed a technology use survey and participated in a qualitative interview regarding technology-based interventions. The majority of participants (95%) had access to a cell phone, and used their phones frequently (median 3 hours/day). Men preferred interventions that would allow for anonymous participation and that would provide individually tailored support. Mobile technology is a promising approach to intervention delivery for both younger and older HIV+ Black MSM. These interventions should incorporate features that are desirable to men (i.e., anonymous participation and individual tailoring).

  18. Recruitment strategies and challenges in a large intervention trial: Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Thomas M; Snyder, Joni K; Lovato, Laura C; Roumie, Christianne L; Glasser, Steven P; Cosgrove, Nora M; Olney, Christine M; Tang, Rocky H; Johnson, Karen C; Still, Carolyn H; Gren, Lisa H; Childs, Jeffery C; Crago, Osa L; Summerson, John H; Walsh, Sandy M; Perdue, Letitia H; Bankowski, Denise M; Goff, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial of 9,361 participants with hypertension who are ≥ 50 years old. The trial is designed to evaluate the effect of intensive systolic blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure goal recruitment strategies and lessons learned during recruitment of the SPRINT cohort and five targeted participant subgroups: pre-existing cardiovascular disease, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, age ≥ 75 years, women, and minorities. Methods In collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Project Office and SPRINT Coordinating Center, five Clinical Center Networks oversaw clinical site selection, recruitment, and trial activities. Recruitment began November 8, 2010 and ended March 15, 2013 (about 28 months). Various recruitment strategies were used, including mass mailing, brochures, referrals from healthcare providers or friends, posters, newspaper ads, radio ads, and electronic medical record searches. Results Recruitment was scheduled to last 24 months to enroll a target of 9,250 participants; in just over 28 months, the trial enrolled 9,361 participants. The trial screened 14,692 volunteers, with 33% of initial screens originating from the use of mass mailing lists. Screening results show that participants also responded to recruitment efforts through referral by SPRINT staff, healthcare providers, or friends (45%); brochures or posters placed in clinic waiting areas (15%); and television, radio, newspaper, internet ads, or toll-free numbers (8%). The overall recruitment yield (number randomized /number screened) was 64% (9,361 randomized /14,692 screened), 77% for those with cardiovascular disease, 79% for those with chronic kidney disease, 70% for those age ≥ 75 years, 55% for women, and 61% for minorities. As recruitment was observed to lag behind expectations, additional clinics were included and inclusion criteria were broadened, keeping event rates

  19. Hungry for an intervention? : Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F Marijn; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Vet, Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; de Wit, John B F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of eating-related

  20. Hungry for an intervention? Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Vet, de Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; Wit, de J.B.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of

  1. Energy technology perspectives: scenarios and strategies to 2050 [Russian version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  2. Energy technology perspectives - scenarios and strategies to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-03

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  3. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  4. High School Teachers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…

  5. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" is a peer-tutoring program for grades K-6 that aims to improve student proficiency in math and other disciplines. This report focuses on "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" for math. The math program supplements students' existing math curriculum and is based on peer-mediated instruction, a…

  6. Technology strategy in the upstream petroleum supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Thom, M.

    2005-03-01

    This study focuses on technology activities in the upstream oil and gas industry. Data from the period 1984 to 2002 is studied for evidence. The objectives are to describe technology strategies within this sector and to develop an understanding of how technology-related tasks and the control of technology are distributed throughout the supply chain. Frameworks for decision-making around technology strategy are presented. Firms that operate internationally and with the widest range of technological capabilities (so technology strategy is not modified strongly by any specialisation) are studied. These firms are large, private international oil companies and large integrated service and supply companies. Technology has different and distinct capabilities; it is a response to growth opportunities, it is a way to lower costs and it can lower the risks of certain business activities. Firms engage in Research and Development (R and D) to provide new technology. However, R and D is risky due to its typically long payback period and during this time many changes to forecasts and unforeseen paths may arise. These unforeseen circumstances provide unexpected benefits or expenses. In the context of this report, technology is defined as something that gives the user competitive advantage. Evidence points to having access to technology as a source of competitive advantage but oil companies and their suppliers have very different competitive objectives and strategies around technology. The former compete over the acquisition, exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas; competition is based on having some lead-time and/or cost advantage in terms of integrating the best technologies into any project. The later compete for the supply of products and services; competition is based on their technology content, quality and price. The international oil companies (IOCs), who are the traditional big spenders on technology, have reduced their technological activities

  7. Embedding exercise interventions as routine mental health care: implementation strategies in residential, inpatient and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Oscar; Suetani, Shuichi; Stanton, Robert; Chapman, Justin; Korman, Nicole; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Siskind, Dan

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of physical activity (PA) programs among populations with severe mental illness (SMI) has predominately focused on efficacy and therapeutic benefits. There is now strong evidence to support the benefits of PA in people with SMI. What remains is a gap in the implementation of pragmatic and sustainable PA interventions in mental-health settings. The current paper provides examples of interventions that have been successfully implemented in Australian settings, identifies key components of successful PA interventions and outlines practical strategies that can assist with widespread implementation of PA interventions in mental-health settings. There is an emergence of PA interventions being imbedded within a variety of mental-health settings. These interventions vary in terms of mode and intensity of service delivery. Yet, all aim to increase PA and reduce sedentary behaviour. Adopting the identified strategies may help facilitate successful implementation and increase access to PA interventions for mental-health service users.

  8. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The open-quotes Lube Oilclose quotes view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented

  9. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The {open_quotes}Lube Oil{close_quotes} view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented.

  10. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Increased activity at ports is an indication of economic development and growth; however, it also puts public health, regional air quality and global climate at risk because the exhaust from the marine diesel engines is not subjected to the stringent regulations as on-road engines. This dissertation characterizes the effectiveness of strategies and technologies to mitigate criteria pollutants and the long-lived greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2) from marine diesel engines. The dissertation ...

  11. From technically standardized interventions to analytically informed multi-perspective intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    -size-fits-all interventions (Casebeer 2012; Donna Cross 2014). The ability to operate flexibly within shifting contexts is important to an intervention in relation to complex social phenomena. It is important to bear in mind that the contexts in which bullying takes place are characterised by ever-changing social conditions......, shifting actors and continuously emerging dilemmas and social manoeuvrings. All of these shifting conditions impact the intervention in and/or prevention of destructive social practices – and I argue that a multi-perspective intervention capable of flexible implementation will prove to be more effective...

  12. Road Rage: Risk Factors, Assessment, and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkin, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents of angry and aggressive driving, often referred to as "road rage," are becoming more and more commonplace in everyday driving. Many people might benefit from counseling interventions to help manage driving anger and aggression. This article provides a review of research on road rage risk factors, a description of inventories for…

  13. The impact of intervention strategies on the eradication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of compliance to some of the interventions like not insisting on drinking filtered water always and not achieving 100% case containment seem to be the major problems hindering the complete eradication of the disease from the state. The federal, state and local government health authorities, and international agencies ...

  14. "Teacher, I Can Read!" The Marvels of Early Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jean C.; Hernandez, Leonor

    2011-01-01

    "Teacher, I can read!" exclaimed Saree, a fourth-quarter second grader who was placed in the lowest of reading groups at a southwest side elementary school in Chicago. This was her proud announcement after three weeks of intensive intervention with Ms. Gomez, a student teacher in her final semester at Chicago State University. "Ms.…

  15. Prevention and Firesetting: Juvenile Justice and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the literature on preventing firesetting behavior in preadolescents and adolescents, suggesting the need for policies and programs designed to help juveniles by providing community support and stability. Alternatives to juvenile justice interventions include making changes in the home environment, acquiring a greater sense of self, and…

  16. Can Family Interventions be a Strategy for Curtailing Delinquency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a view to assess if family interventions could be a medium term target for preventing these adverse child outcomes in Nigeria, this study examined the ... and 204 matched school-going comparison group showed that the adolescents in institutional custody were about 5 times more likely to report parental separation.

  17. Failure To Thrive: Strategies for Evaluation and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the definition of failure to thrive (FTT) and its relationship to theories of child development as FTT is an early physical marker of risk with long-term consequences. These children are often eligible for services through PL99-457, and psychologists can play an integral role in multidisciplinary evaluation and on intervention team.…

  18. Selective Mutism: Practice and Intervention Strategies for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shu-Lan; Spencer, Michael S.; Dronamraju, Rani

    2012-01-01

    The onset of selective mutism (SM) is usually between the ages of three and five years, when the children first go to preschool. However, these children are most commonly referred for treatment between the ages of six and 11, when they are entering the elementary school system. Early detection and early intervention is suggested for effective SM…

  19. A systematic review investigating the behaviour change strategies in interventions to prevent misuse of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Geoff; Begley, Emma; Tod, David; Jones, Lisa; Leavey, Conan; McVeigh, Jim

    2017-10-01

    We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.

  20. Complementary Product Integration by High-Technology New Ventures: The Role of Initial Technology Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Nambisan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between complementary product integration and the initial technology strategy of a high-technology new venture. With customers placing considerable emphasis on cross-product integration, the success of a new venture is dependent as much on its ability to integrate its product with relevant complementary products as on the core product functionality itself. We identify three types of complementary product integration: value-added internal, add-on ...

  1. Virtues, ecological momentary assessment/intervention and smartphone technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Jason D.; Steinke, Ellen G.

    2015-01-01

    Virtues, broadly understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether studies showing that situations can strongly influence our responses provide evidence against the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition). In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that the prevailing methods for examining situational influences are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life—a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling). We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app) technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI). While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues. PMID:25999869

  2. Virtues, Ecological Momentary Assessment/Intervention and Smartphone Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Runyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtues, generally understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition is called into question by studies showing that, to a significant degree, an individual’s situation can influence their responses. In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that these kinds of situational studies are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life—a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling. We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI. While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues.

  3. Strategy for Nuclear Technology Education at Uppsala University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterlund, M.; Hakansson, A.; Tengborn, E.

    2010-01-01

    After the TMI accident 1979, and later the Tjernobyl accident, the future of nuclear power was vividly debated in Sweden. The negative public opinion governed a number of political decisions that marked an ambition to out-phase nuclear power prior to 2010. Due to this, the student's interest in nuclear technology ceased and together with the fact that public funding to nuclear technology was withdrawn, academic research and education within the field were effectively dismounted. In the beginning of 1990 it became clear to the society that nuclear power could not easily be closed down and the issue of the future competence supply to the nuclear industry was initiated. In the mid-nineties the situation became acute due to the fact that personnel in the nuclear industry started to retire in an increasing pace necessitating measures to be taken in order to secure the future operation of the nuclear power plants. In the year 2000, the Swedish nuclear power plants, Westinghouse Electric Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority embarked a project together with the three major universities in the field, Uppsala University, The Royal Institute of Technology and Chalmers University of Technology. The aim of this project was to define a financial platform for reconstructing the Swedish research and education in nuclear technology. The project, named the Swedish Centre for Nuclear Technology (SKC), has during a decade been the major financier to nuclear technology research and education. Using funding from SKC, Uppsala University formulated a strategy along two tracks: 1) Instead of creating ambitious master programs in nuclear technology, the already existing engineering programs in a wide range of fields were utilized to expose as many students as possible to nuclear technology. 2) A program was initiated together with the nuclear industry aiming at educating newly employed personnel. The result is encouraging; starting from essentially zero, typically 100

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: experimental treatments and strategies for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-01-01

    Despite the known damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, women continue to drink during pregnancy, creating a need for effective interventions and treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Experimental models can be useful in identifying potential treatments, and this article describes the spectrum of experimental therapeutics that currently are being investigated, including pharmacological, nutritional, and environmental/behavioral interventions. Some treatments target the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol-induced damage, protecting against alcohol's teratogenic effects, whereas other treatments may enhance central nervous system plasticity either during alcohol exposure or long after alcohol exposure has ceased. The insights gained to date from experimental models offer several candidates for attenuating the deficits associated with FASD.

  5. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tonani,Marcela; Carvalho,Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed tha...

  6. Crisis Intervention Strategies for School-Based Helpers. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Thomas N., Ed.

    School-based helpers are helping professionals who work within educational settings and whose training and primary responsibility is to promote the mental health of students. Few resource materials provide these helpers with needed information and practical strategies--this text tries to meet that need. The 12 chapters here cover a wide range of…

  7. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" (PALS) is a peer-tutoring instructional program that supplements the primary reading curriculum. Pairs of students work together on reading activities intended to improve reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Students in the pairs--who alternately take on the roles of tutor and tutee--read…

  8. Evaluation of intervention strategies for a road link in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adey, B.T.; Lethanh, N.; Hartmann, Andreas; Viti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of the impact hierarchy and the optimization model to determine the optimal intervention strategy for a road link composed of multiple objects. The paper focusses on the results of a case study of intervention project on A20 road link in

  9. Increasing Intervention Implementation in General Education Following Consultation: A Comparison of Two Follow-Up Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, George H.; Witt, Joseph C.; LaFleur, Lynn H.; Mortenson, Bruce P.; Ranier, Deborah D.; LeVelle, James

    2000-01-01

    A study examined two strategies for increasing the accuracy with which five elementary teachers implemented a peer tutoring intervention for students with reading difficulties. Four teachers implemented the intervention at levels substantially above baseline during the performance feedback condition. Student reading comprehension scores improved…

  10. On-scene crisis intervention: psychological guidelines and communication strategies for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Effective emergency mental health intervention for victims of crime, natural disaster or terrorism begins the moment the first responders arrive. This article describes a range of on-scene crisis intervention options, including verbal communication, body language, behavioral strategies, and interpersonal style. The correct intervention in the first few moments and hours of a crisis can profoundly influence the recovery course of victims and survivors of catastrophic events.

  11. Integrating Educational, Environmental, and Behavioral Economic Strategies May Improve the Effectiveness of Obesity Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Gittelsohn; Katherine Lee

    2013-01-01

    Interventions that change the food environment, provide nutrition education, and employ behavioral economics strategies can potentially contribute to healthier diets and reduce the risk of chronic disease, but no attempt has been made to integrate these into the same conceptual framework. We present case studies of three multilevel, integrated interventions implemented by Johns Hopkins University between 2004–2011. We develop a conceptual model based on these case studies. Interventions and p...

  12. Human spaceflight technology needs-a foundation for JSC's technology strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, J. M.

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which added risks and became a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (Tech Needs) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology disciplines. Th

  13. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining.

  14. Occupational health risks and intervention strategies for US taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Buul, Abdimalik; Aden, Rasheed; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Kidane, Luwam; Hussein, Mikaiil; Eastman, Amelia; Checkoway, Harvey

    2017-12-02

    Research has shown that taxi drivers are at risk for numerous health concerns, such as low back and leg pain, linked to their highly sedentary occupation, long work hours and stressors related to the job (e.g. low income, safety threats). The goal of this study was to explore occupational health risks and opportunities for health interventions with taxi drivers using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. A mixed methods approach included first a convenience sample of 19 East African taxi drivers participating in focus group discussions. Second, a convenience sample of 75 current taxi drivers (M age = 45.7 years) and 25 non-driver comparison participants (M age = 40.3 years) were recruited to complete a structured self-reported questionnaire and objective measures of health. Health education was provided alongside the research to address common health concerns and to ensure mutual benefit and an action orientation. The focus groups described numerous health concerns that drivers attributed to their occupation, including chronic pain, sleep deprivation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease and eye problems, as the most common. Participants offered ideas for health interventions that include workplace reform and driver education. Quantitative data indicate that 44% of drivers reported their health as 'fair' or 'poor'. Drivers were more likely to report musculoskeletal pain, less sleep, more fatigue and less physical activity as compared to non-drivers. The majority of drivers reported financial and job dissatisfaction. The research provides data to inform targeted health interventions that support the health and safety of taxi drivers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Optimal intervention strategies for cholera outbreak by education and chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Toni

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the control of infectious diseases in the framework of optimal control approach. A case study on cholera control was studied by considering two control strategies, namely education and chlorination. We distinct the former control into one regarding person-to-person behaviour and another one concerning person-to-environment conduct. Model are divided into two interacted populations: human population which follows an SIR model and pathogen population. Pontryagin maximum principle was applied in deriving a set of differential equations which consists of dynamical and adjoin systems as optimality conditions. Then, the fourth order Runge-Kutta method was exploited to numerically solve the equation system. An illustrative example was provided to assess the effectiveness of the control strategies toward a set of control scenarios.

  16. Sleep and academic success: mechanisms, empirical evidence, and interventional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Wells, Samantha Ashley; Cassoff, Jamie; Monson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that sleep is beneficial for learning, memory, attention, and academic success. However, the importance of sleep in these contexts has rarely been addressed in programs aimed at optimizing academic performance. This review aims to describe the role that sleep plays in processes pertaining to academic achievement. We first describe the basic sleep processes and their role with respect to cognitive and behavioral/emotional systems important for academic performance. We next review studies conducted to assess the association between sleep and academic performance, concluding by describing interventional programs being used to optimize sleep in the context of academic success.

  17. Effects of different intervention strategies on the incidence of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauer, M.; Doepfer, D.; Boer, de J.; Schaik, van G.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of four different intervention strategies on the incidence of severe lesions of digital dermatitis in an experimental dairy herd were compared with the effects of a control strategy consisting of walking the cows twice through a footbath containing 4 per cent formaldehyde on one day a

  18. Comparing Student Perceptions of Coping Strategies and School Interventions in Managing Bullying and Cyberbullying Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying…

  19. Dietary intervention strategies to modulate prostate cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Stephen J; Aronson, William J

    2009-05-01

    There is increasing interest in complementary and holistic approaches for cancer prevention and management. We sought to review the latest literature regarding dietary interventions for prostate cancer with a special emphasis on dietary fat and carbohydrate intake for modulating prognosis among men with prostate cancer. Several recent prospective trials have investigated various dietary and lifestyle investigations on malignant prostate tissue biology. These interventions included a very low-fat (12% fat kcals) vegan diet with various supplements and lifestyle changes, a more traditional low-fat diet (25% fat kcals) with flaxseed supplementation, and a low-glycemic index diet. Low-glycemic index and very low-fat vegan diets (with supplements and lifestyle changes) alter tumor biology as assessed by tumor gene expression changes, with a common mechanism perhaps being weight loss whereas no effects were seen with a traditional low-fat diet. In mice, either very low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets significantly slow tumor growth independent of weight loss. Epidemiologic and preclinical data also suggest cholesterol intake and serum cholesterol levels may be linked with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Small clinical trials suggest that tumor biology can be altered by either a vegan low-fat diet or eliminating simple carbohydrates accompanied by weight loss. Larger and longer term studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.

  20. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.

    2015-07-01

    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  1. The motor learning strategy instrument: interrater reliability within usual and virtual reality physical therapy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Missiuna, Cheryl; Wishart, Laurie; DeMatteo, Carol; Wright, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the interrater reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) within usual and virtual reality (VR) interventions for children with acquired brain injury. Two intervention sessions for each of 11 children (total, 22) were videotaped; sessions were provided by 4 physical therapists. Videotapes were divided into usual and VR components and rated by 2 observers using the MLSRI. A generalizability theory approach was used to determine interrater reliability for each intervention. Interrater reliability for usual interventions was high for the MLSRI total score (g-coefficient, 0.81), whereas it was low for the VR total score (g-coefficient, 0.28); MLSRI category g-coefficients varied from 0.35 to 0.65 for usual and from 0.17 to 0.72 for VR interventions. Adequate reliability was achieved within ratings of usual interventions; however, challenges related to MLSRI use to rate VR-based interventions require further evaluation.

  2. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  3. Hand Hygiene Intervention Strategies to Reduce Diarrhoea and Respiratory Infections among Schoolchildren in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwani Chingatichifwe Mbakaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective and appropriate hand-washing practice for schoolchildren is important in preventing infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, which is the second most common cause of death among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the review was to identify hand hygiene intervention strategies to reduce infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections among schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in developing countries. Published research articles were searched from databases covering a period from as far back as the creation of the databases to November 2015. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCT/CRCT from developing countries met the inclusion criteria. The Jadad Scale for appraising RCT/CRCT studies revealed methodological challenges in most studies, such that 75% (6/8 were rated as low-quality articles. The review found that hand hygiene can reduce the incidence of diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. Three hand hygiene intervention strategies utilized were training, funding and policy, with training and funding implemented more commonly than policy. These strategies were not only used in isolation but also in combination, and they qualified as multi-level interventions. Factors that influenced hand washing were contextual, psychosocial and technological. Findings can inform school health workers in categorizing and prioritizing activities into viable strategies when implementing multi-level hand-washing interventions. This review also adds to the existing evidence that multi-level hand-washing interventions can reduce the incidence of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and school absenteeism. Further evidence-based studies are needed with improved methodological rigour in developing countries, to inform policy in this area.

  4. Mobile technology-based interventions for adult users of alcohol: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Lauren A; Holt, Sidney L; Joshi, Deepti

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, 16% of people aged 15 and older engage in harmful use of alcohol. Harmful alcohol use leads to a host of preventable negative social and health consequences. Mobile technology-based interventions provide a particularly promising avenue for the widespread and cost-effective delivery of treatment that is accessible, affordable, individualized, and destigmatized to both alcohol-dependent and nondependent individuals. The present review sought to summarize the current literature on mobile technology-based interventions among adult users of alcohol and determine the efficacy of such interventions. Five databases were searched in December 2015 (Jan. 2004-Dec. 2015). Inclusion criteria were: participants aged 18 or older, interventions delivered through mobile-technology, and outcome measurement of alcohol reduction/cessation. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies reviewed found positive effects of the intervention, even though the interventions themselves varied in design, length, dosage, and target population, and were pilot or preliminary in nature. Findings from this review highlight the promising, yet preliminary state of research in this area. Studies with adequate power and valid design are necessary to evaluate the potential of mobile technology-based interventions on long-term alcohol behavior outcomes. Furthermore, future research should elucidate what the most effective length of time is for a mobile technology-based intervention, how often individuals should receive messages for maximum benefit, and determine the comparative effectiveness of mobile technology interventions with other efficacious interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Autoimmune diagnostics: the technology, the strategy and the clinical governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato; Villalta, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a profound change in autoimmune diagnostics. From long, tiring and inaccurate manual methods, the art of diagnostics has turned to modern, rapid and automated technology. New antibody tests have been developed, and almost all autoimmune diseases now have some specific diagnostic markers. The current need to make the most of available economic and human resources has led to the production of diagnostic algorithms and guidelines designated for optimal strategic use of the tests and to increase the diagnostic appropriateness. An important role in this scenario was assumed by the laboratory autoimmunologist, whose task is not only to govern the analytical phase, but also to help clinicians in correctly choosing the most suitable test for each clinical situation and provide consultancy support. In this review, we summarize recent advances in technology, describe the diagnostic strategies and highlight the current role of the laboratory autoimmunologist in the clinical governance of autoimmune diagnostics.

  6. Strategies for developing and delivering a parental physical activity intervention: answers to the what and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Parents are at risk for physical inactivity; however, few studies have designed physical activity (PA) interventions specifically applied to individuals with young children. To ensure the effectiveness of interventions, it may be useful to first elicit the needs from the target population and incorporate salient strategies identified to the design and delivery of a resultant intervention. We aimed to explore strategies for what to include in and how to best deliver a program designed to increase parental PA. Twelve parents (6 mothers, 6 fathers) of children younger than 5 years participated in focus group discussions exploring strategies for an intervention program designed to increase parental PA. A range of themes such as Focus on the Children and Flexible Life/Family Plans imbedded in strategies such as persuasion and information, problem-solving, skill building, and environmental approaches were identified. In addition, a range of strategies for how to best deliver a parental PA intervention evidenced in emerging themes such as Diverse and Brief and Individualized Approach was discussed. Future research should continue to adopt a ground up, community-based approach to the development and implementation of interventions for this at-risk group to ensure sustained involvement in regular PA.

  7. Learning disabilities: definitions, epidemiology, diagnosis, and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagae, Lieven

    2008-12-01

    Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  8. Digital Media Use in Families: Theories and Strategies for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalope, Kristin A; Woods, Leonard J

    2018-04-01

    Family dynamics are increasingly being influenced by digital media. Three frameworks are described to help clinicians to understand and respond to this influence. First, a social-ecological framework shows how media has both a direct and indirect impact on individuals, relationships, communities, and society. Next, family systems theory is introduced to demonstrate digital media-related interactions within families. Finally, a developmental framework explores the role of digital media in shaping parenting. These theories are then integrated into practical strategies that clinicians can use, including recommendations and resources from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.

    2013-01-01

    Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733

  10. Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Harrison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort.

  11. Using Data to Individualize a Multicomponent, Technology-Based Self-Monitoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Vogelgesang, Kari; Fernando, Josephine; Lugo, Wilbeth

    2016-01-01

    Technology in schools is abundant as is the call for evidence-based interventions for students who need additional support to be successful. One promising use of technology is for self-monitoring interventions aimed at improving classroom behavior. In this study, two middle school students with disabilities used a multicomponent, self-monitoring…

  12. How Technology and Collaboration Promote Formative Feedback: A Role for CSCL Research in Active Learning Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sally P. W.; Rau, Martina A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence for the effectiveness of active learning interventions has led educators to advocate for widespread adoption of active learning in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. Active learning interventions implement technology and collaboration to engage students actively with the content. Yet, it is…

  13. Impact of Robotics and Geospatial Technology Interventions on Youth STEM Learning and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Grandgenett, Neal; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of robotics and geospatial technologies interventions on middle school youth's learning of and attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Two interventions were tested. The first was a 40-hour intensive robotics/GPS/GIS summer camp; the second was a 3-hour event modeled on the camp…

  14. Characterizing Intervention Strategies Used in Community-Based Mental Health Care for Infants and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gabriela M; Garcia, Dainelys; Blizzard, Angela; Barroso, Nicole E; Bagner, Daniel M

    2018-02-21

    Mental health interventions for infants typically target high-risk groups and can prevent long-term negative outcomes. Despite federal initiatives promoting early intervention, minimal research has examined usual care services for infants, which is important to improve routine care. The current study characterized usual care practices in infant mental health through the adaptation and administration of a provider survey. Providers (n = 126) reported using a wide range of intervention strategies and few intervention programs with varied evidence. Findings can inform future research to identify quality improvement targets of usual mental health care for high-risk infants and their families.

  15. Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C

    2013-09-01

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.

  16. Information technology strategy and alignment issues in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveroth, Einar; Fryk, Pontus; Rapp, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) plays a key role in public health care management because it could improve quality, efficiency, and patient care. Researchers and practitioners repeatedly contend that a health care organization's information systems strategy should be aligned with its objectives and strategies, a notion commonly known as IT alignment. Actor-related IT alignment issues in health care institutions were explored in this study. More specifically, it explores the possibility of moving beyond the current IT alignment perspective and, in so doing, explores whether IT alignment-as currently conceptualized in the dominant body of research-is sufficient for attaining improved quality, efficiency, and patient care in health care organizations. The findings are based on a qualitative and longitudinal study of six health care organizations in the Stockholm metropolitan area. The empirical data were gathered over the 2005-2011 period from interviews, a focus group, observations, and archival material. The data suggest recurrent misalignments between IT strategy and organizational strategy and operations due to the failure to deconstruct the IT artifact and to the existence of various levels of IT maturity. A more complex picture of IT alignment in health care that goes beyond the current perspective is being offered by this study. It argues that the previously common way of handling IT as a single artifact and applying one IT strategy to the entire organizational system is obsolete. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The article suggests that considerable benefits can be gained by assessing IT maturity and its impact on IT alignment. The article also shows that there are different kinds of IT in medical care that requires diverse decisions, investments, prioritizations, and implementation approaches.

  17. Characteristics of successful technological interventions in mental resilience training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakili, V.; Brinkman, W.P.; Morina, N.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, several effective virtual reality-based interventions for anxiety disorders have been developed. Virtual reality interventions can also be used to build resilience to psychopathology for populations at risk of exposure to traumatic experiences and developing mental disorders

  18. Adapting qualitative research strategies to technology savvy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna Marie; Ide, Bette

    2014-05-01

    To adapt research strategies involving adolescents in a grounded theory qualitative research study by conducting email rather than face-to-face interviews. Adolescent culture relies heavily on text-based communication and teens prefer interactions mediated through technology. Traditional qualitative research strategies need to be rethought when working with adolescents. Adapting interviewing strategies to electronic environments is timely and relevant for researching adolescents. Twenty three adolescents (aged 16-21) were interviewed by email. A letter of invitation was distributed. Potential participants emailed the researcher to convey interest in participating. If the inclusion criteria were met, email interviews were initiated. Participants controlled the interviews through their rate of response to interview questions. A grounded theory methodology was employed. Initial contact with participants reiterated confidentiality and the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Interviews began with the collection of demographic information and a broad opening based on a semi-structured interview guide. All data were permissible, including text, photos, music, videos or outside media, for example YouTube. The participant was allowed to give direction to the interview after initial questions were posed. Email interviews continued until saturation was reached in the data. Participants were enthusiastic about email interviewing. Attrition did not occur. Email interviewing gave participants more control over the research, decreased power differentials between the adolescent and researcher, allowed the study to be adapted to cultural, linguistic and developmental needs, and maintained confidentiality. As participants said that email communication was slow and they preferred instant messaging, replication in faster-paced media is recommended. Repetition in face-to-face settings is warranted to evaluate how technology may have influenced the findings. Implications for

  19. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several intergovernm...

  20. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. 2011 FRAME.

  1. The process evaluation of two alternative participatory ergonomics intervention strategies for construction companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2018-03-26

    To gain insight into the process of applying two guidance strategies - face-to-face (F2F) or e-guidance strategy (EC) - of a Participatory Ergonomics (PE) intervention and whether differences between these guidance strategies occur, 12 construction companies were randomly assigned to a strategy. The process evaluation contained reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change of individual workers. Data were assessed by logbooks, and questionnaires and interviews at baseline and/or after six months. Reach was low (1%). Dose delivered (F2F: 63%; EC: 44%), received (F2F: 42%; EC: 16%) were not sufficient. The precision and competence were sufficient for both strategies and satisfaction was strongly affected by dose received. For behavioural change, knowledge (F2F) and culture (EC) changed positively within companies. Neither strategy was delivered as intended. Compliance to the intervention was low, especially for EC. Starting with a face-to-face meeting might lead to higher compliance, especially in the EC group. Practitioner Summary: This study showed that compliance to a face-to-face and an e-guidance strategy is low. To improve the compliance, it is advised to start with a face-to-face meeting to see which parts of the intervention are needed and which guidance strategy can be used for these parts. ISRCTN73075751.

  2. Dynamic simulation of crime perpetration and reporting to examine community intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Burke, Jessica G; Brown, Shawn T; Borrebach, Jeffrey D; Garland, Richard; Burke, Donald S; Grefenstette, John J

    2013-10-01

    To develop a conceptual computational agent-based model (ABM) to explore community-wide versus spatially focused crime reporting interventions to reduce community crime perpetrated by youth. Agents within the model represent individual residents and interact on a two-dimensional grid representing an abstract nonempirically grounded community setting. Juvenile agents are assigned initial random probabilities of perpetrating a crime and adults are assigned random probabilities of witnessing and reporting crimes. The agents' behavioral probabilities modify depending on the individual's experience with criminal behavior and punishment, and exposure to community crime interventions. Cost-effectiveness analyses assessed the impact of activating different percentages of adults to increase reporting and reduce community crime activity. Community-wide interventions were compared with spatially focused interventions, in which activated adults were focused in areas of highest crime prevalence. The ABM suggests that both community-wide and spatially focused interventions can be effective in reducing overall offenses, but their relative effectiveness may depend on the intensity and cost of the interventions. Although spatially focused intervention yielded localized reductions in crimes, such interventions were shown to move crime to nearby communities. Community-wide interventions can achieve larger reductions in overall community crime offenses than spatially focused interventions, as long as sufficient resources are available. The ABM demonstrates that community-wide and spatially focused crime strategies produce unique intervention dynamics influencing juvenile crime behaviors through the decisions and actions of community adults. It shows how such models might be used to investigate community-supported crime intervention programs by integrating community input and expertise and provides a simulated setting for assessing dimensions of cost comparison and intervention effect

  3. See what we say: using concept mapping to visualize Latino immigrant's strategies for health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jacquez, Farrah; Marschner, Daniel; McLinden, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Researchers need specific tools to engage community members in health intervention development to ensure that efforts are contextually appropriate for immigrant populations. The purpose of the study was to generate and prioritize strategies to address obesity, stress and coping, and healthcare navigation that are contextually appropriate and applicable to the Latino immigrant community in Cincinnati, Ohio, and then use the results to develop specific interventions to improve Latino health in our area. A community-academic research team used concept mapping methodology with over 200 Latino immigrants and Latino-serving providers. A community intervention planning session was held to share the final concept maps and vote on strategies. The concept maps and results from the intervention planning session emphasized a community lay health worker model to connect the Latino immigrant community with resources to address obesity, stress and coping, and healthcare navigation. Concept maps allowed for the visualization of health intervention strategies prioritized by the larger Latino immigrant community. Concept maps revealed the appropriate content for health interventions as well as the process community members preferred for intervention delivery.

  4. [Construction and Application of Innovative Education Technology Strategies in Nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Fen; Huang, Hsiang-Ping; Ni, Lee-Fen; Tsai, Chia-Lan; Huang, Tsuey-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of information and communication technologies has deeply impacted education reform, promoted the development of digital-learning models, and stimulated the development of diverse nursing education strategies in order to better fulfill needs and expand in new directions. The present paper introduces the intelligent-learning resources that are available for basic medical science education, problem-based learning, nursing scenario-based learning, objective structured clinical examinations, and other similar activities in the Department of Nursing at Chang Gung University of Science and Technology. The program is offered in two parts: specialized classroom facilities and cloud computing / mobile-learning. The latter includes high-fidelity simulation classrooms, online e-books, and virtual interactive simulation and augmented reality mobile-learning materials, which are provided through multimedia technology development, learning management systems, web-certificated examinations, and automated teaching and learning feedback mechanisms. It is expected that the teaching experiences that are shared in this article may be used as a reference for applying professional wisdom teaching models into nursing education.

  5. Intervention strategy to stimulate energy-saving behavior of local residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Q.; Nieuwenhijsen, I.; Vries, B. de; Blokhuis, E.; Schaefer, W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions

  6. Technology-supported dietary and lifestyle interventions in healthy pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, O A; McCarthy, M; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-07-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the actuality of delivering effective lifestyle interventions in clinical practice is hampered by a high demand for resources. The use of technology to assist lifestyle interventions needs to be explored as a valid method of reducing strain on resources, and enhancing the effectiveness and population reach of interventions. The aim was to systematically review the literature on the use of technology-supported lifestyle interventions for healthy pregnant women and their impact on maternal outcomes. Online databases and registries were searched in March 2013. Primary outcomes of selected English language studies were fasting maternal glucose, incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal gestational weight gain. Secondary outcomes were intervention uptake and acceptance, and dietary or physical activity modification. Studies whose subjects were diagnosed with GDM prior to intervention were excluded. The minimal number of eligible studies and varying outcomes precluded formal meta-analysis of the data. Initially, 203 articles were identified and screened. Seven articles, including five randomised controlled trials, met inclusion criteria for the current review. Results demonstrate several potential benefits associated with technology-supported interventions in pregnancy, despite minimal search results. Although communication technology holds potential as a safe therapeutic tool for the support of lifestyle interventions in pregnancy, there is a paucity of data on its effectiveness. Further RCTs examining the effectiveness of communication technology are required, particularly among those most likely to benefit from lifestyle interventions, such as overweight and obese pregnant women.

  7. Technology Transfer of Isotopes-Based Assay: Strategies and Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbada, R.S.D.C.; Rañada, M.L.O.; Mendoza, A.D.L.; Panganiban, R.; Castañeda, S.S.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Arcamo, S.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor Binding Assay for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP RBA) is an isotope-based assay for detection and quantification of PSP toxins in seafood. It was established in the Philippines through a national program based on the recommendations of the Expert Mission sent by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through the said program, the Philippines Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) was able to put up an RBA facility and develop expertise. Advantages of the technique against Mouse Bioassay (MBA) and high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods were are established. RBA is being utilized by some developed countries as screening method for Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Monitoring. However, it was not immediately adopted by the national HAB regulatory body for the following reasons: (1) acceptance of RBA as an official national method of analysis for PSP, (2) logistics and financial concerns in building up and maintaining a RBA facility, (3) considerations on the use of radioactive materials. To address these issues, the Philippines Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) approved a Grants-In-Aid Project to initiate and to facilitate the transfer of the RBA technology to the monitoring and regulatory body. The project has two major objectives: capacity building and technology transfer. The capacity building focuses on human resources development of HAB monitoring personnel, specifically training on RBA and on the use of radioactive materials. On the other hand, the technology transfer deals with assistance that PNRI may render in establishing the new RBA facility and over-all know-how of the project. In this is poster, the mechanisms and strategies being undertaken by PNRI, in collaboration with the regulatory and monitoring body, to address the limitation of transferring a technology that utilizes radioactive materials including the technical difficulties are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Strategies to Improve Adherence to Dietary Weight Loss Interventions in Research and Real-World Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Gibson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions are the cornerstone of obesity treatment. The optimal dietary approach to weight loss is a hotly debated topic among health professionals and the lay public alike. An emerging body of evidence suggests that a higher level of adherence to a diet, regardless of the type of diet, is an important factor in weight loss success over the short and long term. Key strategies to improve adherence include designing dietary weight loss interventions (such as ketogenic diets that help to control the increased drive to eat that accompanies weight loss, tailoring dietary interventions to a person’s dietary preferences (and nutritional requirements, and promoting self-monitoring of food intake. The aim of this paper is to examine these strategies, which can be used to improve adherence and thereby increase the success of dietary weight loss interventions.

  9. Lessons learned: the effect of prior technology use on Web-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Joanne C; Wade, Shari L; Wolfe, Christopher R

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the role of regular prior technology use in treatment response to an online family problem-solving (OFPS) intervention and an Internet resource intervention (IRI) for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 150 individuals in 40 families of children with TBI randomly assigned to OFPS intervention or an IRI. All families received free computers and Internet access to TBI resources. OFPS families received Web-based sessions and therapist-guided synchronous videoconferences focusing on problem solving, communication skills, and behavior management. All participants completed measures of depression, anxiety, and computer usage. OFPS participants rated treatment satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, and Web site and technology comfort. With the OFPS intervention, depression and anxiety improved significantly more among technology using parents (n = 14) than nontechnology users (n = 6). Technology users reported increasing comfort with technology over time, and this change was predictive of depression at followup. Satisfaction and ease-of-use ratings did not differ by technology usage. Lack of regular prior home computer usage and nonadherence were predictive of anxiety at followup. The IRI was not globally effective. However, controlling for prior depression, age, and technology at work, there was a significant effect of technology at home for depression. Families with technology experience at home (n = 11) reported significantly greater improvements in depression than families without prior technology experience at home (n = 8). Although Web-based OFPS was effective in improving caregiver functioning, individuals with limited computer experience may benefit less from an online intervention due to increased nonadherence.

  10. Early Intervention Practices and Communication Intervention Strategies for Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrett, Penny L.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Price, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 51 speech-language pathologists serving 41 males (ages 2-9) with fragile X syndrome, found the majority reported the boys exhibit a visually based, experiential or holistic learning preference. Speech goals focused on slowing rate and increasing precision for verbal children and using assistive technology for nonverbal children.…

  11. Use of new minimum intervention dentistry technologies in caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassery, H; Levallois, B; Terrer, E; Manton, D J; Otsuki, M; Koubi, S; Gugnani, N; Panayotov, I; Jacquot, B; Cuisinier, F; Rechmann, P

    2013-06-01

    Preservation of natural tooth structure requires early detection of the carious lesion and is associated with comprehensive patient dental care. Processes aiming to detect carious lesions in the initial stage with optimum efficiency employ a variety of technologies such as magnifying loupes, transillumination, light and laser fluorescence (QLF® and DIAGNOdent® ) and autofluorescence (Soprolife® and VistaCam®), electric current/impedance (CarieScan(®) ), tomographic imaging and image processing. Most fluorescent caries detection tools can discriminate between healthy and carious dental tissue, demonstrating different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Based on the fluorescence principle, an LED camera (Soprolife® ) was developed (Sopro-Acteon, La Ciotat, France) which combined magnification, fluorescence, picture acquisition and an innovative therapeutic concept called light-induced fluorescence evaluator for diagnosis and treatment (LIFEDT). This article is rounded off by a Soprolife® illustration about minimally or even non-invasive dental techniques, distinguishing those that preserve or reinforce the enamel and enamel-dentine structures without any preparation (MIT1- minimally invasive therapy 1) from those that require minimum preparation of the dental tissues (MIT2 - minimally invasive therapy 2) using several clinical cases as examples. MIT1 encompasses all the dental techniques aimed at disinfection, remineralizing, reversing and sealing the caries process and MIT2 involves a series of specific tools, including microburs, air abrasion devices, sonic and ultrasonic inserts and photo-activated disinfection to achieve minimal preparation of the tooth. With respect to minimally invasive treatment and prevention, the use of lasers is discussed. Furthermore, while most practices operate under a surgical model, Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CaMBRA) encourages a medical model of disease prevention and management to control the manifestation of the

  12. Enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G P

    2001-08-01

    Hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, Norwalk-like caliciviruses, and astroviruses are among the enteric viruses known to cause food- and waterborne illness. These viruses are spread by the fecal-oral route and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Foods may be contaminated at any time pre- or post-harvest; however, many outbreaks are associated with foods handled by infected restaurant workers. Produce may be contaminated by improper irrigation or fertilization practices, by the hands of infected pickers or processors, or as the result of adulteration during any stage of handling. Outbreaks have been commonly associated with foods which are served raw or only lightly cooked, such as molluscan shellfish, fruits and vegetables, and salads or products contaminated after cooking like frosted bakery products. The farming, shellfish, processing, transportation, and restaurant industries must maintain vigilance to reduce outbreaks of enteric virus illness. Intervention strategies to enhance product safety include increased industry and consumer education; changes in industrial practices, product management, and processing technologies; worker immunizations; and the development of improved monitoring tools for the detection of enteric viruses in foods.

  13. Cec-CHECIR ECP-4 optimization of intervention strategies for the recovery of radioactive contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Gutierrez, J.; Trueba, C.; Savkin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate different options of intervention for the recovery of contaminated environments. It will consider not only the efficiency of the countermeasures in terms of dose reduction, but also in terms of costs, wastes and other possible secondary consequences, in order to obtain the best possible strategy for each particular circumstance. This paper summarizes the methodology of optimization of intervention, which has been carried out in the framework of CEC-CHECIR ECP-4 Project

  14. Implementing a learning technology strategy: top–down strategy meets bottom–up culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lisewski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using interview-based ‘insider case study' research, this paper outlines why the University of Salford has adopted a Learning Technologies Strategy and examines the factors which are likely to lead to its successful implementation. External reasons for the adoption focused on the need to: respond to ‘increased Higher Education (HE competition', meet student expectations of learning technology use, provide more flexibility and access to the curriculum, address the possible determining effect of technology and establish a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE presence in this ‘particular area of the HE landscape'. Internal drivers centred on the need to: continue a ‘bottom– up' e-learning pilot project initiative, particularly given that a VLE is a ‘complex tool' which requires effective strategic implementation, and promote the idea that learning technology will play an important role in determining the type of HE institution that the University of Salford wishes to become. Likely success factors highlighted the need to: create ‘time and space' for innovation, maintain effective communication and consultation at all levels of the organization, emphasize the operational aspects of the strategy, establish a variety of staff development processes and recognize the negotiatory processes involved in understanding the term ‘web presence' in local teaching cultures. Fundamentally, the paper argues that policy makers should acknowledge the correct ‘cultural configuration' of HE institutions when seeking to manage and achieve organizational change. Thus, it is not just a question of establishing ‘success factors' per se but also whether they are contextualized appropriately within a ‘correct' characterization of the organizational culture.

  15. Using GPS-tracking technology for urban design interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, S.C.; Van Langelaar, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to express the application of tracking technologies in Urban Design and Planning. Tracking technologies can be used to monitor different user groups in different occasions. Since 2005, TU Delft has explored and developed two types of research using GPS to collect spatio

  16. Identifying quality improvement intervention publications - A comparison of electronic search strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenstein Lisa V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for quality improvement (QI interventions is expanding rapidly. The diversity of the initiatives and the inconsistency in labeling these as QI interventions makes it challenging for researchers, policymakers, and QI practitioners to access the literature systematically and to identify relevant publications. Methods We evaluated search strategies developed for MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed based on free text words, Medical subject headings (MeSH, QI intervention components, continuous quality improvement (CQI methods, and combinations of the strategies. Three sets of pertinent QI intervention publications were used for validation. Two independent expert reviewers screened publications for relevance. We compared the yield, recall rate, and precision of the search strategies for the identification of QI publications and for a subset of empirical studies on effects of QI interventions. Results The search yields ranged from 2,221 to 216,167 publications. Mean recall rates for reference publications ranged from 5% to 53% for strategies with yields of 50,000 publications or fewer. The 'best case' strategy, a simple text word search with high face validity ('quality' AND 'improv*' AND 'intervention*' identified 44%, 24%, and 62% of influential intervention articles selected by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ experts, a set of exemplar articles provided by members of the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE group, and a sample from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC register of studies, respectively. We applied the search strategy to a PubMed search for articles published in 10 pertinent journals in a three-year period which retrieved 183 publications. Among these, 67% were deemed relevant to QI by at least one of two independent raters. Forty percent were classified as empirical studies reporting on a QI intervention. Conclusions The presented

  17. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-10-13

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented. Conditions sufficient for an intervention mix (≥3 of 4 non-educational strategies present) were determined in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. A multisectoral policy network (≥7 of 14 sectors present) was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition. In multisectoral networks, additionally required was either the active participation of network actors (≥50% actively involved) or active networking by the project leader (≥monthly contacts with network actors). In policy networks that included few sectors, a high level of trust (positive perceptions of each other's intentions) was needed-in the absence though of any of the other conditions. If the network actors were also actively involved, an extra requirement was active networking by the project leader. We conclude that the multisectoral composition of policy networks can contribute to the implementation of a variety of intervention strategies, but not without additional efforts. However, policy networks that include only few sectors are also able to implement an intervention mix. Here, trust seems to be the most important condition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  19. Technology intervention research with deaf and hard of hearing learners: levels of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Cannon, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluated the research base relative to technology use with deaf and hard of hearing students, examining 29 peer-reviewed studies published January 2000-August 2013 that used technology-based intervention (multimedia instructional applications/software) and investigating its effects on academic variables (academic skills used in instructional settings). They then evaluated the studies according to quality indicators for evidence-based research, both individually and as a body of evidence supporting intervention for deaf and hard of hearing students (Gersten et al., 2005; Horner et al., 2005; Institute of Education Sciences, 2013; Kratochwill et al., 2010, 2013). One of 24 group design studies met all Essential Quality Indicators; 3 of 5 single-case design studies did (Horner et al., 2005). No reviewed technology intervention met criteria for an established evidence base. Interventions are presented across technology types and academic areas to facilitate discussion of implications for researchers and practitioners.

  20. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  1. A review of policy-relevant strategies and interventions to address ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on alcohol intervention strategies likely to be effective in a country like South Africa. It begins with an appraisal of the latest data on the burden of harm associated with the misuse of alcohol, globally, regionally and in South Africa. The main part of the paper comprises a critical analysis of a broad array of ...

  2. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: An International Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A review of international research literature on teacher strategies for effective intervention with students presenting social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) is presented. Particular attention is given to evidence defining the qualities and skills of effective teachers and the value of behavioural and cognitive behavioural…

  3. Economies of scale and scope in banking : Effects of government intervention, corporate strategy and market power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The financial crisis and ensuing policy responses have made the question of economies of scale and scope in the banking sector as topical as ever. This dissertation estimates economies of scale and scope in the banking sector and discusses the role of government intervention, corporate strategy and

  4. A Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Intervention for a Child with Asperger Syndrome: Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…

  5. Meta-Analysis of Reading Comprehension Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities: Strategies and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencibaugh, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines research studies, which focus on interventions commonly used with students who are learning disabled and identifies effective methods that produce substantial benefits concerning reading comprehension. This paper synthesizes previous observation studies by conducting a meta-analysis of strategies used to improve the reading…

  6. Effectiveness of coping strategies intervention on caregiver burden among caregivers of elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Coping strategies are a potential way to improve interventions designed to manage the caregiver burden of dementia. The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention targeted towards improving coping strategies and to examine its effectiveness on reducing caregiver burden. A controlled study design was used. Fifty-seven caregivers of dementia patients were enrolled. Coping strategies were assessed with the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL-R) and caregiver burden was assessed with the Chinese version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory. The participants were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group was offered a series of five interventions in which problem-solving skills, knowledge of dementia, social resources, and emotional support were taught every 2 weeks, and the control group was telephoned every 2 weeks for the usual clinical management. Two weeks after the end of the intervention, we again administered the WCCL-R and the Caregiver Burden Inventory. Two-way repeated-measure anova was used to evaluate the changes in coping strategies and caregiver burden. Forty-six participants completed the study. No statistically significant differences were noted in the demographic data between the two groups. On the problem-focused coping subscale on the WCCL-R, the intervention group's mean score increased by 3.8 points, and the control group's decreased by 5.1 points (F = 7.988, P = 0.007). On the seeking social support coping subscale on the WCCL-R, the intervention group's mean score increased by 3.8 points, and the control group's decreased by 3.1 points (F = 4.462, P = 0.04). On the Caregiver Burden Inventory, the intervention group's mean score decreased by 7.2 points, and the control group's increased by 2.2 points (F = 6.155, P = 0.017). Psychosocial intervention can help caregivers to adopt more problem-focused and social support coping strategies, which are beneficial in terms of reducing the caregiver

  7. Lessons Learned: The Effect of Prior Technology Use On Web-Based Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    CAREY, JOANNE C.; WADE, SHARI L.; WOLFE, CHRISTOPHER R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of regular prior technology use in treatment response to an online family problem-solving (OFPS) intervention and an Internet resource intervention (IRI) for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 150 individuals in 40 families of children with TBI randomly assigned to OFPS intervention or an IRI. All families received free computers and Internet access to TBI resources. OFPS families received Web-based sessions and therapist-guided synchronous ...

  8. Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Preschool Children: Intervention goals and use of technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Keppner, Kirsten; Schanz, Amanda; Berg, Alycia

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to describe speech-language interventions for preschool-aged children who required AAC as provided by AAC experts and by general speech language pathologists who were not AAC experts. The study also examined the types of technology used in AAC intervention by AAC experts. A retrospective chart review was conducted in which clinic records of 38 preschool-aged children who received expert AAC services were examined. Results showed that interventions provided to the children by...

  9. A Review of Information and Communication Technology Enhanced Social Work Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Information and communications technology (ICT) has impacted almost all human service disciplines and currently is evolving in social work. This study provides a systematic review of ICT-enhanced social work interventions, with particular reference to their intervention fidelity (IF), validity, and the role of ICT in the helping…

  10. Optimization of a technology-supported physical activity intervention for breast cancer survivors: Fit2Thrive study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Collins, Linda M; Penedo, Frank J; Courneya, Kerry S; Welch, Whitney; Cottrell, Alison; Lloyd, Gillian R; Gavin, Kara; Cella, David; Ackermann, Ronald T; Siddique, Juned; Spring, Bonnie

    2018-03-01

    Fit2Thrive is a theory-guided physical activity promotion trial using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) to test efficacy for improving physical activity of five technology-supported physical activity promotion intervention components among breast cancer survivors. This trial will recruit 256 inactive breast cancer survivors nationwide. All participants will receive the core intervention which includes a Fitbit and standard self-monitoring Fit2Thrive smartphone application which will be downloaded to their personal phone. Women will be randomized to one of 32 conditions in a factorial design involving five factors with two levels: support calls (No vs. Yes), app type (standard vs. deluxe), text messaging (No vs. Yes), online gym (No vs. Yes) and Fitbit Buddy (No vs. Yes). The proposed trial examines the effects of the components on physical activity at 12 and 24weeks. Results will support the selection of a final package of intervention components that has been optimized to maximize physical activity and is subject to an upper limit of cost. The optimized intervention will be tested in a future trial. Fit2Thrive is the first trial to use the MOST framework to develop and test a physical activity promotion intervention in breast cancer survivors and will lead to an improved understanding of how to effectively change survivors' physical activity. These findings could result in more scalable, effective physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors, and, ultimately, improve health and disease outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using computer, mobile and wearable technology enhanced interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Aoife; McDonough, Suzanne M; Murphy, Marie H; Nugent, Chris D; Mair, Jacqueline L

    2017-08-11

    High levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) are associated with negative health consequences. Technology enhanced solutions such as mobile applications, activity monitors, prompting software, texts, emails and websites are being harnessed to reduce SB. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of such technology enhanced interventions aimed at reducing SB in healthy adults and to examine the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used. Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomised-controlled trials (RCTs), published up to June 2016. Interventions using computer, mobile or wearable technologies to facilitate a reduction in SB, using a measure of sedentary time as an outcome, were eligible for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool and interventions were coded using the BCT Taxonomy (v1). Meta-analysis of 15/17 RCTs suggested that computer, mobile and wearable technology tools resulted in a mean reduction of -41.28 min per day (min/day) of sitting time (95% CI -60.99, -21.58, I2 = 77%, n = 1402), in favour of the intervention group at end point follow-up. The pooled effects showed mean reductions at short (≤ 3 months), medium (>3 to 6 months), and long-term follow-up (>6 months) of -42.42 min/day, -37.23 min/day and -1.65 min/day, respectively. Overall, 16/17 studies were deemed as having a high or unclear risk of bias, and 1/17 was judged to be at a low risk of bias. A total of 46 BCTs (14 unique) were coded for the computer, mobile and wearable components of the interventions. The most frequently coded were "prompts and cues", "self-monitoring of behaviour", "social support (unspecified)" and "goal setting (behaviour)". Interventions using computer, mobile and wearable technologies can be effective in reducing SB. Effectiveness appeared most prominent in the short-term and lessened over time. A range of BCTs have been implemented in these interventions. Future studies need to improve reporting

  12. From intervention to innovation: applying a formal implementation strategy in community primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrea S; Sussman, Andrew L; Anthoney, Mark; Parker, Edith A

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe a comprehensive strategy for implementing an effective diabetes self-management support intervention incorporating goal-setting and followup support in community health clinics (CHCs) serving vulnerable patients. Methods. The Replicating Effective Programs (REP) framework was applied to develop an intervention strategy. In order to create a strategy consistent with the REP framework, four CHCs engaged in an iterative process involving key-informant interviews with clinic staff, ongoing involvement of clinic staff facilitating translational efforts, feedback from national experts, and an instructional designer. Results. Moving through the REP process resulted in an implementation strategy that aims to facilitate commitment, communication, and change at the clinic level, as well as means of providing interactive, time-limited education about patient behavior change and support to health care providers. Conclusion. The REP offered a useful framework for providing guidance toward the development of a strategy to implement a diabetes self-management intervention in CHCs serving medically underserved and underrepresented patient populations.

  13. Developing complex interventions: lessons learned from a pilot study examining strategy training in acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Dawson, Deirdre R; Whyte, Ellen M; Butters, Meryl A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grattan, Emily S; Becker, James T; Holm, Margo B

    2014-04-01

    To examine the feasibility of a strategy training clinical trial in a small group of adults with stroke-related cognitive impairments in inpatient rehabilitation, and to explore the impact of strategy training on disability. Non-randomized two-group intervention pilot study. Two inpatient rehabilitation units within an academic health centre. Individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke, who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and demonstrated cognitive impairments were included. Individuals with severe aphasia; dementia; major depressive disorder, bipolar, or psychotic disorder; recent drug or alcohol abuse; and anticipated length of stay less than five days were excluded. Participants received strategy training or an attention control session in addition to usual rehabilitation care. Sessions in both groups were 30-40 minutes daily, five days per week, for the duration of inpatient rehabilitation. We assessed feasibility through participants' recruitment and retention; research intervention session number and duration; participants' comprehension and engagement; intervention fidelity; and participants' satisfaction. We assessed disability at study admission, inpatient rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months using the Functional Independence Measure. Participants in both groups (5 per group) received the assigned intervention (>92% planned sessions; >94% fidelity) and completed follow-up testing. Strategy training participants in this small sample demonstrated significantly less disability at six months (M (SE) = 117 (3)) than attention control participants (M(SE) = 96 (14); t 8 = 7.87, P = 0.02). It is feasible and acceptable to administer both intervention protocols as an adjunct to acute inpatient rehabilitation, and strategy training shows promise for reducing disability.

  14. Sustainable Phosphorus Measures: Strategies and Technologies for Achieving Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.

  15. Health behavior models for informing digital technology interventions for individuals with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Kim, Sunny Jung; McHugo, Gregory J; Unützer, Jürgen; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models offer valuable insights for designing effective and sustainable behavioral health interventions, yet the application of theory for informing digital technology interventions for people with mental illness has received limited attention. We offer a perspective on the importance of applying behavior theories and models to developing digital technology interventions for addressing mental and physical health concerns among people with mental illness. In this commentary, we summarize prominent theories of human behavior, highlight key theoretical constructs, and identify opportunities to inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. We consider limitations with existing theories and models, and examine recent theoretical advances that can specifically guide development of digital technology interventions. Established behavioral frameworks including health belief model, theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory consist of important and overlapping constructs that can inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. As digital technologies continue to evolve and enable longitudinal data collection, real-time behavior monitoring, and adaptive features tailored to users' changing needs over time, there are new opportunities to broaden our understanding of health behaviors and mechanisms of behavior change. Recent advances include dynamic models of behavior, persuasive system design, the behavioral intervention technology model, and behavioral models for just-in-time adaptive interventions. Behavior theories offer advantages for guiding use of digital technologies. Future researchers must explore how theoretical models can effectively advance efforts to develop, evaluate, and disseminate digital health interventions targeting individuals with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Evidence for Technology Interventions to Promote ART Adherence in Adult Populations: a Review of the Literature 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, K Rivet

    2015-12-01

    Leveraging technology to enhance antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and factors associated with it, has tremendous appeal as a low-cost, generalizable strategy to offer high-quality adherence support given an increasingly limited workforce. As the numbers of individuals living with HIV entering care and initiating ART are expected to increase substantially worldwide in the next decade, capacity to support ART adherence is needed and use of computers, internet, and mobile phones has the potential to offer those efficiencies-provided they are effective. This review summarizes recent advances in the evidence base for technology-driven, technology-delivered, or technology-enhanced ART adherence intervention approaches. A PubMed search limited to January 2013 through July 2015 identified 13 qualifying studies evaluating computer-delivered interventions, internet approaches, mobile phone technologies, and electronic dose monitoring with triggered messaging and data-informed counseling. Considerable support for each area has emerged, with the majority of studies reviewed demonstrating significant effects on ART adherence and clinical outcomes. Gaps are identified and recommendations offered.

  17. Keeping Women Students in Technology: Preliminary Evaluation of an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasburn, Mara H.; Miller, Susan G.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, companies and corporations are seeking to diversify areas of their workforce that are predominantly male. Many of the positions in these areas are highly technical. However, despite abundant opportunities, women are not preparing themselves for technology-related careers. To develop a first step toward addressing this problem, a…

  18. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Human Performance Technology Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.

    2010-01-01

    Human Performance Technology (HPT) is a field of practice that has evolved from advancements in organizational development, instructional design, strategic human resource management and cognitive psychology. As globalization and trends like outsourcing and off-shoring start to dominate the way organizations grow, HPT practitioners are managing the…

  19. HIV prevention where it is needed most: comparison of strategies for the geographical allocation of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Ghys, Peter D; Ombam, Regina; Hallett, Timothy B

    2017-12-01

    A strategic approach to the application of HIV prevention interventions is a core component of the UNAIDS Fast Track strategy to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Central to these plans is a focus on high-prevalence geographies, in a bid to target resources to those in greatest need and maximize the reduction in new infections. Whilst this idea of geographical prioritization has the potential to improve efficiency, it is unclear how it should be implemented in practice. There are a range of prevention interventions which can be applied differentially across risk groups and locations, making allocation decisions complex. Here, we use mathematical modelling to compare the impact (infections averted) of a number of different approaches to the implementation of geographical prioritization of prevention interventions, similar to those emerging in policy and practice, across a range of prevention budgets. We use geographically specific mathematical models of the epidemic and response in 48 counties and major cities of Kenya to project the impact of the different geographical prioritization approaches. We compare the geographical allocation strategies with a nationally uniform approach under which the same interventions must be applied across all modelled locations. We find that the most extreme geographical prioritization strategy, which focuses resources exclusively to high-prevalence locations, may substantially restrict impact (41% fewer infections averted) compared to a nationally uniform approach, as opportunities for highly effective interventions for high-risk populations in lower-prevalence areas are missed. Other geographical allocation approaches, which intensify efforts in higher-prevalence areas whilst maintaining a minimum package of cost-effective interventions everywhere, consistently improve impact at all budget levels. Such strategies balance the need for greater investment in locations with the largest epidemics whilst ensuring higher-risk groups in lower

  20. Perception and significance of an assistive technology intervention - the perspectives of relatives of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, Jenny; Persson, Jan; Krevers, Barbro

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relatives' perception of an assistive technology intervention aimed at persons with dementia (PwDs) and their relatives, and to examine whether, and how, experiences of the intervention process differed between relatives valuing the intervention to be of high, and relatives perceiving it to be of low significance. A total of 47 relatives of PwDs within the Swedish Technology and Dementia project were interviewed telephonically using a modified version of the Patient perspective on Care and Rehabilitation process instrument. A total of 46 participants were divided into two groups depending on whether they valued the intervention to be of great significance (GS group; N = 33) or of some/no significance (SNS group; N = 13). Several aspects of the intervention were perceived as highly important, e.g. being shown consideration and respect, and having somewhere to turn. The results indicate that relatives in the GS group perceived certain aspects of the intervention process as highly fulfilled to a larger extent than did relatives in the SNS group. This study illustrates how process evaluations can be used to increase the understanding and to identify improvement aspects of interventions. Process evaluation is a good method for understanding how interventions can be improved - a keystone for quality work. Based on relatives' ratings, a high fulfilment of the AT intervention process was associated with the perception of a significant outcome of the intervention.

  1. Spanish-Language Consumer Health Information Technology Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaet, Alexis V; Morshedi, Bijan; Wells, Kristen J; Barnes, Laura E; Valdez, Rupa

    2016-08-10

    As consumer health information technology (IT) becomes more thoroughly integrated into patient care, it is critical that these tools are appropriate for the diverse patient populations whom they are intended to serve. Cultural differences associated with ethnicity are one aspect of diversity that may play a role in user-technology interactions. Our aim was to evaluate the current scope of consumer health IT interventions targeted to the US Spanish-speaking Latino population and to characterize these interventions in terms of technological attributes, health domains, cultural tailoring, and evaluation metrics. A narrative synthesis was conducted of existing Spanish-language consumer health IT interventions indexed within health and computer science databases. Database searches were limited to English-language articles published between January 1990 and September 2015. Studies were included if they detailed an assessment of a patient-centered electronic technology intervention targeting health within the US Spanish-speaking Latino population. Included studies were required to have a majority Latino population sample. The following were extracted from articles: first author's last name, publication year, population characteristics, journal domain, health domain, technology platform and functionality, available languages of intervention, US region, cultural tailoring, intervention delivery location, study design, and evaluation metrics. We included 42 studies in the review. Most of the studies were published between 2009 and 2015 and had a majority percentage of female study participants. The mean age of participants ranged from 15 to 68. Interventions most commonly focused on urban population centers and within the western region of the United States. Of articles specifying a technology domain, computer was found to be most common; however, a fairly even distribution across all technologies was noted. Cancer, diabetes, and child, infant, or maternal health were the

  2. 2016 Decadal Update of the NASA ESTO Lidar Technologies Investment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinia, Azita; Tratt, David M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Gaab, Kevin M.; Komar, George J.; Rioux, Norman M.; Perez, Mario R.; Smith, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the 2016 update of the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) investment strategy in the area of lidar technologies as pertaining to NASAs Earth Science measurement goals in the next decade.

  3. Technology strategy and the balance sheet: 3 points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, David J

    2005-05-01

    Most hospitals use technology strategically to differentiate themselves from their competition. The rapid rate of change in healthcare technologies necessitates development of a technology life-cycle management program. Having access to flexible sources of capital appropriate to each category of technology assets allows liabilities and assets to be matched on a "balanced" balance sheet.

  4. Early intervention surveillance strategies (EISS) in dental student clinical performance: a mathematical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2005-12-01

    Graduating dental practitioners requires the mastery of a number of skills and a significant body of basic information. Dental education is a complex combination of didactic and physical skill learning processes. It is necessary to develop appropriate tools to measure student clinical performance to allow the provision of interventional strategies at the right time targeted at the right individuals. In this study, an approach to early intervention surveillance strategies was developed that is cost-effective, transparent, and robust based on mathematical predictions of student clinical achievements. Using a cohort of students' clinical activity profile, a polynomial pair was developed that represents the predictive function of low and high achieving students. This polynomial pair can then be applied to students to predict their final achievement based on their current status. The polynomial methodology is adaptable to local variation such as access to clinical facilities. The early intervention surveillance strategy developed in this study provides a simple, cost-effective, predictive risk assessment system that relies on data sets already collected in most dental schools and can be completed without the need for significant human intervention. The mathematical approach allows the focusing of educational support towards students that require the assistance, thus augmenting the better use of resources.

  5. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  6. Computer technology and computer programming research and strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakos, James L

    2011-01-01

    Covering a broad range of new topics in computer technology and programming, this volume discusses encryption techniques, SQL generation, Web 2.0 technologies, and visual sensor networks. It also examines reconfigurable computing, video streaming, animation techniques, and more. Readers will learn about an educational tool and game to help students learn computer programming. The book also explores a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs.

  7. Bullying in children who stutter: speech-language pathologists' perceptions and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W; Boyle, Michael P; Blood, Ingrid M; Nalesnik, Gina R

    2010-06-01

    Bullying in school-age children is a global epidemic. School personnel play a critical role in eliminating this problem. The goals of this study were to examine speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perceptions of bullying, endorsement of potential strategies for dealing with bullying, and associations among SLPs' responses and specific demographic and practice-oriented variables. A survey was developed and mailed to 1000 school-based SLPs. Six vignettes describing episodes of physical, verbal, and relational bullying of hypothetical 10-year students who stutter were developed. Three vignettes described bullying specifically mentioning stuttering behaviors, while three described bullying without mentioning stuttering behavior. The data from 475 SLPs were analyzed. SLPs rated physical bullying as most serious and in need of intervention, followed by verbal bullying. Relational bullying was rated as not serious or in need of intervention. SLPs also responded to the likelihood of using strategies for dealing with bullying. Physical and verbal bullying elicited the use of "talking with the teacher", "working with school personnel", and "reassuring the child of his safety" strategies. Relational bullying elicited "ignore the problem" and "be more assertive" strategies. Correlations among variables are reported. The seriousness of physical and verbal bullying, likelihood of intervention, and the lack of knowledge about relational bullying is discussed. Readers should be able to: (1) summarize the research describing the negative effects of three major types of bullying, (2) summarize the research describing bullying and children with communication disorders, especially stuttering, (3) report results of a survey of speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perceptions of bullying in school-age children, (4) explain the perceived seriousness of the problem by SLPs and likelihood of intervention, and (5) describe the need for continued prevention and intervention activities for

  8. Validity of Business Strategy as Driver in Technology Management – A Critical Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Østergaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    in connecting technological design tightly to the business strategy. The purpose of this paper is to advance a research agenda, where long-term orientation of technology is connected to the necessary tools for obtaining insight in assessing adequacy, reliability and quality of business strategy and evaluation......Frameworks for technological development are increasingly requiring that technology must be developed in accordance with the corporate business strategy. It is an interesting tendency that technological development should reflect and interact with central change processes of the enterprise...... of alternatives. Alternatives are related to business environments, compliance, infrastructure, knowledge, skills and societal factors....

  9. Self-management of hypertension using technology enabled interventions in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Aastha; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Self-management of hypertension by controlling Blood Pressure (BP) through technology-based interventions can effectively reduce the burden of high BP, which affects one out of every three adults in the United States. The primary aim of this study is to explore the role of technology enabled interventions to improve or enhance self-management among individuals with hypertension. We conducted a systematic review of the literature published between July 2008 and June 2013 on the MEDLINE database (via PubMed interface) during July 2013. The search words were "hypertension" and "primary care" in combination with each of the terms of "technology", "internet", "computer" and "cell phone". Our inclusion criteria consisted of: (a) Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) (b) conducted on human subjects; (c) technology-based interventions (d) to improve self-management (e) of hypertension and if the (f) final results of the study were published in the study. Our exclusion criteria included (a) management of other conditions and (b) literature reviews. The initial search resulted in 108 results. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 12 studies were analyzed. Various technologies implemented in the studies included internet-based telemonitoring and education, telephone-based telemonitoring and education, internet-based education, telemedicine via videoconferencing, telehealth kiosks and automated modem device. Some studies also involved a physician intervention, in addition to patient intervention. The outcomes of proportion of subjects with BP control and change in mean SBP and DBP were better for the group of subjects who received combined physician and patient interventions. Interventions to improve BP control for self-management of hypertension should be aimed at both physicians as well as the patients. More interventions should utilize the JNC-7 guidelines and cost-effectiveness of the intervention should also be assessed.

  10. Technology-Based Interventions for Asthma-Can They Help Decrease Health Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Alan P; Islam, Nishat; Joseph, Christine L M

    Asthma is a condition that has consistently demonstrated significant health outcome inequalities for minority populations. One approach used for care of patients with asthma is the incorporation of technology for behavioral modification, symptom monitoring, education, and/or treatment decision making. Whether such technological interventions can improve the care of black and inner-city patients is unknown. We reviewed all randomized controlled trial technological interventions from 2000 to 2015 performed in minority populations. A total of 16 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria; all but 1 was performed in a childhood or adolescent age group. The interventions used MPEG audio layer-3 players, text messaging, computer/Web-based systems, video games, and interactive voice response. Many used tailored content and/or a specific behavior theory. Although the interventions were based on technology, most required additional special staffing. Subject user satisfaction was positive, and improvements were noted in asthma knowledge, medication adherence, asthma symptoms, and quality of life. Unfortunately, health care utilization (emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations) was typically not improved by the interventions. Although no single intervention modality was vastly superior, the computer-based interventions appeared to have the most positive results. In summary, technology-based interventions have a high level of user satisfaction among minority and urban/low-income individuals with asthma, and can improve asthma outcomes. Further large-scale studies are needed to assess whether such interventions can decrease health disparities in asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital Technology and Mental Health Interventions: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet, mobile phones, social media and other digital technologies has changed our world in many ways. It has provided individuals with information that was previously only available to a select few. An example of the reach of technology is data that as of October 2012, there are over 6 billion phones worldwide (BBC, 2012. The availability of data in real time has presented hopes of intervening more efficiently and managing health problems by leveraging limited human resources. It also has an impact in changing the roles of providers and patients and in legal and ethical issues including privacy in digital health interactions. This paper will discuss why digital technology has received recent attention in the area of mental health, present some applications of technology for mental health to date, explore the challenges to full implementation in clinical settings, and present future opportunities for digital technologies.El crecimiento del Internet, los teléfonos móviles, las redes sociales y otras tecnologías digitales ha cambiado nuestro mundo de muchas maneras. Ha proporcionado a las personas con la información que antes sólo estaba disponible para un grupo selecto, por ejemplo a partir de octubre de 2012. Un ejemplo del alcance de la tecnología son los datos que dicen que hay más de 6 millones de teléfonos en todo el mundo (BBC, 2012. La disponibilidad de los datos en tiempo real a presentado la esperanza de intervenir de manera más eficiente y manejar los problemas de salud los recursos humanos limitados. También tiene un impacto en el cambio de los roles de los proveedores y los pacientes y en aspectos legales y éticos, incluyendo la privacidad en las interacciones de salud digital. Este artículo discutirá unas razones por cual la tecnología digital ha recibido atención recientemente en el área de salud mental, presentará algunas aplicaciones de la tecnología para mejorar la salud mental hasta la fecha

  12. An economic evaluation of intervention strategies for Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Longfeng; Weersink, Alfons; Poljak, Zvonimir; de Lange, Kees; von Massow, Mike

    2016-11-01

    The economic losses of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) and the net benefits of strategies to control the virus are calculated for individual farrow-to-finish herds. A production simulation model that estimates the number of pigs by population cohorts on a weekly basis for a farrow-to-finish farm depending on production parameters is simulated under normal operating conditions and then with an outbreak of PED. The estimated annual costs of a PED outbreak with the closure of the breeding herd as the only intervention is approximately $300,000 for a 700-sow farrow-to-finishing herd. The net returns per sow (hog) fall from $255 ($11.54) to a loss of $174 ($10.68). These losses can be significantly reduced with any of the 16 intervention strategies considered in this study. The most profitable strategy involving front loading of gilts with average feedback of infected material to improve herd immunity, intensive biosecurity protocols and no vaccination costs $27,000 to implement but reduces losses by 10 times this amount. Even the implementation of the least comprehensive strategy, which involves back-loading gilts after the herd reopens and an average feedback practice at a cost of $1000 reduces the losses caused by a PED outbreak by $130,000. Front-loading gilts in combination with herd closure is more cost-effective than back-loading. Despite the extra spending on intensive biosecurity protocols, the overall loss reductions achieved by the intensive biosecurity effort can be significant. Vaccination is the least cost-effective of the intervention practices considered. Even with significant increases in cost or effectiveness in the practices, intervention is justified across all strategies. The spreadsheet model of a farrow-finish hog farm developed in this study can be used to examine changes to the production parameters or to consider other swine disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. → Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. → Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. → Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  14. Strategy of nuclear power technology: learn from Korea experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana; Nurlaila

    2003-01-01

    Technology is one of the economic and social elements which play an important role in modernization process. When modernity ideas come into society, technology will become fundamental prerequisite for the shake of its form of modem economic social system of the society. Therefore, various effort modernize society involve program of transfer technology in main agenda. Purpose of this study is to choose a process of technology transfer and according to be able to reach for technological ability of nuclear power self-reliance. This research is conducted by study of existing literature, namely learn from experience of Korea which have succeeded to develop nuclear energy technology with self-reliance. While this research scope is to describe the process of technology transfer and according to be able to reach for technological ability of nuclear energy self-reliance. This study conclude that program of technology transfer have to start since nuclear power development pre-project period, project construction of NPP period and also in operation period. To reach for technological ability of self-reliance require to be done by long-term program and require to be build by several units which last for a transfer of technology. Government Commitment to have important role also have to be strong to push the happening of technology transfer. Institutions in concerned should have to be clear and hold responsible according to its interest. National industries as executor of technology transfer require to be given by larger ones opportunity in course of transfer this technology. (author)

  15. Technology and intellectual property strategy of a firm: A view through the commons theory lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Raghavan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategy theory positions technology as a crucial resource of private value creation while commons theory provides governance structures pertinent to resource utilisation. The widening disconnect in the approach towards leveraging a resource and its governance increases the pressure on intellectual property that links strategy and commons. We discern in this work the existence of an implicit relationship between strategy and commons. Based on a multidisciplinary study of strategy, commons, and intellectual property theories, we propose patent pools in the form of semicommons as a strategic appropriation mechanism that balances technology strategy, IP strategy and commons in the pursuit of value creation.

  16. Developing team leadership to facilitate guideline utilization: planning and evaluating a 3-month intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Wendy; Davies, Barbara; Tourangeau, Ann; Lefebre, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Research describes leadership as important to guideline use. Yet interventions to develop current and future leaders for this purpose are not well understood. To describe the planning and evaluation of a leadership intervention to facilitate nurses' use of guideline recommendations for diabetic foot ulcers in home health care. Planning the intervention involved a synthesis of theory and research (qualitative interviews and chart audits). One workshop and three follow-up teleconferences were delivered at two sites to nurse managers and clinical leaders (n=15) responsible for 180 staff nurses. Evaluation involved workshop surveys and interviews. Highest rated intervention components (four-point scale) were: identification of target indicators (mean 3.7), and development of a team leadership action plan (mean 3.5). Pre-workshop barriers assessment rated lowest (mean 2.9). Three months later participants indicated their leadership performance had changed as a result of the intervention, being more engaged with staff and clear about implementation goals. Creating a team leadership action plan to operationalize leadership behaviours can help in delivery of evidence-informed care. Access to clinical data and understanding team leadership knowledge and skills prior to formal training will assist nursing management in tailoring intervention strategies to identify needs and gaps. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Research on Network Defense Strategy Based on Honey Pot Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianchao; Hua, Ying

    2018-03-01

    As a new network security technology of active defense, The honeypot technology has become a very effective and practical method of decoy attackers. The thesis discusses the theory, structure, characteristic, design and implementation of Honeypot in detail. Aiming at the development of means of attack, put forward a kind of network defense technology based on honeypot technology, constructing a virtual Honeypot demonstrate the honeypot’s functions.

  18. Essays on marketing strategy in technology-intensive markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremersch, S.

    2001-01-01

    Marketing scholars have only recently started to explore the strategic marketing challenges faced by firms in technology-intensity (TI) markets. Still, technology is at the core of many contemporary markets and TI markets are unique because of their knowledge-intensity and technological turbulence.

  19. Program strategy document for the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1979-07-01

    A multiyear program plan is presented which describes the program of the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center (TIC) at Sandia Laboratories. The work element plans, along with their corresponding work breakdown structures, are presented for TTC activities in the areas of Technology and Information Center, Systems Development, Technology, and Institutional Issues for the years from 1979 to 1985

  20. Systematic review of economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Pérez Velasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although public health guidelines have implications for resource allocation, these issues were not explicitly considered in previous WHO pandemic preparedness and response guidance. In order to ensure a thorough and informed revision of this guidance following the H1N1 2009 pandemic, a systematic review of published and unpublished economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics was conducted. METHODS: The search was performed in September 2011 using 10 electronic databases, 2 internet search engines, reference list screening, cited reference searching, and direct communication with relevant authors. Full and partial economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Conversely, reviews, editorials, and studies on economic impact or complications were excluded. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. RESULTS: 44 studies were included. Although most complied with the cost effectiveness guidelines, the quality of evidence was limited. However, the data sources used were of higher quality in economic evaluations conducted after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Vaccination and drug regimens were varied. Pharmaceutical plus non-pharmaceutical interventions are relatively cost effective in comparison to vaccines and/or antivirals alone. Pharmaceutical interventions vary from cost saving to high cost effectiveness ratios. According to ceiling thresholds (Gross National Income per capita, the reduction of non-essential contacts and the use of pharmaceutical prophylaxis plus the closure of schools are amongst the cost effective strategies for all countries. However, quarantine for household contacts is not cost effective even for low and middle income countries. CONCLUSION: The available evidence is generally inconclusive regarding the cost effectiveness of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics. Studies on their effectiveness and cost

  1. Cessation Strategies Young Adult Smokers Use After Participating in a Facebook Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-01-28

    Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention. A total of 79 young adult smokers (mean age = 20.8; 20.3% female) were recruited on Facebook for a feasibility trial. Participants joined motivationally tailored private Facebook groups and received daily posts over 12 weeks. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In 12 months, 52 participants (65.5%) completed 215 quit attempts (mean = 4.1; median = 4; range 1-14); 75.4% of attempts were undertaken with the Facebook intervention alone, 17.7% used an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), 7.4% used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 3.7% used additional professional advice. Non-daily smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes, and those in an advanced stage of change at baseline were more likely to make a quit attempt. E-cigarette use to aide a quit attempt during the study period was associated with reporting a past year quit attempt at baseline. No baseline characteristics predicted NRT use. After participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention, young adults predominantly tried to quit without additional assistance. E-cigarettes are used more frequently as cessation aid than NRT. The use of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies should be improved in this population.

  2. Systematic review of economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Velasco, Román; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Wichmann, Kamonthip; Mohara, Adun; Kotirum, Surachai; Tantivess, Sripen; Vallenas, Constanza; Harmanci, Hande; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2012-01-01

    Although public health guidelines have implications for resource allocation, these issues were not explicitly considered in previous WHO pandemic preparedness and response guidance. In order to ensure a thorough and informed revision of this guidance following the H1N1 2009 pandemic, a systematic review of published and unpublished economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics was conducted. The search was performed in September 2011 using 10 electronic databases, 2 internet search engines, reference list screening, cited reference searching, and direct communication with relevant authors. Full and partial economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Conversely, reviews, editorials, and studies on economic impact or complications were excluded. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. 44 studies were included. Although most complied with the cost effectiveness guidelines, the quality of evidence was limited. However, the data sources used were of higher quality in economic evaluations conducted after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Vaccination and drug regimens were varied. Pharmaceutical plus non-pharmaceutical interventions are relatively cost effective in comparison to vaccines and/or antivirals alone. Pharmaceutical interventions vary from cost saving to high cost effectiveness ratios. According to ceiling thresholds (Gross National Income per capita), the reduction of non-essential contacts and the use of pharmaceutical prophylaxis plus the closure of schools are amongst the cost effective strategies for all countries. However, quarantine for household contacts is not cost effective even for low and middle income countries. The available evidence is generally inconclusive regarding the cost effectiveness of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics. Studies on their effectiveness and cost effectiveness should be readily implemented in forthcoming events that

  3. Development and pilot study of a marketing strategy for primary care/internet-based depression prevention intervention for adolescents (the CATCH-IT intervention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F P; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. The marketing plan focused on "resiliency building" rather than "depression intervention" and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1-10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care.

  4. Effect of Canine Play Interventions as a Stress Reduction Strategy in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cheryl; Toukonen, Margaret; Wheeler, Corinne

    2017-08-29

    Forty-eight students engaged with a therapy dog for 15 minutes during finals week to evaluate the effect on stress. Psychological (Perceived Stress Scale, visual analog scales) and physiologic stress (vital signs, salivary cortisol) measures were collected before and after the intervention. Paired t tests showed significant reductions in all psychological and physiologic measures except diastolic blood pressure. This supports animal-assisted therapy as an effective stress management strategy for nursing and other college students.

  5. A social relational approach to community-based ecotourism development: Policy intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rith, Sam Ol

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how policy intervention strategies facilitate or constrain the construction of positive social capital in a community-based ecotourism (CBET) context. It investigates CBET development policies in a specific Cambodian case study, explores implementation processes, assesses the level of social capital created, identifies the connections between social capital construction and development outcomes, and suggests how the policies contribute to social capital construction. The ...

  6. Using the Intervention Mapping and Behavioral Intervention Technology Frameworks: Development of an mHealth Intervention for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Walsh, Deirdre; Hinbarji, Moohamad; Albatal, Rami; Tooley, Mark; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-12-01

    Few interventions to promote physical activity (PA) adapt dynamically to changes in individuals' behavior. Interventions targeting determinants of behavior are linked with increased effectiveness and should reflect changes in behavior over time. This article describes the application of two frameworks to assist the development of an adaptive evidence-based smartphone-delivered intervention aimed at influencing PA and sedentary behaviors (SB). Intervention mapping was used to identify the determinants influencing uptake of PA and optimal behavior change techniques (BCTs). Behavioral intervention technology was used to translate and operationalize the BCTs and its modes of delivery. The intervention was based on the integrated behavior change model, focused on nine determinants, consisted of 33 BCTs, and included three main components: (1) automated capture of daily PA and SB via an existing smartphone application, (2) classification of the individual into an activity profile according to their PA and SB, and (3) behavior change content delivery in a dynamic fashion via a proof-of-concept application. This article illustrates how two complementary frameworks can be used to guide the development of a mobile health behavior change program. This approach can guide the development of future mHealth programs.

  7. Optimization of behavioral, biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST)

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Linda M

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a framework for development, optimization, and evaluation of behavioral,  biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions.  Behavioral, biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions are programs with the objective of improving and maintaining human health and well-being, broadly defined, in individuals, families, schools, organizations, or communities.  These interventions may be aimed at, for example, preventing or treating disease, promoting physical and mental health, preventing violence, or improving academic achievement.   This volume introduces the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST), pioneered at The Methodology Center at the Pennsylvania State University, as an alternative to the classical approach of relying solely on the randomized controlled trial (RCT).  MOST borrows heavily from perspectives taken and approaches used in engineering, and also integrates concepts from statistics and behavioral science, including the RCT.  As described in detail in this book, MOST consists of ...

  8. Impact of government and corporate strategy on the performance of technology projects in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we focus on road construction and analyze technology development projects. Based on the business strategy literature and literature on technology policy, we test the relative importance of a firm's strategies and government as a buyer and champion. Our empirical findings stress the

  9. Intervention strategies for the reduction of microbiological contamination on the hands of food handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naína Lopes de JESUS

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate intervention strategies for the reduction of microbiological contamination on the hands of food handlers. The study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2014 at a food and nutrition company in Curitiba, Brazil. Samples from the hands of 877 handlers were collected for microbiological analysis. The intervention strategies applied during each year were: 2009, substitute the use of odorless liquid soap and an antiseptic product by one product; 2010, was increasing the staff of technical supervisors and conducting biannual training; 2011 was to move the lavatories for handwashing, and the use of 70% alcohol gel; 2012, was to increase the frequency of the training of food handlers; 2013, was new weekly monitoring, to evaluation of the use of bactericide soap; 2013 and 2014 was implemented an internal program to verify food production. The intervention introduced in 2011 the 2012 and 2013 the 2014 reduced the contamination of the hands of food handlers. The use of 70% alcohol gel, the moving of the location of the lavatories, weekly monitoring of the use of bactericide soap and implementation of the internal program, were the strategies that contributed the most to the reduction of the microbial.

  10. Efficacy of computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Black, Hulda G; Pierce, Larson B

    2009-01-02

    To conduct a meta-analysis of computer technology-based HIV prevention behavioral interventions aimed at increasing condom use among a variety of at-risk populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing published and unpublished studies testing computer-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 12 randomized controlled trials that met inclusion criteria. Variables that had the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size for condom use was d = 0.259 (95% confidence interval = 0.201, 0.317; Z = 8.74, P partners, and incident sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, interventions were significantly more efficacious when they were directed at men or women (versus mixed sex groups), utilized individualized tailoring, used a Stages of Change model, and had more intervention sessions. Computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions have similar efficacy to more traditional human-delivered interventions. Given their low cost to deliver, ability to customize intervention content, and flexible dissemination channels, they hold much promise for the future of HIV prevention.

  11. Interventions aimed at improving the ability to use everyday technology in work after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Prellwitz, Maria; Malinowsky, Camilla; Larsson-Lund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe how client-centred occupational therapy interventions may support and improve the ability to use everyday technology (ET) in work tasks in people with acquired brain injury (ABI). A qualitative, descriptive multiple-case study was designed, and occupation-based interventions were provided to three working-age participants with ABI. Multiple sources were used to collect data throughout the three intervention processes, including assessments, field notes, and interviews. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment were administered before the interventions, after the interventions and at a follow-up session 2-3 months subsequent to the interventions. The three intervention processes initially consisted of similar actions, but subsequently the actions took on a different focus and intensity for each case. All of the goals in each of the three case processes were achieved, and both perceived and observed abilities to use ET in work tasks improved. Client-centred occupational therapy interventions might have the potential to improve the ability to use ET in work tasks in people with ABI.

  12. Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures.

  13. Effective strategies of socio-educational intervention with adolescents in social risk situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Melendro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the characterization of teenagers and young population at risk of social exclusion has been thoroughly investigated, that’s not the case of the intervention strategies used. This article refers to a research performed between 2011 and 2012 which advances on the description, categorization and study of effective intervention strategies, so they can be used as an information source for good professional performance, reproducible and useful to improve the situation of teenagers at risk.From a research-action approach, the contributions from the professionals working with this population, collected from about a hundred tests and seven discussion groups, are a direct and well-documented source of knowledge. This information is useful in order to underline the most relevant elements of this intervention, as well as the obstacles, limitations and practices that can be improved in this field of work.Part of the results and the discussion about them are, among others, the proposals of effective intervention in conflictive familiar dynamics, the worrying and increasing violence, teenagers migratory grief and its effects of risk and marginalization, the limited and weak participation of teenagers in their own life decision making and the important educational needs of the group of people working with this population.Furthermore, relevant strategic elements are shaped as the base of the intervention with teenagers at risk situation. Among those elements we find the flexibility to deal with uncertain situations, the link, empathy and affective proximity as necessary tools in socio-educational action, the contextualization of intervention in conflict situations and the debate about resilience and its contributions to the field of Social Pedagogy.

  14. Information Technology Investment Strategy Planning: Balance Scorecard Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hendarti, Henny; Kurniawan, Iwan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this research are to prepare the IT investment strategy using Balanced Scorecard approach in the company where the appropriate planning of this IT investment strategy can maximize the competitive benefit in the company, and it also to recommended a strategy of IT investment that can be implemented and measure the rate of return from the IT investment in the company. Research Method used book studies, field studies, and analysis system. Book studies from the books and journal. Field...

  15. Technology-driven interventions for caregivers of persons with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Kyler M; Mills, Whitney L; Anderson, Jane A; Kunik, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    Caregiving for a person with dementia can lead to physical and psychological morbidity. Technology-driven interventions hold the promise of convenient, low-cost methods of delivering psychosocial interventions. This systematic review examined the efficacy of technology-driven interventions for caregivers of persons with dementia. A search of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and EBSCO from 1990 to May 2012 resulted in the identification of 295 articles. After removal of duplicates, 271 articles were reviewed, based on the abstract and title alone; 32 were relevant or could not be fully assessed without assessing the entire article. Eight fully satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Each of these had some positive findings. However, there was large variability in the content and delivery of the interventions and inconsistency in measurement and variability of outcomes. Future studies should employ randomized control trial methodology and measure outcomes with commonly used measures to ensure feasibility of comparisons across the studies.

  16. Analysis of technological innovation strategy for small and medium companies of the aeronautical sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Barbosa de Moraes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The inherent risk in high-tech activity requires the construction of technological strategies that serve global strategy of the company. The present study aimed to characterize the technological position of small and medium technology-based companies of the aeronautical sector located in the Vale do Paraíba, and to examine whether these companies have a technological strategy formalized and disseminated. The adopted methodology was a descriptive exploratory research, carried out through in-depth individual interviews conducted with the small e medium company’s owners of the cities of Caçapava, São José dos Campos and Taubaté, Brazil. The authors concluded that it is necessary that companies, especially small and medium-sized, adopt a technological innovation strategy integrated with the company’s overall strategy. This will help keeping them competitive within their specificities, and not only in the domestic market, but also in international markets.

  17. UK higher education institutions’ technology-enhanced learning strategies from the perspective of disruptive innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flavin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication of institutional strategies for learning, teaching and assessment in UK higher education is practically ubiquitous. Strategies for technology-enhanced learning are also widespread. This article examines 44 publically available UK university strategies for technology-enhanced learning, aiming to assess the extent to which institutional strategies engage with and accommodate innovation in technology-enhanced learning. The article uses qualitative content analysis as its method, and uses the categories of disruptive innovation, sustaining innovation and efficiency innovation to evaluate individual institutional strategies. The article argues that sustaining innovation and efficiency innovation are more commonplace in the strategies than disruptive innovation, a position which is misaligned with the technology practices of students and lecturers.

  18. Strategies and Technologies for In Situ Mineralogical Investigations on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.; Bratton, C.; Koppel, L.; Hecht, M.; Metzger, E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface landers on Mars (Viking and Pathfinder) have not revealed satisfying answers to the mineralogy and lithology of the planet's surface. In part, this results from their prime directives: Viking focused on exobiology, Pathfinder focused on technology demonstration. The analytical instruments on board the landers made admirable attempts to extract the mineralogy and geology of Mars, as did countless modeling efforts after the missions. Here we suggest a framework for elucidating martian, or any other planetary geology, through an approach that defines (a) type of information required, (b) explorational strategy harmonious with acquisition of these data, (c) interpretation approach to the data, (d) compatible mission architecture, (e) instrumentation for interrogating rocks and soil. (a) Data required: The composition of a planet is ordered at scales ranging from molecules to minerals to rocks, and from geological units to provinces to planetary-scale systems. The largest ordering that in situ compositional instruments can attempt to interrogate is rock type "aggregate" information. This is what the geologist attempts to identify first. From this, mineralogy can be either directly seen or inferred. From mineralogy can be determined elemental abundances and perhaps the state of the compounds as being crystalline or amorphous. Knowledge of rock type and mineralogy is critical for elucidating geologic process. Mars landers acquired extremely valuable elemental data, but attempted to move from elements to aggregates, but this can only be done by making many assumptions and sometimes giant leaps of faith. Data we believe essential are elements, minerals, degree of ordering of compounds, and the aggregate or rock type that these materials compose. (b) Explorational strategy: A lander should function as a surrogate geologist. Of the total landscape, a geologist sees much, but gives detailed attention to an infinitesimally small amount of what is seen. To acquire

  19. Sharing risk between payer and provider by leasing health technologies: an affordable and effective reimbursement strategy for innovative technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Hall, Peter; Wallner, Klemens; McCabe, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The challenge of implementing high-cost innovative technologies in health care systems operating under significant budgetary pressure has led to a radical shift in the health technology reimbursement landscape. New reimbursement strategies attempt to reduce the risk of making the wrong decision, that is, paying for a technology that is not good value for the health care system, while promoting the adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice. The remaining risk, however, is not shared between the manufacturer and the health care payer at the individual purchase level; it continues to be passed from the manufacturer to the payer at the time of purchase. In this article, we propose a health technology payment strategy-technology leasing reimbursement scheme-that allows the sharing of risk between the manufacturer and the payer: the replacing of up-front payments with a stream of payments spread over the expected duration of benefit from the technology, subject to the technology delivering the claimed health benefit. Using trastuzumab (Herceptin) in early breast cancer as an exemplar technology, we show how a technology leasing reimbursement scheme not only reduces the total budgetary impact of the innovative technology but also truly shares risk between the manufacturer and the health care system, while reducing the value of further research and thus promoting the rapid adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Technology-Mediated Diabetes Prevention Interventions on Weight: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rachel R; Piatt, Gretchen A; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa A; De Michele, Mariana L; Hafez, Dina; Czuhajewski, Christina M; Buis, Lorraine R; Kaufman, Neal; Richardson, Caroline R

    2017-03-27

    Lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, such as those delivered through the Diabetes Prevention Program, reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Technology-mediated interventions may be an option to help overcome barriers to program delivery, and to disseminate diabetes prevention programs on a larger scale. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of such technology-mediated interventions on weight loss. In this meta-analysis, six databases were searched to identify studies reporting weight change that used technology to mediate diet and exercise interventions, and targeted individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Studies published between January 1, 2002 and August 4, 2016 were included. The search identified 1196 citations. Of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated 18 technology-mediated intervention arms delivered to a total of 2774 participants. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to 2 years. A random-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled weight loss effect of 3.76 kilograms (95% CI 2.8-4.7; Ptechnology-mediated intervention method was most efficacious. Technology-mediated diabetes prevention programs can result in clinically significant amounts of weight loss, as well as improvements in glycaemia in patients with prediabetes. Due to their potential for large-scale implementation, these interventions will play an important role in the dissemination of diabetes prevention programs. ©Rachel R Bian, Gretchen A Piatt, Ananda Sen, Melissa A Plegue, Mariana L De Michele, Dina Hafez, Christina M Czuhajewski, Lorraine R Buis, Neal Kaufman, Caroline R Richardson. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.03.2017.

  1. Skin cancer interventions across the cancer control continuum: Review of technology, environment, and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Dickerman, Barbra A; Okhovat, Jean-Phillip; Geller, Alan C; Dwyer, Laura A; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2017-12-22

    The National Cancer Institute's Skin Cancer Intervention across the Cancer Control Continuum model was developed to summarize research and identify gaps concerning skin cancer interventions. We conducted a mapping review to characterize whether behavioral interventions addressing skin cancer prevention and control from 2000 to 2015 included (1) technology, (2) environmental manipulations (policy and/or built environment), and (3) a theoretical basis. We included 85 studies with a randomized controlled or quasi-experimental design that targeted behavioral intervention in skin cancer for children and/or adults; seven of these were dissemination or implementation studies. Of the interventions described in the remaining 78 articles, 56 promoted only prevention behaviors (e.g., ultraviolet radiation protection), five promoted only detection (e.g., skin examinations), 10 promoted both prevention and detection, and seven focused on survivorship. Of the 78 non-dissemination studies, two-thirds used some type of technology (n=52; 66.7%). Technology specific to skin cancer was infrequently used: UVR photography was used in 15.4% of studies (n=12), reflectance spectroscopy was used in 12.8% (n=10), and dermatoscopes (n=1) and dosimeters (n=2) were each used in less than 3%. Nine studies (13.2%) targeted the built environment. Fifty-one (65.4%) of the studies included theory-based interventions. The most common theories were Social Cognitive Theory (n=19; 24.6%), Health Belief Model (n=17; 21.8%), and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action (n=12; 15.4%). Results suggest that skin cancer specific technology and environmental manipulations are underutilized in skin cancer behavioral interventions. We discuss implications of these results for researchers developing skin cancer behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Informing alcohol interventions for student service members/veterans: Normative perceptions and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Meier, Ellen; Borsari, Brian; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-06-01

    The current study aimed to inform future interventions for heavy alcohol use and problems among college students by examining the utility of normative perceptions and coping strategies in predicting alcohol use among student service members/Veterans (SSM/Vs). SSM/Vs and civilian students (N=319) at a large university in the Southern Plains completed self-report measures of demographics, alcohol use and related behaviors, and coping strategies. Both SSM/Vs and civilian students significantly overestimated the typical weekly drinking quantities and frequencies of same-sex students on campus. Among SSM/Vs, normative perceptions of typical student (not military-specific) drinking and substance-related coping strategies significantly predicted drinks consumed per week, while substance-related coping predicted alcohol-related consequences. Despite the theoretical importance of similarity to normative referents, military-specific norms did not significantly improve the prediction of SSM/Vs' personal drinking behavior. Moreover, neither typical student nor military-specific norms predicted alcohol-related consequences among SSM/Vs after accounting for substance-related coping strategies. Future research may examine the efficacy of descriptive normative feedback and the importance of military-specific norms in alcohol interventions for SSM/Vs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradoxes of Technology: Consumer Cognizance, Emotions, and Coping Strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Mick, David Glen; Fournier, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Although technological products are unavoidable in contemporary life, studies focusing on them in the consumer behavior field have been few and narrow. In this article, we investigate consumers' perspectives, meanings, and experiences in relation to a range of technological products, emphasizing lengthy and repeated interviews with 29 households, including a set of first-time owners. We draw on literatures spanning from technology, paradox, and postmodernism to clinical and social psychology,...

  4. Information Technology Management Strategies to Implement Knowledge Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Mary Jane Christy

    2017-01-01

    More than 38% of the U.S. public workforce will likely retire by 2030, which may result in a labor shortage. Business leaders may adopt strategies to mitigate knowledge loss within their organizations by capturing knowledge in a knowledge management system (KMS). The purpose of this single case study was to explore strategies that information…

  5. Executive function in childhood obesity: Promising intervention strategies to optimize treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; Eichen, Dawn M; Barch, Deanna M; Wilfley, Denise E

    2018-05-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are hypothesized to play a role in the development and maintenance of obesity due to their role in self-regulatory processes that manage energy-balance behaviors. Children with obesity have well-documented deficits in EF, which may impede effectiveness of current, evidence-based treatments. This review examines top-down EF processes (e.g., inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility), as well as bottom-up automatic processes that interact with EFs (e.g., attentional bias, delay discounting) and their relation to weight-loss treatment success in children. It then evaluates EF-related interventions that may improve treatment response. Empirical studies that included an intervention purported to affect EF processes as well as pre-post measurements of EF and/or relative weight in populations ages 19 or younger with overweight/obesity were reviewed. Findings indicate that poorer EF may hinder treatment response. Moreover, there is preliminary evidence that behavioral weight loss intervention and physical activity may positively affect EF and that improvements in EF are related to enhanced weight loss. Finally, novel intervention strategies, such as computer training of core EFs, attention modification programs, and episodic future thinking, show promise in influencing both EFs and EF-related skills and weight. Further research is needed to provide more conclusive evidence of the efficacy of these interventions and additional applications and settings should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coping with hallucinated voices in schizophrenia: a review of self-initiated strategies and therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhall, John; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark; Jackson, Henry J

    2007-05-01

    This article reviews the state of knowledge about strategies used by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to cope with hallucinated voices, and considers the role of coping in psychological treatments for persisting symptoms. The use of self-initiated ('natural') coping strategies appears almost universal amongst voice-hearers. These strategies are similar across cultures, and include diverse behaviours, only a minority of which is specific to hallucinations. Most strategies are reported by at least some users to be effective, but more sophisticated outcome studies are lacking. Some evidence for the efficacy of certain behavioural techniques of coping, for the manipulation of auditory input, and for strategies involving subvocalisation, is available from experimental studies. Therapeutic enhancement of natural coping strategies for persisting symptoms has demonstrated some efficacy, but its benefit for voices is unknown. Despite this, it has become an established part of some CBT interventions for psychosis. Further advances in knowledge and practice may come from utilisation of coping models in research, longitudinal and ideographic methods of study and a movement away from descriptive coping lists to investigations of coping styles, mechanisms of action, and the process of coping.

  7. Strategies and Technologies for In Situ Mineralogical Investigations on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.; Bratton, C.; Koppel, L.; Hecht, M.; Metzger, E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface landers on Mars (Viking and Pathfinder) have not revealed satisfying answers to the mineralogy and lithology of the planet's surface. In part, this results from their prime directives: Viking focused on exobiology, Pathfinder focused on technology demonstration. The analytical instruments on board the landers made admirable attempts to extract the mineralogy and geology of Mars, as did countless modeling efforts after the missions. Here we suggest a framework for elucidating martian, or any other planetary geology, through an approach that defines (a) type of information required, (b) explorational strategy harmonious with acquisition of these data, (c) interpretation approach to the data, (d) compatible mission architecture, (e) instrumentation for interrogating rocks and soil. (a) Data required: The composition of a planet is ordered at scales ranging from molecules to minerals to rocks, and from geological units to provinces to planetary-scale systems. The largest ordering that in situ compositional instruments can attempt to interrogate is rock type "aggregate" information. This is what the geologist attempts to identify first. From this, mineralogy can be either directly seen or inferred. From mineralogy can be determined elemental abundances and perhaps the state of the compounds as being crystalline or amorphous. Knowledge of rock type and mineralogy is critical for elucidating geologic process. Mars landers acquired extremely valuable elemental data, but attempted to move from elements to aggregates, but this can only be done by making many assumptions and sometimes giant leaps of faith. Data we believe essential are elements, minerals, degree of ordering of compounds, and the aggregate or rock type that these materials compose. (b) Explorational strategy: A lander should function as a surrogate geologist. Of the total landscape, a geologist sees much, but gives detailed attention to an infinitesimally small amount of what is seen. To acquire

  8. A technology selection framework for supporting delivery of patient-oriented health interventions in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Connie V; Kaufman, David R

    2010-04-01

    Health information technologies (HIT) have great potential to advance health care globally. In particular, HIT can provide innovative approaches and methodologies to overcome the range of access and resource barriers specific to developing countries. However, there is a paucity of models and empirical evidence informing the technology selection process in these settings. We propose a framework for selecting patient-oriented technologies in developing countries. The selection guidance process is structured by a set of filters that impose particular constraints and serve to narrow the space of possible decisions. The framework consists of three levels of factors: (1) situational factors, (2) the technology and its relationship with health interventions and with target patients, and (3) empirical evidence. We demonstrate the utility of the framework in the context of mobile phones for behavioral health interventions to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This framework can be applied to health interventions across health domains to explore how and whether available technologies can support delivery of the associated types of interventions and with the target populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Strategy development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies for nuclear energy program in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.

    1987-01-01

    Strategy of technology development includes also development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies required for nuclear energy programme in Yugoslavia. For this reason, it is of interest to take into consideration possible options which would be the basis for long-term strategy of the nuclear fuel technology development in our country. In the paper criteria which could be used in the technology selection and its valorisation are given. Based on postulated criteria priority selection is made which has shown that the highest importance in the selection of nuclear fuel cycle should be given to the uranium enrichment technology and irradiated fuel reprocessing. (author)

  10. Effect of the Intervention Based on New Communication Technologies and the Social-Cognitive Theory on the Weight Control of the Employees with Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Shojayzadeh, Davood; Sadeghi, Roya; Saber, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Work settings provide a unique opportunity for health promotion interventions. Considering the issue of obesity in employees, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the intervention based on new communication technologies and the social cognitive theory on weight control in the governmental employees of Hamadan City, western Iran in 2014. This randomized control trial study was conducted in "telephone- assisted intervention", "web- assisted intervention", and "control" groups comprising 435 employees of Hamadan City with overweight or obesity in 2014 (Ethics Committee Code: 93/D/130/1139). The educational intervention was performed for 6 months under the title of "lifestyle program". Then, the participants were evaluated in terms of weight and changes in the constructs of the social-cognitive theory 6 and 9 months after the intervention. A researcher-made questionnaire based on the Dishman and Dewar questionnaires was used to evaluate the constructs of social-cognitive theory. The data were collected and analyzed using SPSS-20. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a weight loss of 1.92 and 1.08 kg in the telephone-assisted and web-assisted intervention groups, respectively. The intervention in the telephone-assisted group increased the mean scores of the constructs of self-efficacy (P=0.001), environment (P=0.001), outcome expectations (P=0.040), and outcome expectancies (P=0.001) among participants. In the web-assisted intervention group, the mean scores of the constructs of self-efficacy (P=0.001) and outcome expectancies (P=0.020) increased. Our results showed the effectiveness of the intervention based on new communication technologies and the Social-Cognitive Theory. Future studies with more retention strategies regarding self-efficacy and environment constructs are needed to further explain the application of SCT and technology-based approaches to reduce obese and overweight.

  11. Exergame technology and interactive interventions for elderly fall prevention: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Guo, Liangjie; Kang, Donghun; Xiong, Shuping

    2017-11-01

    Training balance and promoting physical activities in the elderly can contribute to fall-prevention. Due to the low adherence of conventional physical therapy, fall interventions through exergame technologies are emerging. The purpose of this review study is to synthesize the available research reported on exergame technology and interactive interventions for fall prevention in the older population. Twenty-five relevant papers retrieved from five major databases were critically reviewed and analyzed. Results showed that the most common exergaming device for fall intervention was Nintendo Wii, followed by Xbox Kinect. Even though the exergame intervention protocols and outcome measures for assessing intervention effectiveness varied, the accumulated evidences revealed that exergame interventions improved physical or cognitive functions in the elderly. However, it remains inconclusive whether or not the exergame-based intervention for the elderly fall prevention is superior to conventional physical therapy and the effect mechanism of the exergaming on elderly's balance ability is still unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Department of Defense Space Science and Technology Strategy 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nanosatellite Effort (SMDC-ONE) placed five 3U cubesats into orbit. These five satellites represented the first Army- developed spacecraft to be...enabled tactical communications in contested environments and diverse terrains Comms/data exfiltration nanosatellite SMDC Nanosatellite ...Acoustic Suppression (HiPAcS) Technology Development NASA FY 15 Test Orbital transport for nanosatellites Nanolauncher Technologies Initiative

  13. Challenges of technological trends in nursing and coping strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Technology in nursing has been shown to reduce redundancy and improve efficiency of work. Information Communication and technology (ICT) incorporation in nursing at Kenyatta national Hospital (KNH) has been ongoing for some years yet the uptake seemingly is slow. Challenges that could be associated ...

  14. Information Technology (It) Imperative for Strategy Managers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate, relevant, up-to-date, timely information is a sine qua non for such an activity of management. The relevance of information technology (IT) to strategic management can be seen from the fact that rapid advance in micro-electronic technology has revolutionised many of the processes by which goods and services ...

  15. Strategies for Preparing Preservice Social Studies Teachers to Integrate Technology Effectively: Models and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Thomas; Saye, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes strategies used by the authors to assist preservice social studies teachers with understanding and applying models and practices for effectively integrating technology into their future classrooms--thus, strengthening the link between technology and pedagogy (or technological pedagogical content knowledge). Efforts with…

  16. Transition strategies for managing technological discontinuities: lessons from the history of the semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of competition under conditions of technological change and asks how firms can manage technological discontinuities. By drawing on the literatures on strategic management and technology dynamics, it is proposed that firms should change the nature of their strategy as a

  17. Technology-Related Strategies Used by Educational Leaders to Increase Prosocial Behavior in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Jason Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify technology-related strategies used by educational leaders to increase prosocial behavior in K-12 schools. Information and communication technology (ICT) is developing at a rapid rate and is becoming more ubiquitous among students. Discovering and understanding common technology-related strategies…

  18. Mobile technology boosts the effectiveness of psychotherapy and behavioral interventions: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Rosen, Dana; Silk, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of mobile technology on treatment outcome for psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. Our search of the literature resulted in 26 empirical articles describing 25 clinical trials testing the benefits of smartphone applications, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or text messaging systems either to supplement treatment or substitute for direct contact with a clinician. Overall, mobile technology use was associated with superior treatment outcome across all study designs and control conditions, effect size (ES) = .34, p mobile technology using a rigorous "Treatment" versus "Treatment + Mobile" design, effect sizes were only slightly more modest (ES = .27) and still significant (p mobile technology for the delivery of psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Technology-based interventions for mental health in tertiary students: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Chan, Jade K Y; Batterham, Philip J; Reynolds, Julia; Calear, Alison; Tait, Robert; Bennett, Kylie; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2013-05-27

    Mental disorders are responsible for a high level of disability burden in students attending university. However, many universities have limited resources available to support student mental health. Technology-based interventions may be highly relevant to university populations. Previous reviews have targeted substance use and eating disorders in tertiary students. However, the effectiveness of technology-based interventions for other mental disorders and related issues has not been reviewed. To systematically review published randomized trials of technology-based interventions evaluated in a university setting for disorders other than substance use and eating disorders. The PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using keywords, phrases, and MeSH terms. Retrieved abstracts (n=1618) were double screened and coded. Included studies met the following criteria: (1) the study was a randomized trial or a randomized controlled trial, (2) the sample was composed of students attending a tertiary institution, (3) the intervention was delivered by or accessed using a technological device or process, (4) the age range of the sample was between 18 and 25 years, and (5) the intervention was designed to improve, reduce, or change symptoms relating to a mental disorder. A total of 27 studies met inclusion criteria for the present review. Most of the studies (24/27, 89%) employed interventions targeting anxiety symptoms or disorders or stress, although almost one-third (7/24, 29%) targeted both depression and anxiety. There were a total of 51 technology-based interventions employed across the 27 studies. Overall, approximately half (24/51, 47%) were associated with at least 1 significant positive outcome compared with the control at postintervention. However, 29% (15/51) failed to find a significant effect. Effect sizes were calculated for the 18 of 51 interventions that provided sufficient data. Median effect size was 0

  20. Reducing sickness absence from work due to low back pain: how well do intervention strategies match modifiable risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Linton, Steven J; Pransky, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    To assess, from the review literature, the extent to which effective strategies for reducing work absence after acute low back pain (LBP) match empirical risk factors. From 17 recent review articles (2000-2005), disability risk factors and interventions were cross-tabulated to assess levels of relative concordance. Potentially modifiable risk factors included 23 variables describing 3 workplace and 3 personal domains. Effective interventions included 25 strategies that were personal (physical or behavioral), engineering, or administrative in nature. There was a strong risk factor concordance for workplace technical and organizational interventions, graded activity exposure, and cognitive restructuring of pain beliefs. There was less risk factor concordance for exercise, back education, and RTW coordination. Few interventions focused on relieving emotional distress or improving job dissatisfaction, two well-supported risk factors. Gaps between the epidemiological and intervention research of back disability prevention could be reduced by testing mediators of intervention effects or by stratifying outcomes according to pre-intervention risk factors.

  1. Developing Intervention Strategies to Optimise Body Composition in Early Childhood in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Draper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this research was to collect data to inform intervention strategies to optimise body composition in South African preschool children. Methods. Data were collected in urban and rural settings. Weight status, physical activity, and gross motor skill assessments were conducted with 341 3–6-year-old children, and 55 teachers and parents/caregivers participated in focus groups. Results. Overweight and obesity were a concern in low-income urban settings (14%, but levels of physical activity and gross motor skills were adequate across all settings. Focus group findings from urban and rural settings indicated that teachers would welcome input on leading activities to promote physical activity and gross motor skill development. Teachers and parents/caregivers were also positive about young children being physically active. Recommendations for potential intervention strategies include a teacher-training component, parent/child activity mornings, and a home-based component for parents/caregivers. Conclusion. The findings suggest that an intervention focussed on increasing physical activity and improving gross motor skills per se is largely not required but that contextually relevant physical activity and gross motor skills may still be useful for promoting healthy weight and a vehicle for engaging with teachers and parents/caregivers for promoting other child outcomes, such as cognitive development.

  2. Developing Intervention Strategies to Optimise Body Composition in Early Childhood in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E; Tomaz, Simone A; Stone, Matthew; Hinkley, Trina; Jones, Rachel A; Louw, Johann; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose . The purpose of this research was to collect data to inform intervention strategies to optimise body composition in South African preschool children. Methods . Data were collected in urban and rural settings. Weight status, physical activity, and gross motor skill assessments were conducted with 341 3-6-year-old children, and 55 teachers and parents/caregivers participated in focus groups. Results . Overweight and obesity were a concern in low-income urban settings (14%), but levels of physical activity and gross motor skills were adequate across all settings. Focus group findings from urban and rural settings indicated that teachers would welcome input on leading activities to promote physical activity and gross motor skill development. Teachers and parents/caregivers were also positive about young children being physically active. Recommendations for potential intervention strategies include a teacher-training component, parent/child activity mornings, and a home-based component for parents/caregivers. Conclusion . The findings suggest that an intervention focussed on increasing physical activity and improving gross motor skills per se is largely not required but that contextually relevant physical activity and gross motor skills may still be useful for promoting healthy weight and a vehicle for engaging with teachers and parents/caregivers for promoting other child outcomes, such as cognitive development.

  3. Freedom of choice in technology strategy? An analysis of technology strategy in the large commercial aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many companies experience difficult situations as a result of their selected strategy. Strategic management theories implicitly assume that companies have a free choice in setting their strategy. Hence, when companies experience difficult situations this is because of management inadequacy. It is

  4. PCARRD's strategies for technology transfer: The agriculture and resources regional technology information system and the regional applied communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, T.H.; Mamon, C.R.

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes the Agriculture and Resources Regional Technology Information System (ARRTIS) and the Regional Applied Communication Outreach Program (RAC) of PCARRD. The ARRTIS and the RACO are the strategies in communicating scientific and technology-based information. The ARRTIS is an information system that provides an information base on the status of technologies at various levels of maturity (generation, adaptation, verification, piloting, dissemination and utilization) and offers technology alternatives based on environmental requirements, costs and returns analysis or feasibility of the technologies. This information base provides the repository of technology information from which the Applied Communication Program draws its information for packaging into various formats, using various strategies/media to cater to various users in the regions most especially the farmers. Meanwhile, as PCARRD executes its mission of developing the national research system, it incorporates a development support communication program through the RACO. The RACO is essentially a working component of a regional research center/consortium in each region coordinated by the Applied Communication Division of PCARRD. It aims at reaching farmers and their families, extensionists, administrators, policy makers and entrepreneurs with research information and technology which use a variety of appropriate communication channels, modern communication technology and strategies so that they may actively participate in research diffusion and utilization. (author). 7 refs

  5. Understanding Teen Dating Violence: Practical screening and intervention strategies for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Wilson, Elizabeth; Richmond, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review Teen Dating Violence (TDV) is a serious and potentially lethal form of relationship violence in adolescence. TDV is highly correlated with several outcomes related to poor physical and mental health. Although incidence and prevalence data indicates high rates of exposure to TDV among adolescents throughout the United States, significant confusion remains in healthcare communities concerning the definition and implications of TDV. Additionally, healthcare providers are uncertain about effective screening and intervention methods. The article will review the definition and epidemiology of TDV and discuss possible screening and intervention strategies. Recent Findings TDV research is a relatively new addition to the field of relationship violence. Although some confusion remains, the definition and epidemiology of TDV is better understood which has greatly lead to effective ways in which to screen and intervene when such violence is detected. Universal screening with a focus on high risk subgroups combined with referrals to local and national support services are key steps in reducing both primary and secondary exposure. Summary TDV is a widespread public health crisis with serious short and long-term implications. It is necessary for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers to be aware of TDV, its potential repercussions, as well as possible methods for screening and intervention. More research is needed to better understand TDV as well as to further define effective screening and intervention protocol for the clinical environment. PMID:21670679

  6. Technology-assisted weight loss interventions in primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David M; Savarimuthu, Stella; Squires, Allison; Nicholson, Joseph; Jay, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for and treating obesity. However, there are many barriers to successfully treating obesity in primary care (PC). Technology-assisted weight loss interventions offer novel ways of improving treatment, but trials are overwhelmingly conducted outside of PC and may not translate well into this setting. We conducted a systematic review of technology-assisted weight loss interventions specifically tested in PC settings. We searched the literature from January 2000 to March 2014. (1) Randomized controlled trial; (2) trials that utilized the Internet, personal computer, and/or mobile device; and (3) occurred in an ambulatory PC setting. We applied the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) and Delphi criteria to assess bias and the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) criteria to assess pragmatism (whether trials occurred in the real world versus under ideal circumstances). Given heterogeneity, results were not pooled quantitatively. Sixteen trials met inclusion criteria. Twelve (75 %) interventions achieved weight loss (range: 0.08 kg - 5.4 kg) compared to controls, while 5-45 % of patients lost at least 5 % of baseline weight. Trial duration and attrition ranged from 3-36 months and 6-80 %, respectively. Ten (63 %) studies reported results after at least 1 year of follow-up. Interventions used various forms of personnel, technology modalities, and behavior change elements; trials most frequently utilized medical doctors (MDs) (44 %), web-based applications (63 %), and self-monitoring (81 %), respectively. Interventions that included clinician-guiding software or feedback from personnel appeared to promote more weight loss than fully automated interventions. Only two (13 %) studies used publically available technologies. Many studies had fair pragmatism scores (mean: 2.8/4), despite occurring in primary care. Compared to usual care, technology-assisted interventions in

  7. Understanding technology use and constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties.

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdulaziz, M.; Higgins, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will investigate the relationship between technology use and the use of constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used for the purpose of this research, which were undertaken with three mathematics teachers from school A which used technology, and the other three from school B, which did not use technology. We found that technology can support constructivist approach when teaching and...

  8. Thinking about the environment and theorising change: how could Life History Strategy Theory inform mHealth interventions in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Barak; Hunt, Xanthe; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature outlining the promise of mobile information and communication technologies to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts. We reviewed the literature related to mobile information and communication technologies which aim to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts, in order to glean general observations regarding the state of mHealth in high-income countries (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). mHealth interventions in LMIC often differ substantively from those in HIC, with the former being simpler, delivered through a single digital component (an SMS as opposed to a mobile phone application, or 'app'), and, as a result, targeting only one of the many factors which impact on the activation (or deactivation) of the target behaviour. Almost as a rule, LMIC mHealth interventions lack an explicit theory of change. We highlight the necessity, when designing mHealth interventions, of having a theory of change that encompasses multiple salient perspectives pertaining to human behaviour. To address this need, we explore whether the concept of Life History Strategy could provide the mHealth field with a useful theory of change. Life History Strategy Theory may be particularly useful in understanding some of the problems, paradoxes, and limitations of mHealth interventions found in LMIC. Specifically, this theory illuminates questions regarding 'light-weight' programmes which solely provide information, reminders, and other virtual 'nudges' that may have limited impact on behaviours governed by extrinsic structural factors.

  9. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  10. Do organic foodservice intervention strategies lead to changes in the availability of healthy options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children and young people is increasing in most countries in Europe and as a result schools are increasingly taking a role in both food provision, in promoting healthy eating, and nutrition education of young people by implementing healthy policies. At the same time...... schools are implementing environmental friendly polices i.e. organic procurement strategies (Mu, 2008). It is therefore relevant to investigate the relationship between the different components of such interventions. This study carried out a survey in primary schools in Denmark and Norway through a Web...

  11. Technology roadmapping for strategy and innovation charting the route to success

    CERN Document Server

    Isenmann, Ralf; Phaal, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Technology roadmapping is a core method to help companies and other organisations gain orientation for future opportunities and changes. This book is a key resource for technology roadmapping – it provides expert knowledge in four areas: To frame/embed technology roadmapping To structure the process and tasks of technology roadmapping To implement technology roadmapping into corporate strategies To link technology roadmapping to further instruments of strategic planning and corporate foresight This comprehensive survey of technology roadmapping includes papers from leading European, American and Asian experts: It provides an overview of different methods of technology roadmapping and the interactions between them It familiarises readers with the most important sub-methods It embeds/links technology roadmapping to the overall framework of management research and business studies This book, the first of a series, is unique: it aims to become the leading compendium for technology roadmapping knowledge and prac...

  12. Integration of Technology-based Behavioral Health Interventions in Substance Abuse and Addiction Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed revolutionary changes to the delivery of health services, ushered in to a great extent by the introduction of electronic health record systems. More recently, a new class of technological advancements-technology-based behavioral health interventions, which involve the delivery of evidence-informed practices via computers, web-based applications, mobile phones, wearable sensors, or other technological platforms-has emerged and is primed to once again radically shift current models for behavioral healthcare. Despite the promise and potential of these new therapeutic approaches, a greater understanding of the impact of technology-based interventions on cornerstone issues of mental health and addiction services-namely access, quality, and cost -is needed. The current review highlights 1) relevant conceptual frameworks that guide this area of research, 2) key studies that inform the relevance of technology-based interventions for behavioral healthcare access, quality, and cost, 3) pressing methodological issues that require attention, 4) unresolved questions that warrant further investigation, and 5) practical implications that underscore important new directions for this emerging area of research.

  13. National Blue Ocean Strategy in Nuclear Technology Visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Hassan; Sabariah Kader Ibrahim; Mohamad Radzuan Othman; Abdul Halim Jumat; Abdul Halim Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the strategic approach taken by Malaysian Nuclear Agency in carrying out public information and public acceptance on nuclear technology activities. The main objective of this study is to ensure that public and stake holders are continuously getting correct information from credible sources. Through the feedback received, comprehensive and holistic approach provides the desired impact. Obtaining the correct information from credible sources culture should always be inculcate to ensure that the benefits of nuclear technologies can be practiced and accepted by civil society without prejudice. Through strategic approach and activities implemented, monitoring and review, and measurement of the effectiveness of ongoing programs are expected to increase public awareness of the importance and contribution of nuclear technology in Malaysia. (author)

  14. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070

  15. Gas core reactor concepts and technology - Issues and baseline strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Kahook, Samer; Maya, Isaac

    1991-01-01

    Results of a research program including phenomenological studies, conceptual design, and systems analysis of a series of gaseous/vapor fissile fuel driven engines for space power platforms and for thermal and electric propulsion are reviewed. It is noted that gas and vapor phase reactors provide the path for minimum mass in orbit and trip times, with a specific impulse from 1020 sec at the lowest technololgical risk to 5200 sec at the highest technological risk. The discussion covers various configurations of gas core reactors and critical technologies and the nuclear vapor thermal rocket engine.

  16. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions.

  17. Biosecurity-Based Interventions and Strategies To Reduce Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Farms▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. G.; Elvers, K. T.; Dopfer, D.; Hansson, I.; Jones, P.; James, S.; Gittins, J.; Stern, N. J.; Davies, R.; Connerton, I.; Pearson, D.; Salvat, G.; Allen, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level. PMID:21984249

  18. Community therapy application in intervention with adolescents: new strategies for prevention and promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Zago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents vulnerability facing transformations and resistances, the group work used by Occupational Therapy through techniques and dynamics favors expression, anxiety control and biopsychosocial maturity in intervention. Currently, one strategy used with teenagers is Community Therapy (CT, because it provides a welcoming environment where all are equal and can share their sufferings, anxieties and affinities. Thus, this study examined the effectiveness of group activities used in occupational therapy as warm up strategies in Community Therapy circles. Eleven teenagers aged 12 to 14 years old participated in the research. The study was carried out in a social institution that aims to support children and youth in the municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. Video and photo images and handwritten records were used as data collection instruments during the application of the 12 strategies, divided into three categories: competition, cooperation, and self-knowledge/self-esteem, applied for warming up the CT circles. Data were analyzed and presented through the use of a chart for better visualization and understanding of the adolescents’ behavior during the warm up CT circles. The results obtained showed dispute, unrest, lack of attention and sociability; behaviors that are inherent to adolescence due to the several changes, emotional alterations and search for identity that these subjects experience. Based on the survey results, it was possible observe that the behaviors have triggered direct-indirect relationship with the strategies used as facilitators in the discussion development regarding the issues addressed in the CT circles.

  19. Students’ Reading Comprehension Performance with Emotional Literacy-Based Strategy Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusfarina Mohd Yussof

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective reading comprehension process demands a strategy to enhance the cognitive ability to digest text information in the effort to elicit meaning contextually. In addition, the role of emotions also influences the efficacy of this process, especially in narrative text comprehension. This quasi-experimental study aims to observe students’ performance in the Reading Comprehension Test resulting from Emotional Literacy-Based Reading Comprehension Strategy (ELBRCS, which is a combination of cognitive and affective strategies. This study involved 90 students, whereby 45 students were clustered in the Experimental Group and received the ELBRCS intervension. The remaining 45 students were placed in the Control Group and underwent the conventional strategy (prevalent classroom method.The students’ reading comprehension performance was measured using the Reading Comprehension Test (RCT. The findings show that the experimental group received a higher score than the control group for RCT. The intervention has successfully increased student’s Reading Comprehension from literal comprehension to higher levels of comprehension i.e. inferential, evaluative and appreciative levels, as indicated by Barret’s Taxonomy.

  20. Considerations for biomarker-targeted intervention strategies for tuberculosis disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore-Gartland, Andrew; Carpp, Lindsay N; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Thompson, Ethan; Zak, Daniel E; Self, Steve; Churchyard, Gavin; Walzl, Gerhard; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Scriba, Thomas J; Hatherill, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection have low prognostic specificity for identifying individuals who will develop tuberculosis (TB) disease, making mass preventive therapy strategies targeting all MTB-infected individuals impractical in high-burden TB countries. Here we discuss general considerations for a risk-targeted test-and-treat strategy based on a highly specific transcriptomic biomarker that can identify individuals who are most likely to progress to active TB disease as well as individuals with TB disease who have not yet presented for medical care. Such risk-targeted strategies may offer a rapid, ethical and cost-effective path towards decreasing the burden of TB disease and interrupting transmission and would also be critical to achieving TB elimination in countries nearing elimination. We also discuss design considerations for a Correlate of Risk Targeted Intervention Study (CORTIS), which could provide proof-of-concept for the strategy. One such study in South Africa is currently enrolling 1500 high-risk and 1700 low-risk individuals, as defined by biomarker status, and is randomizing high-risk participants to TB preventive therapy or standard of care treatment. All participants are monitored for progression to active TB with primary objectives to assess efficacy of the treatment and performance of the biomarker. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Health information technology adoption: Understanding research protocols and outcome measurements for IT interventions in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, Tiago K; Facelli, Julio C; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Scammon, Debra L; Bowes, Watson A; Narus, Scott P

    2016-10-01

    To classify and characterize the variables commonly used to measure the impact of Information Technology (IT) adoption in health care, as well as settings and IT interventions tested, and to guide future research. We conducted a descriptive study screening a sample of 236 studies from a previous systematic review to identify outcome measures used and the availability of data to calculate these measures. We also developed a taxonomy of commonly used measures and explored setting characteristics and IT interventions. Clinical decision support is the most common intervention tested, primarily in non-hospital-based clinics and large academic hospitals. We identified 15 taxa representing the 79 most commonly used measures. Quality of care was the most common category of these measurements with 62 instances, followed by productivity (11 instances) and patient safety (6 instances). Measures used varied according to type of setting, IT intervention and targeted population. This study provides an inventory and a taxonomy of commonly used measures that will help researchers select measures in future studies as well as identify gaps in their measurement approaches. The classification of the other protocol components such as settings and interventions will also help researchers identify underexplored areas of research on the impact of IT interventions in health care. A more robust and standardized measurement system and more detailed descriptions of interventions and settings are necessary to enable comparison between studies and a better understanding of the impact of IT adoption in health care settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. exploring technological strategies for valorization of solid sisal waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mgima

    was operated without process stress. Sisal decortication waste (SLDW) and sisal boles (SBW) were found to ..... and hence a hindrance to adoption of the technology in poor developing countries. For the production of ..... sisal waste utilization: Challenges and opportunities Discov. Innovat 18: 17-27. Borowski S, Domanski J ...

  3. Active Learning Methods and Technology: Strategies for Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    The demands in higher education are on the rise. Charged with teaching more content, increased class sizes and engaging students, educators face numerous challenges. In design education, educators are often torn between the teaching of technology and the teaching of theory. Learning the formal concepts of hierarchy, contrast and space provide the…

  4. Plant cell technologies in space: Background, strategies and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, A. D.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize work in plant cell technologies in space. The evolution of concepts and the general principles of plant tissue culture are discussed. The potential for production of high value secondary products by plant cells and differentiated tissue in automated, precisely controlled bioreactors is discussed. The general course of the development of the literature on plant tissue culture is highlighted.

  5. Desktop Simulation: Towards a New Strategy for Arts Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsheim, Nina Sun

    2009-01-01

    For arts departments in many institutions, technology education entails prohibitive equipment costs, maintenance requirements and administrative demands. There are also inherent pedagogical challenges: for example, recording studio classes where, due to space and time constraints, only a few students in what might be a large class can properly…

  6. Dissemination Strategies and Adherence Predictors for Web-Based Interventions--How Efficient Are Patient Education Sessions and Email Reminders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweier, R.; Romppel, M.; Richter, C.; Grande, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Internet offers the potential to efficaciously deliver health interventions at a low cost and with a low threshold across any distance. However, since many web-based interventions are confronted with low use and adherence, proactive dissemination strategies are needed. We, therefore, tested the efficacy of a 1-h patient education session as…

  7. Intellectual property and financing strategies for technology startups

    CERN Document Server

    Halt, Jr , Gerald B; Stiles, Amber R; Fesnak, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, easy to understand guide for startup entities and developing companies, providing insight on the various sources of funding that are available, how these funding sources are useful at each stage of a company’s development, and offers a comprehensive intellectual property strategy that parallels each stage of development. The IP strategies offered in this book take into consideration the goals that most startups and companies have at each stage of development, as well as the limitations that exist at each stage (i.e., limited available resources earmarked for intellectual property asset development), and provides solutions that startups and companies can implement to maximize their return on intellectual property investments. This book also includes a number of descriptive examples, case studies and scenarios to illustrate the topics discussed, and is intended for use by startups and companies across all industries. Readers will garner an appreciation for the value that inte...

  8. Marketing strategies in financial crisis : with change in mobile phone technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir, Rizwan; Ur Rehman, Attiq

    2010-01-01

    The financial crisis has affected every economy during the last decade thus under this changing environment that effect the marketing strategies and these strategies began to change according to the buying behavior of the people. In this research the consumer perspective is examined with the change in mobile phone technology. This is an industry of constant change and innovation in which manufacturers are continually developing new technologies for consumers. As the buying behavior of the con...

  9. Scaling up a learning technology strategy: supporting student/faculty teams in learner-centred design

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Tom; Harrigan, Kevin; Palmer, Antonia; Swallow, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The need for post-secondary institutions to think strategically about the application of learning technologies has been well documented. The strategy must plan to effect change in faculty approaches to teaching and learning, not just to 'add technology and stir'. An effective strategy will also address both content - the particular applications with the most leverage for institutional goals - and the process of obtaining commitment and moving forward (Daniel, 1996).DOI: 10.1080/0968776990070203

  10. Scaling up a learning technology strategy: supporting student/faculty teams in learner-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Carey

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for post-secondary institutions to think strategically about the application of learning technologies has been well documented. The strategy must plan to effect change in faculty approaches to teaching and learning, not just to 'add technology and stir'. An effective strategy will also address both content - the particular applications with the most leverage for institutional goals - and the process of obtaining commitment and moving forward (Daniel, 1996.

  11. Culinary workshop as a strategy for Occupational Therapy intervention with adolescents in situation of social vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Coelho Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the role of occupational therapy with adolescents in vulnerable situations, using a cooking workshop as intervention strategy. Methods: A culinary workshop was carried out in a philanthropic institution that attends adolescents in situations of social vulnerability, located in the municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The workshop participants were of both sexes, 12 and 16 years old, divided into two groups. There were six meetings of approximately 90 minutes aiming to promote friendly relationships between adolescents; strengthen youth leadership and self-esteem; promote empowerment, citizenship, social participation and the development social skills; express emotions and feelings; motivate proactivity, autonomy and the process of collective creation, discussion and reflection on the everyday activities and universe of adolescents. Results: We realized the importance of establishing a link to identify the needs of the target population, so that they can be involved in the intervention and achieve the objectives proposed. At the end of the meetings, the communication between teenagers became more subtle, contributing to cooperativeness within the group, recognition of skills and capabilities, and consequent strengthening of self-esteem, autonomy and elaboration of life projects. Conclusions: We highlight the importance of strategies such as these, which promote the rights, participation, and citizenship of specific social groups, such as adolescents in situations of social vulnerability

  12. FRANJA T: A GROUP INTERVENTION STRATEGY BASED ON THE THEORY OF THE TRANSITIONAL PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO CASTELLANOS

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Franja T is based on the psychoanalytic theory of D. Winnicott who affirms that the flaws of the facilitating environment,which occur during the maturation processes of the baby and originate most mental disorders, can be corrected. Thecorrective experience is made possible through the transitional phenomena which start with the presence of play: auniversal sign of health and is in itself therapeutic. Franja T offers the subject a transitional experience where he/ shemay have the possibility to transform themselves and other by engaging in ludical activities. During the relationshipbetween the external and interior worlds of the participants, the separation with the mother and other situations thatimply suffering can become tolerable and acceptable, being able to give them sense. The research-intervention processwith Franja T permits to affirm that this strategy is a potential transitional space where the patients are holded, listenedto in a psychoanalytical manner and their desire is respected. Franja T as a group intervention strategy has the potentialto be applied to several of Colombia’s mental health issues, from a preventive and care perspective.

  13. Cognitive and emotional consequences of TBI: intervention strategies for vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateer, Catherine A; Sira, Claire S

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a traumatic brain injury on vocational outcome can be predicted on the basis of several factors. Environmental factors such as a supportive work environment, and person specific factors, including the client's age, premorbid occupation, injury variables, level of awareness, psychosocial adjustment, coping skills, and cognitive deficits have all been found to predict return to work following a traumatic brain injury. Some of these factors are amenable to treatment, and clinicians can impact clients' likelihood of returning to work by intervening in various ways. Through case studies and a literature review on the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation interventions, we have outlined specific strategies and recommendations for interventions. Cognitive rehabilitation strategies that address attention, memory and executive deficits can improve clients' abilities to manage workplace tasks and demands. Many clients continue to experience problems with social and emotional adjustment following a brain injury that impact return to work. Cognitive behavioural therapy is well suited for improving coping skills, helping clients to manage cognitive difficulties, and addressing more generalized anxiety and depression in the context of a brain injury.

  14. Complex health care interventions: Characteristics relevant for ethical analysis in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Complexity entails methodological challenges in assessing health care interventions. In order to address these challenges, a series of characteristics of complexity have been identified in the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) literature. These characteristics are primarily identified and developed to facilitate effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis. However, ethics is also a constitutive part of HTA, and it is not given that the conceptions of complexity that appears relevant for effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis are also relevant and directly applicable for ethical analysis in HTA. The objective of this article is therefore to identify and elaborate a set of key characteristics of complex health care interventions relevant for addressing ethical aspects in HTA. We start by investigating the relevance of the characteristics of complex interventions, as defined in the HTA literature. Most aspects of complexity found to be important when assessing effectiveness, safety, and efficiency turn out also to be relevant when assessing ethical issues of a given health technology. However, the importance and relevance of the complexity characteristics may differ when addressing ethical issues rather than effectiveness. Moreover, the moral challenges of a health care intervention may themselves contribute to the complexity. After identifying and analysing existing conceptions of complexity, we synthesise a set of five key characteristics of complexity for addressing ethical aspects in HTA: 1) multiple and changing perspectives, 2) indeterminate phenomena, 3) uncertain causality, 4) unpredictable outcome, and 5) ethical complexity. This may serve as an analytic tool in addressing ethical issues in HTA of complex interventions.

  15. The nonthermal plasma technologies for strategy of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urashima, K.

    2009-01-01

    Japan was mandated to achieve under the Kyoto Protocol is a 6% reduction compared with 1990 in the period from 2008 to 2012. All countries, even developing countries, should be included and discussed in any plan. It must be flexible and there must be diversity. A high value is placed on making the best use of technology for conservation of energy etc., and to unite environmental preservation and economic development. Plasma processes are carried out in either the high-temperature environment of transferred and non-transferred plasmas or at pressures low enough to give large active volumes with higher electron and lower gas temperature glow discharge plasmas. Several eligible non-thermal plasma technologies are already finished for small scale pilot test, and are already in the stage of commercialization. (author)

  16. Thorium fuel cycle: a nuclear strategy and fuel recycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Dahlberg, R.C.; Wymer, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Use of thorium fuel cycles in thermal reactors appears to permit a moderate rate of introduction of fast breeder reactors into the nuclear economy and helps maintain a relatively low ratio of FBRs to thermal reactors in the future. To implement the benefits of thorium fuel cycles, however, will require fuel recycle research and development. Fuel recycle technology developed for uranium and plutonium cycles will be beneficial to thorium fuel cycle development; however, significant additional R and D is required to implement either the HEUTH or the DUTH cycles. The metal-clad reactors in general have relatively common generic technology development requirements, although there are significant differences between fast and thermal reactor fuel recycle needs. The thorium fuel recycle R and D requirements of HTGRs are more reactor-specific than of the other reactor types; however, some specific efforts will be required for all the different reactor types.

  17. Strategies for Derisking Translational Processes for Biomedical Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Duda, Georg N; Gruskin, Elliott A; Grainger, David W

    2017-02-01

    Inefficient translational processes for technology-oriented biomedical research have led to some prominent and frequent failures in the development of many leading drug candidates, several designated investigational drugs, and some medical devices, as well as documented patient harm and postmarket product withdrawals. Derisking this process, particularly in the early stages, should increase translational efficiency and streamline resource utilization, especially in an academic setting. In this opinion article, we identify a 12-step guideline for reducing risks typically associated with translating medical technologies as they move toward prototypes, preclinical proof of concept, and possible clinical testing. Integrating the described 12-step process should prove valuable for improving how early-stage academic biomedical concepts are cultivated, culled, and manicured toward intended clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Timing of allergy-preventive and immunomodulatory dietary interventions - are prenatal, perinatal or postnatal strategies optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenmalm, M C; Duchén, K

    2013-03-01

    The increasing allergy prevalence in affluent countries may be caused by reduced microbial stimulation and a decreased dietary ω-3/ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio, resulting in an abnormal postnatal immune maturation. The timing of allergy-preventive probiotic and ω-3 LCPUFA interventions is critical, as early-life events occurring during critical windows of immune vulnerability can have long-term impact on immune development. The maternal dietary and microbial environment during pregnancy may programme the immune development of the child. Prenatal environmental exposures may alter gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, aiming to induce physiological adaptations to the anticipated postnatal environment, but potentially also increasing disease susceptibility in the offspring if exposures are mismatched. Although the importance of fetal programming mostly has been studied in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, this hypothesis is also very attractive in the context of environmentally influenced immune-mediated diseases. This review focuses on how prenatal, perinatal or postnatal ω-3 LCPUFA interventions regulate childhood immune and allergy development, and if synergistic effects may be obtained by simultaneous probiotic supplementation. We propose that combined pre- and postnatal preventive measures may be most efficacious. Increasing knowledge on the immunomodulatory effects of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal interventions will help to direct future strategies to combat the allergy epidemic. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The effect of nonpharmacological training on delirium identification and intervention strategies of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk Birge, Ayşegül; Tel Aydin, Hatice

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of nonpharmacological intervention training on delirium recognition and the intervention strategies of intensive care (ICU) nurses. This is a quasi-experimental study conducted using a pretest-posttest design. The study sample included a total of 95 patients staying in the medical ICU of a university hospital and 19 nurses working in these units. The data were collected using the Patient and Nurse Introduction, Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and Delirium Risk Factors, and Non-pharmacological Interventions in Delirium Prevention Forms. Delirium was identified in 26.5% and 20.9% of the patients in the pre- and posttraining phase, respectively. Patients with delirium had a longer duration of stay in the ICU, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score and a higher number of medications in daily treatment (pdelirium increased 8.5-fold by physical restriction and 3.4-fold by the presence of hypo/hypernatremia. The delirium recognition rate of nurses increased from 7.7% to 33.3% in the post-training phase. Our study results show that training can increase the efficiency of ICU nurses in the management of delirium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards an Understanding of Information Technology Strategy Development Based on Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Souza Bermejo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n40p139 The formulation of IT strategies is increasingly seen as a collaborative process, where knowledge management (KM and learning become central to building a shared view of how information technology (IT can support and extend business strategies. This article presents three interrelated components that support the application of KM to IT strategy development (actors and types of knowledge, knowledge conversion modes, and technological tools and artifacts. Through a longitudinal, qualitative case study, we illustrate strategies for applying these components. Faced with the importance of knowledge and collaboration to IT strategies, the results provide recommendations so that organizations can apply concepts and practices of KM processes in formulating IT strategies.

  1. Lifestyle behavior interventions delivered using technology in childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Lisa M; Gastelum, Zachary; Guerrero, Christian H; Howe, Carol L; Hingorani, Pooja; Hingle, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors demonstrate increased cardio-metabolic risk factors, which are amenable to lifestyle changes. The use of technology to impact lifestyle change expands previously limited intervention access, yet little is known about its use. We summarized lifestyle interventions for survivors delivered using technology, finding six studies, primarily targeting physical activity. Study samples were small and durations ranged from 5 to 16 weeks and outcomes modest. Participants were older, white, survivors of leukemia or brain tumors, and the majority received Web-based interventions. Study quality was moderate. Few technology-based interventions have been developed, suggesting an area of opportunity for survivors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Power Card Strategy: Strength-Based Intervention to Increase Direction Following of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Abbi; Tincani, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The Power Card strategy is a strength-based intervention to promote social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by capitalizing on their special interests. Although preliminary studies have shown that the Power Card strategy is a promising approach to teach social skills, additional research is needed. The purpose of this study…

  3. Analysis of Language Learning Strategies Used by Students of Traffic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategies play a vital role in the language acquisition process, and this includes the realm of ESP at the tertiary level of education. This contribution first defines the concept of language learning strategies and gives a historical background to language learning strategy research. The central section focuses on a comparative analysis of language learning strategies used by first year students of traffic technology at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož, University of Ljubljana. The analysis, based on Rebecca Oxford’s “Strategy Inventory for Language Learning”, aims to assess the students’ existing awareness of the process of language acquisition and the learning strategies that they use. Objectives of language teachers should include helping students to raise their awareness of language learning strategies and providing them with contexts for their development. Therefore, the concluding section contains sample ESP teaching materials and student instructions focusing on cognitive language learning strategies.

  4. The University and Transformation towards Sustainability: The Strategy Used at Chalmers University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John; Lundqvist, Ulrika; Svanstrom, Magdalena; Arehag, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the strategy used for achieving change towards sustainability at Chalmers University of Technology (Chalmers). Examples of how this strategy has been used are described and discussed, and exemplified with different lines of activities in a project on Education for Sustainable Development, the ESD…

  5. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  6. Joint Small Arms Technology Development Strategy for Joint Service Small Arms Science and Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    weight reduction technologies in order to maintain Soldier mobility on the battlefield. Technology investment should be made in weight reduction ...technology investment should be made in design and analysis of lightweight structural components to reduce weapon receiver and chassis weight . Weight ...includes weight reduction (load reduction to the soldier), ergonomics, and communication and integration of fire control components. Specifically in the

  7. A Single-Subject Study of a Technology-Based Self-Monitoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Kari L.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Coghill-Behrends, William L.; Kern, Amanda M.; Troughton, Leonard C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with ADHD often struggle with self-regulation skills. One strategy demonstrating considerable success in helping these students regulate their behavior is self-monitoring. Although there is an abundance of research on self-monitoring, research on the use of technology for self-monitoring is only beginning to emerge. The primary goal of…

  8. Longitudinal studies on Listeria in smoked fish plants: impact of intervention strategies on contamination patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Victoria R; Thimothe, Joanne; Nightingale, Kendra Kerr; Gall, Kenneth; Scott, Virginia N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2004-11-01

    Four ready-to-eat smoked fish plants were monitored for 2 years to study Listeria contamination patterns and the impact of plant-specific Listeria control strategies, including employee training and targeted sanitation procedures, on Listeria contamination patterns. Samples from the processing plant environment and from raw and finished product were collected monthly and tested for Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Before implementation of intervention strategies, 19.2% of raw product samples (n = 276), 8.7% of finished product samples (n = 275), and 26.1% of environmental samples (n = 617) tested positive for Listeria spp. During and after implementation of Listeria control strategies, 19.0% of raw product samples (n = 242), 7.0% of finished product samples (n = 244), and 19.5% of environmental samples (n = 527) were positive for Listeria spp. In one of the four fish plants (plant 4), no environmental samples were positive for L. monocytogenes, and this plant was thus excluded from statistical analyses. Based on data pooled from plants 1, 2, and 3, environmental Listeria spp. prevalence was significantly lower (P Listeria prevalence for floor drains was similar before and after implementation of controls (49.6 and 54.2%, respectively). Regression analysis revealed a significant positive relationship (P Listeria control strategies. Molecular subtyping (EcoRI ribotyping) revealed that specific L. monocytogenes ribotypes persisted in three processing plants over time. These persistent ribotypes were responsible for all six finished product contamination events detected in plant 1. Ribotype data also indicated that incoming raw material is only rarely a direct source of finished product contamination. While these data indicate that plant-specific Listeria control strategies can reduce cross-contamination and prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in the plant environment, elimination of persistent L. monocytogenes strains remains a considerable

  9. A MDP model for breast and ovarian cancer intervention strategies for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahian, Mehrnaz; Das, Tapas K

    2015-03-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have higher risk for breast and ovarian cancers. Available intervention actions include prophylactic surgeries and breast screening, which vary significantly in cost, cancer prevention, and in resulting death from other causes. We present a model designed to yield optimal intervention strategies for mutation carriers between the ages of 30 and 65 and any prior intervention history. A Markov decision process (MDP) model is developed that considers yearly state transitions for the mutation carriers and state dependent intervention actions. State is defined as a vector comprising mutation type, health states, prior intervention actions, and age. A discounted value iteration algorithm is used to obtain optimal strategies from the MDP model using both cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as rewards. The results from MDP model show that for 30-year-old women with BRCA1 mutation and no prior intervention history, the cost-optimal strategy is a combination of prophylactic mastectomy (PM) and prophylactic oophorectomy (PO) at age 30 with no screening afterwards. Whereas, the QALYs-optimal strategy suggests PO at age 30 and PM at age 50 with screening afterwards. For BRCA2 mutation carriers at age 30, the cost-optimal strategy is PO at age 30, PM at age 40, and yearly screening only after age 56. Corresponding QALYs-optimal strategy is PM at age 40 with screening. Strategies for all other ages (31 to 65) are obtained and presented. It is also demonstrated that the cost-optimal strategies offer near maximum survival rate and near minimum cancer incidence rates by age 70, when compared to other ad hoc strategies.

  10. High Risk Aortic Valve Replacement - The Challenges of Multiple Treatment Strategies with an Evolving Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, K; Beattie, R; McBride, M; Manoharan, G; Spence, M; Jones, J M

    2016-01-01

    Deciding on the optimal treatment strategy for high risk aortic valve replacement is challenging. Transcatheter Aortic Valve implantation (TAVI) has been available in our centre as an alternative treatment modality for patients since 2008. We present our early experience of TAVI and SAVR (surgical Aortic Valve Replacement) in high risk patients who required SAVR because TAVI could not be performed. The database for Surgical aortic valve and Transcatheter aortic valve replacement referrals was interrogated to identify relevant patients. Survival to hospital discharge was 95.5% in the forty five patients who had SAVR when TAVI was deemed technically unsuitable. One year survival was 86%. Defining who is appropriate for TAVI or high risk SAVR is challenging and multidisciplinary team discussion has never been more prudent in this field of evolving technology with ever decreasing risks of surgery. The introduction of TAVI at our institution has seen a rise in our surgical caseload by approximately by 25%. Overall, the option of aortic valve intervention is being offered to more patients in general which is a substantial benefit in the treatment of aortic valve disease.

  11. Technological Factors, User Characteristics and Didactic Strategies in Educational Virtual Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natsis, Antonios; Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos

    2012-01-01

    Technological factors, user characteristics and didactic strategies do not function consistently across Educational Virtual Environments. This study investigates the impact of viewing condition and didactic strategy on attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, spatial presence, and learning...... outcomes in an Educational Virtual Environment concerning ancient Greek pottery. Our results show that the viewing condition does not affect attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, and spatial presence. Learning outcomes are better in the monoscopic viewing condition. Didactic strategy has an impact...... Virtual Environments....

  12. Online self-management interventions for chronically ill patients: cognitive impairment and technology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Norm; Keshavjee, Karim; Demers, Catherine; Lee, Ryan

    2014-04-01

    As the fraction of the population with chronic diseases continues to grow, methods and/or technologies must be found to help the chronically ill to take more responsibility to self-manage their illnesses. Internet based and/or mobile support for disease self-management interventions have often proved effective, but patients with chronic illnesses may have co-occurring cognitive impairment, making it more difficult for them to cope with technologies. Many older patients are also not familiar with technologies or they may have cognitive disabilities or dementia that reduce their ability to self-manage their healthcare. On-line solutions to the needs of chronically ill patients must be investigated and acted upon with care in an integrated manner, since resources invested in these solutions will be lost if patients do not adopt and continue to use them successfully. To review the capabilities of online and mobile support for self-management of chronic illnesses, and the impacts that age and disease-related issues have on these interventions, including cognitive impairment and lack of access or familiarity with Internet or mobile technologies. This study includes a review of the co-occurrence of cognitive impairment with chronic diseases, and discusses how cognitive impairment, dyadic caregiver patient support, patient efficacy with technology, and smart home technologies can impact the effectiveness and sustainability of online support for disease self-management. Disease self-management interventions (SMIs) using online patient centered support can often enable patients to manage their own chronic illnesses. However, our findings show that cognitive impairment often co-occurs in patients with chronic disease. This, along with age-related increases in multiple chronic illnesses and lack of technology efficacy, can be obstacles to Internet and mobile support for chronic disease self-management. Patients with chronic diseases may have greater than expected difficulties

  13. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrary, C.

    1992-03-01

    This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy

  14. Mobile Health Technology Interventions for Suicide Prevention: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Ruth; Francis, Kady; Duggan, Jim; Bogue, John; O'Sullivan, Mary; Chambers, Derek; Young, Karen

    2018-01-26

    Previous research has reported that two of the major barriers to help-seeking for individuals at risk of suicide are stigma and geographical isolation. Mobile technology offers a potential means of delivering evidence-based interventions with greater specificity to the individual, and at the time that it is needed. Despite documented motivation by at-risk individuals to use mobile technology to track mental health and to support psychological interventions, there is a shortfall of outcomes data on the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) technology on suicide-specific outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile technology-based interventions for suicide prevention. The search includes the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CRESP and relevant sources of gray literature. Studies that have evaluated psychological or nonpsychological interventions delivered via mobile computing and communication technology, and have suicidality as an outcome measure will be included. Two authors will independently extract data and assess the study suitability in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Studies will be included if they measure at least one suicide outcome variable (ie, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, suicidal behavior). Secondary outcomes will be measures of symptoms of depression. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous and reported outcomes are amenable for pooled synthesis, meta-analysis will be performed. A narrative synthesis will be conducted if the data is unsuitable for a meta-analysis. The review is in progress, with findings expected by summer 2018. To date, evaluations of mobile technology-based interventions in suicide prevention have focused on evaluating content as opposed to efficacy. Indeed, previous research has

  15. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  16. Wave energy technology. Strategy for research, development and demonstration 2012; Boelgekraftteknologi. Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K.; Krogh, J.; Kofoed, J.P. [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark); Jensen, N.E.H. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, E. [Boelgekraftforeningen, Hurup (Denmark); Mikkelsen, B.V. [Hanstholm Havneforum (Denmark); Jensen, A. [DanWEC, Thisted (Denmark)

    2012-06-15

    The vision for Danish development of wave energy technology is that Danish industrial and commercial firms gain skills for marketing of competitive wave energy technologies in both the Danish and the international market. Utilization of wave power is a prerequisite for that there in the future can be built offshore energy parks at greater sea depths. The development of wave energy technology should from 2030 at the latest provide the opportunity for cost-effective, sustainable electricity from offshore energy parks in Denmark. This strategy contains a detailed development plan and overview of the investment required to achieve the expected technological development. The objective to produce 1500 GWh / year at a reduced price of 0.10 DKK / kWh compared to pure offshore wind power will require a public investment of approx. 1.5 billion DKK over the next 20 years. This investment will, at the reduced electricity production cost alone, be paid back in 10 years. (LN)

  17. Development and Pilot Study of a Marketing Strategy for Primary Care/Internet–Based Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents (The CATCH-IT Intervention)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F. P.; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. Objective: To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. Method: A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. Results: The marketing plan focused on “resiliency building” rather than “depression intervention” and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1–10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Conclusions: Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care. PMID:20944776

  18. Putting people first: re-thinking the role of technology in augmentative and alternative communication intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2013-12-01

    Current technologies provide individuals with complex communication needs with a powerful array of communication, information, organization, and social networking options. However, there is the danger that the excitement over these new devices will result in a misplaced focus on the technology, to the neglect of what must be the central focus - the people with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In order to truly harness the power of technology, rehabilitation and educational professionals must ensure that AAC intervention is driven, not by the devices, but rather by the communication needs of the individual. Furthermore, those involved in AAC research and development activities must ensure that the design of AAC technologies is driven by an understanding of motor, sensory, cognitive, and linguistic processing, in order to minimize learning demands and maximize communication power for individuals with complex communication needs across the life span.

  19. [Follow-up strategies after percutaneous coronary intervention: prognostic stratification and multidisciplinary management based on patient risk profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Faggiano, Pompilio; Ferlini, Marco; Lettieri, Corrado; Castiglioni, Battistina; Maggi, Antonio; Negri, Fabrizio; Colombo, Paola; Oliva, Fabrizio; Pedretti, Roberto F E; Centola, Marco; Rossini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is increasing worldwide. Follow-up strategies after PCI are extremely heterogeneous and can greatly affect the cost of medical care. In the present paper, practical advises are provided with respect to a tailored follow-up strategy on the basis of patients' risk profile. Clinical and interventional cardiologists, cardiac rehabilitators, and general practitioners equally contributed to the creation of the present document and defined three follow-up strategies and types and timing of clinical and instrumental evaluations in post-PCI patients.

  20. Intervention mapping for the development of a strategy to implement the insurance medicine guidelines for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This article describes the development of a strategy to implement the insurance medicine guidelines for depression. Use of the guidelines is intended to result in more transparent and uniform assessment of claimants with depressive symptoms. Methods The implementation strategy was developed using the Intervention Mapping (IM) method for alignment with insurance-medical practice. The ASE behavioural explanation model (Attitude, Social Influence and Self-Efficacy) was used as theoretical basis for the development work. A literature study of implementation strategies and interviews with insurance physicians were performed to develop instruments for use with the guideline. These instruments were designed to match the needs and the working circumstances of insurance physicians. Performance indicators to measure the quality of the assessment and the adherence to the guidelines were defined with input from insurance physicians. Results This study resulted in the development of a training course to teach insurance physicians how to apply the guidelines for depression, using the aforementioned instruments. The efficacy of this training course will be evaluated in a Randomized Controlled Trial. Conclusions The use of IM made it possible to develop guideline support instruments tailored to insurance medical practice. PMID:21208413

  1. Time-Valued-Technology: A Light-Emitting Diode Case Study for Determining Replacement Strategy for High Technology Infrastructure Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    viii I. Introduction .....................................................................................................................1...DIODE CASE STUDY FOR DETERMINING REPLACEMENT STRATEGY FOR HIGH TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE ITEMS I. Introduction In an effort to support cost... MCDM Models, Algorithms, Theory, and Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Norwell, Ma. GE Commercial Lighting Products. Retrieved 11/2/2011

  2. Intervention implementation research: an exploratory study of reduction strategies for occupational contact dermatitis in the printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Terry P; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; English, John S C

    2007-01-01

    Occupational dermatitis is a problem in the printing industry but can be avoided through adequate protective measures. Research into intervention implementation is fundamental to the success of a formal intervention effectiveness trial. The preliminary testing of four risk reduction strategies for occupationally caused dermatitis, which represent a range of approaches and cost implications. The strategies, the provision of (i) skin checks plus treatment advice; provision of (ii) gloves of the correct type/size plus use of an after-work cream; provision of (iii) information highlighting the problem of occupational dermatitis and (iv) development of a best practice skin care policy, were evaluated over 3 months in two non-randomly selected companies. A post-intervention evaluation into the effectiveness and efficacy of the intervention was also carried out. All interventions were found to be acceptable to some extent. No single intervention appeared to be completely effective. The most practical intervention appeared to be the regular use of gloves of the correct type and size. This preliminary intervention study has demonstrated an improvement in the skin condition of workers examined and points towards the need for further testing of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of dermatitis in the printing industry on a much larger scale.

  3. From STEM to STEAM: Strategies for Enhancing Engineering & Technology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to challenge the common pedagogies found in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics education with a particular focus on engineering. The dominant engineering pedagogy remains “chalk and talk”; despite research evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. Such pedagogical approaches do not embrace the possibilities provided by more student-centric approaches and more active learning. The paper argues that there is a potential confusion in engineering education around the role of active learning approaches, and that the adoption of these approaches may be limited as a result of this confusion, combined with a degree of disciplinary egocentrism. The paper presents examples of design, engineering and technology projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting pedagogies and delivery methods more usually attributed to the liberal arts such as studio based learning. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how best to create a fertile environment from which inquiry based learning can emerge as well as a reflection on whether the only real limitation on cultivating such approaches is the disciplinary egocentrism of traditional engineering educators.

  4. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yi Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race.

  5. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  6. Breast cancer survivors’ beliefs and preferences regarding technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gillian R.; Oza, Sonal; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Conroy, David E.; Penedo, Frank J.; Spring, Bonnie J.; Phillips, Siobhan M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods Breast cancer survivors [n=279; Mage=60.7 (SD=9.7)] completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD=4.3) hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0%) and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%). Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7%) or ≥60 (29.9%) minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1%) or walking in place (73.4%). The majority of survivors (79.9%) was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3%) 2–3 times/day (48.0%), 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%). Most survivors (73.5%) believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5%) via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3%) or text messages (54.4%). Conclusions Technology-supported sedentary behavior

  7. A Study on Strategy Establishment for Foreign Market Penetrating of Nuclear Technology Venture Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Kim, S. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Park, C. S.; Bae, C. I.; Chung, J. M.; Roe, S. P.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to suggest feasible strategy for foreign market penetration of nuclear venture technology business. Especially, this study focuses on the technology and product export to the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park in Germany. This study analyzed the operating system of German Industrial Park, especially the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park. This study also analyzed the current status of Industrial Science Parks in Northern European countries such as Finland, Sweden, and England. Then, this study suggested the strategy for nuclear technology venture business to penetrate German export market effectively

  8. A Study on Strategy Establishment for Foreign Market Penetrating of Nuclear Technology Venture Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Kim, S. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Park, C. S.; Bae, C. I.; Chung, J. M.; Roe, S. P

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this study is to suggest feasible strategy for foreign market penetration of nuclear venture technology business. Especially, this study focuses on the technology and product export to the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park in Germany. This study analyzed the operating system of German Industrial Park, especially the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park. This study also analyzed the current status of Industrial Science Parks in Northern European countries such as Finland, Sweden, and England. Then, this study suggested the strategy for nuclear technology venture business to penetrate German export market effectively.

  9. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2003-05-20

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  10. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  11. Study on international publicity and export strategy establishment of nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Bok; Choi, C.O.; Park, K. B.; Chang, M. H.; Kim, K. K.; Yang, M. S.; Jung, I. H.; Kim, K. P.; Wu, J. S.; Jang, C. I.; Han, B. O.; Sim, J. H.; Chung, M.; Chung, J.K

    1999-05-01

    The objective of this study is to devise a proper measure for international publicity and technology export strategy. Analysed and summaries in detail are other countries nuclear policy trend and the current technology development status of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant that we developed on our own technology, design and construction technology for research reactor, System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor of which design is in progress, Direct use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors, and Radioisotopes. Based on that, the measures are proposed for the export industrialization of nuclear technology and establishment of the export basis. Also the international nuclear cooperation and publicity strategy are suggested to support the technology export basis. By surveying the world nuclear status, the direction for the international cooperation and publicity is settled and the specific publicity strategy is proposed for the cooperation with IAEA and multi-countries and the establishment of the nuclear technology export basis. As part of this project, the panel on major technologies such as Korea Standard Nuclear Plant, HANARO, and System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor was displayed successfully at the IAEA meeting, which contribute much to the publicity of our nuclear technology to the international nuclear society. (author)

  12. Are smokers with HIV using information and communication technology? Implications for behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Geetanjali; Stanton, Cassandra; Hutton, Heidi E; Abrams, David B; Pearson, Jennifer; Knowlton, Amy; Latkin, Carl; Holtgrave, David; Moore, Richard D; Niaura, Raymond

    2012-02-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and associated with adverse outcomes including malignancy and cardiovascular disease. Information and communication technology (ICT) may be effective in disseminating cessation interventions among PLWHA. This study examines the prevalence of ICT use among 492 PLWHA attending an urban clinic and characteristics associated with ICT use. Participants completed a survey of demographics, smoking status, and ICT use. Factors associated with ICT use were examined with logistic regression. Overall, 63% of participants smoked with 73% of smokers owning their own cell phone. Use of other modalities was lower, with 48% of smokers reporting any internet use, 39% text messaging, and 31% using email. Higher education was associated with the use of all modalities. Cell phone interventions may have the broadest reach among PLWHA, though with almost half using the internet, this may also be a low-cost means of delivering cessation interventions.

  13. Subgroup report on alternative technology strategies for the isolation of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to support programmatic approaches to the disposal of high-level and transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes. For this purpose the report describes, in Appendices A through F, the state of knowledge relevant to selected nuclear waste disposal technologies. Within the main report a number of alternative technological strategies that could lead to a disposal facility are specified for illustrative and analytical purposes. These strategies span a wide range of variations of technological emphasis and programmatic diversity. Selected implications of these strategies are analyzed. In addition, subjects such as technical conservatism, retrievability, and intermediate scale facilities, that apply to any strategy, are examined and implications of each are discussed.

  14. Subgroup report on alternative technology strategies for the isolation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to support programmatic approaches to the disposal of high-level and transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes. For this purpose the report describes, in Appendices A through F, the state of knowledge relevant to selected nuclear waste disposal technologies. Within the main report a number of alternative technological strategies that could lead to a disposal facility are specified for illustrative and analytical purposes. These strategies span a wide range of variations of technological emphasis and programmatic diversity. Selected implications of these strategies are analyzed. In addition, subjects such as technical conservatism, retrievability, and intermediate scale facilities, that apply to any strategy, are examined and implications of each are discussed

  15. Progression to multi-scale models and the application to food system intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how the systems science approach can be used to optimize intervention strategies in food animal systems. It advocates the idea that the challenges of maintaining a safe food supply are best addressed by integrating modeling and mathematics with biological studies critical to formulation of public policy to address these challenges. Much information on the biology and epidemiology of food animal systems has been characterized through single-discipline methods, but until now this information has not been thoroughly utilized in a fully integrated manner. The examples are drawn from our current research. The first, explained in depth, uses clinical mastitis to introduce the concept of dynamic programming to optimize management decisions in dairy cows (also introducing the curse of dimensionality problem). In the second example, a compartmental epidemic model for Johne's disease with different intervention strategies is optimized. The goal of the optimization strategy depends on whether there is a relationship between Johne's and Crohn's disease. If so, optimization is based on eradication of infection; if not, it is based on the cow's performance only (i.e., economic optimization, similar to the mastitis example). The third example focuses on food safety to introduce risk assessment using Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. The last example, practical interventions to effectively manage antibiotic resistance in beef and dairy cattle systems, introduces meta-population modeling that accounts for bacterial growth not only in the host (cow), but also in the cow's feed, drinking water and the housing environment. Each example stresses the need to progress toward multi-scale modeling. The article ends with examples of multi-scale systems, from food supply systems to Johne's disease. Reducing the consequences of foodborne illnesses (i.e., minimizing disease occurrence and associated costs) can only occur through an

  16. A study on future nuclear reactor technology and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, D. S.; Suk, S. D.; Zee, S. K.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Park, W. S

    2000-12-01

    Development of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology for future is essential to meet the current issues such as enhancement of nuclear power reactor safety, economically competitive with gas turbine power generation, less production of radioactive waste, proliferation resistant fuel cycle, and public acceptance in consideration of lack of energy resources in the nuclear countries worldwide as well as in Korea. This report deals with as follows, 1) Review the world energy demand and supply perspective and analyse nature of energy and sustainable development to set-up nuclear policy in Korea 2) Recaptitulate the current long term nuclear R and D activities 3) Review nuclear R and D activities and programs of USA, Japan, France, Russia, international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA 4) Recommend development directions of nuclear reactors and fuels.

  17. AREVA liner repair strategy based on adhesive technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, G.; Stiepani, C. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Over long experience, the global nuclear power industry has relied on AREVA NP strengths in developing rapid, safe, and effective solutions to nuclear power plant operating problems. Over the entire spectrum of nuclear plant operations, we partner with utilities to keep plants running, keep generating capacity up, and keep the world powered. AREVA NP has developed a repair method for sealing leakages in austenitic stainless steel liners, especially in nuclear power plants. This technology is either a repair, when applied after failures already occurred, or a prophylaxis, when applied before such failures occur. An important new area of AREVA NP’s armament of nuclear services for the nuclear industry has been perfected over the past 20 years in more than 35 sites worldwide. AREVA NP’s process for detecting, coating, and sealing liner leaks offers a safe, effective, responsible, and highly economical way to repair and prevent leakage. (author)

  18. Firms’ Negative Perceptions on Patents, Technology Management Strategies, and Subsequent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While patents do have many advantages, their disadvantages include requiring disclosure of technical information and imposing the burden of patenting and litigation costs. In this study, we investigate the relationship between a firm’s negative perception on patents, technology management strategies, and subsequent performance. For this purpose, we use a categorical canonical correlation analysis of the top 200, large, R&D-intensive firms in Korea. We find that negative perceptions such as burdensome transaction costs, non-patenting culture, and uncertainty of the outcome of patent litigation are associated with firms’ technology management strategies, such as purchase of licenses, and subsequent performance, such as an increase in the number of inventions from the cross-fertilization of different technologies. The results of this study are expected to contribute to a better understanding of firms’ negative attitudes toward the effects of patents, their subsequent technology management strategies, and resulting performance.

  19. Benefits of Outsourcing Strategy and IT Technology in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenovic, Milorad; Dobraca, Amra

    2017-09-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe some of models of outsourcing (numerous and response to different types of risks and increment of quality is based on individual problem and situation). Defining whether to outsource or not and whether to build or buy new information technology (IT) is question for contract research organization (CRO) and Pharma companies dealing with clinical trials, so the aim of this paper is to show business model that could make process of decision making less time consuming, less segmented and more efficient. This paper has a descriptive character, and represents a review of the literature that deals with the described issues. Outsourcing should enable optimal capacity flexibility (technology that is outsourced should be done only optimally not entirely). The goal with CRO partners is to establish equivalent levels of global quality, as extensions of other research and development activities (by unification of standards of performance of alliance partners with best standards of industry). IT is gaining greater significance at each stage of clinical study and represent an inevitable element of the quality of a clinical study (for the purpose of monitoring of clinical site activities, data collection and management, medical monitoring, statistical programming, statistical analysis, clinical study reporting). CROs are able to maximize work within the CRO global development, to support the notion of a fully integrated outsourced company; facilitate the use of similar business processes and norms, reusing established CRO standards and improve CRO operational decision making within outsourced studies by providing consistent and current information across outsourced and in-house activities.

  20. Benefits of Outsourcing Strategy and IT Technology in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenovic, Milorad; Dobraca, Amra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Aim of this paper is to describe some of models of outsourcing (numerous and response to different types of risks and increment of quality is based on individual problem and situation). Defining whether to outsource or not and whether to build or buy new information technology (IT) is question for contract research organization (CRO) and Pharma companies dealing with clinical trials, so the aim of this paper is to show business model that could make process of decision making less time consuming, less segmented and more efficient. Material and methods: This paper has a descriptive character, and represents a review of the literature that deals with the described issues. Results: Outsourcing should enable optimal capacity flexibility (technology that is outsourced should be done only optimally not entirely). The goal with CRO partners is to establish equivalent levels of global quality, as extensions of other research and development activities (by unification of standards of performance of alliance partners with best standards of industry). IT is gaining greater significance at each stage of clinical study and represent an inevitable element of the quality of a clinical study (for the purpose of monitoring of clinical site activities, data collection and management, medical monitoring, statistical programming, statistical analysis, clinical study reporting). Conclusion: CROs are able to maximize work within the CRO global development, to support the notion of a fully integrated outsourced company; facilitate the use of similar business processes and norms, reusing established CRO standards and improve CRO operational decision making within outsourced studies by providing consistent and current information across outsourced and in-house activities. PMID:29114116

  1. Robotic-Assisted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Rationale, Implementation, Case Selection and Limitations of Current Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ragosta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interventional cardiologists have witnessed an explosive growth in the field. A wide array of percutaneous procedures allow us to treat numerous cardiac conditions less invasively. However, the way we work has changed very little over the past decades. We continue to stand at the tableside for prolonged periods of time, exposing ourselves to the very real risks of radiation exposure as well as to the associated orthopedic injuries from radiation protection. The precision of our procedures is limited by the distance from the fluoroscopic images and, furthermore, patients are potentially at risk from operator fatigue caused by a physician standing at the table for prolonged periods while wearing cumbersome radiation protection gear. Robotic-assisted coronary intervention removes the operator from the radiation field and has been shown to markedly reduce operator exposure as well as allow for more precise positioning of balloons and stents. This technology holds great promise for making interventional procedures safer and more comfortable for the operators as well as reducing fatigue, potentially improving patient outcomes. Currently, we are in an ‘early adopter’ phase of this technology and this paper reviews the rationale, methodology, optimal case selection, and limitations of robotic-assisted coronary intervention.

  2. Read, retrieve, connect and use: An intervention strategy for science and scientific literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kerryane T.

    American students underachieve on local, state, national, and international assessments of science. Student performance on standardized assessments has driven numerous educational reforms including No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top with a resulting increased focus on student achievement. Local districts and schools struggle with how to improve student achievement in order to meet the requirements of state and federal legislation. International and national government officials extoll the value of science in driving the economic prosperity of a nation adding increased pressure to improve science scores in the United States. Moreover, to be effective decision-makers personally and within a democracy, citizens must be scientifically literate. Read, Retrieve, Connect and Use (RRCU) is an instructional strategy that combined state biology content standards, with the new Common Core Standards for Literacy in Science through evidenced-based literacy strategies recommended by the National Reading Panel. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of an intervention, RRCU to improve science content knowledge and literacy skills in Biology and Language Arts. The findings identified reading skill, as measured by FCAT Reading as predictive of Biology test scores indicating a close relationship between reading comprehension and the ability to learn and be assessed on science content knowledge. The data did not indicate RRCU was an effective means of improving student science content knowledge or literacy skills. However, teachers responded positively to the strategy as a means to reinforce content knowledge and support literacy skills. Future recommendations include improving the study design and expanding the use of the strategy to middle school to build a foundation of effective literacy skills students can use to cope with the depth and complexity of science content at the high school level.

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (disincentives, and restricting choice. We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  4. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  5. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  6. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Image Guidance Technologies for Interventional Pain Procedures: Ultrasound, Fluoroscopy, and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dajie

    2018-01-26

    Chronic pain is a common medical condition. Patients who suffer uncontrolled chronic pain may require interventions including spinal injections and various nerve blocks. Interventional procedures have evolved and improved over time since epidural injection was first introduced for low back pain and sciatica in 1901. One of the major contributors in the improvement of these interventions is the advancement of imaging guidance technologies. The utilization of image guidance has dramatically improved the accuracy and safety of these interventions. The first image guidance technology adopted by pain specialists was fluoroscopy. This was followed by CT and ultrasound. Fluoroscopy can be used to visualize bony structures of the spine. It is still the most commonly used guidance technology in spinal injections. In the recent years, ultrasound guidance has been increasingly adopted by interventionists to perform various injections. Because its ability to visualize soft tissue, vessels, and nerves, this guidance technology appears to be a better option than fluoroscopy for interventions including SGB and celiac plexus blocks, when visualization of the vessels may prevent intravascular injection. The current evidence indicates the efficacies of these interventions are similar between ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy guidance for SGB and celiac plexus blocks. For facet injections and interlaminar epidural steroid injections, it is important to visualize bony structures in order to perform these procedures accurately and safely. It is worth noting that facet joint injections can be done under ultrasound guidance with equivalent efficacy to fluoroscopic guidance. However, obese patients may present challenge for ultrasound guidance due to its poor visualization of deep anatomical structures. Regarding transforaminal epidural steroid injections, there are limited evidence to support that ultrasound guidance technology has equivalent efficacy and less complications comparing

  8. Fall prevention intervention technologies: A conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Julian; Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, an ever increasing range of technology-based applications have been developed with the goal of assisting in the delivery of more effective and efficient fall prevention interventions. Whilst there have been a number of studies that have surveyed technologies for a particular sub-domain of fall prevention, there is no existing research which surveys the full spectrum of falls prevention interventions and characterises the range of technologies that have augmented this landscape. This study presents a conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art of technology-based fall prevention systems which is derived from a systematic template analysis of studies presented in contemporary research literature. The framework proposes four broad categories of fall prevention intervention system: Pre-fall prevention; Post-fall prevention; Fall injury prevention; Cross-fall prevention. Other categories include, Application type, Technology deployment platform, Information sources, Deployment environment, User interface type, and Collaborative function. After presenting the conceptual framework, a detailed survey of the state of the art is presented as a function of the proposed framework. A number of research challenges emerge as a result of surveying the research literature, which include a need for: new systems that focus on overcoming extrinsic falls risk factors; systems that support the environmental risk assessment process; systems that enable patients and practitioners to develop more collaborative relationships and engage in shared decision making during falls risk assessment and prevention activities. In response to these challenges, recommendations and future research directions are proposed to overcome each respective challenge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematic review of technology-based interventions for unintentional injury prevention education and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Elise; Rizzutti, Nicholas; Shields, Wendy; Zhu, Jeffrey; McDonald, Eileen; Stevens, Martha W; Gielen, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this literature review are to (1) summarise how computer and mobile technology-based health behaviour change applications have been evaluated in unintentional injury prevention, (2) describe how these successes can be applied to injury-prevention programmes in the future and (3) identify research gaps. Studies included in this systematic review were education and behaviour change intervention trials and programme evaluations in which the intervention was delivered by either a computer or mobile technology and addressed an unintentional injury prevention topic. Articles were limited to those published in English and after 1990. Among the 44 technology-based injury-prevention studies included in this review, 16 studies evaluated locally hosted software programmes, 4 studies offered kiosk-based programmes, 11 evaluated remotely hosted internet programmes, 2 studies used mobile technology or portable devices and 11 studies evaluated virtual-reality interventions. Locally hosted software programmes and remotely hosted internet programmes consistently increased knowledge and behaviours. Kiosk programmes showed evidence of modest knowledge and behaviour gains. Both programmes using mobile technology improved behaviours. Virtual-reality programmes consistently improved behaviours, but there were little gains in knowledge. No studies evaluated text-messaging programmes dedicated to injury prevention. There is much potential for computer-based programmes to be used for injury-prevention behaviour change. The reviewed studies provide evidence that computer-based communication is effective in conveying information and influencing how participants think about an injury topic and adopt safety behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Nuclear war - nuclear peace. Technology, strategy, disarmament. Atomkrieg - Atomfrieden. Technik, Strategie, Abruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, H.

    1980-01-01

    The author vividly and also clearly analyzes for the interested man on the street the dilemma of the arms race, briefly explains the strategic plans of the atomic powers and describes in detail the technology of the devil's wonder-toy - nuclear weapons. He does not shrink away from critically questioning technology, planning and disarmament problems or from exposing the roots of the armanent trends and the security-policy problems of the 80's. He briefly outlines the paths of planning, which security-policy may take in the new decade to preserve security and armament control.

  11. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

    2004-02-13

    The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

  12. Intervention strategies in the academic and career development of at-risk undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Anna-Lisa

    This study had two primary purposes: (a) to learn more about the experiences and perceptions of students in science-related fields that have been placed on academic probation or academic warning, and (b) to learn about the impact of a course-based combined cognitive and career intervention on students' grade point averages, learning and study skills, and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants (N=21) were second- to fourth-year students in a science-related faculty who were currently on academic probation (i.e., successfully appealed their 'required to withdraw' status due to unsatisfactory standing) or academic warning (those with marginal academic standing) and completed an intervention course. A matched-peer group of students from the previous academic year when the course was not available comprised the control group. Quantitative data collection included pre-, post-, and follow-up measures of participants' grade point averages (GPAs), scores on the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE). Qualitative data collection included semi-structured interviews with a subset of the participants (N=13) as well as a pre-course questionnaire and the qualitative course evaluation. A repeated-measures ANCOVA showed no difference between the at-risk students who took the intervention course and the matched control group. Friedman results demonstrated significant increases in many subscales of the LASSI, the CDMSE, as well as the overall measure of career decision-making self-efficacy. In the qualitative findings, participants described various academic and non-academic factors that contributed to their at-risk academic standing and the majority described their experience in the course-based intervention as positive and helpful in improving their situation. The findings from this unique combined intervention approach provided a greater understanding of the experience of this often overlooked group

  13. Tuberculosis 2012: biology, pathogenesis and intervention strategies; an update from the city of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzy, Alexandre; Nigou, Jérôme; Gilleron, Martine; Neyrolles, Olivier; Tailleux, Ludovic; Gordon, Stephen V

    2013-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's most deadly infectious diseases, with approximately 1.5 million deaths and 9 million new cases of TB in 2010. There is an urgent global need to develop new control tools, with advances necessary in our basic understanding of the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and translation of these findings to public health. It was in this context that the "Tuberculosis 2012: Biology, Pathogenesis, Intervention Strategies" meeting was held in the Institut Pasteur, Paris, France from 11 to 15th Sept 2012. The meeting brought together over 600 delegates from across the globe to hear updates on the latest research findings and how they are underpinning the development of novel vaccines, diagnostics, and drugs. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription Factor NF-κB: An Update on Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arvind; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Bagam, Prathyusha; Sahoo, Malaya K; Osorio, Diana; Batra, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcription factors are ubiquitous and pleiotropic molecules that regulate the expression of more than 150 genes involved in a broad range of processes including inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The chronic activation or dysregulation of NF-κB signaling is the central cause of pathogenesis in many disease conditions and, therefore, NF-κB is a major focus of therapeutic intervention. Because of this, understanding the relationship between NF-κB and the induction of various downstream signaling molecules is imperative. In this review, we provide an updated synopsis of the role of NF-κB in DNA repair and in various ailments including cardiovascular diseases, HIV infection, asthma, herpes simplex virus infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Furthermore, we also discuss the specific targets for selective inhibitors and future therapeutic strategies.

  15. Bibliometric Analysis: Mirror Therapy as an Occupational Therapy Intervention Strategy in the Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Siprián Castro Alzate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the national and international scientific evidence regarding the use of mirror therapy, as an occupational therapy intervention tool in the clinical setting, in order to acquire knowledge and implement this strategy in professional practice. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was conducted in which the research strategy was held through medical subject headings (MeSH, such as “mirror neuron”, ”occupational therapy”, “physical rehabilitation” and “motor imagery”. Through the use of the bolean and combinations in five different databases were performed: Embase, Ebsco, OTseeker, Science Direct and Medline. The analysis was elaborated by establishing frequencies of different variables such as journal, country, study type and publish­ing year. Conclusions: In the evidence analysis it was found that mirror therapy is an interven­tion modality recently used by different rehabilitation professionals. Since 2004, an increase in the generation of high impact scientific evidence about this subject has been recognized, due in part to the reported effectiveness in clinical practices, mainly the treatment of health conditions secondary to stroke, limb amputations, chronic pain syndromes, and post-surgical rehabilitation. During the reviewed period, an increase in high level academic evidence was observed: 35.7 % of the analyzed publications correspond to randomized controlled trials and 42.9 % are system­atic reviews. The use of mirror therapy in occupational therapy is an intervention modality that facilitates functional rehabilitation processes, promotes independence in performing activities of daily living (adl and allows social participation and environment adaptation processes to happen.

  16. Issues and strategies for faculty development in technology and biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M A

    2003-12-01

    Biomedical informatics and technology are becoming important components of dental education. The tools and techniques now available have the potential for significant impact on teaching and research by improving the way information is acquired, stored, retrieved, and managed. However, a gap exists between those who create, introduce, or implement the technology applications and the faculty in dental schools faced with the challenge of using it. For technology and informatics to thrive in the areas of didactic teaching, clinical teaching, and clinical practice, more than a select few must understand the potential applications. This paper provides an overview of the issues and strategies involved with faculty development for the use of technology in the educational setting. The discussion covers important reasons for developing faculty competence in technology applications, significant barriers to faculty development in this area, and several strategies designed to overcome these barriers.

  17. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  18. [The technological innovation strategy for quality control of Chinese medicine based on Big Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented.

  19. Evaluating the enhancement and improvement of China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Sung; Hu, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Fu-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-tech industry has been prosperous around the world in past decades, while technology and finance have already become the most significant issues in the information era. While high-tech firms are a major force behind a country's economic development, it requires a lot of money for the development process, as well as the financing difficulties for its potential problems, thus, how to evaluate and establish appropriate technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy has become one of the most critical and difficult issues. Moreover, how the chosen intertwined financial environment can be optimized in order that high-tech firms financing problems can be decided has seldom been addressed. Thus, this research aims to establish a technology and financial services platform innovation strategy improvement model, as based on the hybrid MADM model, which addresses the main causal factors and amended priorities in order to strengthen ongoing planning. A DEMATEL technique, as based on Analytic Network Process, as well as modified VIKOR, will be proposed for selecting and re-configuring the aspired technology and financial services platform. An empirical study, as based on China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy, will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this proposed methodology. Based on expert interviews, technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy improvement should be made in the following order: credit guarantee platform ( C )_credit rating platform ( B )_investment and finance platform ( A ).

  20. Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect.

  1. Intervention Strategies in a Saudi English Classroom at Majma'ah University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Verbal reports and English teachers’ classroom experience at   Community College of Majma'ah University (MU warn that underachievement is an educational crisis in the making. And in the paucity of research findings to raise the institutional awareness of the phenomenon, coupled with the lack of relevant professional training programs to deal with the situation, the crisis could be further aggravated. This study is an attempt to address underachievement among English students at Community College; it particularly reports a tripartite teaching strategy comprising three intervention methods: orientation, use of the students' first language (L1 and multiple mid-term exams. This teaching strategy has been devised to achieve two objectives: to motivate the students to improve their performance; and to help them acquire new (college-related study skills. In the light of what has so far been done, it can be concluded that the majority of the students are able to excel academically provided that they are properly informed   and guided to discover these abilities.

  2. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (pIntervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (pnutritional intake. Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback. Conclusion Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to guide researchers in making informed decisions on how to best utilise resources in interventions to engage adult males while highlighting the need for improved reporting of intervention protocols. PMID:23360498

  3. Improving medication adherence with a targeted, technology-driven disease management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David B; Allison, Wanda; Chen, Joyce C; Demand, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Treatment adherence is critical in managing chronic disease, but achieving it remains an elusive goal across many prevalent conditions. As part of its care management strategy, BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina (BCBSSC) implemented the Longitudinal Adherence Treatment Evaluation program, a behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence among members with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes. The objectives of this study were to 1) assess the effectiveness of telephonic intervention in influencing reinitiation of medication therapy, and 2) evaluate the rate and timing of medication reinitiation. BCBSSC applied algorithms against pharmacy claims data to identify patients prescribed targeted medications who were 60 or more days overdue for refills. This information was provided to care managers to address during their next patient contact. Care managers received focused training on techniques for medication behavior change, readiness to change, motivational interviewing, and active listening. Training also addressed common barriers to adherence and available resources, including side effect management, mail order benefits, drug assistance programs, medication organizers, and reminder systems. Overdue refills were tracked for 12 months, with medication reinitiation followed for an additional 3 months. In the intervention group, 94 patients were identified with 123 instances of late medication refills. In the age- and gender-matched comparison group, 61 patients were identified with 76 late refills. The intervention group had a significantly higher rate of medication reinitiation (59.3%) than the control group (42.1%; P < 0.05). Time to reinitiation was significantly shorter in the intervention group, 59.5 (+/- 69.0) days vs. 107.4 (+/- 109) days for the control group (P < 0.05). This initiative demonstrated that a targeted disease management intervention promoting patient behavior change increased the number of patients who reinitiated therapy after a

  4. Testing the implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) strategy as an effective adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) strategy: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Zehner, Mark; Roosa, Mathew R; Martino, Steve; Gotham, Heather J; Ball, Elizabeth L; Stilen, Patricia; Speck, Kathryn; Vandersloot, Denna; Rieckmann, Traci R; Chaple, Michael; Martin, Erika G; Kaiser, David; Ford, James H

    2017-11-17

    Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs)-treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective-are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI) for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs) as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition) or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition). The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation). The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change). Building upon the exploration-preparation-implementation-sustainment (EPIS) framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1) time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome), (2) implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome), and (3) level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome). Although not without limitations, the ISF

  5. Testing the implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF strategy as an effective adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC strategy: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Garner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs—treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective—are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness–implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. Methods Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition. The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation. The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change. Building upon the exploration–preparation–implementation–sustainment (EPIS framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1 time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome, (2 implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome, and (3 level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome

  6. THE APPLICATION OF FORESIGHT PROJECTS IN FORMATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL COMPANIES’ INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Zolotareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is considered the possibility of application of methodology of foresight to the formation of strategy of innovative development of technological companies. The application of existing approaches to defining targets and goals of innovation development does not meet the requirements of the nonlinearity of the modern processes of technological companies’ innovation development.The goals and objectives. The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of application of methods of foresight in forming of technological companies’ innovation development strategy. To achieve the goal, the author has solved the following problems: considered the interrelationship and interdependence between corporate strategy and technological companies’ innovation development strategy; defined the main problems of formation technological companies’ innovation development strategies; revealed the concept of "foresight" and diff erence in methodology of foresight and traditional forecasting techniques; defined the basic principles of foresight; presents the main stages of the foresight project implementation in technological companies.Research methods. The theoretical basis of the study are the publications of Russian and foreign scientists in the field of formation and development of innovation strategies through the application of foresight methods at the level of national innovation system and at company level. As a methodological basis of the study used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction method, deduction method, the comparison, was applied certain aspects of the synergetic analysis.Summary. The results of Russian and foreign researchers systematized by author confirm the possibility and necessity foresight projects implementation in formation and adjustment of technological companies’ innovation development strategies and in the national innovation system development. The principles of engagement of various social forces

  7. Specific factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potančok, Martin; Voříšek, Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare facilities use a number of information system/information and communication technologies. Each healthcare facility faces a need to choose sourcing strategies most suitable to ensure provision of information system/information and communication technology services, processes and resources. Currently, it is possible to observe an expansion of sourcing possibilities in healthcare informatics, which creates new requirements for sourcing strategies. Thus, the aim of this article is to identify factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities. The identification was based on qualitative research, namely, a case study. This study provides a set of internal and external factors with their impact levels. The findings also show that not enough attention is paid to these factors during decision-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A systematic review of the outcomes of educational interventions relevant to nurses with simultaneous strategies for guideline implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Mattila, Lea-Riitta; Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2017-02-01

    To systematically review the literature on the outcomes of educational interventions relevant to nurses with regard to guideline implementation. Previous reviews on interventions to implement guidelines have focused on particular clinical problems, but only one included nursing studies. A systematic review based on the procedure of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. We searched for papers published from 1 January 2008 to 26 February 2015 using the Cochrane, CINAHL and PubMed MEDLINE databases and paper references were searched manually. Quality appraisal was conducted with tools developed by Thomas et al.(Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing, 1, 2004, 176) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Data were analysed with qualitative content analysis and narrative synthesis. The data included 13 studies based on a quasi-experimental study design of 13 different educational interventions, described according to their development and realisation, learning content and teaching and learning methods. Seven interventions were supported by simultaneous strategies, 12 studies reported statistically significant outcomes for the interventions on at least one measurement area and six studies reported improvements in the quality of patient care. Interventions with multi-dimensional content, teaching and learning methods produced several good outcomes. Guidelines were implemented in a heterogeneous way and the interventions were delivered once and mainly on a local basis. In the future, we need to test these interventions in different nursing contexts, measure the outcomes on patient care and carry out randomised controlled trials on their effectiveness. It is important to standardise interventions, as this will allow them to be replicated and compared. Educational interventions to implement guidelines could be beneficial in enhancing nurses' evidence-based decision-making and care practice. The combination of teaching and learning methods proved useful, and

  9. Single-Case Experimental Designs to Evaluate Novel Technology-Based Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Rachel N; Raiff, Bethany R

    2013-01-01

    Technology-based interventions to promote health are expanding rapidly. Assessing the preliminary efficacy of these interventions can be achieved by employing single-case experiments (sometimes referred to as n-of-1 studies). Although single-case experiments are often misunderstood, they offer excellent solutions to address the challenges associated with testing new technology-based interventions. This paper provides an introduction to single-case techniques and highlights advances in developing and evaluating single-case experiments, which help ensure that treatment outcomes are reliable, replicable, and generalizable. These advances include quality control standards, heuristics to guide visual analysis of time-series data, effect size calculations, and statistical analyses. They also include experimental designs to isolate the active elements in a treatment package and to assess the mechanisms of behavior change. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues related to the generality of findings derived from single-case research and how generality can be established through replication and through analysis of behavioral mechanisms. PMID:23399668

  10. Piloting a Sex-Specific, Technology-Enhanced, Active Learning Intervention for Stroke Prevention in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirickson, Amanda; Stutzman, Sonja E; Alberts, Mark J; Novakovic, Roberta L; Stowe, Ann M; Beal, Claudia C; Goldberg, Mark P; Olson, DaiWai M

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies reveal deficiencies in stroke awareness and knowledge of risk factors among women. Existing stroke education interventions may not address common and sex-specific risk factors in the population with the highest stroke-related rate of mortality. This pilot study assessed the efficacy of a technology-enhanced, sex-specific educational program ("SISTERS") for women's knowledge of stroke. This was an experimental pretest-posttest design. The sample consisted of 150 women (mean age, 55 years) with at least 1 stroke risk factor. Participants were randomized to either the intervention (n = 75) or control (n = 75) group. Data were collected at baseline and at a 2-week posttest. There was no statistically significant difference in mean knowledge score (P = .67), mean confidence score (P = .77), or mean accuracy score (P = .75) between the intervention and control groups at posttest. Regression analysis revealed that older age was associated with lower knowledge scores (P women may have less comfort with technology and require consideration for cognitive differences.

  11. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in subfertile patients who conceived following low technology interventions for fertility enhancement: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; Daolio, Jessica; Gibbins, Karen; Battaglia, Francesco Antonino; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Silver, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Low technology interventions for fertility enhancement (LTIFE) are strategies that avoid retrieval, handling, and manipulation of female gametes. The definition of LTIFE is yet to be widely accepted and clarified, but they are commonly used in milder cases of infertility and subfertility. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present study was comprehensively to review and investigate the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in subfertile patients who underwent LTIFE. A literature search up to May 2017 was performed in IBSS, SocINDEX, Institute for Scientific Information, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. An evidence-based hierarchy was used according to The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine to determine which articles to include and analyze, and to provide a level of evidence of each association between intervention and outcome. This analysis identified preliminary and low-grade evidence on the influence of LTIFE on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in subfertile women. LTIFE women should deserve major consideration from Clinicians/Researchers of Reproductive Medicine, because these treatments could be potentially responsible for mothers' and babies' complications. So far, the lack of well-designed and unbiased studies makes further conclusions difficult to be drawn.

  12. UK Higher Education Institutions' Technology-Enhanced Learning Strategies from the Perspective of Disruptive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael; Quintero, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    The publication of institutional strategies for learning, teaching and assessment in UK higher education is practically ubiquitous. Strategies for technology-enhanced learning are also widespread. This article examines 44 publicly available UK university strategies for technology-enhanced learning, aiming to assess the extent to which…

  13. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  14. A systematic review and meta-analysis of workplace intervention strategies to reduce sedentary time in white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; Ng, S H X; Tan, C S; Win, A M; Koh, D; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged sedentary behaviour has been associated with various detrimental health risks. Workplace sitting is particularly important, providing it occupies majority of total daily sedentary behaviour among desk-based employees. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of workplace interventions overall, and according to different intervention strategies (educational/behavioural, environmental and multi-component interventions) for reducing sitting among white-collar working adults. Articles published through December 2015 were identified in five online databases and manual searches. Twenty-six controlled intervention studies published between 2003 and 2015 of 4568 working adults were included. All 26 studies were presented qualitatively, and 21 studies with a control group without any intervention were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled intervention effect showed a significant workplace sitting reduction of -39.6 min/8-h workday (95% confidence interval [CI]: -51.7, -27.5), favouring the intervention group. Multi-component interventions reported the greatest workplace sitting reduction (-88.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -132.7, -44.9), followed by environmental (-72.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -104.9, -40.6) and educational/behavioural strategies -15.5 min/8-h workday (95% CI:-22.9,-8.2). Our study found consistent evidence for intervention effectiveness in reducing workplace sitting, particularly for multi-component and environmental strategies. Methodologically rigorous studies using standardized and objectively determined outcomes are warranted. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  15. Customer intimacy strategy in B2B technology businesses in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Andres, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this Thesis is to analyze Customer Intimacy Strategy in B2B technology businesses in Colombia and the variables that have a direct relationship with it like perception, trust and networking. And how a Customer Intimacy Strategy can affect a company to achieve positive or negative results in an operation, in terms of business opportunities, relations and profitable and sustainable sales if properly managed or mismanaged. With a population of almost 50 mi...

  16. [Strategies and key technologies for risk control and management in quality of Chinese medicine injections based on integrated pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-ping; Kang, Li-yuan; Tang, Ren-mao; Li, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the quality risk control and management of Chinese medicine (CM) injections. The most important technological requirements are analyzed, and a strategy for integrated pharmacology to study CM mechanism is proposed. A key technology system for quality risk control and management was further constructed. The strategy and technology system was finally applied to Shengmai injection for quality risk control and management.

  17. Interventional robotic systems: Applications and technology state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLEARY, KEVIN; MELZER, ANDREAS; WATSON, VANCE; KRONREIF, GERNOT; STOIANOVICI, DAN

    2011-01-01

    Many different robotic systems have been developed for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on robotic systems for image-guided interventions such as biopsy of suspicious lesions, interstitial tumor treatment, or needle placement for spinal blocks and neurolysis. Medical robotics is a young and evolving field and the ultimate role of these systems has yet to be determined. This paper presents four interventional robotics systems designed to work with MRI, CT, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound imaging devices. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials. The systems include the AcuBot for active needle insertion under CT or fluoroscopy, the B-Rob systems for needle placement using CT or ultrasound, the INNOMOTION for MRI and CT interventions, and the MRBot for MRI procedures. Following these descriptions, the technology issues of image compatibility, registration, patient movement and respiration, force feedback, and control mode are briefly discussed. It is our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions, but more research and clinical trials are needed. The possibility of performing new clinical procedures that the human cannot achieve remains an ultimate goal for medical robotics. Engineers and physicians should work together to create and validate these systems for the benefits of patients everywhere. PMID:16754193

  18. Interventional robotic systems: applications and technology state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Kevin; Melzer, Andreas; Watson, Vance; Kronreif, Gernot; Stoianovici, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Many different robotic systems have been developed for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on robotic systems for image-guided interventions such as biopsy of suspicious lesions, interstitial tumor treatment, or needle placement for spinal blocks and neurolysis. Medical robotics is a young and evolving field and the ultimate role of these systems has yet to be determined. This paper presents four interventional robotics systems designed to work with MRI, CT, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound imaging devices. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials. The systems include the AcuBot for active needle insertion under CT or fluoroscopy, the B-Rob systems for needle placement using CT or ultrasound, the INNOMOTION for MRI and CT interventions, and the MRBot for MRI procedures. Following these descriptions, the technology issues of image compatibility, registration, patient movement and respiration, force feedback, and control mode are briefly discussed. It is our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions, but more research and clinical trials are needed. The possibility of performing new clinical procedures that the human cannot achieve remains an ultimate goal for medical robotics. Engineers and physicians should work together to create and validate these systems for the benefits of patients everywhere.

  19. Effect of Digital Nutrition Education Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Information Technology Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits.

  20. Politicking information technology strategy in organisations: A case study of a selected organisation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Twum-Darko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the impact of organisational polities on IT strategy formulation and implementation in an organisation. The objective is to determine the extent of organisational polities on strategy implementation in an organisation. The paper considered the interplay between stakeholders in influencing IT strategy formulation and implementation in an organisation as a socially constructed phenomenon. Thus, the phenomenon can be interpreted and understood by using social theories such Structuration Theory. Hence the paper adopted ANT as a lens through which to understand and interpret the sociotechnical processes associated with IT strategy formulation and implementation in an organisation. Through IT strategy, many organisations attempt to set out key directions and objectives for the use and management of information, communication and technologies. A shared view among these organisations is that IT strategy allows all parts of the organisation to gain a shared understanding of priorities, goals and objectives for both current and future states as defined in the organisational strategy. It is therefore arguable that IT strategy, for the foreseeable future will remain a key aspect of development within organisations. As a result, there has been more focus on how IT strategy is formulated and articulated. What is missing though, is less attention to the implementation of it. Using interpretive research philosophy and employing semi-structured interviews as data collection instrument, this paper attempts to suggest a matrix that will assist organisation to comprehend and deal with organisational politics to reduce its negative impact on IT strategy formulation and implementation in an organisation

  1. Bridging research and practice: challenges and successes in implementing evidence-based preventive intervention strategies for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Manly, Jody Todd

    2011-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of negative developmental outcomes for children and families as well as significant economic consequences. While efficacious intervention strategies have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of trauma and to improve behavioral and emotional functioning, these models have not been widely adopted by clinicians. The challenges associated with exporting evidence-based interventions into community settings are discussed, along with an example of a preventive intervention program for young mothers, successfully implemented through a partnership of community agencies and funders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  3. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.

  4. SUPPLIER SELECTION STRATEGY AND MANUFACTURING FLEXIBILITY: IMPACT OF QUALITY AND TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Jantan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the relationship between technology, quality, cost and delivery performance-based, supplier selection strategies, and manufacturing flexibilities namely, product flexibility, launch flexibility, and volume flexibility. Moreover, the moderating impact of supplier management strategies, namely quality roadmap and technology roadmap on the above relationships were also explored. The data for the study was drawn from a sample of companies listed in the factory directory published by the Penang Development Corporation (PDC. A postal survey of 120 manufacturers provided a return of 92 usable responses. The results reveal that the selection of suppliers based on technological and quality performance positively affects all the three dimensions of manufacturing flexibility, with complementary effects of good technology and quality roadmaps. Technology and quality roadmaps act as predictors for product and volume flexibilities. However, when launch flexibility is the focus, both technology and quality roadmaps moderate the impact of supplier selection strategies. Details of the findings, theoretical and practical implications, and the research limitation are discussed.

  5. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican…

  6. Combined Home and School Obesity Prevention Interventions for Children: What Behavior Change Strategies and Intervention Characteristics Are Associated with Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2012-01-01

    This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…

  7. Obesity and adverse breast cancer risk and outcome: Mechanistic insights and strategies for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon-Ruiz, Manuel; Morata-Tarifa, Cynthia; Valle-Goffin, Janeiro J; Friedman, Eitan R; Slingerland, Joyce M

    2017-09-01

    incorporation of weight loss intervention strategies into care for patients with breast cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:378-397. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 The Authors. CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  8. Information Technology Project Portfolio and Strategy Alignment Assessment Based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Analía Sánchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that companies face considerable difficulties in assessing the strategy value contribution of Information Technology (IT investments. One of the major obstacles to achieving strategy alignment is that organizations find extremely difficult to link and quantify the IT investments benefits with strategic goals. The aim of this paper is to define an approach to assess portfolio-strategy alignment. To this end a formal specification of Kaplan and Norton Strategy Map is developed utilizing Unified Modeling Language (UML. The approach uses the Strategy Map as a framework for defining the portfolio value contribution and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is used as the methodology for measuring efficiency of project portfolios.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i2.66

  9. Comparing strategies for operator eye protection in the interventional radiology suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Raymond H; Dauer, Lawrence T; Altamirano, Joaquin P; Alvarado, Keith J; St Germain, Jean; Solomon, Stephen B

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of common radiation-shielding strategies, used alone and in combination, on scattered dose to the fluoroscopy operator's eye. With an operator phantom positioned at the groin, upper abdomen, and neck, posteroanterior low-dose fluoroscopy was performed at the phantom patient's upper abdomen. Operator lens radiation dose rate was recorded with a solid-state dosimeter with and without a leaded table skirt, nonleaded and leaded (0.75 mm lead equivalent) eyeglasses, disposable tungsten-antimony drapes (0.25 mm lead equivalent), and suspended and rolling (0.5 mm lead equivalent) transparent leaded shields. Lens dose measurements were also obtained in right and left 15° anterior obliquities with the operator at the upper abdomen and during digital subtraction angiography (two images per second) with the operator at the patient's groin. Each strategy's shielding efficacy was expressed as a reduction factor of the lens dose rate compared with the unshielded condition. Use of leaded glasses alone reduced the lens dose rate by a factor of five to 10; scatter-shielding drapes alone reduced the dose rate by a factor of five to 25. Use of both implements together was always more protective than either used alone, reducing dose rate by a factor of 25 or more. Lens dose was routinely undetectable when a suspended shield was the only barrier during low-dose fluoroscopy. Use of scatter-shielding drapes or leaded glasses decreases operator lens dose by a factor of five to 25, but the use of both barriers together (or use of leaded shields) provides maximal protection to the interventional radiologist's eye. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Community-based interventions in hypertensive patients: a comparison of three health education strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chu-Hong; Tang, Song-Tao; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Zhang, Mian-Qiu; Lin, Wei-Quan; Ding, Sen-Hua; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-29

    Community-based health education programs may be helpful in improving health outcomes in patients with chronic illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate community-based health education strategies in the management of hypertensive patients with low socioeconomic status in Dongguan City, China. This was a randomized, non-blinded trial involving 360 hypertensive patients enrolled in the community health service centre of Liaobu Town, Dongguan City, China. Participants were randomized to receive one of the three community-based health education programs over 2 years: self-learning reading (Group 1), monthly regular didactic lecture (Group 2), monthly interactive education workshop (Group 3). Outcomes included the changes in the proportion of subjects with normalized blood pressure (BP), hypertension-related knowledge score, adherence to antihypertensive treatment, lifestyle, body mass index and serum lipids. After the 2-y intervention, the proportion of subjects with normalized BP increased significantly in Group 2 (from 41.2% to 63.2%, p<0.001), and increased more substantially in Group 3 (from 40.2% to 86.3%, p<0.001), but did not change significantly in Group 1. Improvements in hypertension-related knowledge score, adherence to regular use of medications, appropriate salt intake and regular physical activity were progressively greater from group 1 to group 2 to group 3. Group 3 had the largest reductions in body mass index and serum LDL cholesterol levels. Interactive education workshops may be the most effective strategy in community-based health promotion education programs for hypertensive patients in improving patients' knowledge on hypertension and alleviating clinical risk factors for preventing hypertension-related complications.

  11. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  12. Journaling as reinforcement for the resourcefulness training intervention in mothers of technology-dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Blanchette, Julia E; Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2016-11-01

    Resourcefulness, a set of cognitive and behavioral skills used to attain, maintain, or regain health, is a factor related to depressive symptoms in mothers of children with chronic conditions and complex care needs who are dependent on medical technology such as mechanical ventilation or feeding tubes. The purpose of this secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled pilot intervention study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of daily journal writing as a method of reinforcement of resourcefulness training (RT) that teaches the use of social and personal resourcefulness skills. Participants returned their journals to the study office at the end of the four-week journaling exercise. Content analysis from exit interviews and journals supported the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of daily journaling for reinforcement of RT in this population. Journal writing can be used by pediatric nurses to reinforce and promote resourcefulness skill use in parents of technology-dependent children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of utilities in enabling technology innovation: The BC hydro alternative & emerging energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Alex; Leclair, Donna; Morrison, Allison

    2010-09-15

    In order for renewable energy to play a dominant role in the global electricity supply mix, emerging renewable energy technologies - such as wave, tidal, enhanced geothermal, and 3rd generation photovoltaic technologies - must prove their technical merits and achieve cost parity with conventional sources of supply. BC Hydro, a government-owned electric utility, launched an Alternative and Emerging Energy Strategy that describes its role as an enabler of technology innovation. This paper describes BC Hydro's goal, objectives and actions to accelerate the commercialization that will yield a diversity of supply options and a growing, local clean-tech cluster.

  14. Impact of Information Technology-Based Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Nouf Sahal; Alsubki, Nada; Jones, Simon; Khunti, Kamlesh; Munro, Neil; de Lusignan, Simon

    2016-11-25

    Information technology-based interventions are increasingly being used to manage health care. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding whether these interventions improve outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, assessing the impact of information technology on changes in the levels of hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) and mapping the interventions with chronic care model (CCM) elements. Electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant studies that were published up until July 2016, a method that was supplemented by identifying articles from the references of the articles already selected using the electronic search tools. The study search and selection were performed by independent reviewers. Of the 1082 articles retrieved, 32 trials (focusing on a total of 40,454 patients) were included. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled results. Information technology-based interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in HbA 1c levels (mean difference -0.33%, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.26, Ptechnology-based interventions were, the more improvements there were in HbA 1c levels. Information technology strategies combined with the other elements of chronic care models are associated with improved glycemic control in people with diabetes. No clinically relevant impact was observed on low-density lipoprotein levels and blood pressure, but there was evidence that the cost of care was lower. ©Nouf Sahal Alharbi, Nada Alsubki, Simon Jones, Kamlesh Khunti, Neil Munro, Simon de Lusignan. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 25.11.2016.

  15. The Effect of Information Communication Technology Interventions on Reducing Social Isolation in the Elderly: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ru Regina; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-28

    The aging of the population is an inexorable change that challenges governments and societies in every developed country. Based on clinical and empirical data, social isolation is found to be prevalent among elderly people, and it has negative consequences on the elderly's psychological and physical health. Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms. This systematic review explored the effects of ICT interventions on reducing social isolation of the elderly. Relevant electronic databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SSCI, Communication Studies: a SAGE Full-Text Collection, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) were systematically searched using a unified strategy to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the effectiveness of ICT-mediated social isolation interventions for elderly people published in English between 2002 and 2015. Narrative synthesis was performed to interpret the results of the identified studies, and their quality was also appraised. Twenty-five publications were included in the review. Four of them were evaluated as rigorous research. Most studies measured the effectiveness of ICT by measuring specific dimensions rather than social isolation in general. ICT use was consistently found to affect social support, social connectedness, and social isolation in general positively. The results for loneliness were inconclusive. Even though most were positive, some studies found a nonsignificant or negative impact. More importantly, the positive effect of ICT use on social connectedness and social support seemed to be short-term and did not last for more than six months after the intervention. The results for self-esteem and control over one's life

  16. Behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, E; Hassmén, P; Welvaert, M; Pumpa, K L

    2017-04-01

    Poor adherence to lifestyle intervention remains a key factor hindering treatment effectiveness and health outcomes for adults with obesity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if behavioural treatment strategies (e.g. goal setting, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, cognitive restructuring etc.) improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the use of behavioural treatment strategies in obesity management were identified by systematically reviewing the literature within Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from their inception to August 2016. This meta-analysis shows that behavioural treatment interventions have a significant positive effect on session attendance (percentage) and physical activity (total min/week) in adults with obesity (M = 17.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.77, 24.50), z =5.0337, P intervention programmes in adults with obesity. These strategies should be routinely incorporated into lifestyle intervention, obesity management and weight loss programmes with the aim of improving engagement and adherence. If adherence were improved, treatment effectiveness, health outcomes and the ultimate burden of chronic disease could also be improved. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. The evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care: an exploration of the potential of case study research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Complex, incrementally changing, context dependent and variable palliative care services are difficult to evaluate. Case study research strategies may have potential to contribute to evaluating such complex interventions, and to develop this field of evaluation research. This paper explores definitions of case study (as a unit of study, a process, and a product) and examines the features of case study research strategies which are thought to confer benefits for the evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care settings. Ten features of case study that are thought to be beneficial in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care are discussed, drawing from exemplars of research in this field. Important features are related to a longitudinal approach, triangulation, purposive instance selection, comprehensive approach, multiple data sources, flexibility, concurrent data collection and analysis, search for proving-disproving evidence, pattern matching techniques and an engaging narrative. The limitations of case study approaches are discussed including the potential for subjectivity and their complex, time consuming and potentially expensive nature. Case study research strategies have great potential in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care settings. Three key features need to be exploited to develop this field: case selection, longitudinal designs, and the use of rival hypotheses. In particular, case study should be used in situations where there is interplay and interdependency between the intervention and its context, such that it is difficult to define or find relevant comparisons.

  18. New Possibilities for Technology Development in the Auspices of Low-Emission EU Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car, S.; Jelavic, V.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has elevated the level of responsibility of the international community for implementation of measures for climate preservation and CO2 reduction. After the Paris Agreement, the base for carrying out the measures lies in the following: contribution to emissions reduction determined on a national level, establishing new platforms for energy management based on low-emission development, new technological and economy development and technology transfer. European Development Fund is an opportunity for accelerating the technological development of Croatian economy and to coordinate it with EU low-emission strategy, taking into account the advanced specialization economy strategy which was recently approved by the EC and adopted in the Parliament. Technological development, based on available local resources, new technologies, innovations and global market, is a basis of a long-term sustainable development and it is expected that it will be supported not just from the EU funds but also with local fiscal and other measures. Visions for development of some technologies will be shown, as well as examples of new possibilities for Croatian electro industry that is already present on the global market and only confirms the possibility and necessity of such technological development.(author).

  19. Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention as a National Reperfusion Strategy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Jensen, Lisette O; Hansen, Hans-Henrik Tilsted

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) was chosen as a national reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in 2003. This study describes the temporal implementation of PPCI in Western Denmark, the gradual introduction of field triage...

  20. A model of tuberculosis transmission and intervention strategies in an urban residential area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Elsje; Fluitt, Aaron M; Whitney, Scott E; Freifeld, Alison G; Viljoen, Hendrik J

    2010-04-01

    The model herein aims to explore the dynamics of the spread of tuberculosis (TB) in an informal settlement or township. The population is divided into households of various sizes and also based on commuting status. The model dynamics distinguishes between three distinct social patterns: the exposure of commuters during travel, random diurnal interaction and familial exposure at night. Following the general SLIR models, the population is further segmented into susceptible (S), exposed/latently infected (L), active/infectious (I), and recovered (R) individuals. During the daytime, commuters travel on public transport, while non-commuters randomly interact in the community to mimic chance encounters with infectious persons. At night, each family interacts and sleeps together in the home. The risk of exposure to TB is based on the proximity, duration, and frequency of encounters with infectious persons. The model is applied to a hypothetical population to explore the effects of different intervention strategies including vaccination, wearing of masks during the commute, prophylactic treatment of latent infections and more effective case-finding and treatment. The most important findings of the model are: (1) members of larger families are responsible for more disease transmissions than those from smaller families, (2) daily commutes on public transport provide ideal conditions for transmission of the disease, (3) improved diagnosis and treatment has the greatest impact on the spread of the disease, and (4) detecting TB at the first clinic visit, when patients are still smear negative, is key. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technologies and Second Language: Nigerian Students' Adaptive Strategies to Cope with Language Barrier in Northern Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elega, Adeola Abdulateef; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how Nigerian students in Northern Cyprus cope with language barrier and increase interactions with people of the host community beyond the classroom via utilizing technological adaptive strategies. In order to complete this study, a descriptive design based on a survey conducted among 238 Nigerian students studying…

  2. Creative Teaching and Learning Strategies for Novice Users of Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses perspectives of creative teaching and learning strategies in the new learning context of mobile technology, particularly for novice learners. The discussion presented here is framed by two case studies and uses an ethnographical approach, informed by participant observation to consider the experiences of users of mobile…

  3. Predominant Teaching Strategies in Schools: Implications for Curriculum Implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuonye, Keziah Akuoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey is hinged on predominant teaching strategies in schools, implications for curriculum implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Target population consisted of teachers in primary, secondary and tertiary schools. However, purposive sample of 900 respondents was drawn from the six BRACED states namely Bayelsa,…

  4. Radiotherapy of brain metastases of a breast cancer: present strategies, technological innovations and biological perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargari, C.; Vedrine, L.; Bauduceau, O.; Jacob, J.; Fayolle, M.; Chargari, C.; Campana, F.; Pierga, J.Y.; Idrissi, H.R.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose an overview of strategies which are presently used for the treatment of brain metastases related to a breast cancer. They outline the perspectives and recent developments of encephalic irradiation with new technologies allowing an increased conformation to be obtained, and also in terms of radiosensitization and radioprotection experiences. Short communication

  5. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  6. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and

  7. Integration of Technology Enhanced Learning within Business Organizations: Which Strategy to Choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Rutkiene, Aušra; Trepule, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses a responsible and a responsive strategic organizational approach for a smooth integration of technology enhanced learning (TEL). A response to external and internal contingencies and an involvement of different stakeholders into the development and implementation of the so-called eLearning strategies is one of the approaches…

  8. Technology Transfer in Poland: An Investment of U.S. Government, U.S. Corporate, and Polish Government Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hays, Susan

    1998-01-01

    This case study examines how U.S. Government (USG) policy, U.S. corporate policy, and Polish government policy affect the strategy of technology transfer of military and/or dual-use technologies in Poland...

  9. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  10. National Strategies to Harness Information Technology Seeking Transformation in Singapore, Finland, the Philippines, and South Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The ability to harness Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) is increasingly at the heart of competitiveness and sustainable growth. As countries engage in an increasingly competitive global economy, they are trying to weave ICT into their development strategies, in the same way enterprises have learned to use ICT to transform their business models and strategies. This integration offers a new path to development that is responsive to the challenges of our times.  In National Strategies to Harness Information Technology, Nagy Hanna and Peter Knight provide a framework for assessing the opportunities, challenges, and prospects for “e-transformation” and for analyzing the options and innovations adopted to manage the e-transformation process.  They ask hard questions: what does it take to harness ICT to transform an economy?  Why some countries accelerate their development journey with ICT while others fail?  How did successful countries balance the need for strategic leadership with bottom up ...

  11. Strengthening cost-effectiveness analysis in Thailand through the establishment of the health intervention and technology assessment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivess, Sripen; Teerawattananon, Yot; Mills, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Capacity is limited in the developing world to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of health interventions. In Thailand, there have been concerted efforts to promote evidence-based policy making, including the introduction of economic appraisals within health technology assessment (HTA). This paper reviews the experience of this lower middle-income country, with an emphasis on the creation of the Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program (HITAP), including its mission, management structures and activities. Over the past 3 decades, several HTA programmes were implemented in Thailand but not sustained or developed further into a national institute. As a response to increasing demands for HTA evidence including CEA information, the HITAP was created in 2007 as an affiliate unit of a semi-autonomous research arm of the Ministry of Public Health. An advantage of this HTA programme over previous initiatives was that it was hosted by a research institute with long-term experience in conducting health systems and policy research and capacity building of its research staff, and excellent research and policy networks. To deal with existing impediments to conducting health economics research, the main strategies of the HITAP were carefully devised to include not only capacity strengthening of its researchers and administrative staff, but also the development of essential elements for the country's health economic evaluation methodology. These included, for example, methodological guidelines, standard protocols and benchmarks for resource allocation, many of which have been adopted by national policy-making bodies including the three major public health insurance plans. Networks and collaborations with domestic and foreign institutes have been sought as a means of resource mobilization and exchange. Although the HITAP is well financed by a number of government agencies and international organizations, the programme is vulnerable to shortages of qualified

  12. A randomized trial of an intervention to improve use and adherence to effective coronary heart disease prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Stacey L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacious strategies for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD are underused, and, when used, have low adherence. Existing efforts to improve use and adherence to these efficacious strategies have been so intensive that they are impractical for clinical practice. Methods We conducted a randomized trial of a CHD prevention intervention (including a computerized decision aid and automated tailored adherence messages at one university general internal medicine practice. After obtaining informed consent and collecting baseline data, we randomized patients (men and women age 40-79 with no prior history of cardiovascular disease to either the intervention or usual care. We then saw them for two additional study visits over 3 months. For intervention participants, we administered the decision aid at the primary study visit (1 week after baseline visit and then mailed 3 tailored adherence reminders at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We assessed our outcomes (including the predicted likelihood of angina, myocardial infarction, and CHD death over 10 years (CHD risk and self-reported adherence between groups at 3 month follow-up. Data collection occurred from June 2007 through December 2009. All study procedures were IRB approved. Results We randomized 160 eligible patients (81 intervention; 79 control and followed 96% to study conclusion. Mean predicted CHD risk at baseline was 11.3%. The intervention increased self-reported adherence to chosen risk reducing strategies by 25 percentage points (95% CI 8% to 42%, with the biggest effect for aspirin. It also changed predicted CHD risk by -1.1% (95% CI -0.16% to -2%, with a larger effect in a pre-specified subgroup of high risk patients. Conclusion A computerized intervention that involves patients in CHD decision making and supports adherence to effective prevention strategies can improve adherence and reduce predicted CHD risk. Clinical trials registration number Clinical

  13. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  14. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  15. Acceptability and feasibility of potential intervention strategies for influencing sedentary time at work: focus group interviews in executives and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Veldeman, Charlene; De Bacquer, Dirk; Braeckman, Lutgart; Owen, Neville; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-02-18

    Occupational sitting can be the largest contributor to overall daily sitting time in white-collar workers. With adverse health effects in adults, intervention strategies to influence sedentary time on a working day are needed. Therefore, the present aim was to examine employees' and executives' reflections on occupational sitting and to examine the potential acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies to reduce and interrupt sedentary time on a working day. Seven focus groups (four among employees, n = 34; three among executives, n = 21) were conducted in a convenience sample of three different companies in Flanders (Belgium), using a semi-structured questioning route in five themes [personal sitting patterns; intervention strategies during working hours, (lunch) breaks, commuting; and intervention approach]. The audiotaped interviews were verbatim transcribed, followed by a qualitative inductive content analysis in NVivo 10. The majority of participants recognized they spend their working day mostly sitting and associated this mainly with musculoskeletal health problems. Participants suggested a variety of possible strategies, primarily for working hours (standing during phone calls/meetings, PC reminders, increasing bathroom use by drinking more water, active sitting furniture, standing desks, rearranging the office) and (lunch) breaks (physical activity, movement breaks, standing tables). However, several barriers were reported, including productivity concerns, impracticality, awkwardness of standing, and the habitual nature of sitting. Facilitating factors were raising awareness, providing alternatives for simply standing, making some strategies obligatory and workers taking some personal responsibility. There are some strategies targeting sedentary time on a working day that are perceived to be realistic and useful. However several barriers emerged, which future trials and practical initiatives should take into account.

  16. Validation of innovative technologies and strategies for regulatory safety assessment methods: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William S; Wind, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Advances in science and innovative technologies are providing new opportunities to develop test methods and strategies that may improve safety assessments and reduce animal use for safety testing. These include high throughput screening and other approaches that can rapidly measure or predict various molecular, genetic, and cellular perturbations caused by test substances. Integrated testing and decision strategies that consider multiple types of information and data are also being developed. Prior to their use for regulatory decision-making, new methods and strategies must undergo appropriate validation studies to determine the extent that their use can provide equivalent or improved protection compared to existing methods and to determine the extent that reproducible results can be obtained in different laboratories. Comprehensive and optimal validation study designs are expected to expedite the validation and regulatory acceptance of new test methods and strategies that will support improved safety assessments and reduced animal use for regulatory testing.

  17. Strategies to address the desertion university from Information Technologies and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Rocio Ramirez Saavedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents general objective describe the main components of a strategy by the use of Information Technology and Communications (TIC to address the problem of the undergraduate student desertion of universities in Colombia. it is the purpose of proposing a strategy to avoid duplication of efforts and resources expenses when determining whether a student is at risk of dropping out. The overall methodological development was approached from heuristics and the projectile area, the specific methodology to establish three phases, planning, design and development were defined. Through this article the institutions of higher education may have a strategy to address the problem of undergraduate student desertion. Regionally the study may be used as a reference for implementing new strategies to help reduce dropout rates from the experiences of other institutions in the country.

  18. Designing a theory-informed, contextually appropriate intervention strategy to improve delivery of paediatric services in Kenyan hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Mike

    2013-03-28

    District hospital services in Kenya and many low-income countries should deliver proven, effective interventions that could substantially reduce child and newborn mortality. However such services are often of poor quality. Researchers have therefore been challenged to identify intervention strategies that go beyond addressing knowledge, skill, or resource inadequacies to support health systems to deliver better services at scale. An effort to develop a system-oriented intervention tailored to local needs and context and drawing on theory is described. An intervention was designed to improve district hospital services for children based on four main strategies: a reflective process to distill root causes for the observed problems with service delivery; developing a set of possible intervention approaches to address these problems; a search of literature for theory that provided the most appropriate basis for intervention design; and repeatedly moving backwards and forwards between identified causes, proposed interventions, identified theory, and knowledge of the existing context to develop an overarching intervention that seemed feasible and likely to be acceptable and potentially sustainable. In addition to human and resource constraints key problems included failures of relevant professionals to take responsibility for or ownership of the challenge of pediatric service delivery; inadequately prepared, poorly supported leaders of service units (mid-level managers) who are often professionally and geographically isolated and an almost complete lack of useful information for routinely monitoring or understanding service delivery practice or outcomes. A system-oriented intervention recognizing the pivotal role of leaders of service units but addressing the outer and inner setting of hospitals was designed to help shape and support an appropriate role for these professionals. It aims to foster a sense of ownership while providing the necessary understanding, knowledge

  19. Self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: can they successfully prevent and treat diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe

    2011-05-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. MODEL OF PROVIDING WITH DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kuzkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper presents research and instructional tools for assessment of providing with the development strategy for information technologies in an organization. Method. The corresponding assessment model is developed which takes into consideration IT-processes equilibrium according to selected efficiency factors of information technologies application. Basic results. The model peculiarity resides in applying neuro-fuzzy approximators where the conclusion is drawn upon fuzzy logic, and membership functions are adjusted through the use of neural networks. For the adequacy testing of the suggested model, due diligence result analysis has been carried out for the IT-strategy executed in the “Navigator” group of companies at the stage of implementation and support of new technologies and production methods. Data visualization with a circle diagram is applied for the comparative evaluation of the analysis results. The chosen model adequacy is proved by the agreement between predictive assessments for IT-strategy performance targets derived by means of the fuzzy cognitive model over 12 months planning horizon and the real values of these targets upon the expiry of the given planning term. Practical significance. The developed model application gives the possibility to solve the problem of sustainability assessment for the process of providing the required IT-strategy realization level based upon the fuzzy cognitive map analysis and to reveal IT-objectives changing tendencies for an organization over the stated planning interval.

  1. Stepwise Approach to Problematic Hypoglycemia in Korea: Educational, Technological, and Transplant Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Man Jin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia has been found to be prevalent in 20% to 40% of people with type 1 diabetes. If a similar prevalence exists in Koreans with type 1 diabetes, at a minimum, thousands of people with type 1 diabetes suffer at least one unpredicted episode of severe hypoglycemia per year in Korea. For patients with problematic hypoglycemia, an evidence-based stepwise approach was suggested in 2015. The first step is structured education regarding multiple daily injections of an insulin analog, and the second step is adding a technological intervention, such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or real-time continuous glucose monitoring. The next step is a sensor-augmented pump, preferably with a low glucose suspension feature or very frequent contact, and the final step is islet or pancreas transplantation. In Korea, however, none of these treatments are reimbursed by the National Health Insurance, and thus have not been widely implemented. The low prevalence of type 1 diabetes means that Korean physicians are relatively unfamiliar with the new technologies in this field. Therefore, the roles of new technologies and pancreas or islet transplantation in the treatment of problematic hypoglycemia need to be defined in the current clinical setting of Korea.

  2. The biphasic autoscopy integrated to microteaching: A strategy of reflective intervention on the chemistry teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Arrigo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has its focus on the initial reflective training of a student of a degree course for Chemistry Teachers, during the microteaching activities, developed in the discipline of Supervised Internship. For the implementation of the proposal we integrated the phases of the microteaching to the stages of autoscopy, proposing the biphasic autoscopy, procedure performed to the data collect and to the reflexive intervention with the students. It was developed in two phases, interactive and post-active. In this context, the objective of the research consisted in characterizing how students give meaning to their thoughts and how these can interfere on the construction of their teaching profiles. The results got come from the analysis, interpretation and systematization of the data from the reflective "moments” described by Schön. Based on the analysis of the reflections we identified four "moments" of alert in the reflective student practice, however, we found that the alert 1, concerning the difficulty found by her on the approach of the content was responsible for the occurrence of other alerts along her microteaching. Thus, we infer that the alert 1 featured a situation/element of surprise that she did not framed along the lines of what she has learned to treat as normal, so it was necessary to establish a reflexive dialogue with the educative situation to set up such a problem through an answer that was not ordinary and spontaneous. In this situation, while restructuring her strategies of actions, the student acknowledged the problems arising from the teaching practice, from her difficulty in how to approach the content. Through the analyzes carried out we recognized the potentialities of integrating to the microteaching the autoscopy, as a way of enabling reflective moments related to the teaching practice on the training of future teachers.

  3. Computer and mobile technology interventions for self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Catherine; McCann, Margaret; Brady, Anne Marie

    2017-05-23

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow obstruction due to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases, for example, cigarette smoke. The pattern of care for people with moderate to very severe COPD often involves regular lengthy hospital admissions, which result in high healthcare costs and an undesirable effect on quality of life. Research over the past decade has focused on innovative methods for developing enabling and assistive technologies that facilitate patient self-management. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions delivered by computer and by mobile technology versus face-to-face or hard copy/digital documentary-delivered interventions, or both, in facilitating, supporting, and sustaining self-management among people with COPD. In November 2016, we searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR), which contains trial reports identified through systematic searches of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO, and we handsearched respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We included randomised controlled trials that measured effects of remote and Web 2.0-based interventions defined as technologies including personal computers (PCs) and applications (apps) for mobile technology, such as iPad, Android tablets, smart phones, and Skype, on behavioural change towards self-management of COPD. Comparator interventions included face-to-face and/or hard copy/digital documentary educational/self-management support. Two review authors (CMcC and MMcC) independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-text study reports for inclusion. Two review authors (CMcC and AMB) independently assessed study quality and extracted data. We expressed continuous data as mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for studies using different outcome measurement scales. We

  4. Strategies for Promoting Green Building Technologies Adoption in the Construction Industry—An International Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ping Chuen Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Because green building technologies (GBTs adoption is a promising way of ameliorating the sustainability performance of buildings, GBTs are receiving increased interest in the global construction community. The barriers to the adoption of GBTs, such as higher cost and lack of awareness, further indicate that proper strategies need to be devised for promoting the wider adoption of GBTs in buildings development. However, there exist limited empirical studies identifying the strategies for promoting GBTs adoption in the construction industry. This study aims to identify the strategies that are important for promoting GBTs adoption in construction. After a comprehensive literature review to identify strategies for the promotion of GBTs adoption, empirical data were gleaned through a questionnaire survey with 104 green building experts around the world. The analysis results validated the importance of all of the 12 promotion strategies used for the study. Green building experts from different countries and with different backgrounds had significant agreement on the relative importance ranking of the promotion strategies. Furthermore, “financial and further market-based incentives for GBTs adopters”, “availability of better information on cost and benefits of GBTs”, “mandatory governmental policies and regulations”, and “green rating and labeling” were identified as the top four important promotion strategies. The research findings provide a valuable reference to assist practitioners and policy makers in developing practical strategies for promoting GBTs adoption to eventually achieve the sustainable development of buildings. From the perspective of international experts, this study adds to the green building literature by offering empirical evidence of the important strategies for promoting GBTs adoption in the construction industry. Future research will investigate the interrelationships among the promotion strategies and their

  5. DEVELOPING A TECHNOLOGY-BASED BUSINESS STRATEGY FOR THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OF TELKOM SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at developing a technology-based business strategy for Telkom’s international business. Deregulation, competition and demand for converging voice, data and video in the telecommunication market were the driving forces behind this study. Without a proper strategy, Telkom will not be able to withstand the new competition. As the initial step in strategy formulation, Telkom’s strategic goals were identified. A SWOT analysis was conducted and a strategy formulation map was developed. A technology balance sheet and S-curve models were developed to analyse the current products and technologies. It become evident through the research that there is a high potential for business expansion into Africa and Telkom has sufficient capabilities to support this. The implementation of voice over Internet protocol technology will enable Telkom to deliver international services at competitive rates. The study concluded by developing a technology strategy for Telkom’s international business. Recommendations are put forward and future research gaps are identified.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n tegnologie-gebaseerde besigheidstrategie vir Telkom se internasionale besigheid te ontwikkel. Deregulering, mededinging en die vraag na konvergensie van stem, data en video in die telekommunikasiemark was die dryfkragte agter hierdie studie. Sonder ‘n behoorlike strategie sal Telkom nie teen die nuwe mededinging kan staande bly nie. As eerste stap in die formulering van ‘n strategie, is Telkom se doelwitte geïdentifiseer. ‘n SWOT-analise is uitgevoer en ‘n strategieformuleringskaart is ontwikkel. ‘n Tegnologiebalansstaat en S-krommemodelle is ontwikkel om die bestaande produkte en tegnologieë te ontleed. Hierdie navorsing het aangetoon dat daar ‘n hoë potensiaal vir uitbreiding van Telkom se besigheid in Afrika bestaan en dat Telkom genoegsame vermoëns besit om dit te

  6. The effectiveness of different intervention strategies for the prevention of zoonotic metacercariae infection in cultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2013-01-01

    interventions was reduced 91.7% compared to before interventions. The intensity of FZT was also significantly lower in the pond management group, compared to the drug treatment group and the control group after interventions. The results demonstrate that improving farm and pond management practices can......Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a major public health problem. It is estimated that in Vietnam 26,366 "disability-adjusted life years" (DALYs) are lost due to FZT. Fish from aquaculture are a main source of protein and of great economic importance in both rural and urban areas...... with two intervention groups; a drug treatment of human and animal groups and a farm management group (control of snail vectors and fecal pollution of pond). A third group (non-intervention) served as control. Fish were examined for FZT metacercariae prevalence and intensity before and after interventions...

  7. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  8. The role of information technology in translating educational interventions into practice: an analysis using the PRECEDE/PROCEED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Charlene; McLeskey, Nanci; Brunker, Cherie; Brooks, Denise; Supiano, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    The evidence base for information technology (IT) has been criticized, especially with the current emphasis on translational science. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the role of IT in the implementation of a geriatric education and quality improvement (QI) intervention. A mixed-method three-group comparative design was used. The PRECEDE/PROCEED implementation model was used to qualitatively identify key factors in the implementation process. These results were further explored in a quantitative analysis. Thirty-three primary care clinics at three institutions (Intermountain Healthcare, VA Salt Lake City Health Care System, and University of Utah) participated. The program consisted of an onsite, didactic session, QI planning and 6 months of intense implementation support. Completion rate was 82% with an average improvement rate of 21%. Important predisposing factors for success included an established electronic record and a culture of quality. The reinforcing and enabling factors included free continuing medical education credits, feedback, IT access, and flexible support. The relationship between IT and QI emerged as a central factor. Quantitative analysis found significant differences between institutions for pre-post changes even after the number and category of implementation strategies had been controlled for. The analysis illustrates the complex dependence between IT interventions, institutional characteristics, and implementation practices. Access to IT tools and data by individual clinicians may be a key factor for the success of QI projects. Institutions vary widely in the degree of access to IT tools and support. This article suggests that more attention be paid to the QI and IT department relationship.

  9. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA's proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for development of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  10. Perspectives of energy technologies: scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista; Perspectives des technologies de l'energie: scenarios et strategies a l'horizon 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every two years, the International Energy Agency (IEA) publishes the 'Energy Technology Perspectives' (ETP) report which analyses the foreseeable energy scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista and stresses on the best available technologies. For the first time, the IEA describes in this study a scenario allowing to divide by two the CO{sub 2} emissions at the world scale, i.e. compatible with the 'factor 4' scenario of industrialized countries. The study estimates the R and D needs and the necessary additional investments to meet the different tendentious and voluntaristic scenarios proposed by the IEA. This 15. session of the cycle of energy-climate conferences aimed at presenting, from the ETP 2008 study, a thorough examination of the present day situation and perspectives of existing or future 'clean' energy technologies through the analysis of several scenarios. An examination of the interpretation of these scenarios at the France and European levels is made in order to define what should be the trends of public policies and international cooperation. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given during this conference. The first presentation by Pieter Boot, Director of the Office of Sustainable Energy Policy and Technology of IEA, makes a synthesis of the ETP study and presents the recommendations of the agency. The second presentation by Olivier Appert, President of the French institute of petroleum (IFP), gives a counterpoint of the first presentation by considering the financing and acceptance aspects, in particular from the French point of view. Finally a debate with the audience completes the presentations. (J.S.)

  11. Exploration Requirements Development Utilizing the Strategy-to-Task-to-Technology Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.; Josten, B. Kent; Monell, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration provides direction for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to embark on a robust space exploration program that will advance the Nation s scientific, security, and economic interests. This plan calls for a progressive expansion of human capabilities beyond low earth orbit seeking to answer profound scientific and philosophical questions while responding to discoveries along the way. In addition, the Vision articulates the strategy for developing the revolutionary new technologies and capabilities required for the future exploration of the solar system. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration faces new challenges in successfully implementing the Vision. In order to implement a sustained and affordable exploration endeavor it is vital for NASA to do business differently. This paper provides an overview of the strategy-to-task-to-technology process being used by NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop the requirements and system acquisition details necessary for implementing a sustainable exploration vision.

  12. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  13. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  14. A multidimensional conspiracy around the software industry: arguments for intervention in high technology sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wilian Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current debate about governmental intervention in high tech industries. On one hand, there are arguments against such interventions that consider the high tech industries as a capital intensive sector; instead of technological intensity, the capital intensity determines the value added. On the other hand, we could prove that there is at least one high tech industry, which is job intensive and non capital intensive, with high value added, that generates several positive externalities (the software industry. Such externalities are important arguments to support governmental intervention in high tech industries and cast doubts on the capital’s value added argument.Este artigo analisa o debate atual relacionado à intervenção estatal nas indústrias de alta intensidade tecnológica. Por um lado, existem argumentos contra tais intervenções que consideram essas indústrias setores também intensivos em capital. Ao contrário do que se pensa, para esta corrente, a intensidade de capital – e não a tecnológica – seria o fator determinante da adição de valor. Por ouro lado, foi possível provar, neste trabalho, que existe ao menos uma indústria de alta intensidade tecnológica, intensiva em trabalho e não em capital, com alto valor adicionado, que gera diversas externalidades positivas em âmbitos social e econômico: a indústria de software. Tais externalidades servem como importantes argumentos para justificar a intervenção estatal em setores de alta intensidade tecnológica e lança dúvidas sobre o argumento da exclusividade do capital como determinante de adição de valor.

  15. The feasible strategies of technological and economic development of HIP Petrohemija

    OpenAIRE

    Adžić Slobodan; Ocić Ozren

    2013-01-01

    In this paper authors have presented a case study of HIP Petrohemija company (Pančevo, Serbia) with the aim of generating feasible strategies for technological and economic development. The research philosophy is based on the critical realism, while the research methodology is qualitative. The paper begins with the introduction to the history of HIP Petrohemija, followed by the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, & Threats) analysis, and the SWOT analysis results that were u...

  16. Information Technology Strategies for Honor Society and Organization Membership Retention in Online Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily E; Wasco, Jennifer J

    Membership retention in an honor society or organization is of utmost importance for sustainability. However, retaining members in organizations that serve online education nursing students can be a challenging task. Understanding the importance of creating a sense of community to promote retention within an honor society chapter, nursing faculty at a small private university implemented different online approaches. This article highlights successful information technology strategies to promote membership retention in organizations for online nursing students.

  17. Technology-Mediated Interventions and Quality of Life for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwayoung; Iribarren, Sarah; Schnall, Rebecca

    2017-04-12

    As HIV/AIDS is considered a chronic disease; quality of life (QoL) has become an important focus for researchers and healthcare providers. Technology-mediated interventions have demonstrated improved clinical effectiveness in outcomes, such as viral suppression, for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). However, the evidence to support the impact of these interventions on QoL is lacking. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of technology-mediated interventions on QoL and to identify the instruments used to measure the QoL of PLWH. For this review we followed the PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases in April 2016. Inclusion criteria limited articles to those with technology-mediated interventions as compared to usual care; articles with the population defined as HIV-infected patients; and articles with QoL measured as a health outcome in randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. Of the 1,554 peer-reviewed articles returned in the searches, 10 met the inclusion criteria. This systematic review identified four types of technology-mediated interventions and two types of QoL instruments used to examine the impact of technology-mediated interventions on PLWH. Four studies of technology-mediated interventions resulted in improvement in QoL. Four studies considered QoL as a secondary outcome and resulted in a negative or neutral impact on QoL. Overall, four studies had a low risk of bias, one study had a moderate risk of bias, and the other five studies had a high risk of bias. The evidence to support the improvement of QoL using technology-mediated interventions is insufficient. This lack of research highlights the need for increased study of QoL as an outcome measure and the need for consistent measures to better understand the role of technology-mediated interventions in improving QoL for PLWH.

  18. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  19. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  20. Peer-Mediated Instruction and Intervention Strategies for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Laurie; Neitzel, Jennifer; Engelhardt-Wells, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Peer-mediated instruction and intervention is based on principles of behaviorism and social learning theory. In this intervention approach, developing peers are typically taught ways to interact with and help children and youth with autism spectrum disorders acquire new social skills by increasing social opportunities in natural environments. The…

  1. Duration Dependence in Sickness Absence: How Can We Optimize Disability Management Intervention Strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joling, C.; Groot, W.; Janssen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The optimal timing of interventions during sickness absence remains difficult to determine, because we do not have a clear picture of the presence and type of duration dependence that exists. This study investigates the impact of an intervention by the occupational physician as well as of

  2. Update on Smoking Cessation: E-Cigarettes, Emerging Tobacco Products Trends, and New Technology-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Smita; Tonelli, Makenzie; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use disorders (TUDs) continue to be overly represented in patients treated in mental health and addiction treatment settings. It is the most common substance use disorder (SUD) and the leading cause of health disparities and increased morbidity/mortality amongst individuals with a psychiatric disorder. There are seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications and excellent evidence-based psychosocial treatment interventions to use in TUD treatment. In the past few years, access to and use of other tobacco or nicotine emerging products are on the rise, including the highly publicized electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). There has also been a proliferation of technology-based interventions to support standard TUD treatment, including mobile apps and web-based interventions. These tools are easily accessed 24/7 to support outpatient treatment. This update will review the emerging products and counter-measure intervention technologies, including how clinicians can integrate these tools and other community-based resources into their practice.

  3. Challenges, Strategies and Techniques for International Training in Technology for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Almagro Vidal, A.

    2013-07-01

    Technology to document and investigate cultural heritage sites is rapidly advancing - multispectral and high dynamic range imaging, spherical high resolution photography, three-dimensional laser scanning and unmanned aerial vehicles are only a few of the new technologies available to heritage conservation professionals to record monuments, buildings, city centres and landscapes. These advanced tools are giving architects, engineers and conservation professionals' new insights and additional information which helps to make better informed decisions. But this technology and the knowledge about its correct use are extremely unevenly distributed across the world. The Digital Divide is present and growing in the field of cultural heritage preservation (Letellier, 2001). Many of those responsible for the management, maintenance and care of some of the world's most significant cultural heritage sites do not have access to or information about the latest technologies. They are also confronted with an overwhelming assortment of new technologies and consultants or developers that promote them and therefore must allocate their limited budgets with limited information. What is to be done about bridging this gap? Obviously cost and accessibility are issues. However one of the most important challenges to be addressed is education. As the base knowledge of these technologies is very uneven this leads to further questions: Are there strategies or methodologies for teaching this technology? How to combine and balance different professional backgrounds from different and so unevenly distributed places around the world and provide them all with useful information to make good documentation and conservation decisions? This paper will describe the methodology developed over the last ten years in teaching documentation technologies to diverse groups of cultural heritage professionals and students from Côte d'Ivoire, Germany, Belgium, Kosovo, Albania, Nigeria, Egypt, Japan, Iraq

  4. Clinical reasoning process underlying choice of teaching strategies: a framework to improve occupational therapists' transfer skill interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Bédard, Denis; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reasoning, a critical skill influenced by education and practice context, determines how occupational therapists teach transfer skills. Teaching strategies affect intervention efficacy. Although knowledge about the way teaching strategies are chosen could help improve interventions, few studies have considered this aspect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the clinical reasoning process of occupational therapists underlying the choice of strategies to teach older adults transfer skills. A grounded theory study was carried out with eleven community occupational therapists recruited in six Health and Social Services Centres in Québec, Canada. Data were collected through observations of teaching situations (n = 31), in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 12) and memos, and were analysed using constant comparative methods. Memos were also used to raise codes to conceptual categories, leading to an integrative framework. Rigour was assured by following scientific criteria for qualitative studies. The integrative framework includes the clinical reasoning process, consisting of eight stages, and its factors of influence. These factors are internal (experiences and elements of personal context) and external (type of transfer, clients' and their environment's characteristics and practice context). The clinical reasoning process underlying the choice of strategies to teach transfer skills was conceptualised into an integrative framework. Such a framework supports clinicians' reflective practice, highlights the importance of theory and practice of pedagogy in occupational therapists' education, and encourages consideration and better documentation of the possible influence of practice context on teaching interventions. As such, this integrative framework could improve occupational therapists' transfer skill interventions with older adults. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. "Positive technology" thereby takes the responsible role of a "digital coach," supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the "therapeutic interaction" mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the discussion

  6. Strategy and clinical significance of interventional management before surgical therapy for massive hemorrhage of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tingyang; Yu Wenqiang; Mao Yingmin; Yuan Jianhua; CChen Fanghong; Luo Zuyan; Ding Xiaonan; Zhou Bing; Ding Zhongxiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of interventional management before surgical therapy for massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and to compare the clinical efficacy and re-bleeding rate between hypophysin infusion group and embolization group. Methods: During the period of June 1998-Apr. 2009, 31 patients with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage in our institution underwent preoperative interventional managements before they received surgical treatment. According to DSA manifestations, the patients underwent transarterial hypophysin infusion or transcatheter embolization as interventional management. The clinical efficacy of interventional procedures and its influence on the surgery were evaluated, and the hemostasis rate and re-bleeding rate were compared the two kind of intervention managements. The numeration data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test, and the SPSS 11.0 was used as statistical software. Results: The interventional managements were successfully performed in all the 31 patients, with a total hemostasis rate of 83.9% (26/31) and a total re-bleeding rate 30.7% (8/26). The hemostasis rate and re-bleeding rate of hypophysin infusion group and embolization group were 69.2% (9/ 13), 94.4% (17/18) and 44.4% (4/9), 23.7% (4/17), respectively. All the 31 patients received surgery after interventional therapy, of which selective operation was carried out in 20. Neither surgery-related or intervention-related serious complications nor death occurred. Conclusion: Preoperative interventional managements can provide patients with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage with valuable chance of a successful surgery, enable the physician to take a selective operation to replace an emergency one,as a result, the surgical risk will be greatly reduced. Therefore, it is worth popularizing the preoperative interventional managements in clinical practice. (authors)

  7. Mechanisms of change associated with technology-based interventions for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; Jarvis, Brantley; Marsch, Lisa; Xie, Haiyi

    2015-05-01

    Technology-based interventions (TBIs) for substance use disorders have been increasing steadily. The mechanisms by which TBIs produce change in substance use outcomes have not been reviewed. This article is the first review of the conceptual and empirical underpinnings of the mechanisms associated with TBIs for substance use disorders. We review the literature on potential mechanisms associated with TBIs targeting tobacco, alcohol, and poly-substance use. We did not identify TBIs targeting other drug classes and that assessed mechanisms. Research suggests that TBIs impact outcomes via similar potential mechanisms as in non-TBIs (e.g., in-person treatment), with the exception of substance use outcomes being associated with changes in the quality of coping skills. The most frequent potential mechanisms detected were self-efficacy for tobacco abstinence and perceived peer drinking for alcohol abstinence. Research on mechanisms associated with TBIs is still in a nascent stage. We provide several recommendations for future work, including broadening the range of mechanisms assessed and increasing the frequency of assessment to detect temporal relations between mechanisms and outcomes. We also discuss unique challenges and opportunities afforded by technology that can advance theory, method, and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cooperation and Coordination in an International Intervention: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holohan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In international interventions that encompass peacekeeping, democratic transition, and institution building, oneorganization cannot do it all. In Kosovo several organizations—the United Nations (UN, nongovernmentalorganizations (NGOs, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE, the militaries (KFOR, andan international police force—formed a temporary network organization, the United Nations Mission in Kosovo(UNMIK, in which they worked together cooperatively at every level to pursue the goals of the mission. Thisresearch, based on ªeldwork in Kosovo with all the organizations in UNMIK, investigates how well the use ofinformation and communications technologies (ICTs reºected the organizational structure and design of themission. What does this experience tell us about the use of ICTs in an interorganizational setting? What does it tellus about information transfer and knowledge sharing in a temporary network organization that comprisesorganizations of diverse structure and culture? The information and communication infrastructure of UNMIK isexamined to discover how well it met the organizational requirements of both the participating hierarchies in themission and the emerging network organization. The question in Kosovo was whether the introduction and use ofnew technologies helped the organizations move from a hierarchical structure and culture to a more collaborativeone.

  9. A business strategy formulation for commercializing university-created technology: A university spin-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Iqbal Wahyu; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni

    2018-02-01

    There are some mechanism to commercialize the innovations that have been developed by academic scientists in universities, i.e. patenting, licensing, start-up creation, and university-industry partnerships. The start-up creations or university spin-offs (USOs) company is a very special start-up company that is founded by an academic inventor and the university with the aim to commercialize the technological innovation that created by the university. However, it is not always as smooth as expected. The market competitiveness of the USOs obviously has many challenges to be able to compete with the existing companies, analysis need to be done to get the right business step so the business strategy will be efficient. In this article, we discuss a real case study of a university spin-off that owned by Sebelas Maret University for Commercializing Battery Lithium. The aim of our research is twofold: first, to identify the gap in the literature of business strategy formulation between a conventional and USOs. Second, to propose a business strategy formulation for commercializing university-created technology, i.e. battery lithium as core business of a university spin-off as a case study. We conduct surveys, observation and FGD in order to collect the data and information to build the company objective and goals. The analytical tools to generate the solution of business strategy are SWOT analysis, IFE-EFE matrix, and QSPM model so the result will be the most attractive and suitable for the company. The result shows that the case study of USO company is classified on conservative continuous improvement phase so the suitable strategy for this company are product development and business strategy integration.

  10. Development and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex housing intervention: protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dennis P; Young, Jeani; Ahonen, Emily; Xu, Huiping; Henderson, Macey; Shuman, Valery; Tolliver, Randi

    2014-10-17

    There is currently a lack of scientifically designed and tested implementation strategies. Such strategies are particularly important for highly complex interventions that require coordination between multiple parts to be successful. This paper presents a protocol for the development and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex intervention known as the Housing First model (HFM). Housing First is an evidence-based practice for chronically homeless individuals demonstrated to significantly improve a number of outcomes. Drawing on practices demonstrated to be useful in implementation and e-learning theory, our team is currently adapting a face-to-face implementation strategy so that it can be delivered over a distance. Research activities will be divided between Chicago and Central Indiana, two areas with significantly different barriers to HFM implementation. Ten housing providers (five from Chicago and five from Indiana) will be recruited to conduct an alpha test of each of four e-learning modules as they are developed. Providers will be requested to keep a detailed log of their experience completing the modules and participate in one of two focus groups. After refining the modules based on alpha test results, we will test the strategy among a sample of four housing organizations (two from Chicago and two from Indiana). We will collect and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data from administration and staff. Measures of interest include causal factors affecting implementation, training outcomes, and implementation outcomes. This project is an important first step in the development of an evidence-based implementation strategy to increase scalability and impact of the HFM. The project also has strong potential to increase limited scientific knowledge regarding implementation strategies in general.

  11. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program

  12. Cognitive strategy interventions improve word problem solving and working memory in children with math disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on problem solving solution accuracy in children with and without math disabilities (MD). Children in grade 3 (N = 204) with and without MD subdivided into high and low WMC were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), verbal + visual strategies, and an untreated control. The dependent measures for training were problem solving accuracy and two working memory transfer measures (operation span and visual-spatial span). Three major findings emerged: (1) strategy instruction facilitated solution accuracy but the effects of strategy instruction were moderated by WMC, (2) some strategies yielded higher post-test scores than others, but these findings were qualified as to whether children were at risk for MD, and (3) strategy training on problem solving measures facilitated transfer to working memory measures. The main findings were that children with MD, but high WM spans, were more likely to benefit from strategy conditions on target and transfer measures than children with lower WMC. The results suggest that WMC moderates the influence of cognitive strategies on both the targeted and non-targeted measures.

  13. Population health-based approaches to utilizing digital technology: a strategy for equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth N; Ostrowski, MaryLynn; Sabina, Alyse B

    2016-11-01

    Health care disparities and high chronic disease rates burden many communities and disproportionally impact racial/ethnic populations in the United States. These disparities vary geographically, increase health care expenses, and result in shortened lifespans. Digital technologies may be one tool for addressing health disparities and improving population health by increasing individuals' access to health information-especially as most low-income U.S. residents gain access to smartphones. The Aetna Foundation partners with organizations to use digital technologies, including mobile applications, data collection, and related platforms, for learning and sharing. Projects range from the broad-childhood education, lifestyle modification, health IT training, and nutrition education, to the specific-local healthy foods, stroke rehabilitation, and collection of city-level data. We describe our approaches to grantmaking and discuss lessons learned and their implications. When combined with sound policy strategies, emerging, scalable, digital technologies will likely become powerful allies for improving health and reducing health disparities.

  14. Supplier strategies and responses to institutional drivers for an emerging energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, N.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of suppliers of a new energy technology, when the market for that technology continues to be in a state of flux, and is characterised by continued regulatory and institutional developments. This paper first summarises the institutional drivers resulting in the widely divergent diffusion of distributed generation (DG) based on natural gas engines in the Netherlands and the UK. Then, supplier responses to this institutionally driven market are discussed. Under regulatory support, supply firms were able to implement innovative operational and ownership arrangements, hugely growing the market while positioning themselves for new R and D and market developments. Under regulatory restrictions, supply firms fought to survive, with resultant implications for the reputation and longer term prospects for this new energy technology. The paper concludes by discussing how continuing institutional instability can limit the supplier strategies based on spillovers from successful regulatory experiments, Thus, the establishment of a viable energy supply industry is delayed under continuing regulatory uncertainty. (author)

  15. Intervention Strategies Used in Sport Injury Prevention Studies: A Systematic Review Identifying Studies Applying the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Ingrid; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Finch, Caroline F; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2017-10-01

    Prevention of sport injuries is crucial to maximise the health and societal benefits of a physically active lifestyle. To strengthen the translation and implementation of the available evidence base on effective preventive measures, a range of potentially relevant strategies should be considered. Our aim was to identify and categorise intervention strategies for the prevention of acute sport injuries evaluated in the scientific literature, applying the Haddon matrix, and identify potential knowledge gaps. Five electronic databases were searched (PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane) for studies that evaluated the effect of interventions on the occurrence of acute sport injuries. Studies were required to include a control group/condition, prospective data collection, and a quantitative injury outcome measure. A total of 155 studies were included, mostly randomised controlled trials (43%). The majority of studies (55%) focussed on strategies requiring a behavioural change on the part of athletes. Studies predominantly evaluated the preventive effect of various training programmes targeted at the 'pre-event' phase (n = 73) and the use of equipment to avoid injury in the 'event phase' (n = 29). A limited number of studies evaluated the preventive effect of strategies geared at rules and regulations (n = 14), and contextual modifications (n = 18). Studies specifically aimed at preventing re-injuries were a minority (n = 8), and were mostly related to ankle sprains (n = 5). Valuable insight into the extent of the evidence base of sport injury prevention studies was obtained for 20 potential intervention strategies. This approach can be used to monitor potential gaps in the knowledge base on sport injury prevention.

  16. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer’s Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard E. Lyons

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals’ health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients’ and caregivers’ ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH at the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies.

  17. OB CITY-Definition of a Family-Based Intervention for Childhood Obesity Supported by Information and Communication Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruofei; Cancela, Jorge; Arredondo Waldmeyer, Maria Teresa; Cea, Gloria; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis-Athina; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Fico, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century's most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children's lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY. The system makes use of applied behavior analysis, affective computing technologies, as well as serious game and gamification techniques, to offer long term services in all care dimensions of the family-based behavioral intervention aiming to provide positive effects to the treatment of childhood obesity.

  18. OB CITY–Definition of a Family-Based Intervention for Childhood Obesity Supported by Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruofei; Cancela, Jorge; Cea, Gloria; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis-Athina; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I.; Fico, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century’s most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children’s lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY. The system makes use of applied behavior analysis, affective computing technologies, as well as serious game and gamification techniques, to offer long term services in all care dimensions of the family-based behavioral intervention aiming to provide positive effects to the treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:27602306

  19. Endovascular brain intervention and mapping in a dog experimental model using magnetically-guided micro-catheter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Tomas; Leinveber, Pavel; Vlasin, Michal; Jurak, Pavel; Novak, Miroslav; Novak, Zdenek; Chrastina, Jan; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Belehrad, Milos; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-06-01

    Despite the substantial progress that has been achieved in interventional cardiology and cardiac electrophysiology, endovascular intervention for the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as stroke, epilepsy and CNS malignancy is still limited, particularly due to highly tortuous nature of the cerebral arterial and venous system. Existing interventional devices and techniques enable only limited and complicated access especially into intra-cerebral vessels. The aim of this study was to develop a micro-catheter magnetically-guided technology specifically designed for endovascular intervention and mapping in deep CNS vascular structures. Mapping of electrical brain activity was performed via the venous system on an animal dog model with the support of the NIOBE II system. A novel micro-catheter specially designed for endovascular interventions in the CNS, with the support of the NIOBE II technology, was able to reach safely deep intra-cerebral venous structures and map the electrical activity there. Such structures are not currently accessible using standard catheters. This is the first study demonstrating successful use of a new micro-catheter in combination with NIOBE II technology for endovascular intervention in the brain.

  20. Psychosocial interventions for patients and caregivers in the age of new communication technologies: opportunities and challenges in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hoda; Carmack, Cindy L; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Interactive health communication technologies (IHCTs) present a new opportunity and challenge for cancer control researchers who focus on couple- and family-based psychosocial interventions. In this article, the authors first present findings from a systematic review of 8 studies that used IHCTs in psychosocial interventions with cancer patients and their caregivers. Although this research area is still in its infancy, studies suggest that it is feasible to incorporate IHCTs in such interventions, that IHCTs are generally well accepted by patients and caregivers, and that the choice of technology is largely dependent on intervention target (i.e., patient, caregiver, or both) and outcomes (e.g., decision making, symptom management, lifestyle behaviors). A major research gap has been the lack of integration of Web 2.0 technologies (e.g., social media), despite the fact that social support and communication are frequently targeted components of interventions that involve cancer patients and their caregivers. Given this, the authors next present findings from a qualitative study that they conducted to describe the different needs and preferences of 13 cancer survivors and 12 caregivers with regard to social media use. Last, the authors discuss some of the opportunities and challenges of using IHCTs in psychosocial interventions for cancer patients and their caregivers and propose directions for future research.

  1. The effectiveness of information and communication technology-based psychological interventions for paediatric chronic pain: protocol for a systematic review, meta-analysis and intervention content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Angeline; Morrissey, Eimear; Egan, Jonathan; McGuire, Brian E

    2016-10-18

    Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a mode of treatment delivery. However, mixed findings have been reported for the effectiveness and acceptability of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents. This is a protocol for a review that aims to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents with chronic pain and (ii) identify the intervention components and usability factors in technology-based treatments associated with behaviour change. We will conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for paediatric chronic pain delivered using ICT. We plan to directly compare ICT-based, psychological interventions with active control, treatment as usual or waiting list control conditions. This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials will be included and the literature search will comprise Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library on Wiley, including CENTRAL and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Grey literature including theses, dissertations, technical and research reports will also be examined. Two review authors will independently conduct study selection, relevant data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. Risk of bias in included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool criteria. Two qualified coders will independently code behaviour change techniques according to the behaviour change taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically

  2. Cathether-based interventional strategies for cor triatriatum in the adult - feasibility study through a hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wilson W; Koolbergen, David R; Bouma, Berto J; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Mol, Bas A; de Winter, Robbert J

    2015-07-14

    Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital cardiac abnormality, consisting of an obstructing membrane between the pulmonary veins and the mitral valve in varying patterns. The entitiy can mimick the pathophysiology of mitral stenosis, necessitating surgical resection. Occasionally, percutaneous balloon dilatation of the membrane has been successfully performed. We report two cases with cor triatriatum where intraoperative balloon dilatation of the membrane was attempted followed by surgical resection, to explore the feasibility of cathether-based interventional strategies for cor triatriatum. Various anatomical variations exist of cor triatriatum, depending on the drainage of the pulmonary veins and the drainage of the proximal chamber in the right or left atrium. Only isolated forms of cor triatriatum where all pulmonary veins ultimately drain into the left atrium can be recommended for percutaneous strategies. In addition, several anatomical characteristics should be considered to predict technical success of cathether-based interventional strategies, such as the location of the membrane, the degree of pulmonary vein stenosis, the extent of calcification, and the presence of other (congenital) cardiovascular abnormalities. Furthermore, long-term efficacy of these strategies remains to be confirmed. As such, surgical treatment of cor triatriatum remains the mainstay of treatment in adult patients, especially when other cardiovascular anomalies are present which require surgical correction.

  3. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article

  4. Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M Kit; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K; Halpern, Scott D; Buttenheim, Alison M; Setubal, Claudia; Huang, Yanlan; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Lee, Yi-Ching

    2018-04-13

    The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey. Survey instruments measured willingness to give up cellphone use and perceptions of technological and behavioral economic strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving. We used Chi-square tests to test the hypothesis that willingness to give up certain types of cellphone use while driving and the perceptions of strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving would differ by self-reported frequency of texting while driving in the past 30 days (low [1-5 days] vs. high [6 or more days]. Most teens were willing or somewhat willing to give up reading texts (90%), sending texts (95%), and social media (99%) while driving. However they were not willing to give up navigation (59%) and music applications (43%). Those who engaged in high-frequency texting while driving were more likely to say they were not willing to give up navigation applications (73% vs. 44%, P distraction (86%). The predominant reason for not wanting to use this technology was not wanting parents to monitor their behavior (60%). Promising strategies for increasing acceptance of cellphone blocking technology among teen drivers include automated screen locking and permitting hands-free navigation and music combined with behavioral economic incentives to sustain engagement.

  5. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  6. Multi-technology option strategy for long term R and D programs on plutonium technologies. Minimizing proliferation risks and preparing for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium programs worldwide are now facing major economic, political and technical challenges. New strategies need to address two distinctive global concerns: minimizing proliferation risks associated with plutonium use, and keeping the options alive to prepare for uncertain energy future. In order to meet those challenges, this paper proposes the introduction of 'multi-technology option strategy'. Such strategy is designed to keep so-called 'technological readiness' state of plutonium technologies worldwide without committing to a fixed technology option and exploring more innovative various technology options. This paper also suggests that such R and D programs can be coordinated and shared among nations that are interested in future plutonium use, and such cooperation can improve transparency of sensitive R and D programs. (author)

  7. Development and Feasibility of a COPD Self-Management Intervention Delivered with Motivational Interviewing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto; Vickers, Kristin; Ernst, Denise; Tucker, Sharon; McEvoy, Charlene; Lorig, Kate

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Self-management (SM) is proposed as the standard of care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but details of the process and training required to deliver effective SM are not widely available. In addition, recent data suggest that patient engagement and motivation are critical ingredients for effective self-management. This manuscript carefully describes a self-management intervention using Motivational Interviewing skills, aimed to increase engagement and commitment in severe COPD patients. METHODS The intervention was developed and pilot tested for fidelity to protocol, for patient and interventionist feedback (qualitative) and effect on quality of life. Engagement between patient and interventionists was measured by the Working Alliance Inventory. The intervention was refined based in the results of the pilot study and delivered in the active arm of a prospective randomized study. RESULTS The pilot study suggested improvements in quality of life, fidelity to theory and patient acceptability. The refined self-management intervention was delivered 540 times in the active arm of a randomized study. We observed a retention rate of 86% (patients missing or not available for only 14% the scheduled encounters). CONCLUSIONS A self-management intervention, that includes motivational interviewing as the way if guiding patient into behavior change, is feasible in severe COPD and may increase patient engagement and commitment to self-management. This provides a very detailed description of the SM process for (the specifics of training and delivering the intervention) that facilitates replicability in other settings and could be translated to cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:23434613

  8. A new combined strategy to implement a community occupational therapy intervention: designing a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Eddy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even effective interventions for people with dementia and their caregivers require specific implementation efforts. A pilot study showed that the highly effective community occupational therapy in dementia (COTiD program was not implemented optimally due to various barriers. To decrease these barriers and make implementation of the program more effective a combined implementation (CI strategy was developed. In our study we will compare the effectiveness of this CI strategy with the usual educational (ED strategy. Methods In this cluster randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial, each cluster consists of at least two occupational therapists, a manager, and a physician working at Dutch healthcare organizations that deliver community occupational therapy. Forty-five clusters, stratified by healthcare setting (nursing home, hospital, mental health service, have been allocated randomly to either the intervention group (CI strategy or the control group (ED strategy. The study population consists of the professionals included in each cluster and community-dwelling people with dementia and their caregivers. The primary outcome measures are the use of community OT, the adherence of OTs to the COTiD program, and the cost effectiveness of implementing the COTiD program in outpatient care. Secondary outcome measures are patient and caregiver outcomes and knowledge of managers, physicians and OTs about the COTiD program. Discussion Implementation research is fairly new in the field of occupational therapy, making this a unique study. This study does not only evaluate the effects of the CI-strategy on professionals, but also the effects of professionals' degree of implementation on client and caregiver outcomes. Clinical trials registration NCT01117285

  9. Effects of rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices among electronics technology employees in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, Theresa Chinyere; Eseadi, Chiedu; Orji, Chibueze Tobias; Ede, Moses Onyemaechi; Ohanu, Ifeanyi Benedict; Bakare, Jimoh

    2017-05-01

    Improving employees' perception of organizational climate, and coaching them to remain steadfast when managing occupational risks associated with their job, might have an important effect on their psychosocial wellbeing and occupational health. This study examined the effects of a rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices. The participants were 77 electronics technology employees in the south-east of Nigeria. The study used a pretest-posttest control group design. The rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program significantly improved perceptions of the organizational climate for the people in the treatment group compared to those in the waitlist control group at post-intervention and follow-up assessments. Occupational risk management practices of the employees in the treatment group were also significantly better than those in the waitlist control group at the same 2 assessments. Corporate application of a rational emotive behavior therapy as an occupational health therapy intervention program is essential for improving the perceptions of organizational climate and promoting the adoption of feasible occupational risk management strategies in the workplace.

  10. Peer-Assisted Learning/Literacy Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" and a similar program known as "Peer-Assisted Literacy Strategies" are peer-tutoring programs that supplement the primary reading curriculum (Fuchs, Fuchs, Kazdan, & Allen, 1999; Mathes & Babyak, 2001). This review uses the acronym "PALS" to encompass both programs and their…

  11. Are suppression and deterrence mechanisms enough? Examining the "pulling levers" drug market intervention strategy in Peoria, Illinois, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Nicholas; Brunson, Rod K

    2013-03-01

    Police agencies across the globe enforce laws that prohibit drug transportation, distribution, and use with varying degrees of effectiveness. Within the United States, law enforcement strategies that rely on partnerships between criminal justice officials, neighbourhood residents, and social service providers (i.e., collaborative implementation) have shown considerable promise for reducing crime and disorder associated with open-air drug markets. The current study examines a comprehensive police enforcement strategy conducted in Peoria, Illinois (USA) designed to reduce patterns of crime and violence associated with an open-air drug market in a specific neighbourhood. Change in neighbourhood crime was assessed using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) interrupted time series analysis. Further, target area residents were surveyed to gauge their awareness of the police intervention as well as perceived changes in local crime patterns. Analyses indicate that the intervention did not produce significant changes in neighbourhood crime offense rates between pre- and post-intervention periods. In addition, the majority of surveyed residents within the target area did not demonstrate an awareness of the intervention nor did they report perceived changes in local crime patterns. Study findings suggest that police-led approaches in the absence of high levels of community awareness and involvement may have less capacity to generate crime-control when focusing on open-air drug markets. We propose that police agencies adopting this strategy invest considerable resources toward achieving community awareness and participation in order to increase the potential for attaining significant and substantive programmatic impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A market-driven commercialization strategy for gasification-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klara, J.M.; Tomer, B.J.; Stiegel, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the wake of deregulation of power generation in the US, market-based competition is driving electricity generators to low-cost risk system. In such an environment, gasification-based technologies will not be competitive with low capital cost, efficient, and reliable natural gas-fired facilities for baseload power generation in the foreseeable future. The lack of a near-term market application poses a serious threat to the progress of gasification technology. With a reduction in direct federal funding of large-scale demonstration plants as the trend to reduce the size of government continues, an alternate approach to commercialize gasification-based technologies has been developed at DOE/FETC. This new strategy employs gasification in near-term markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in near-term coproduction applications, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation when this market begins to open domestically, sometime after 2005

  13. A study on the international nuclear Co-operation and the nuclear technology self-reliance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa Sup

    1993-02-01

    To setup a basement for the national nuclear technology strategy, the reorganization of the world structure and the environmental issues are analyzed. And with regards to the self-reliance of nuclear technology, the method for the settlement of the national nuclear infrastructure and the method to strengthen our role in international nuclear community through the co-operation with IAEA is suggested. Also the status and strategy of major nuclear pushing countries are investigated. And followed by this, national nuclear technology status and strategy are analyzed. (Author)

  14. A systematic review of assessment and intervention strategies for effective clinical communication in culturally and linguistically diverse students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie; Purcell, Alison; Power, Emma

    2016-09-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students often experience difficulties with the clinical communication skills that are essential for successful interactions in the workplace. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of assessment and intervention strategies for this population. The two aims of this study were: to evaluate the effectiveness of assessment tools in identifying and describing the clinical communication difficulties of CALD health care students; and to determine whether communication programmes improved their clinical communication skills. Systematic review based on the Cochrane protocol. Articles were identified through a search of established databases using MeSH and key search terms. Studies published in English from 1990 to March 2015 were included if they described assessment strategies or a training programme for communication skills of CALD students. Studies were excluded if they did not describe implementation of a specific assessment or intervention programme. Data were extracted independently by the first author and verified by the second author. Quality was measured by the Best Evidence Medical Education guide and the Educational Interventions Critical Appraisal Tool. The Kirkpatrick hierarchy was used to measure impact. Meta-analysis was not conducted because of the heterogeneity of programme design and outcome measures. One hundred and twenty-nine articles met the criteria for full text review. Eighty-six articles were excluded. Thirteen articles addressing assessment and 30 articles reporting on communication training programmes were included in this review. Assessment tools used rubrics and rating scales effectively. Intervention studies focused on speech and language skills (n = 20), interpersonal skills (n = 7) and faculty-level support (n = 5). Although 17 studies reported positive findings on student satisfaction, only eight reported improved skills post-training. The development of effective

  15. Efficiency or equity? Simulating the impact of high-risk and population intervention strategies for the prevention of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Platt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In particular, we focus on assessing how population and high-risk primary prevention and population and high-risk secondary interventions efforts to reduce smoking behavior influence systolic blood pressure (SBP and hypertension, and how such strategies influence inequalities in SBP by income. The greatest reductions in SBP mean and standard deviation resulted from the population secondary prevention. High-risk primary and secondary prevention and population secondary prevention programs all yielded substantial reductions in hypertension prevalence. The effect of population primary prevention did little to decrease population SBP mean and standard deviation, as well as hypertension prevalence. Both high-risk strategies had a larger impact in the low-income population, leading to the greatest narrowing the income-related gap in disease. The population prevention strategies had a larger impact in the high-income population. Population health approaches must consider the potential impact on both the whole population and also on those with different levels of risk for disease within a population, including those in under-represented or under-served groups.

  16. Impact of newer self-monitoring technology and brief phone-based intervention on weight loss: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-08-01

    Despite the proliferation of newer self-monitoring technology (e.g., activity monitors and smartphone apps), their impact on weight loss outside of structured in-person behavioral intervention is unknown. A randomized, controlled pilot study was conducted to examine efficacy of self-monitoring technology, with and without phone-based intervention, on 6-month weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity. Eighty participants were randomized to receive standard self-monitoring tools (ST, n = 26), technology-based self-monitoring tools (TECH, n = 27), or technology-based tools combined with phone-based intervention (TECH + PHONE, n = 27). All participants attended one introductory weight loss session and completed assessments at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Weight loss from baseline to 6 months differed significantly between groups P = 0.042; there was a trend for TECH + PHONE (-6.4 ± 1.2 kg) to lose more weight than ST (-1.3 ± 1.2 kg); weight loss in TECH (-4.1 ± 1.4 kg) was between ST and TECH + PHONE. Fewer ST (15%) achieved ≥5% weight losses compared with TECH and TECH + PHONE (44%), P = 0.039. Adherence to self-monitoring caloric intake was higher in TECH + PHONE than TECH or ST, Ps technology plus brief phone-based intervention improves adherence and weight loss compared with traditional self-monitoring tools. Further research should determine cost-effectiveness of adding phone-based intervention when providing self-monitoring technology. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Contemporary teaching strategies of exemplary community preceptors--is technology helping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen M; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Anthony, David; Chao, Jason; Chessman, Alexander W; Margo, Katherine; Seagrave, Martha; Leong, Shou Ling

    2014-01-01

    Many schools rely upon community preceptors for office-based education of medical students. These preceptors struggle to balance clinical care with the learning needs of students. We aim to gain a deeper understanding of the teaching rewards and challenges of current community preceptors. Five schools' family medicine clerkship directors conducted in-depth interviews of two exemplary preceptors at each of their programs. Following qualitative analysis of the interviews, three directors conducted one focus group at their school. The individual and group interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Exemplary community preceptors described strategies to improve the learning environment and specific teaching approaches. Well-known teaching strategies such as role modeling, adjusting instruction to the learner's needs, and selecting patients appropriate for a specific student were used. They also described newer techniques such as co-learning and integrating technology, for example, accessing online, current practice guidelines together with the student. They detailed challenges to teaching, including time constraints and too much content to cover and provided advice about teaching tools. While challenged by clinical demands, preceptors enjoyed teaching and found it rewarding. They used time-proven teaching strategies as well as technology and online resources to facilitate ambulatory teaching. Community preceptors continue to struggle to integrate learners and the priorities of the medical school curriculum into the clinical environment. Further development of electronic tools and other resources to support the teaching needs of preceptors may contribute to learning and help minimize preceptor burden.

  18. Energi21: national strategy for research, development, demonstration and commercialisation of new energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moestue, Lene; Moengen, Trond

    2011-07-01

    Ambitions for energy research must be high in the years to come if we are to succeed in finding solutions to current and emerging European and global energy and climate challenges. The development of such solutions will generate substantial growth in markets for new technology.Meeting the needs of the national and international energy markets of the future will require international cooperation on access to resources, technological development and commercialisation. Multidisciplinary research cooperation across national borders will be crucial. Norway has resources, expertise and fully matured industrial activities in many of the areas in which activities must be intensified.The mandate of the Energi21 board was to set priorities - on a scientific basis - among and within the Technology Target Areas, and to recommend instruments to be implemented. Priority focus areas have been defined based on the primary objectives of the Energi21 strategy: to increase value creation, facilitate energy restructuring with the development of new technology, and cultivate internationally competitive expertise. The board has also taken into account the ambitions and plans of business and research communities in the relevant focus areas as well as the degree to which Norway has competitive advantages in these. The board further analysed the focus areas in relation to the potential future scenarios described in the strategy. The Energi21 board has decided to give priority to strengthening 6 of the 14 thematic and technology areas under the broader Technology Target Areas (TTA)analysed in connection with the revision of the strategy.The new Energi21 strategy recommends increasing RDandD activities in the following thematic and technology areas. Solar cells - enhanced industrial development: The solar energy industry has experienced tremendous growth in the past 15 years, and this growth is expected to continue.The Norwegian solar energy industry, including an emerging supplier industry

  19. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of concept mapping as a learning intervention for nuclear medicine technology students in a distance learning radiation protection and biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Gregory G; Owen, Mary Anne; Prabakaran, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Metacognitive learning strategies are based on instructional learning theory, which promotes deep, meaningful learning. Educators in a baccalaureate-level nuclear medicine technology program demonstrated that students enrolled in an online, distance learning section of an introductory radiation protection and radiobiology course performed better when traditional instruction was supplemented with nontraditional metacognitive learning strategies. The metacognitive learning strategy that was used is best known as concept mapping. The concept map, in addition to the standard homework problem assignment and opportunity for question-answer sessions, became the template for misconception identification and remediation interactions between the instructor and the student. The control group relied on traditional homework problems and question-answer sessions alone. Because students in both the "treatment" groups (i.e., students who used concept mapping) and the control group were distance learning students, all personal communications were conducted via e-mail or telephone. The final examination of the course was used to facilitate a quantitative comparison of the performance of students who used concept mapping and the performance of students who did not use concept mapping. The results demonstrated a significantly higher median final examination score for the concept mapping group than for the non-concept mapping group (z = -2.0381, P = 0.0415), with an appropriately large effect size (2.65). Concept mapping is a cognitive learning intervention that effectively enables meaningful learning and is suitable for use in the independent learner-oriented distance learning environments used by some nuclear medicine technology programs.

  20. The Effect of Information Communication Technology Interventions on Reducing Social Isolation in the Elderly: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background The aging of the population is an inexorable change that challenges governments and societies in every developed country. Based on clinical and empirical data, social isolation is found to be prevalent among elderly people, and it has negative consequences on the elderly’s psychological and physical health. Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms. Objective This systematic review explored the effects of ICT interventions on reducing social isolation of the elderly. Methods Relevant electronic databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SSCI, Communication Studies: a SAGE Full-Text Collection, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) were systematically searched using a unified strategy to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the effectiveness of ICT-mediated social isolation interventions for elderly people published in English between 2002 and 2015. Narrative synthesis was performed to interpret the results of the identified studies, and their quality was also appraised. Results Twenty-five publications were included in the review. Four of them were evaluated as rigorous research. Most studies measured the effectiveness of ICT by measuring specific dimensions rather than social isolation in general. ICT use was consistently found to affect social support, social connectedness, and social isolation in general positively. The results for loneliness were inconclusive. Even though most were positive, some studies found a nonsignificant or negative impact. More importantly, the positive effect of ICT use on social connectedness and social support seemed to be short-term and did not last for more than six months after the intervention. The results for