WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology holds great

  1. Within-holding prevalence of sheep classical scrapie in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río Vilas Víctor J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the Compulsory Scrapie Flocks Scheme (CSFS, part of the compulsory eradication measures for the control of scrapie in the EU, have been used to estimate the within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie in Great Britain (GB. Specifically data from one of the testing routes within the CSFS have been used; the initial cull (IC, whereby two options can be applied: the whole flock cull option by which the entire flock is depopulated, and the genotyping and cull of certain genotypes. Results Between April 2005 and September 2007, 25,316 suitable samples, submitted from 411 flocks in 213 scrapie-affected holdings in Great Britain, were tested for scrapie. The predicted within-holding prevalence for the initial cull was 0.65% (95% CI: 0.55–0.75. For the whole cull option was 0.47% (95% CI: 0.32–0.68 and for the genotype and cull or mixed option (both options applied in different flocks of the same holding, the predicted within-holding prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.6–0.83. There were no significant differences in the within-flock prevalence between countries (England, Scotland and Wales or between CSFS holdings by the surveillance stream that detected the index case. The number of CSFS flocks on a holding did not affect the overall within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie. Conclusion These estimates are important in the discussion of the epidemiological implications of the current EU testing programme of scrapie-affected flocks and to inform epidemiological and mathematical models. Furthermore, these estimates may provide baseline data to assist the design of future surveillance activities and control policies with the aim to increase their efficiency.

  2. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  3. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  4. A note on technology shocks and the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Inklaar, Robert; de Jong, Harmen; Gouma, Fokke Reitze

    2016-01-01

    The role of technology shocks as a driver of the Great Depression is the topic of our own earlier work and the paper by Watanabe in this issue. While the two studies differ in their data and assumptions, they complement each other and strengthen the conclusion of both papers: technology shocks were not the driving force of the Great Depression.

  5. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  6. Holding the Edge: Maintaining the Defense Technology Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    competitive position, particularly in market. high technology industries. These include the eco - nomic integration of the EC in 1992, and the fundingThe first...costly to operate than other generally have rather low priority. At some DoD 2On the amet captalization progran. see US. General Accounting Office...for each of the technologies. There is, however, significant FINDINGS divergence between the military and civilian eco - nomic sectors for each industry

  7. A note on technology shocks and the Great Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; de Jong, Harmen; Gouma, Fokke Reitze

    2016-01-01

    The role of technology shocks as a driver of the Great Depression is the topic of our own earlier work and the paper by Watanabe in this issue. While the two studies differ in their data and assumptions, they complement each other and strengthen the conclusion of both papers: technology shocks were

  8. The great downside dilemma for risky emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Seth D

    2014-01-01

    Some emerging technologies promise to significantly improve the human condition, but come with a risk of failure so catastrophic that human civilization may not survive. This article discusses the great downside dilemma posed by the decision of whether or not to use these technologies. The dilemma is: use the technology, and risk the downside of catastrophic failure, or do not use the technology, and suffer through life without it. Historical precedents include the first nuclear weapon test and messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence. Contemporary examples include stratospheric geoengineering, a technology under development in response to global warming, and artificial general intelligence, a technology that could even take over the world. How the dilemma should be resolved depends on the details of each technology’s downside risk and on what the human condition would otherwise be. Meanwhile, other technologies do not pose this dilemma, including sustainable design technologies, nuclear fusion power, and space colonization. Decisions on all of these technologies should be made with the long-term interests of human civilization in mind. This paper is part of a series of papers based on presentations at the Emerging Technologies and the Future of Humanity event held at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 17 March 2014. (invited comment)

  9. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order Withdrawing Trading Suspension as to Extensions, Inc. December 12...

  10. 77 FR 5865 - China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... trading in the securities of China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of China Agro...

  11. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the note verbale and its attachment dated 1 July 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission to the IAEA of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, making available information on its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium as of 31 December 1997

  12. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  13. Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Sigaud, L.; Mielnik, O.

    1988-01-01

    Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described [pt

  14. HOLDING THE TORCH UP HIGH - A MEDICAL HISTORICAL EVALUATION OF SURGICAL ADVANCES DURING THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918, IN MEMORY OF THOSE THAT SERVED AND FELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, G

    2017-09-01

    "How wide and varied is the experience of the battlefield and how fertile the blood of warriors in raising good surgeons" Sir Clifford Allbutt (1898). With these sentiments of the medical lessons learned in war and conflict, with the background of the poem of "In Flanders Field", written by a doctor who had South African War connections, reasons (the Somme and third Ypres battles) will be given that this was indeed a "GREAT WAR" as the world history, weapons, strategy, tactics and wounding patterns had changed dramatically. These changes are still affecting all at present, as eventually the Second World War came from it, as well as the Cold "Third World" War. In this war most casualties were caused by bomb fragments and the figures were enormous. It was the war of massive troop movements (railroads), the Schlieffen plan, trench warfare, artillery, the machine guns, end of cavalry and the initiation of tanks, air warfare/reconnaissance and gas/chemical warfare. The surgical experiences of previous wars were obsolete. Urgent rethinking of surgical principles and protocols had to be devised, with the death rates of dying due to wounds, sepsis and tetanus exceeding 60 percent of all casualties. Abdominal wounds were treated conservatively, but soon there came advances in resuscitation, anaesthetics, aggressive wound and exploratory surgery, orthopaedics, plastic and reconstructive surgery, physiology, wound pathology and microbiology. All sides concentrated on ambulance stations, field hospitals and then rapid transfer to bigger referral and base hospitals. It seems that lessons learned where indeed exchanged (? by the Red Cross to all combatant medical personal). Even to the present day, frameworks of this are still used effectively (Vietnam War, Falklands War and our recent border wars). The lessons are well learned and the Torch is ours to hold up high! Copyright© Authors.

  15. Holding a candle to innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Improved understanding of the innovative pathways of renewable energy technologies is vital if we are to make the transition to a low carbon economy. This study presents new evidence on innovation and industry dynamics in concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Though CSP is undergoing a renaissance, existing innovation studies have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and CSP technologies. This study, based on patent data, examines the level and dynamics of innovative activity in CSP between 1978 and 2004. Our unique contribution, based on engineering expertise and detailed datawork, is a classification system mapping CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification (IPC) system. The innovation performance of CSP is found to be surprisingly weak compared to the patent boom in other green technologies. Performance was strong around 1980 before falling dramatically, and has only recently begun to show signs of recovery. Innovation and R and D are concentrated in high-tech countries; the US, Germany and Japan, which do not necessarily have high domestic CSP potential. Large CSP potential is, therefore, not a sufficient condition for innovation. Innovators must possess economic and scientific capabilities. - Research highlights: → We develop a new classification system which allows us to map innovation in CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification System. → Evidence of innovation patterns in concentrating solar power technologies is presented. → Innovation performance in CSP is surprisingly weak compared to patenting in other green technologies, despite its strong potential as a low carbon power generation technology.

  16. Peculiarities of Future Technology Teachers' Training in Poland and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androshchuk, Iryna; Androshchuk, Ihor

    2017-01-01

    The importance of studying foreign experience to enhance the efficiency of teacher training in higher education institutions has been justified. Peculiarities of future technology teachers' training in Poland and Great Britain have been considered. Special attention has been paid to revealing the ways of enhancing the level of teachers'…

  17. Hybrid Technology of Hard Coal Mining from Seams Located at Great Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Piotr; Kamiński, Paweł; Klich, Jerzy; Tajduś, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Learning to control fire changed the life of man considerably. Learning to convert the energy derived from combustion of coal or hydrocarbons into another type of energy, such as steam pressure or electricity, has put him on the path of scientific and technological revolution, stimulating dynamic development. Since the dawn of time, fossil fuels have been serving as the mankind's natural reservoir of energy in an increasingly great capacity. A completely incomprehensible refusal to use fossil fuels causes some local populations, who do not possess a comprehensive knowledge of the subject, to protest and even generate social conflicts as an expression of their dislike for the extraction of minerals. Our times are marked by the search for more efficient ways of utilizing fossil fuels by introducing non-conventional technologies of exploiting conventional energy sources. During apartheid, South Africa demonstrated that cheap coal can easily satisfy total demand for liquid and gaseous fuels. In consideration of current high prices of hydrocarbon media (oil and gas), gasification or liquefaction of coal seems to be the innovative technology convergent with contemporary expectations of both energy producers as well as environmentalists. Known mainly from literature reports, underground coal gasification technologies can be brought down to two basic methods: - shaftless method - drilling, in which the gasified seam is uncovered using boreholes drilled from the surface, - shaft method, in which the existing infrastructure of underground mines is used to uncover the seams. This paper presents a hybrid shaft-drilling approach to the acquisition of primary energy carriers (methane and syngas) from coal seams located at great depths. A major advantage of this method is the fact that the use of conventional coal mining technology requires the seams located at great depths to be placed on the off-balance sheet, while the hybrid method of underground gasification enables them to

  18. ‘…a paper …I hold to be great guns’: a commentary on Maxwell (1865) ‘A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's great paper of 1865 established his dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field. The origins of the paper lay in his earlier papers of 1856, in which he began the mathematical elaboration of Faraday's researches into electromagnetism, and of 1861–1862, in which the displacement current was introduced. These earlier works were based upon mechanical analogies. In the paper of 1865, the focus shifts to the role of the fields themselves as a description of electromagnetic phenomena. The somewhat artificial mechanical models by which he had arrived at his field equations a few years earlier were stripped away. Maxwell's introduction of the concept of fields to explain physical phenomena provided the essential link between the mechanical world of Newtonian physics and the theory of fields, as elaborated by Einstein and others, which lies at the heart of twentieth and twenty-first century physics. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750155

  19. '…a paper …I hold to be great guns': a commentary on Maxwell (1865) 'A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2015-04-13

    Maxwell's great paper of 1865 established his dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field. The origins of the paper lay in his earlier papers of 1856, in which he began the mathematical elaboration of Faraday's researches into electromagnetism, and of 1861-1862, in which the displacement current was introduced. These earlier works were based upon mechanical analogies. In the paper of 1865, the focus shifts to the role of the fields themselves as a description of electromagnetic phenomena. The somewhat artificial mechanical models by which he had arrived at his field equations a few years earlier were stripped away. Maxwell's introduction of the concept of fields to explain physical phenomena provided the essential link between the mechanical world of Newtonian physics and the theory of fields, as elaborated by Einstein and others, which lies at the heart of twentieth and twenty-first century physics. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  20. Transfer of Telegraph Technology to China: The Role of The Great northern Telegraph Company 1870-1890

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    This report examines the historical events surrounding the introduction of telegraph technology in China by the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company. It describes the influence of Great Northern on diplomatic relations between Denmark and China during the decades of the 1870s and 1880s, and th......, and the contributions in terms of the establishment of telegraph schools and development of a Chinese telegraph code that this company made as part of the technology transfer process.......This report examines the historical events surrounding the introduction of telegraph technology in China by the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company. It describes the influence of Great Northern on diplomatic relations between Denmark and China during the decades of the 1870s and 1880s...

  1. Did technology shocks drive the great depression? Explaining cyclical productivity movements in US manufacturing, 1919-1939

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; de Jong, Herman; Gouma, Reitze

    2011-01-01

    Technology shocks and declining productivity have been advanced as important factors driving the Great Depression in the United States, based on real business cycle theory. We estimate an improved measure of technology for interwar manufacturing, using data from the U.S. census reports. There is

  2. Using Information Technologies in Professional Training of Future Security Specialists in the USA, Great Britain, Poland and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyslenko, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of information technologies in professional training of future security specialists in the United States, Great Britain, Poland and Israel. The probable use of computer-based techniques being available within the integrated Web-sites have been systematized. It has been suggested that the presented scheme may be of great…

  3. Crossing the Great Divide: Adoption of New Technologies, Therapeutics and Diagnostics at Academic Medical Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMonaco, Harold J.; Koski, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The role of new technology in healthcare continues to expand from both the clinical and financial perspectives. Despite the importance of innovation, most academic medical centers do not have a clearly defined process for technology assessment. Recognizing the importance of new drugs, diagnostics and procedures in the care of patients and in the…

  4. Across the Great Divide: The Effects of Technology in Secondary Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Johnny Howard, II

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between technology use and student achievement in public high school across North Carolina. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in technology utilization based on student demographics of race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and municipality) exists among…

  5. Damages at Japanese assisted reproductive technology clinics by the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Osamu; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-06-30

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011 and consequent tsunami affected many IVF clinics in northeastern Japan. Twelve clinics lost at least one embryo, but all the frozen embryos stored in liquid nitrogen tanks were safe. Emergency power supply is the first priority issue in an unpredictable natural disaster. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Immigration to the Great Plains, 1865-1914: War, Politics, Technology, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The advent and vast extent of immigration to the Great Plains states during the years 1865 to 1914 is perhaps best understood in light of the new international context that emerged during the 1860s in the aftermath of six large wars whose consequences included the enlargement of civil liberties, an acceleration of economic growth and technological…

  7. Potential use of multispectral imaging technology to identify moisture content and water-holding capacity in cooked pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wu; Li, Peijun; Niu, Xiangli; Chen, Conggui; Zheng, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The traditional detection methods for moisture content (MC) and water-holding capacity (WHC) in cooked pork sausages (CPS) are destructive, time consuming, require skilled personnel and are not suitable for online industry applications. The goal of this work was to explore the potential of multispectral imaging (MSI) in combination with multivariate analysis for the identification of MC and WHC in CPS. Spectra and textures of 156 CPS treated by six salt concentrations (0-2.5%) were analyzed using different calibration models to find the most optimal results of predicting MC and WHC in CPS. By using the fused data of spectra and textures, partial least squares regression models performed well for determining the MC and WHC, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.949 and 0.832, respectively. Additionally, their spatial distribution in CPS could be visualized via applying prediction equations to transfer each pixel in the image. Results of satisfactory detection and visualization of the MC and WHC showed that MSI has the potential to serve as a rapid and non-destructive method for use in sausage industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. ["TECHNIKA I NAUKA" ["SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY"] (1958-)--MAGAZINE OF THE ASSOCIATION OF POLISH ENGINEERS IN GREAT BRITAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastyk-Kowalczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the history of establishment, functioning and the role of "Science and Technology"--quarterly of the Association of Polish Engineers in Great Britain--in shaping Polish technical thought in the environment of Polish engineers and technicians living in exile. The analysis of the content of the journal published in London in the years 1958-2008 made it evident that this official scientific organ of Polish technical intelligentsia edited in 500 copies reaches members of engineering, technical and scientific milieu across many continents. Despite the fact that Polish language dominates in the articles and thanks to the interdisciplinary character of their content - science and technology, biology, the humanities, sociology and others--the journal makes it possible for the reader to participate in an intellectual adventure. "Science and Technology" was created in 1958 on the initiative of Eng. Prof. Roman Wajda in Great Britain, with support of other Polish technical associations abroad, and embraced the achievements and organisational life of the Polish technical milieu dispersed around the world. On the basis of the London Society's archive materials and old annual volumes of the journal, the author listed editors-in-chief, composition of editorial committees, collaborators, determined editing costs, changeable periodicity, successive print shops, seats of editorial office that always followed the Association in Great Britain. She also showed the effort of a handful of members of editorial committees, working on a voluntary basis to obtain materials for the journal; the role of the journal linking Polish engineers and technicians in exile and its function as a link with the Country, as well as its role in the sphere of information and propaganda. Finally, the author made an analysis of the journal's content, focusing on categories of articles published in "Science and Technology" in the years 1958-2008. Methods used by the author in the article

  9. Selecting Security Technology Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2009-01-01

    The world of security technology holds great promise, but it is fraught with opportunities for expensive missteps and misapplications. The quality of the security technology consultants and system integrators one uses will have a direct bearing on how well his school masters this complex subject. Security technology consultants help determine…

  10. Somatic Embryogenesis in Coffee: The Evolution of Biotechnology and the Integration of Omics Technologies Offer Great Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nádia A; Panis, Bart; Carpentier, Sebastien C

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important crops cultivated around the world is coffee. There are two main cultivated species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Both species are difficult to improve through conventional breeding, taking at least 20 years to produce a new cultivar. Biotechnological tools such as genetic transformation, micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis (SE) have been extensively studied in order to provide practical results for coffee improvement. While genetic transformation got many attention in the past and is booming with the CRISPR technology, micropropagation and SE are still the major bottle neck and urgently need more attention. The methodologies to induce SE and the further development of the embryos are genotype-dependent, what leads to an almost empirical development of specific protocols for each cultivar or clone. This is a serious limitation and excludes a general comprehensive understanding of the process as a whole. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of which achievements and molecular insights have been gained in (coffee) somatic embryogenesis and encourage researchers to invest further in the in vitro technology and combine it with the latest omics techniques (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics). We conclude that the evolution of biotechnology and the integration of omics technologies offer great opportunities to (i) optimize the production process of SE and the subsequent conversion into rooted plantlets and (ii) to screen for possible somaclonal variation. However, currently the usage of the latest biotechnology did not pass the stage beyond proof of potential and needs to further improve.

  11. A low-power 20 GSps track-and-hold amplifier in 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Kai; Meng Qiao; Wang Zhigong; Zhang Yi; Yin Kuai; Guo Ting

    2013-01-01

    An open-loop 20 GSps track-and-hold amplifier (THA) using fully-differential architecture to mitigate common-mode noise and suppress even-order harmonics is presented. CMOS switch and dummy switches are adopted to achieve high speed and good linearity. A cross-coupled pair is used in the input buffer to suppress the charge injection and clock feedthrough. Both the input and output buffers use an active inductor load to achieve high signal bandwidth. The THA is realized with 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology using only CMOS devices at a 1.8 V voltage supply and with a core area of 0.024 mm 2 . The measurement results show that the SFDR is 32.4 dB with a 4 GHz sine wave input at a 20 GSps sampling rate, and the third harmonic distortion is −48 dBc. The effective resolution bandwidth of the THA is 12 GHz and the figure of merit is only 0.028 mW/GHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing ...

  13. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  14. Accelerators in Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kailas, S

    2002-01-01

    Accelerators built for basic research in frontier areas of science have become important and inevitable tools in many areas of science and technology. Accelerators are examples of science driven high technology development. Accelerators are used for a wide ranging applications, besides basic research. Accelerator based multidisciplinary research holds great promise

  15. Explosion of mobile and wireless technologies – An opportunities for mobile government to speed up service deliveries: A South African perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ogunleye, OS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author investigates the rapid surge in mobile and wireless technologies, and mobile phone in particulars. He also outlines four emerging application areas where mobile technologies hold great potential for mobile government...

  16. Portable hand hold device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  17. A Review: R. Baldwin, “The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization” (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Montagna

    2017-01-01

    In the introduction of his book, Richard Baldwin ambitiously says that its reading will “change our way to look at globalisation”. While the aim may sound too pretentious and in some respect misplaced, The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization is certainly timely. While it is hard to say whether or not globalisation has entered a terminal crisis, it is true that we are witnessing to processes of de-globalisation and relative attempts of national governments to re...

  18. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  19. Great Expectations: Leveraging America's Investment in Educational Technology. The E-Rate at Five, Enhancing Policymaking and New Evaluation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickard, Norris, Ed.

    In February 2000, the Benton Foundation, with the Center for Children and Technology, released "The E-Rate in America: A Tale of Four Cities." This report is a continuation of that work. Two overarching concerns have emerged in the current policy climate: it is imperative that the E-Rate program is structured in such a way as to maximize…

  20. "Like Holding an Umbrella Before It Rains": Acceptability of Future Rectal Microbicides Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India-A Modified Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Nelson, Ruban; Rubincam, Clara; Kumar, Pushpesh

    2017-07-01

    Topical rectal microbicides (RMs) are a new prevention technology in development that aims to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition from anal sex. We examined RM acceptability among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study guided by a modified Technology Acceptance Model, with 10 focus groups ( n = 61) of MSM and 10 key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis. RM acceptability was influenced by technological contexts: perceived usefulness of RMs, perceived ease of use of RM and applicator, and habits around condom and lubricant use; individual and interpersonal contexts: perceived relevance and preferences for product formulation and dosing frequency; and MSM community/social contexts: perceived social approval, RM-related stigma, social support. Implementation of RMs for MSM in India may be supported by multi-level interventions that engage community-based organizations in destigmatizing and distributing RMs, ideally gel-based products that enable on-demand use before sex.

  1. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  2. The role of the women's foreign missions in Serbia during the Great War: Transfer of medicalized technologies and the birth of biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is theoretically and methodologically limited to one narrow aspect of the First World War - to the role of the women's foreign missions. The case of Serbia in this context is of particular importance not just in terms of the weight, dramatic and tragic consequences of the Great war, but because the international engagement of women in foreign missions served as a latent social mechanism - the transfer of medicalized political and social technologies and practices that at the time did not existed. In this paper we analyze the conditions and causes of the changes in social roles of women that were related to their activism, professionalism, mobilization and engagement in medical and humanitarian missions during the Great War. This historical event was also the turning point in regard to the social participation of women as well as the milestone for the changes in the culture of gender relations. The Second front as the front of missionary struggle with epidemics, contagious diseases, the sick, the wounded, poverty, hunger, refugees and orphans took more than a third of total war victims in Serbia. We conclude that social events on this front, especially with the help of the medical campaign, represented the transfer of medicalized technologies of control, medication and prevention over the population. Those were the strategic needs of Serbia at the time but also the foundations of the new biopolitics.

  3. A Review: R. Baldwin, “The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization” (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Montagna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of his book, Richard Baldwin ambitiously says that its reading will “change our way to look at globalisation”. While the aim may sound too pretentious and in some respect misplaced, The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization is certainly timely. While it is hard to say whether or not globalisation has entered a terminal crisis, it is true that we are witnessing to processes of de-globalisation and relative attempts of national governments to regain some sovreignty. Against the view that globalisation has reached its terminus, this book states that on the contary it is entering a new phase. Its central assertion is that the radical changes in communication technology around 1990s have transformed the nature of globalization, reducing the costs of production and transferring massive north-to-south flows of know-how. What Baldwin calls “New Globalisation” not only has produced a great convergence of profit shares between the most industrialized and some industrializing countries as a consequence of shifting production to the latter, but it also set the basis for a “Third Wave” of globalisation.

  4. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  5. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  6. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  7. Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  8. With Great Measurements Come Great Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carl

    Measurements are the foundation for science and modern life. Technologies we take for granted every day depend on them-cell phones, CAT scans, pharmaceuticals, even sports equipment. Metrology, or measurement science, determines what industry can make reliably and what they cannot. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) we specialize in making world class measurements that an incredibly wide range of industries use to continually improve their products - computer chips with nanoscale components, atomic clocks that you can hold in your hand, lasers for both super-strong welds and delicate eye surgeries. Think of all the key technologies developed over the last 100 years and better measurements, standards, or analysis techniques played a role in making them possible. NIST works collaboratively with industry researchers on the advanced metrology for tomorrow's technologies. A new kilogram based on electromagnetic force, cars that weigh half as much but are just as strong, quantum computers, personalized medicine, single atom devices - it's all happening in our labs now. This talk will focus on how metrology creates the future.

  9. Wearable technology: using Google Glass as a teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Hui Min; Gajendragadkar, Parag Ravindra; Bokhari, Awais

    2015-05-12

    Wearable technology holds great promise in revolutionising healthcare delivery. The benefits can also be seen in medical education and delivering healthcare in remote places. We report the use of Google Glass technology as a teaching tool in broadcasting a procedure onto a mobile phone as a viewer, replacing expensive and often cumbersome existing equipment. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  11. Emerging tools and technologies in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Phillip Guertin; Scott N. Miller; David C. Goodrich

    2000-01-01

    The field of watershed management is highly dependent on spatially distributed data. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made toward the capture, storage, and use of spatial data. Emerging tools and technologies hold great promise for improving the scientific understanding of watershed processes and are already revolutionizing watershed research....

  12. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal.

  13. The Holding Company as an Instrument of Companies’ Tax-Financial Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gajewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the holding institution as an economic and taxation solution. This article describes the holding company, indicates its advantages and disadvantages, and compares it to similar solutions. The main goal of holding companies is to change tax policies. As a result of these institutions, companies can change their tax status and economic situation. The holding institution influences the economic development of its constituent companies. The functioning of a holding company also has great importance for economic development. Establishing holdings is a worldwide trend that may be realised through various models.

  14. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  15. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  16. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  17. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  18. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  19. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  20. Equations Holding in Hilbert Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, René

    2006-07-01

    We produce and study several sequences of equations, in the language of orthomodular lattices, which hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of any classical Hilbert space, but not in all orthomodular lattices. Most of these equations hold in any orthomodular lattice admitting a strong set of states whose values are in a real Hilbert space. For some of these equations, we give conditions under which they hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of a generalised Hilbert space. These conditions are relative to the dimension of the Hilbert space and to the characteristic of its division ring of scalars. In some cases, we show that these equations cannot be deduced from the already known equations, and we study their mutual independence. To conclude, we suggest a new method for obtaining such equations, using the tensorial product.

  1. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  2. The Case of the Great Space Exploration: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2004-09-12-LARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files" episode "The Case of the Great Space Exploration," the tree house detectives learn about NASA's new vision for exploring space. In four segments aimed at grades 3-5, students learn about a variety of aspects of space exploration. Each segment of the guide includes an overview, a set of objectives,…

  3. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... conservatorship. One commenter suggested strategies for reengineering the nation's mortgage finance system. In... necessary reforms for the housing finance system or to the question of what form the Enterprises will take... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1252 RIN 2590-AA22 Portfolio Holdings AGENCY: Federal...

  4. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  5. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  6. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  7. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  8. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education......, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  9. Survey of history/succession of industrial technology. Book of survey of the domestic industrial technology which contributed greatly to the industrial development; Sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa. Sangyo no hatten ni okiku kiyoshita kokunai sangyo gijutsu no chosahen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed a history of the industrial technology development which contributed to the innovation of technology in Japan for contribution to the future selection of technical themes and decision on developmental methods. In accordance with the increasing contribution of the Japanese industrial technology to scientific and economic activities in Japan and abroad, it is important to clarify a historical significance of the industrial technology and to make the most of results of the survey for the future succession/development of industrial technology. The survey focused on chemical processes brought up as the Japanese industrial technology which is regarded as world-famous and on the systematical study of the history of the Japanese scientific technology. Hereafter, this becomes a guiding principle for engineers. The paper arranged the survey results of production processes of 2-ethylhexanol, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and cresol/resorcinol, optical resolution process of amino acids, and flue gas desulfurization process. The paper also surveyed technologies of ammonia synthesis, coal liquefaction, high polymer film production and synthesis of medical raw materials. The results were obtained which are suggestive for developing creative/original technology. 210 refs., 93 figs., 49 tabs.

  10. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  11. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  12. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  13. Gaze holding in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    Full Text Available Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 sthat was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s between ± 40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ± 0-20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ± 20-40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities.

  14. Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0−20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20−40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824

  15. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  16. The promise of mobile technologies and single case designs for the study of individuals in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Bricker, Jonathan; McDonell, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mobile technologies are growing rapidly around the world to broad demographics of society. These technologies hold great promise for their integration with Single Case Designs (SCDs) and the study of individuals in their natural environment. This paper discusses the theoretical, methodological and analytic implications of these tools for the advancement of the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders, and their remediation. We hope this paper will highlight the scientific advantages of combining mobile technologies and SCDs and encourage their adoption among CBS scientists.

  17. Development of hot water utilizing power plants in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to collect geothermal resources in great depths (Development of technology to produce geothermal resources in great depths); 1999 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu / shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop geothermal resources, research and development has been performed on the production technologies for the deep-seated geothermal resources, such as pressure, temperature, flow speed and density (PTSD) logging technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the actual well test on the developed D-probe, it was verified that the probe operates normally under high temperature environment (342 degrees C) which exceeds the measurement limit of conductive cables (315 degrees C). In developing the PTC monitoring technology, the downhole sampler was improved, and a test was performed in the actual hole in the Hijiori area in Yamagata Prefecture. As a result, collection of hot water of about 900 mL has become possible. In developing the high-temperature tracer monitoring technology, simulation was performed keeping in mind charging the tracer into the Hijiori geothermal area, whereas specifications for charging and collecting the tracer were determined. In developing the scale monitoring technology, experiments were carried out on the fluid systems under deep geothermal conditions by using scale forming devices, by which it was indicated that silica is the important scale constituent. (NEDO)

  18. Q-Ships of the Great War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coder, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Lacking adequate antisubmarine warfare tactics and technologies to combat the German unrestricted submarine campaign during the Great War, the Allies turned to deception or "ruse de guerre" as a means...

  19. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  20. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  1. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live dog... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...

  2. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  3. Gertrude the Great

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2006-01-01

    an encyclopedic article on the only woman who in Catholic church history has ever been called "the Great", the Cistercian nun Gertrude of Helfta (1256-1301/02......an encyclopedic article on the only woman who in Catholic church history has ever been called "the Great", the Cistercian nun Gertrude of Helfta (1256-1301/02...

  4. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  5. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  6. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  7. Can OPEC hold it together?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerman, V.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation described the status of OPEC and whether it can continue to operate under the current economic situation. OPEC is the most successful commodity cartel in history, but the author cautions that it is only a matter of time before it self destructs. OPEC has not served the interest of Saudi Arabia in the past and it will not be able to serve its interest in the future without strong incremental demand for OPEC oil. The author stated that OPEC is threatened by Islamic fundamentalists and by financial difficulty due to a decline in export revenues. Other threats for OPEC are environmental, strategic and technological. The author concluded that Saudi Arabia is likely to choose to abandon OPEC, because the cartel will continue to be at the mercy of world oil demand and non-OPEC supply. 19 figs

  8. Holding the Project Accountable: Research Governance, Ethics, and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    This paper seeks to address research governance by highlighting the notion of public accountability as a complementary tool for the establishment of an ethical resonance space for emerging technologies. Public accountability can render development and design process of emerging technologies transparent through practices of holding those in charge of research accountable for their actions, thereby fostering ethical engagement with their potential negative consequences or side-effects. Through practices such as parliamentary questions, audits, and open letters emerging technologies could be effectively rendered transparent and opened up to broader levels of scrutiny and debate, thereby contributing to a greater adherence of emerging technologies to ethics and moral consensus. Fundamental democratic practices could thus not only lead to better informed choices in design and development processes, but also contribute to more morally substantive outcomes.

  9. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  10. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  11. Toxic fables: the advertising and marketing of agricultural chemicals in the great plains, 1945-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, David D

    2012-12-01

    This paper examines how pesticides and their technologies were sold to farmers and pilots throughout the midtwentieth century. It principally considers how marketing rhetoric and advertisement strategies used by chemical companies and aerial spraying firms influenced the practices and perspectives of farm producers in the Great Plains. In order to convince landowners and agricultural leaders to buy their pesticides, chemical companies generated advertisements that championed local crop health, mixture accuracy, livestock safety and a chemical-farming 'way of life' that kept fields healthy and productive. Combining notions of safety, accuracy and professionalism with pest eradication messages reinforced the standards that landowners, pilots and agriculturalists would hold regarding toxicity and risk when spraying their fields. As the politics of health changed in the aftermath of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, these companies and aerial spraying outfits responded by keeping to a vision of agricultural health that required poisons for protection through technological accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Next Great Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science --- when defined as the study of all biological, chemical, and physical processes that interact to define the behavior of the Earth system --- has direct societal relevance equal to or greater than that any other branch of science. However, "geology", "geoscience", and "Earth science" departments are contracting at many universities and even disappearing at some. This irony speaks volumes about the limitations of the traditional university structure that partitions educational and research programs into specific disciplines, each housed in its own department. Programs that transcend disciplinary boundaries are difficult to fit into the traditional structure and are thus highly vulnerable to threats such as chronic underfunding by university administrations, low enrollments in more advanced subjects, and being largely forgotten during capital campaigns. Dramatic improvements in this situation will require a different way of thinking about earth science programs by university administrations. As Earth scientists, our goal must not be to protect "traditional" geology departments, but rather to achieve a sustainable programmatic future for broader academic programs that focus on Earth evolution from past, present, and future perspectives. The first step toward meeting this goal must be to promote a more holistic definition of Earth science that includes modes of inquiry more commonly found in engineering and social science departments. We must think of Earth science as a meta-discipline that includes core components of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and the emerging science of complexity. We must recognize that new technologies play an increasingly important role in our ability to monitor global environmental change, and thus our educational programs must include basic training in the modes of analysis employed by engineers as well as those employed by scientists. One of the most important lessons we can learn from the engineering community is the

  13. Great Lakes maritime education program for K-12 teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Michigan Technological University has led an educational/outreach effort for the Great Lake Maritime Research Institute since 2006. : Despite Michigan Techs relative isolation and long distance from most locations in the Great Lakes Basin, every s...

  14. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  15. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  16. Breath-holding spells in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2015-02-01

    I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  18. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  19. Das grandes incisões cirúrgicas à colecistectomia laparoscópica: uma reflexão sobre o impacto de novas tecnologias = From great surgical incisions to laparoscopic cholecystectomy: reflection on the impact of new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes, Maria Helena Itaqui

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Revisar a história da colecistectomia laparoscópica e as dificuldades enfrentadas pelos cirurgiões envolvidos no seu desenvolvimento. Fonte de dados: Revisão bibliográfica através do PubMed. Foram analisados artigos selecionados sobre a história dos pioneiros da colecistectomia laparoscópica. Síntese dos dados: A introdução da cirurgia endoscópica na rotina clínica mudou drasticamente o campo da cirurgia. Redução da dor pós-operatória, menor impacto nas funções vitais, menor tempo de internação hospitalar e retorno mais rápido as atividades são algumas das vantagens do método. Entretanto, os pioneiros da técnica foram criticados em uma época na qual o pensamento dominante era: “Grandes cirurgiões, grandes incisões”. Conclusões: Atualmente a colecistectomia laparoscópica é a técnica de eleição para a remoção da vesícula biliar. Procedimentos minimamente invasivos alteraram o campo da cirurgia. Contudo, levou tempo até serem aceitos na prática dos cirurgiões. O conhecimento das dificuldades enfrentadas no passado ajudará no desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias. Aims: To review the history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the difficulties faced by the surgeons involved in its development. Source of data: A search was carried out at PubMed databasis. Selected papers about the history of the pioneers of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed. Summary of findings: Introduction of endoscopic surgery into clinical routine has dramatically changed the field of surgery. Less postoperative pain, less impairment of vital functions, shorter hospital stay and faster return to normal activities are some of the advantages. Early pioneers of this method worked against the surgical thinking of the era of: “Great surgeons, great incisions”. Conclusions: Nowadays, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for gallbladder removal. Minimally invasive procedures have changed the field of

  20. Journeys to greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-02-01

    Readers, I hope, will forgive me for a shameless bit of self-publicity about my latest book, The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg (Norton). But then the book is partly yours too, inspired as it was by the responses of Physics World readers to my request for suggestions of great equations (October 2004 pp14-15). In the book, I chose to discuss not the most frequently mentioned equations, but those that seem to have engaged their discoverers in the most remarkable journeys.

  1. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  2. Involuntary Psychiatric Holds in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Santillanes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the use of involuntary psychiatric holds in preadolescent children. The primary objective was to characterize patients under the age of 10 years on involuntary psychiatric holds. Methods: This was a two-year retrospective study from April 2013 – April 2015 in one urban pediatric emergency department (ED. Subjects were all children under the age of 10 years who were on an involuntary psychiatric hold at any point during their ED visit. We collected demographic data including age, gender, ethnicity and details about living situation, child protective services involvement and prior mental health treatment, as well as ED disposition. Results: There were 308 visits by 265 patients in a two-year period. Ninety percent of involuntary psychiatric holds were initiated in the prehospital setting. The following were common characteristics: male (75%, in custody of child protective services (23%, child protective services involvement (42%, and a prior psychiatric hospitalization (32%. Fifty-six percent of visits resulted in discharge from the ED, 42% in transfer to a psychiatric hospital and 1% in admission to the pediatric medical ward. Median length of stay was 4.7 hours for discharged patients and 11.7 hours for patients transferred to psychiatric hospitals. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study presents the first characterization of preadolescent children on involuntary psychiatric holds. Ideally, mental health screening and services could be initiated in children with similar high-risk characteristics before escalation results in placement of an involuntary psychiatric hold. Furthermore, given that many patients were discharged from the ED, the current pattern of utilization of involuntary psychiatric holds in young children should be reconsidered.

  3. Hold-up Problems with Respect to R&D Investment and Licensing in Environmental Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Breitscheidel, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    We explore the design of self-financing tax-subsidy schemes to solve hold-up problems in environmental regulation. The announcement of the tax rate seems to be preferable to solve hold-up problems with respect to the investment in environmental R&D. In contrast, only the announcement of the subsidy rate is adequate to solve hold-up problems with respect to the licensing of environmentally friendly technologies. Altogether, the announcement of the subsidy rate yields higher expected social wel...

  4. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  5. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  6. Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  7. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  8. 6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

  9. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  10. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... Enterprise or OFHEO that the Enterprise is to retain records relating to a particular issue in connection...

  11. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  12. Biosketch Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ashok

    Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner Professorship of Cancer Research at the University of Cambridge, and is the Director of the Medical Research Council. (MRC) Cancer Cell Unit there. He learnt and practiced medicine at the Christian. Medical College, Vellore, before completing his Ph.D. at University College ...

  13. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  14. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., utilities, music licensing fees, etc.). Any successive applicants proposing to assign or transfer the... receiving a decisive preference for fair distribution of service is required to construct and operate... preference is based for a period of four years of on-air operations. (c) The holding period in this section...

  15. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  16. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  17. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF INNOVATIVE PROJECTS ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific paper evaluates the impact of innovative projects on the competitiveness of agricultural holdings in SR. Evaluation of the impact of innovative projects on competitiveness of agricultural holdings was realized on the selected holdings in Nitra and Trnava region. For the evaluation was used RCR coefficient. With the use of RCR coefficient could be confirmed the scientific hypothesis - The innovative projects realized through Program for rural development SR 2007-2013 have positive impact on competitiveness of agricultural holdings. The possibilities for EU financial support for innovative projects in SR represent important source for introduction of new innovative technologies into production process and in future they can significantly contribute to the growth of competitiveness of agricultural subjects. Therefore, to increase competitiveness of agricultural holdings it is important to focus on modernization of machinery and buildings, use of natural sources for energy production, but also to increase the education and the flow of information between rural inhabitants, mainly farmers. In competitive area of EU agricultural sector it is necessary that agricultural holdings will innovate, not only to create independent flow of innovative products and knowledge, but also to increase its value on internal market. Agricultural holdings –receivers of financial support – have expressed the opinion that financial support realized through PRD SR 2007-2013 had definitely allowed them to implement new processes and products.

  19. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971, the...

  20. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio holdings...

  1. A Self-Assembling Protein Hydrogel Technology for Enzyme Incorporation onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0369 A Self-Assembling Protein Hydrogel Technology for Enzyme Incorporation onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells (YIP) Zhilei Chen...Incorporation Onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER C12-00857 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0330 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...activity enzyme immobilization on electrodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. Enzymatic biofuel cells hold great potential for providing flexible, compact

  2. New information and communication technologies to communicate with patients: text messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nagberi, Augustina Edisemi

    2008-01-01

    New information and communication technologies such as cell phone communication hold great potential for improvements in health care access and delivery. This paper addresses the use of text messaging for patient communication. It includes a case study that is one of the first to examine the use of text messaging to notify patients of STD results. Findings from 2 focus groups with 15 participants from an urban STD clinic show patients reacted positively regarding the use of text messages. Rea...

  3. The great Melbourne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Erected at Melbourne Observatory in 1869, the telescope was the second largest in the world, designed to explore the nature of the nebulae in the southern skies. Richard Gillespie, head of the History and Technology department at the Melbourne museum has written an entertaining account of the telescope's extraordinary history and tells the story through an amazing cast of characters whose lives intersected with the telescope.

  4. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  5. A great deal of evidence based on a great many instances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    -based linguistics, such a claim would leave out informationpotentially useful to Danish learners of English. Drawing on principles fromconstruction grammar (e.g. Goldberg 1995; Croft 2001) and variationist cognitive sociolinguistics (Pütz et al. 2014), this paper presents a usage-based comparativecorpus study......In a reference grammar of English for Danish students, Hjulmand & Schwarz (2015: 137) state that, when translating from Danish, “'en hel del' is a good/great deal of in front of uncountable nouns, but a good/great many in front of countable nouns in the plural”.This claim calls for empirical...... support. With significant distributions of countnouns vs. non-count nouns, a study of COCA suggests that the claim holds up atleast for American English. However, the claim ultimately belongs to what Harder (2015; see also Gregory 1967) calls incomplete accounts. In the perspectiveof usage...

  6. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  7. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  8. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  9. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  10. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...... education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model....... The results are shown to be highly robust to various assumptions, including unobserved individual heterogeneityand instrumental variables estimation....

  11. Let's just hold a real vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth

    2017-04-12

    The planned RCN consultation to gauge how nurses feel about balloting on industrial action is a step in the right direction, but for heaven's sake why don't we just hold a real vote? No one is interested in a test vote - not the media, not members. A real vote would be headline news and RCN members would be enthused and motivated. As it is, we are just kicking the ball into the long grass yet again. There will be a low turnout and we will end up shrugging our shoulders and saying 'There's nothing to be done'. Jeremy Hunt must be laughing his socks off.

  12. Hold-down device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.; Bonnamour, M.

    1984-01-01

    The present device can be used in nuclear reactors and more particularly in pressurized water reactors consisting of coupled fuel assemblies, certain of which are equipped with non-displaceable elements carried by an unsertable member. The device comprises the unsertable member provided with at least two sets of springs which transmit the load of an upper structure common to the fuel assemblies ajacent that which supports the unsertable member. The device is used to hold-down fuel assemblies which are subjected to the forces of circulating coolant [fr

  13. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Kraftin E; Martin, Richard

    2017-06-01

    With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED) are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An admissions holding unit is remarkably effective in avoiding the

  14. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  15. Search Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  16. Available Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  17. SITUATION OF REGULATIONS FOR HOLDING COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Filofteia Braga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the tax facilities applicable to Romania on holding companies, ranking of the first 20 countries that investing in our country, their activities field and the necessity to approve the law holding company.

  18. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  19. Iron and zinc levels in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    DEDA, Gülhis; AKAR, M. Nejat; CİN, Şükrü; GENÇGÖNÜL, Handan

    2002-01-01

    Breath-Holding spells are a dramatic and commonly observed clinical phenomenon in childhood. The underlyingpathophysiologic mechanisms in breath-holding spells are result from autonomic nervous system dysregulation.Cerebral anoxia is the ultimate factor responsible for the loss of consciousness observed in the severe forms of breath-holding spells.It’s known that, there is relationbetween breath-holding spells and iron-deficiency anemia, and the spells resolve after oral iron supplemantation....

  20. 42 CFR 412.344 - Hold-harmless payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold-harmless payment methodology. 412.344 Section...-Related Costs § 412.344 Hold-harmless payment methodology. (a) General. A hospital paid under the hold-harmless payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on the higher of: (1) 85 percent of...

  1. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents...

  2. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  3. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... mentioned above, only top-tier foreign banking organizations with financial holding company status file Part... Nonbank Financial Companies Supervised by the Federal Reserve AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... financial companies designated for Board supervision by the Financial Stability Oversight Council (Council...

  4. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... (``My position at Sears had nothing to do with Analytics or space Management. I worked in Marketing... firm clarified that one petitioner supplied print marketing management services, another petitioner... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,253] Sears Holdings Management...

  5. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  6. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  7. Should we Hold the Obese Responsible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    holding the obese responsible will have positive consequences. Taking these two conceptions of responsibility into account, the authors turn their analysis toward examining the relevant moral considerations to be taken into account when public policies regarding obesity rely on such a conception......It is a common belief that obesity is wholly or partially a question of personal choice and personal responsibility. It is also widely assumed that when individuals are responsible for some unfortunate state of affairs, society bears no burden to compensate them. This article focuses on two...... conceptualizations of responsibility: backward-looking and forward-looking conceptualizations. When ascertaining responsibility in a backward-looking sense, one has to determine how that state of affairs came into being or where the agent stood in relation to it. In contrast, a forward-looking conceptualization...

  8. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial holding company, or enforcing compliance with applicable law. ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225.82 Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  9. Microstructural, protein denaturation and water holding properties of lamb under pulse vacuum brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Weiwei; Kang, Ning; Shen, Qingwu; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microstructure, protein denaturation and water holding capacity of lamb pickled under pulse vacuum. Sixty topside samples (M. semimembranosus) were randomly assigned into two groups and cured for 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6h by pulse vacuum brining (PVB) and atmospheric brining (AB) (control), respectively. The salt content of samples by PVB was about 1% higher than AB from 1.5h to 6h. The water holding capacity was greater for PVB group before 4.5h (Pvacuum brining can be used to improve the brining efficiency, promoting the actomyosin dissociation and improving the water holding capacity of lamb, which will be a potential technology to be used in practice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  11. Doing Great Things in Great Neck, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2007-01-01

    This article features Joe Rutkowski, an instrumental music director at Great Neck North School in New York. Rutkowski had been teaching for 17 years at Great Neck North and is quite popular for the way he makes his students deeply involved with music. Rutkowski, who is a fourth-generation musician in a family of instrumentalists, received…

  12. Role of a national research organization in the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ishaq

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear technology holds great promise for developing countries because it can contribute to national development. The developing countries, however, lack the resources and expertise to develop nuclear technology through their own efforts. A national research organization devoted to the promotion and utilization of nucler technology can provide an effective channel for the transfer of nuclear technology. The problems which the national research organization is likely to face in executing its tasks as an agent for the transfer of technology are discussed. An appreciation of these problems would enable the organization to restructure its priorities so as to achieve maximum effectiveness. The various ways by which the national research organization can speed up the task of transfer of technology are also discussed

  13. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they

  14. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  15. Holding parents so they can hold their children: grief work with surviving spouses to support parentally bereaved children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M

    A child's adjustment to the death of a parent is greatly influenced by the surviving parent's ability to attend to his or her own grief-related needs, to create and sustain a consistent and nurturing environment, and to encourage the child to express distressing or conflicting thoughts, feelings, and fantasies about the loss. Yet, the surviving parent's grief often compromises their ability to parent consistently and empathically. This article will illustrate how, by providing a holding environment for whole families, clinicians can help parents to facilitate children's grief reactions and, thus, mitigate long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Family Matters programs, designed and implemented in a community agency, use a holistic approach to family support and treatment in a milieu setting. Combining therapeutic work with surviving spouses and bereaved children supports children's grief while facilitating newly single parents as they adapt the structure of family life. When clinical work with families begins before the ill parent dies, the clinicians may build a relationship with the dying parent, prepare the child and surviving spouse for life after loss, and support continuity in family culture. We introduce a curriculum for simultaneously supporting bereaved children and parents, present a series of common challenges faced by surviving parents, and suggest avenues for intervention research.

  16. The relationship between perceived discomfort of static posture holding and posture holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated mathematical characteristics of the discomfort-time relationship during prolonged static posture holding (SPH) on an individual basis. Consequently, the discomfort-time relationship is not clearly understood at individual trial level. The objective of this study was to examine discomfort-time sequence data obtained from a large number of maximum-duration SPH trials to understand the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship at the individual SPH trial level. Thirty subjects (15 male, 15 female) participated in this study as paid volunteers. The subjects performed maximum-duration SPH trials employing 12 different wholebody static postures. The hand-held load for all the task trials was a ``generic'' box weighing 2 kg. Three mathematical functions, that is, linear, logarithmic and power functions were examined as possible mathematical models for representing individual discomfort-time profiles of SPH trials. Three different time increase patterns (negatively accelerated, linear and positively accelerated) were observed in the discomfort-time sequences data. The power function model with an additive constant term was found to adequately fit most (96.4%) of the observed discomfort-time sequences, and thus, was recommended as a general mathematical representation of the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship in SPH. The new knowledge on the nature of the discomfort-time relationship in SPH and the power function representation found in this study will facilitate analyzing discomfort-time data of SPH and developing future posture analysis tools for work-related discomfort control.

  17. Analog CMOS peak detect and hold circuits. Part 2. The two-phase offset-free and derandomizing configuration

    CERN Document Server

    De Geronimo, G; Kandasamy, A

    2002-01-01

    An analog CMOS peak detect and hold (PDH) circuit, which combines high speed and accuracy, rail-to-rail sensing and driving, low power, and buffering is presented. It is based on a configuration that cancels the major error sources of the classical CMOS PDH, including offset and common mode gain, by re-using the same amplifier for tracking, peak sensing, and output buffering. By virtue of its high absolute accuracy, two or more PDHs can be used in parallel to serve as a data-driven analog memory for derandomization. The first experimental results on the new peak detector and derandomizer (PDD) circuit, fabricated in 0.35 mu m CMOS technology, include a 0.2% absolute accuracy for pulses with 500 ns peaking time, 2.7 V linear input range, 3.3 mW power dissipation, 250 mV/s droop rate, and negligible dead time. The use of such a high performance analog PDD can greatly relax the requirements on the digitization in multi-channel systems.

  18. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202

  19. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  20. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  1. Great Lakes maritime education program for K-12 teachers, year 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Michigan Technological University has led an educational/outreach effort for the Great Lake Maritime Research Institute since 2006. : Despite Michigan Techs relative isolation and long distance from most locations in the Great Lakes Basin, every s...

  2. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  3. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  4. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  5. Effects of wood pulp fibre concentration on gas hold-up in bubble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of wood pulp fibre concentration on gas hold-up in bubble columns. LK Witika, X Qui. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 9(2) 2005: 35-40. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jost.v9i2.17546.

  6. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  7. Game Mechanics and Bodily Interactions: Designing Interactive Technologies for Sports Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller

    Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training...... activity as a control mechanism or the core game mechanic. While sports training technologies and bodily games build upon similar technologies and emanate from sports, they do not share focus. One focuses on measuring, monitoring and skill acquisition, while the other focuses on motivation, engagement...... and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...

  8. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a "worst-case" scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  9. Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2018-03-07

    What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport. In apnea sport, people compete in disciplines relating to underwater distances or simply maximal breath hold duration - with the current (oxygen un-supplemented) static breath hold record at 11:35 min. Remarkably, many ultra-elite apneists are able to supress respiratory urges to the point where consciousness fundamentally limits a breath hold duration. Here, arterial oxygen saturations as low as ∼50% have been reported. In such cases, oxygen conservation to maintain cerebral functioning is critical, where responses ascribed to the mammalian dive reflex - e.g., sympathetically mediated peripheral vaconstriction, and vagally mediated bradycardia - are central. In defence of maintaining global cerebral oxygen delivery during prolonged breath holds, the cerebral blood flow may increase by ∼100% from resting values. Interestingly, near the termination of prolonged dry static breath holds, recent studies also indicate that reductions in the cerebral oxidative metabolism can occur, likely attributable to the extreme hypercapnia and irrespective of the hypoxemia. In this review we highlight and discuss the recent data on the cardiovascular, metabolic and particularly cerebrovascular function in competitive apneists performing maximal static breath holds. The physiological adaptation and maladaptation with regular breath hold training are also summarized, and future research areas in this unique physiological field are highlighted

  10. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  11. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour.

  13. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  14. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne stude...

  15. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders. (Revised version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godhelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  16. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  17. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to...

  18. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour. PMID:20046299

  19. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... delivery. Each handler shall, at all times, hold in his possession or under his control, in proper storage...

  20. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993... delivery. Each handler shall at all times, hold, in his possession or under his control, in proper storage... require that such delivery consist of natural condition prunes or it may arrange for such delivery to...

  1. Cash Holdings Policy: a Dynamic Analysis of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.

  2. Model-based auralizations of violin sound trends accompanying plate-bridge tuning or holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George; Mores, Robert

    2015-04-01

    To expose systematic trends in violin sound accompanying "tuning" only the plates or only the bridge, the first structural acoustics-based model auralizations of violin sound were created by passing a bowed-string driving force measured at the bridge of a solid body violin through the dynamic filter (DF) model radiativity profile "filter" RDF(f) (frequency-dependent pressure per unit driving force, free-free suspension, anechoic chamber). DF model auralizations for the more realistic case of a violin held/played in a reverberant auditorium reveal that holding the violin greatly diminishes its low frequency response, an effect only weakly compensated for by auditorium reverberation.

  3. UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

  4. 75 FR 4582 - Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Meetings, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: In... Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will hold three meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2010. All... issues associated with public land management in Nevada. Meeting locations and topics for discussion...

  5. 75 FR 7291 - Northeastern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ..., Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: In accordance... (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Nevada Northeastern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will hold three meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2010. All...

  6. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  7. Network Interactions in the Great Altai Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Aleksandrovich Korshunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the regional economy, an effective interaction between educational institutions in the Great Altai region is needed. The innovation growth can enhancing this interaction. The article explores the state of network structures in the economy and higher education in the border territories of the countries of Great Altai. The authors propose an updated approach to the three-level classification of network interaction. We analyze growing influence of the countries with emerging economies. We define the factors that impede the more stable and multifaceted regional development of these countries. Further, the authors determine indicators of the higher education systems and cooperation systems at the university level between the Shanghai Cooperation Organization countries (SCO and BRICS countries, showing the international rankings of the universities in these countries. The teaching language is important to overcome the obstacles in the interregional cooperation. The authors specify the problems of the development of the universities of the SCO and BRICS countries as global educational networks. The research applies basic scientific logical methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, as well as the SWOT analysis method. We have indentified and analyzed the existing economic and educational relations. To promote the economic innovation development of the border territories of the Great Altai, we propose a model of regional network university. Modern universities function in a new economic environment. Thus, in a great extent, they form the technological and social aspects of this environment. Innovative network structures contribute to the formation of a new network institutional environment of the regional economy, which impacts the macro- and microeconomic performance of the region as a whole. The results of the research can help to optimize the regional economies of the border

  8. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  9. Making a Great First Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  10. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  11. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  12. Great Books 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, David

    2009-01-01

    As documented by multiple NEA studies ("Reading at Risk," 2004; "To Read or Not to Read," 2007), reading has become devalued in American life, on sale in the clearance bin along with notions of greatness, classic works and ideas, and Western civilization itself. Trying to teach fine literature, writes the author, has become the struggle of how to…

  13. Reproducibility of BOLD signal change induced by breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magon, Stefano; Basso, Gianpaolo; Farace, Paolo; Ricciardi, Giuseppe Kenneth; Beltramello, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2009-04-15

    Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast is influenced by some physiological factors such as blood flow and blood volume that can be a source of variability in fMRI analysis. Previous studies proposed to use the cerebrovascular response data to normalize or calibrate BOLD maps in order to reduce variability of fMRI data both among brain areas in single subject analysis and across subjects. Breath holding is one of the most widely used methods to investigate the vascular reactivity. However, little is known about the robustness and reproducibility of this procedure. In this study we investigated three different breath holding periods. Subjects were asked to hold their breath for 9, 15 or 21 s in three separate runs and the fMRI protocol was repeated after 15 to 20 days. Our data show that the BOLD response to breath holding after inspiration results in a complex shape due to physiological factors that influence the signal variation with a timing that is highly reproducible. Nevertheless, the reproducibility of the magnitude of the cerebrovascular response to CO(2), expressed as amplitude of BOLD signal and number of responding voxels, strongly depends on duration of breath holding periods. Breath holding period of 9 s results in high variability of the magnitude of the response while longer breath holding durations produce more robust and reproducible BOLD responses.

  14. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  15. Optimisiation of The Total Weighed Holding Time in A P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naors Y Anad Alsaleem

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of working out of mathematical model in networks of peer-to-peer communication is that the formulation of a problem of optimisation of the total weighed holding time must be given. Optimization of the mathematical model constructed оn the theory of schedules. The common system decision is received, allowing to optimise a P2P network holding time. The practical importance is the described models and methods of the theory of schedules allow to display adequately the structure and the function of a P2P network and to consider their dynamics, restriction of previous information, shifts, interruptions and other typical technological decisions that can be used to increase the productivity of a network and quality of granting of services QoS, QoE

  16. A GREAT search for Deuterium in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Comets are understood to be the most pristine bodies in the Solar System. Their compositions reflect the chemical state of materials at the very earliest evolutionary stages of the protosolar nebula and, as such, they provide detailed insight into the physical and chemical processes operating in planet-forming disks. Isotopic fractionation ratios of the molecular ices in the nucleus are regarded as signatures of formation processes. These ratios provide unique information on the natal heritage of those ices, and can also test the proposal that Earth's water and other volatiles were delivered by cometary bombardment. Measurement of deuterium fractionation ratios is thus a major goal in contemporary cometary science and the D/H ratio of water - the dominant volatile in comets - holds great promise for testing the formation history of cometary matter. The D/H ratio in cometary water has been measured in only eight comets. Seven were from the Oort Cloud reservoir and the D/H ratio was about twice that of the Earth's oceans. However, the recent Herschel measurement of HDO/H2O in 103P/Hartley-2 (the first from the Kuiper Belt) was consistent with exogenous delivery of Earth's water by comets. Outstanding questions remain: are cometary HDO/H2O ratios consistent with current theories of nebular chemical evolution or with an interstellar origin? Does the HDO/H2O ratio vary substantially among comet populations? Hartley-2 is the only Kuiper Belt comet with measured HDO/H2O, are there comets with similar ratios in the Oort cloud? These questions can only be addressed by measuring HDO/H2O ratios in many more suitable bright comets. We therefore propose to measure the D/H ratio in water in a suitable target-of-opportunity comet by performing observations of HDO and OH with the GREAT spectrometer on SOFIA. A multi-wavelength, ground-based observing campaign will also be conducted in support of the airborne observations.

  17. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  18. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  19. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  20. Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (pBreath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex. PMID:20012144

  1. Bank holding companies' participation in credit insurance underwriting

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Watro

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the public and corporate benefits associated with credit insurance underwriting by bank holding companies in the Fourth Federal Reserve District, featuring rate reduction guidelines, performance ratios, and earnings comparisons.

  2. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-11-29

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  3. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  4. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  5. Corporate Cash Holding Behavior and Financial Environment: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Muhammad Sohail; Alifiah, Mohammad Norfian

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate liquidity management practices has mainly focused on the trade-off between the potential costs and benefits of holding cash. However, in order to improve the firm financial performance, much remained to be understood, particularly, the cash holding behavior of firms. Furthermore, this study reveals that contemporary literature in the area of cash management may overlook the industry and institutional context of firms at sector level. In addition, sectors are important to...

  6. Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing.......This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing....

  7. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  8. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  9. Single breath-hold MR imaging of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Jeong; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Chae, Yoo Soon; Chung, Chun Phil; Kim, Yang Sook

    1993-01-01

    Single breath-hold gradient echo images with Small Tip Angle Gradient Echo (STAGE) were evaluated in the study of liver in 16 patients (4 normal liver, 5 hepatoma, 5 cholangiocarcinoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 cavernous transformation of portal vein). We obtained one slice of gradient echo during single breath-hold at the level of pathology defined on conventional spin echo image. Single breath-hold gradient echo images were compared with spin echo images for image quality and artifacts. Single breath-hold gradient image showed improved resolution of vascular detail and excellent contrast between lesion and adjacent normal liver in hepatoma. Cholangiocarcinoma showed decreased contrast between lesion and biliary trees but improved contrast between lesion and blood vessel. Cavernous transformation of portal vein was noted as tortuous vessel of high signal intensity. Single breath-hold gradient echo scan increased vascular artifact, but decreased respiratory artifact leading to improved image quality. Single breath-hold technique can reduce imaging time and improve image quality and may be used as complementary method to the spin echo scan

  10. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calik M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Calik,1 Dilek Sen Dokumaci,2 Suna Sarikaya,3 Mahmut Demir,4 Ilhan Isik,5 Halil Kazanasmaz,4 Cemil Kaya,4 Hasan Kandemir6 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harran University School of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatric Neurology, Eyyubiye Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey Abstract: Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and myoinositol (mI levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05. Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. Keywords: brain metabolite, children, breath holding, magnetic resonance spectroscopy 

  11. Leverage, Asymmetric Information, Firm Value, and Cash Holdings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mita Cheryta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria. This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value. With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency a conflict that can affect a company’s performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry, information had an effect on the declining the firm value.

  12. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....

  13. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  14. Great war, ethics of Vidovdan, memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a characterization of contemporaneity (dominance of the financial sector and high technology, politicization of economy, ideological use of culture and control of the capacity for thought and a brief analysis of expansionism (political, economic, cultural on the eve of the Great War, the author embarks on a more detailed description of the spiritual situation in the wake of the Great War: in philosophy, literature, art, as well as the national-political programmatic texts and war propaganda publications of German intellectuals of the time. The continuity of the Austro-Hungarian colonial policy towards the Balkans and Serbia culminates in instigating a preventive war against Serbia by the elites in Berlin and Vienna, which is of importance with regard to the question of responsibility for the war, guided by concrete aims of war in which causes for war are reflected. These war elites wanted to declare the assassination in Sarajevo as the cause of war, which in fact was a political assassination and tyrannicide. The freedom movement of democratic youth, Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia, needs to be viewed in the European context as inspired by the Serbian tradition of the cult of Kosovo and the ethics of Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day which speaks both about the victim's sacrifice as sublimation of history and about just suffering as elements of identity. Historical memory suggests that historical responsibility is transgenerational. The epic proportions of Serbian suffering in the Great War have additionally encouraged the positing of the theme of St Vitus' Day Temple (Vidovdanski Hram as envisaged by Ivan Meštrović. The foundations of this idea were shaken by Miloš Crnjanski who, in his 'Lyrics of Ithaca', succeeds in returning to Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day the inexhaustible national power of validity. Because of enormous Serbian military and civilian casualties in recent history, the need to establish a Victim's Sacrifice Memorial, in our day

  15. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  16. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  17. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  18. What killed Alexander the Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    The cause of the death of the Macedonian King, Alexander the Great, at Babylon in 323 BC has excited interest and conjecture throughout the ages. The information available in the surviving ancient sources, none of which is contemporaneous, has been reviewed and compared with modern knowledge as set out in several well-known recent surgical texts. The ancient sources record epic drinking by the Macedonian nobility since at least the time of Phillip II, Alexander's father. Alexander's sudden illness and death is likely to have resulted from a surgical complication of acute alcoholic excess.

  19. The Heart and Great Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, Ekene; King, Nakesha; Heuer, Eric; Breuer, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. We have made large strides over the past few decades in management, but definitive therapeutic options to address this health-care burden are still limited. Given the ever-increasing need, much effort has been spent creating engineered tissue to replaced diseased tissue. This article gives a general overview of this work as it pertains to the development of great vessels, myocardium, and heart valves. In each area, we focus on currently studied methods, limitations, and areas for future study. PMID:28289246

  20. 12 CFR 225.81 - What is a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies § 225.81 What is a financial holding company? (a) Definition. A financial holding... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a financial holding company? 225.81...

  1. Effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Omanakuttan, Divin; Singh, Amitabh; Jajoo, Mamta

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells, irrespective of their iron status and study the factors associated with the response. This was a prospective interventional study. Study population comprised of patients aged 6-36 months, attending a paediatric outpatient department with recurrent episodes (more than three in last 4 weeks) of breath holding spells. Children with loss of consciousness or convulsive movements associated with breath holding spells were considered as severe. After baseline investigations, all enrolled patients were given elemental iron at the dose of 3 mg/kg/day as a single daily dose. Four weekly follow-ups were done until 3 months after initiation of the intervention. At 12 weeks, investigations were repeated and outcome assessed for remission or decrease in severity of breath holding episodes. A total of 100 children with breath holding spells received iron supplementation. Almost 73% of children showed complete response, with another 23% showing greater than 50% reduction in frequency. Frequency of spells at diagnosis and intolerance to oral iron were significantly associated with poor response to iron supplementation. Other factors such as age at onset, age at presentation, severity of spells, anaemia and serum iron parameters had no significant association with the response. Of the 27 children without iron deficiency (serum ferritin ≥ 30 µg/L), 77.7% responded completely to iron supplementation, similar to the iron-deficient group. Iron supplementation is effective in the management of breath holding spells. Non-anaemic and iron-replete children with breath holding spells also respond well to iron supplementation. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Correlation between the arterial pulse wave of the cerebral microcirculation and CBF during breath holding and hyperventilation in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, S; Viola, P; Litterio, P; Buongarzone, M P; Fiorelli, L

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate if relative changes in the amplitude of the arterial pulse wave of the cerebral microcirculation (APWCM) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may provide information about relative changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cerebral cortex. In 10 healthy human volunteers, through simultaneous recording of the APWCM amplitude by means of NIRS and the mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) of middle cerebral artery by means of transcranial Doppler (TCD) at rest and during breath holding and hyperventilation, we evaluate a possible correlation between relative changes of the mean APWCM amplitude and relative changes of MBFV. We found a significant linear correlation: breath holding: R(2) 0.84, p breath holding and hyperventilation. APWCM detected by NIRS, a safe, repeatable, inexpensive technology and at the bedside may improve the study of cerebral cortex microcirculation in neurological diseases. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron supplementation for breath-holding attacks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Anthony A; Orr, Nigel; Buckmaster, Adam; Williams, Katrina; Wheeler, Danielle M

    2010-05-12

    Breath-holding attacks are common during childhood. Iron supplementation has been claimed to reduce the frequency or severity, or both, of breath-holding attacks in children. To assess the effect of iron supplementation on the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks in children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (up to April 2009). We scanned references of included trials. Pharmaceutical companies manufacturing oral iron supplements and some trial authors were contacted for any unpublished data or trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing iron supplementation with placebo or no therapy in children breath-holding episodes. These were reported by an observer. The primary outcome was reduction in the frequency (number over time) or severity (leading to cessation of loss of consciousness or convulsive movements), or both, of breath-holding attacks. Two authors (AZ and NO) independently selected studies and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for missing data, where necessary. Risk of bias was assessed using domain-based evaluation. In the presence of low heterogeneity, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed with pooled results presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Two trials (87 children) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In these trials, iron supplementation significantly reduced the frequency of breath-holding attacks in children (OR 76.48; 95% CI 15.65 to 373.72; P breath-holding attacks maintained this significance (OR 53.43; 95% CI 6.57 to 434.57; P = 0.0002). Iron supplementation (at 5 mg/kg/day of elemental iron for 16 weeks) appears to be useful in reducing the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks. Supplementation is of particular benefit in children with iron deficiency anaemia, responses correlating with the improvements in haemoglobin

  4. Descriptors of Modular Formation of Accounting and Analytical Cluster in Innovation Development of Agricultural Holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Degaltseva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the division of accounting into financial accounting, taxation accounting, management accounting and statistical accounting a problem of improving their relationship arises. The accounting and analytical cluster plays the role of the correlating factor of the relationship between the subdivisions of the agricultural holding property. To improve its work a modular principle of its building based on information technology was introduced. Practical implementation of modular accounting and analytical cluster revealed its shortcomings. They were as follows: each type of account and each production unit used its own natural and cost parameters. The number and nature of these parameters were different. To eliminate the shortcomings in the information security of managers and specialists of the agricultural holding, we attempt to develop a methodology for establishing a rational number of descriptors (binding parameters for each module. The proposed descriptors are designed on the basis of validity of the methodological approach to their calculations and legal support. The proposed method allowed to limit the asymmetric information in all kinds of records, to improve its quality and to bring a synergistic effect from the scale and structure of the use of the agricultural holdings property complex.

  5. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Mustafa; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Sarikaya, Suna; Demir, Mahmut; Isik, Ilhan; Kazanasmaz, Halil; Kaya, Cemil; Kandemir, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P >0.05). Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells.

  6. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  7. The Great Hedge of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxham, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great Hedge of India', a 3 700 kilometre-long hedge installed by the British customs to safeguard the colonial salt tax system and avoid salt smuggling totally faded from both memory and records (e.g. maps) in less than a century. Roy Moxham found traces of the hedge in a book footnote and searched it for several years until he found its meagre remains. The speaker wrote a book about this quest. He said that this story reveals how things disappear when they are no longer useful and, especially, when they are linked to parts of history that are not deemed particularly positive (the hedge was a means of colonial power)

  8. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  9. Control of cooperative manipulators in holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a control system to control cooperative manipulators to hold deformable objects. The aim is to hold the deformable object without having information on the shape and stiffness of the deformable object beforehand. The prototype of a pair of manipulators has been designed and built to test the controller. A force sensor and a rotary encoder are used to give feedback to the controller, which controls the DC motor actuators accordingly. A position proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller technique has been applied for one of the manipulators and a PID force control technique is applied to the other. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted on models and the controller has been implemented on the real plant. Both simulation and test results prove that the implemented control technique has successfully provided the desired position and force to hold the deformable object with maximum experimental errors of 0.34mm and 50mN respectively.

  10. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  11. Magnetic insulation to improve voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage holding in high voltage electrostatic accelerators is a longstanding problem which limits the practically obtainable performance of most systems. This paper proposes an idea for improving the voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators by suppressing breakdowns between successive stages of an accelerator. The idea consists of flowing electric currents along the accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields which envelope each electrode and its support structure, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the electric field. In order to be useful in some applications, this magnetic insulation would only need to produce modest gains in voltage holding capability, and its utility can be easily tested experimentally as described herein.

  12. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  13. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  14. Digital technology and human development: A charter for nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffey, G.; Homans, H.; Banks, K.; Arts, K.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The application of digital technology in conservation holds much potential for advancing the understanding of, and facilitating interaction with, the natural world. In other sectors, digital technology has long been used to engage communities and share information. Human development—which holds

  15. Nanopore Technology: A Simple, Inexpensive, Futuristic Technology for DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P D

    2016-10-01

    In health care, importance of DNA sequencing has been fully established. Sanger's Capillary Electrophoresis DNA sequencing methodology is time consuming, cumbersome, hence become more expensive. Lately, because of its versatility DNA sequencing became house hold name, and therefore, there is an urgent need of simple, fast, inexpensive, DNA sequencing technology. In the beginning of this century efforts were made, and Nanopore DNA sequencing technology was developed; still it is infancy, nevertheless, it is the futuristic technology.

  16. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company. The consideration for the shares shall be cash, tangible or intangible property (to the extent... debts and liabilities of the MHC subsidiary holding company, to receive the remaining assets of the MHC.... Beneficial Ownership Limitation. No person may directly or indirectly offer to acquire or acquire the...

  17. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176.145 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in...

  18. Board of visitors committee to hold planning retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The Academic Affairs Committees of the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors will hold a planning retreat in open session on Saturday, Sept 13 from 9:30 a.m. to noon in the Duck Pond Room at the Inn at Virginia Tech.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  20. Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision while exploring an uncharted mountain. HM MacKay, KH Rogers, DJ Roux. Abstract. This paper discusses the long-term implementation of the South African National Water Policy of 1997, and addresses some of the difficult issues of the management and ...

  1. Brain damage in commercial breath-hold divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Kohshi

    Full Text Available Acute decompression illness (DCI involving the brain (Cerebral DCI is one of the most serious forms of diving-related injuries which may leave residual brain damage. Cerebral DCI occurs in compressed air and in breath-hold divers, likewise. We conducted this study to investigate whether long-term breath-hold divers who may be exposed to repeated symptomatic and asymptomatic brain injuries, show brain damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our study subjects were 12 commercial breath-hold divers (Ama with long histories of diving work in a district of Japan. We obtained information on their diving practices and the presence or absence of medical problems, especially DCI events. All participants were examined with MRI to determine the prevalence of brain lesions.Out of 12 Ama divers (mean age: 54.9±5.1 years, four had histories of cerebral DCI events, and 11 divers demonstrated ischemic lesions of the brain on MRI studies. The lesions were situated in the cortical and/or subcortical area (9 cases, white matters (4 cases, the basal ganglia (4 cases, and the thalamus (1 case. Subdural fluid collections were seen in 2 cases.These results suggest that commercial breath-hold divers are at a risk of clinical or subclinical brain injury which may affect the long-term neuropsychological health of divers.

  2. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  3. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-01-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale

  4. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gider

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD, which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in children who presented with breath-holding spells. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven patients with breath-holding spells and 36 healthy children as a control group were included in this study. We performed electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography on patients and controls. PWD, which is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum p wave duration, was also calculated. Statistical analysis in the study was performed using SPSS version 22.0 and p<0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: Our study indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls in minimum, maximum p wave duration and PWD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that atrial conduction is probably unaffected in children with breath-holding spells.

  5. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies. 223.16 Section 223.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS...

  6. Analysis of breath holding for lung CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuda, Toshizo; Eiho, Shigeru; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Movement artifact during lung CT can degrade image quality and, particularly in the case of computer aided diagnosis, make diagnosis inaccurate. In this study, diaphragmatic movement during full arrested inspiration in lung CT was evaluated to identify the optimum time after commencement of breath holding for image acquisition. Methods: For analysis two lung areas were used in this study. These areas, on two images from different time periods after breath holding on the same slice, were evaluated in 47 patients. Results: In approximately 74% of the patients 1 s after commencement of breath holding diaphragm motion was noted to be in the cranial direction. A comparison of the lung areas after 30 s and those after 1 s and 4 s showed significant differences. Those after 7 s showed no significant difference. Conclusions: The results show that the lung base should be scanned at 7 s from the commencement of breath holding. Also, the lungs should also be scanned from the base to apex

  7. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  8. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  9. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... changes can the Board incorporate to make the regulation easier to understand? IV. Administrative Law... of foreign law that such company be subject to comprehensive consolidated supervision. Taking these... OO; Docket No. R-1430] RIN 7100-AD 81 Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration AGENCY...

  10. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... comprehensive consolidated supervision by a foreign regulator, a nonbank financial company supervised by the...

  11. Joint moments required to hold a posture while somersaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikl, Joanne

    2018-02-01

    A pure somersault is a key skill in diving and gymnastics, and involves rotation about the transverse axis of the body. As the rotational speed increases the effort required to maintain a specified posture increases. This paper derives equations for the joint moments required for an athlete to hold three sport specific postures as a function of rotational speed. The joint moment is related to the isometric muscular strength and is the limiting factor of an athlete in their ability to hold a fixed posture while somersaulting. One inertial property data set was used to explore the joint moments required for three sport specific postures -tuck, pike and layout-. Even though the joint moments are proportional to the square of angular velocity, the constant of proportionality differs for each joint, and so greater isometric strength is required at some joints; especially the hips and through the torso. The situation when the hands were allowed to hold the legs and when they did not has been considered. It was found that the arms holding an observed point on the lower legs could reduce the joint moments required through the legs and torso. The direction of the pull of the hands against the legs is critical for effectiveness. For the tuck this included a large component tangential to the shank and so emphasises the need to maximise friction between the shank and hands. For the pike the pull normal to the shank was more important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding. Ekechukwu Boniface. 1. , Henry Nwokoye. 1. , Abara Josiah Chukwuemeka. 2. 1Department of Computer Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB5025 Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria boni_eke@yahoo.com. 2Department of Physics, Federal ...

  13. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2701-6..., an individual is treated as holding an equity interest to the extent the interest is held indirectly through a corporation, partnership, estate, trust, or other entity. If an equity interest is treated as...

  14. Water holding capacity and enzymatic modification of pressed potato fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) contribute to the water holding capacity (WHC) of fibre rich feeds, such as pressed potato fibres (PPF). However, the role of CWPs on the WHC of PPF was unidentified so far.

    PPF was characterized to be abundant in arabinogalactan (AG) linked

  15. 33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... event. 100.30 Section 100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... holding event. (a) An event for which application is required under § 100.15(a) shall be held only after approval of such event by the District Commander, except that applications referred to a State under § 100...

  16. ROLE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL COMPONENT IN THE FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Dorosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stages of formation and development of agro-industrial companies - holdings in Ukraine. It was determined that the formation of agro-industrial companies in Ukraine affect the following processes: 1 because of the concentration of land increased production of agricultural products; 2 the use of new technologies in agriculture; 3 integration of production with the subsequent processing of agricultural products; 4 establishment of integrated and export-oriented structures; 5 attract loans from international financial organizations. Since 2015 restricted access to credit, slowly developing technologies held several agricultural holdings default. It is noted that this development is an indication that the formation and operation of agricultural holdings occurred spontaneously, without public exposure, proper institutional and socio-economic support rural development. Analyzed and structured information on the concentration of land in the top 100 agricultural holdings Ukraine and found that 67% of arable land is concentrated in agricultural companies area over 100 thousand hectares. 18% - 50 000 - 100 000 thousand. Ha and 15% - from 10 000 - 50 000 thousand. hectares of land. In addition, existing today agricultural holdings have their management in a territory that spans from 15 to 22 regions of Ukraine (45%, 43% - from 6 - 15 regions, 9% - from 2 - 5% and only 3% are concentrated in one area covering between 1 and 2 areas. It has been proved that most agricultural companies are registered in offshore zones and cities in Ukraine in order to minimize taxes. A mechanism to introduce taxes not the place of registration, and the location of their business operation, ie in rural areas. This will allow local communities to accumulate funds local budgets for the development of social infrastructure. On the basis of research singled out the advantages and disadvantages of holdings and proved illusory benefits of large-monopoly and monoculture agricultural

  17. Evaluation of the Gauss-Eyring model to predict thermal inactivation of micro-organisms at short holding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R A H; Mastwijk, H C; Nierop Groot, M N; Van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-12-18

    Application of mild (non)-thermal processing technologies have received considerable interest as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, because of its shorter holding time and lower temperature aiming for an improved product quality. To understand and develop these alternative technologies, like pulsed electric fields, a proper comparison between the conventional thermal and alternative process is necessary. Up to recent, no suitable models were available to predict the inactivation of micro-organisms by a thermal process at a chosen short holding time, due to non-linearity. The recently developed Gauss-Eyring model with two variables temperature and time has the properties to be a suitable model to apply for short holding times, and was tested for this purpose. Therefore, this study aims to validate if the Gauss-Eyring model can be used to describe non-linear isothermal (a fixed temperature with varying holding time) and isotime (a fixed holding time with varying temperature) thermal inactivation data, and if it is a suitable model to predict the thermal inactivation as a function of temperature for short holding times. Inactivation data of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salmonella Senftenberg and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice were collected via isothermal and isotime inactivation kinetics. Survival of the tested micro-organisms was modelled with the Gauss-Eyring model, which contains three parameters σ, Tr and Z. The transition of 'no inactivation' to 'inactivation' (i.e. the 'shoulder' in inactivation curves) can be characterised as the temperature-time (T,t) combination where T=Tr-Z·log 10 (t), with Tr as the reference temperature defined for 1s treatment, Z as the temperature needed for a 10-fold increase of decrease of the holding time t, and σ as the temperature width of the distribution. The Gauss-Eyring model fitted well to the experimental data, and revealed different sensitivity for the tested micro

  18. Ultrasound lung "comets" increase after breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Kate; Germonpré, Peter; Charbel, Brian; Cialoni, Danilo; Musimu, Patrick; Sponsiello, Nicola; Marroni, Alessandro; Pastouret, Frédéric; Balestra, Costantino

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of ULCs was evaluated by means of an ultrasound scan of the chest, before and after breath-hold diving sessions. The ULC score increased significantly from baseline after dynamic surface apnea (p = 0.0068), after deep breath-hold sessions (p = 0.0018), and after static maximal apnea (p = 0.031). There was no statistically significant difference between the average increase of ULC scores after dynamic surface apnea and deep breath-hold diving. We, therefore, postulate that extravascular lung water accumulation may be due to other factors than (deep) immersion alone, because it occurs during dynamic surface apnea as well. Three mechanisms may be responsible for this. First, the immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient applied on the body causes a shift of peripheral venous blood towards the thorax. Second, the blood pooling effect found during the diving response Redistributes blood to the pulmonary vascular bed. Third, it is possible that the intense involuntary diaphragmatic contractions occurring during the "struggle phase" of the breath-hold can also produce a blood shift from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary alveoli. A combination of these factors may explain the observed increase in ULC scores in deep, shallow maximal and shallow dynamic apneas, whereas shallow non-maximal apneas seem to be not "ULC provoking".

  19. Design and evaluation of custom 133Xe trapping and holding system for animal research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.; Pennock, R.E.; Bowman, G.; Hernandez, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A cell for the trapping and holding of 133 Xe by activated charcoal was designed and tested for use in animal experiments. The cell was made from copper tubing with end caps and nipples for attachment of tubing and valves. Results of test indicated that up to 4 animals per day could be studied with complete trapping of all activity in a single cell. 16 of such cells allow continuous studies to be made on 4 animals a day using a different cell each day. By the time each cell is re-used the trapped 132 Xe has decayed for at least 23 days thus greatly reducing any exhausted activity. The cells were arranged in a wall-mounted filter bank inside a shielded cabinet. The outlet of the filter bank was connected into the exhaust stream of a fume hood. (author)

  20. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  1. Le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belaidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de présenter quelques problématiques d'une recherche sur la construction d’un mécanisme de valorisation sociale de la protection de l’environnement : l’ordre public écologique. Cette étude s’appuie sur une expérience récente et originale en Afrique australe : la création de Parcs pour la Paix dont relève le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Ces parcs sont officiellement consacrés à la protection et à la conservation de la diversité biologique, des ressources naturelles et culturelles qui y sont associées, ainsi qu’à la promotion de la coopération et de la Paix qu’elle soit civile, sociale, économique ou culturelle. La logique de construction de ces parcs repose sur l’idée que l’articulation des zones de conservation facilite la résolution de conflits territoriaux – de toutes sortes – en transformant les préoccupations environnementales en objet de coopération entre des juridictions politiques diverses. C’est précisément le schéma du concept juridique objet de nos travaux : l’ordre public écologique. Aussi peut-on se demander si le GLTP, en particulier, (peut constitue(r une illustration concrète de ce mécanisme et permettre d’atteindre la Paix recherchée, favorisant ainsi les processus de développement ?This article aims to present some problems of researches on the construction of a mechanism of social valorisation of the environmental protection: ecological public order. This study leans on a recent and original experience in southern Africa: the creation of Peace Park like the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP. These parks are officially dedicated to the protection and to the preservation of biological diversity, natural and cultural resources which are associated with it, as well as in the promotion of the cooperation and the peace. The peace looked for in these parks is not only the opposite of the war but it is also social, economic and cultural peace

  2. Cholera: a great global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Delaware. Applicants currently control two carriers, Hotard Coaches, Inc. (Coaches) and Industrial Bus Lines, Inc. d/b/a All Aboard America! (Industrial).\\2\\ Coaches and Industrial hold authority from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) as motor carriers of passengers (license nos. MC...

  4. A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women

    OpenAIRE

    Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J.; Marshall, Dru

    2012-01-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 ? 10s, 2 ? 20s and 2 ? 25s) with ...

  5. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  6. 26 CFR 1.552-1 - Definition of foreign personal holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of foreign personal holding company. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-1 Definition of foreign personal holding company. (a) A foreign personal holding company is any foreign...

  7. Critical metals in the great transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, Andreas; Held, Martin; Kuemmerer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The book broadens the view on the short-term availability of critical metals to the fundamental question: critical for whom? The authors take all stakeholders into consideration and deal with geological, chemical, technical, economic and social aspects as well as questions of recycling. They also address questions of good life and mining from the perspective of countries of the South, questions of resource policy and justice. A further topic is the UN deep-sea mining regime and its perspectives on how unconventional ore from the deep-sea can be won in the future. Critical metals are classified into the overlapping context of the upcoming Great Transformation. The book examines in particular the fundamental importance of the material prerequisites of the energy transition and the energetic prerequisites of the material turnaround as well as the digitization. This shows that not only rare earths are critical, but also industrial metals such as copper. Resource policy aims, among other things, to secure primary supplies of technology metals, resource efficiency, recycling and substitution of critical substances. Despite the first successes, the dynamics are still unbroken in the direction of an increasing dissipation of valuable critical metals. What is needed is a rapid reversal with the aim of no longer consuming critical metals on a grand scale, but of using them wisely. [de

  8. A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-05-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater.

  9. The great silence science and philosophy of Fermi's paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Cirkovic, Milan M

    2018-01-01

    The Great Silence explores the multifaceted problem named after the great Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and his legendary 1950 lunchtime question "Where is everybody?" In many respects, Fermi's paradox is the richest and the most challenging problem for the entire field of astrobiology and the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) studies. This book shows how Fermi's paradox is intricately connected with many fields of learning, technology, arts, and even everyday life. It aims to establish the strongest possible version of the problem, to dispel many related confusions, obfuscations, and prejudices, as well as to offer a novel point of entry to the many solutions proposed in existing literature. Cirkovic argues that any evolutionary worldview cannot avoid resolving the Great Silence problem in one guise or another.

  10. Physics and high technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Liqin; Ma Junru.

    1992-01-01

    At present, the development of high technology has opened a new chapter in world's history of science and technology. This review describes the great impact of physics on high technology in six different fields (energy technology, new materials, information technology, biotechnology, space technology, and Ocean technology). It is shown that the new concepts and new methods created in physics and the special conditions and measurements established for physics researches not only deepen human's knowledge about nature but also point out new directions for engineering and technology. The achievements in physics have been more and more applied to high technology, while the development of high technology has explored some new research areas and raised many novel, important projects for physics. Therefore, it is important for us to strengthen the research on these major problems in physics

  11. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  12. CASH HOLDING, GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prana Wahyu Nisasmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the influence of profitability, capital structure, cash holding, and GCG (Good Corporate Governance on firm value.  The samples of this study were the property sector and real estate companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in the period of 2008-2013. The data used from the annual report company. The methods of data analysis were multiple regression models and analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The results of this study are profitability has no influence on firm value, capital structure has positive influence on firm value, cash holding has no influence on firm value and GCG a has a positive influence on firm value.

  13. A distribution-free newsvendor problem with nonlinear holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse a single-period newsvendor model to determine the optimal order quantity where the customers' balking occurs.This scenario occurs when the customers are opposed to buy a product for various reasons, such as decreasing quality of product, product is not as good as fresh when it reaches under a threshold level, etc. The model is investigated by assuming that the holding cost function depends on order quantity and the inventory level at which customer balking occurs depends on holding cost. The model allows partial backlogging and permits part of the backlogged shortages to turn into lost sales. We develop the model without taking any specific distributional form of demand, only assuming the mean and the variance of the distribution of demand. Finally, we illustrate the model by numerical examples and compare our distribution-free model with the specific distributional form of demand.

  14. Temperamental traits of breath holding children: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, A.; Ganesan, B.; Anbumani; Jayanthini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical observation and few anecdotal reports suggest that the children with breath holding spells (BHS) have certain temperamental traits, which predispose them to behave in certain way. They seem to have low frustration tolerance, which leads to adamant behavior. Vigorous crying, through various mechanisms, precipitates BHS. Materials and Methods: We assessed the temperamental traits of 30 children with BHS and compared them with 30 normal children after matching for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Temperament was measured using ‘Temperament measurement Schedule’. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The following temperamental traits, threshold of responsiveness (Pbreath holders. Conclusions: Significantly differing temperamental traits in breath holders suggests that these could influence the behavioral pattern exhibited by them. Breath holding spells can act as an easy marker for difficult temperamental traits, which gives an early opportunity to shape their difficult behavior. PMID:19742234

  15. Millennials at Work: The Advice of Great Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    on leadership will “bring out the best” from the millennial generation and benefit every generation. Millennials are fluent in technology , possess... Millennials at Work The Advice of Great Leaders Carol Axten Axten has more than 30 years of experience in Defense Department engineering, program...million members of the millennial generation will enter the workforce and by 2030 will make up 75 percent of all working professionals. As managers in the

  16. Hair Water Content and Water Holding Capacity Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, P; Bontozoglou, C; Ciortea, LI; Imhof, RE

    2016-01-01

    We present our latest study on human hair water content and water holding capacity measurements by using capacitive contact imaging and condense-TEWL method. Previous studies showed that capacitive contact imaging based fingerprint sensors, originally designed for biometric applications, can be used for skin hydration imaging, skin surface analysis, 3D skin surface profiles, skin micro-relief as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration, we can also measure the absolute di...

  17. Nuclear and BIO-CCS hold energy and environment answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's degraded soils could hold the key to solving Australia's carbon dioxide (C O2 ) emissions problems, according to John White. Increasing soil carbon is one of the few proven, large-scale possibilities - and arguably the best and most sustainable way - to remove existing atmospheric C O2 in the short-term and, at the same time, make soils more fertile and drought and salinity-resistant, providing enhanced food security and quality.

  18. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsin Gider; Bülent Koca; Mustafa Çalık; Ali Yıldırım; Savaş Demirpençe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS) is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD), which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in childr...

  19. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Özdemir; Serpil Çalışkan Can; Evren Semizel; Mehmet S. Okan

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electro...

  20. Church - Technology - Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to cope with the problems causing a great deal of trouble today, i.e. with fear and with the ethical substantiation of technology, the author considers an integration model necessary which is to link science and technology and religion and philosophy. (RW) [de

  1. Evaluation of QT Dispersion in Children with Breath Holding Spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian, Amir Hosein; Heidarzadeh Arani, Marzieh; Motaharizad, Davood; Mousavi, Gholam Abbas; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2016-01-01

    Breath holding spells (BHS) are common involuntary reflexes in infancy and early childhood. Differential diagnosis should embrace Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) and paroxysmal abnormalities of rhythm. The aim of this study was to compare QT dispersion (QTd) in children with breath holding spells and normal controls. QT dispersion and Corrected QT(QTc) dispersion were measured in 12 lead surface electrocardiograms in 56 patients with BHS and compared with healthy children of the same age referred to the clinic for regular checkup visits. The most common type of BHS was cyanotic (83.9%). Seven patients (12.5%) had pallid and two patients (3.5%) had mixed spells. There was a history of breath holding spells in 33.9% of the children. QT dispersion was 61.6± 22.5 and 47.1±18.8 ms in patient and control groups, respectively. QTc dispersion (QTcd) was 104 ± 29.6 and 71.9 ±18.2 ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between patient and control groups in terms of QTd and QTcd (P<0.001). QTd and QTcd were increased in children with BHS. Therefore, the evaluation of EKG for early diagnosis of rhythm abnormalities seems reasonable in these children.

  2. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  3. Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamowski, A.; Gagny; Gallet, G.; Lhermitte, J.; Monne, M.; Vautherot, G.

    1984-01-01

    Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation. The apparatus comprises a telescopic arm supported via a ball and socket joint from a support mounted in or near an access aperture in a chamber at one end of the steam generator. A probe guide is carried by a carriage pivotally mounted at the other end of the telescopic arm. The carriage includes an endless belt having a series of spaced projections which engage into the ends of the tubes, the projections being spaced by a distance equal to the tube pitch or a multiple thereof. The belt is driven by a stepping motor in order to move the carriage and place the probe guide opposite different ones of the tubes

  4. Nuclear technology and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mamoru

    1997-01-01

    After the confrontation of East and West, and the problem of North and South, we are now facing the era of Globalization in the presence of twenty-first century. Tracing the history of civilization, human being has progressed along with the accumulation of experience, and the development of science and technology. Science and technology bloomed in modern ages, especially, energy technology showed the giant leap in this century. Nuclear science and technology has been developed for peaceful purposes, and for the benefit of humanity. As a result, today, its progress led nuclear science and technology to have the great applicability to the development of the society. Toward the twenty-first century and Globalization, the science and technology developed in nuclear field is hoped to play a great contribution in various area of the society. (author)

  5. Concerning technology: thinking with Heidegger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzelsberger, Hilde M

    2004-10-01

    In human lives, technology holds sway in mundane and extraordinary ways, such as in the ways we work, entertain, transport, and feed ourselves, and importantly in the ways we encounter and manage health, disease, illness, and death. A significant area of Heidegger's later work is questioning technology. Unlike many current inquiries that centre on contemporary technology's function, utility, and positive transformations, Heidegger offers a radical way of thinking about technology through developing an inquiry that uncovers technology's essence of revealing. In this article, Heidegger's thinking about technological modes of revealing in regard to bodies, health, and illness is explored. In Heidegger's view, the ordered revealing of modern technology has overshadowed other modes of revealing. This article highlights how remembering concealment and unconcealment in its many modes can be relevant to nurses and others involved in health care. Through tracing Heidegger's thinking about technology, a more critical approach to the effects and outcomes of modern technologies within health care systems can be generated.

  6. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape...... genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations....

  7. The Impact of “Omic” and Imaging Technologies on Assessing the Host Immune Response to Biodefence Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Tree

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions between host and pathogen is important for the development and assessment of medical countermeasures to infectious agents, including potential biodefence pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, Ebola virus, and Francisella tularensis. This review focuses on technological advances which allow this interaction to be studied in much greater detail. Namely, the use of “omic” technologies (next generation sequencing, DNA, and protein microarrays for dissecting the underlying host response to infection at the molecular level; optical imaging techniques (flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy for assessing cellular responses to infection; and biophotonic imaging for visualising the infectious disease process. All of these technologies hold great promise for important breakthroughs in the rational development of vaccines and therapeutics for biodefence agents.

  8. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...... and economic interests....

  9. Reduced breath holding index in patients with chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Hakan; Taşdemir, Serdar; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Alay, Semih; Çetiz, Ahmet; Yücel, Mehmet; Öz, Oğuzhan; Odabaşı, Zeki; Demirkaya, Şeref

    2015-09-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by autonomic nervous system dysfunction and severe headache attacks. Studies have shown that changes in the intracranial vessels during migraine have an important role in the pathophysiology. Many studies have been conducted on the increased risk of stroke in patients with migraine, but insufficient data are available on the mechanism underlying the increase. This study aimed to evaluate basal cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with chronic migraine. We evaluated 38 patients with chronic migraine. Three of them were excluded because they had auras and four of them were excluded because of their use of medication that can affect cerebral blood flow velocity and breath holding index (beta or calcium channel blockers). Our study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic migraine without aura and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals who were not taking any medication. The mean blood flow velocity and breath holding index were measured on both sides from the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, with temporal window insonation. The breath holding index for middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was significantly lower in the migraine group compared to that of the control group (p < 0.05).The vasomotor reactivity indicates the dilatation potential of a vessel, and it is closely related to autoregulation. According to our results, the vasodilator response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia was lower in patients with chronic migraine. These findings showed the existence of impairments in the harmonic cerebral hemodynamic mechanisms in patients with chronic migraine. This finding also supports the existing idea of an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic migraine due to impaired vasomotor reactivity.

  10. 3-D bioprinting technologies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: Current and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot S. Bishop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in three-dimensional (3D printing have increased feasibility towards the synthesis of living tissues. Known as 3D bioprinting, this technology involves the precise layering of cells, biologic scaffolds, and growth factors with the goal of creating bioidentical tissue for a variety of uses. Early successes have demonstrated distinct advantages over conventional tissue engineering strategies. Not surprisingly, there are current challenges to address before 3D bioprinting becomes clinically relevant. Here we provide an overview of 3D bioprinting technology and discuss key advances, clinical applications, and current limitations. While 3D bioprinting is a relatively novel tissue engineering strategy, it holds great potential to play a key role in personalized medicine.

  11. 76 FR 68189 - Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... for making sure that your comment does not include any sensitive personal information, like anyone's... substantial anticompetitive harm to consumers in the U.S. markets for promotional and medical audits. V. Entry... INFORMATION section below. Write ``IMS SDI, File No. 111 0097'' on your comment, and file your comment online...

  12. A novel holding mechanism for next generation active wireless capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen P; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes that next generation wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) technology will feature active mechanical components (i.e. actuated) as opposed to current systems that are predominantly passive (e.g. for imaging purposes). Future systems will integrate microsystems that use micro-actuators to, for example, perform micro-surgery, take tissue samples, deliver medication, etc. In this paper we detail a novel, ultra-compact integrated mechanism for resisting peristalsis and describe how this can be fabricated in Nylon 6 using CNC milling. The holding action is achieved by extending an "anchor" spanning an effective 60.4mm circumference, for a 11.0mm diameter WCE. This function is achieved by a mechanism that occupies only 347.0mm(3) volume, including mechanics and actuator. This shows how exploiting conventional manufacturing processes can result in a radical change in the capabilities of WCE systems and empower the next generation of active devices.

  13. Move, Hold and Touch: A Framework for Tangible Gesture Interactive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Angelini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology is spreading in our everyday world, and digital interaction beyond the screen, with real objects, allows taking advantage of our natural manipulative and communicative skills. Tangible gesture interaction takes advantage of these skills by bridging two popular domains in Human-Computer Interaction, tangible interaction and gestural interaction. In this paper, we present the Tangible Gesture Interaction Framework (TGIF for classifying and guiding works in this field. We propose a classification of gestures according to three relationships with objects: move, hold and touch. Following this classification, we analyzed previous work in the literature to obtain guidelines and common practices for designing and building new tangible gesture interactive systems. We describe four interactive systems as application examples of the TGIF guidelines and we discuss the descriptive, evaluative and generative power of TGIF.

  14. Inefficient Job Destructions and Training with Hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an equilibrium search model with endogenous job destructions and where firms decide at the time of job entry how much to invest in match-specific human capital. We first show that job destruction and training investment decisions are strongly complementary. It is possible...... that there are no firings at equilibrium. Further, training investments are confronted to a hold-up problem making the decentralized equilibrium always inefficient. We show therefore that both training subsidies and firing taxes must be implemented to bring back efficiency....

  15. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry. The report should be of use to Federal and State regulators, trade associations, electric utilities, independent power producers, as well as decision-makers in Congress and the Administration.

  16. The "Second Place" Problem: Assistive Technology in Sports and (Re) Constructing Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D A

    2016-02-01

    Objections to the use of assistive technologies (such as prostheses) in elite sports are generally raised when the technology in question is perceived to afford the user a potentially "unfair advantage," when it is perceived as a threat to the purity of the sport, and/or when it is perceived as a precursor to a slippery slope toward undesirable changes in the sport. These objections rely on being able to quantify standards of "normal" within a sport so that changes attributed to the use of assistive technology can be judged as causing a significant deviation from some baseline standard. This holds athletes using assistive technologies accountable to standards that restrict their opportunities to achieve greatness, while athletes who do not use assistive technologies are able to push beyond the boundaries of these standards without moral scrutiny. This paper explores how constructions of fairness and "normality" impact athletes who use assistive technology to compete in a sporting venue traditionally populated with "able-bodied" competitors. It argues that the dynamic and obfuscated construction of "normal" standards in elite sports should move away from using body performance as the measuring stick of "normal," toward alternate forms of constructing norms such as defining, quantifying, and regulating the mechanical actions that constitute the critical components of a sport. Though framed within the context of elite sports, this paper can be interpreted more broadly to consider problems with defining "normal" bodies in a society in which technologies are constantly changing our abilities and expectations of what normal means.

  17. Great Books. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Great Books" is a program that aims to improve the reading, writing, and critical thinking skills of students in kindergarten through high school. The program is implemented as a core or complementary curriculum and is based on the Shared Inquiry[TM] method of learning. The purpose of "Great Books" is to engage students in…

  18. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  19. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  20. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  1. Hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Jin Huimin; Tan Yajun

    1994-01-01

    The development of hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks and a calculation method for α activities deposited in containers and inner walls of pipe are described. The hardware of monitoring system consists of a portable HPGe detector, a φ50 mm x 60 mm NaI(Tl) detector, γ-ray tungsten collimators, ORTEC92X Spectrum Master and an AST-286 computer. The software of system includes Maestro Tm for Window3 and a PHOUP1 hold-up application software for user. The Monte-Carlo simulation calculation supported by MCNP software is performed for the probability calculation of all the unscattering γ-rays reaching to the detection positions from the source terms deposited in the complicated tanks. A measurement mean value for different positions is used to minimize the effect of heterogeneous distribution of source term. The sensitivity is better than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg (steel) for a plutonium simulation source on a 3-8 mm thick steel plate surrounded by 0.8 x 10 -10 C/kg·s γ field from long-life fission products

  2. Why does the power law for stock price hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizoji, Taisei; Miyano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the power law for stock price holds. We first show that the complementary cumulative distributions of stock prices follow a power law using a large database assembled from the balance sheets and stock prices of a number of worldwide companies for the period 2004 through 2013. Secondly, we estimate company fundamentals from a simple cross-sectional regression model using three financial indicators-dividends per share, cash flow per share, and book value per share—as explanatory variables for stock price. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the complementary cumulative distributions of fundamentals follow a power law. We find that the power laws for stock prices and for fundamentals hold for the 10-year period of our study, and that the estimated values of the power law exponents are close to unity. Furthermore, we illustrate that the tail distribution of fundamentals closely matches the tail distribution of stock prices. On these grounds, we conclude that the power law for stock price is caused by the power law behavior of the fundamentals.

  3. A Haptic Guided Robotic System for Endoscope Positioning and Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.

  4. Breath holding during the turn in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A B

    1986-08-01

    Breath holding times were measured during competition and averaged 5.0 sec in the breaststroke events, 4.3 sec in freestyle, 3.7 sec in butterfly, and 3.3 sec in backstroke. These times represented approximately 30% of the total time of swimming breaststroke and freestyle races but only 20% of the time of backstroke and butterfly events. Pulmonary gas exchanges of O2 and CO2 were studied in eight male swimmers during the first turn after the start of a swim and during the third turn after continuous swimming. It was concluded that biomechanical considerations of optimizing a turn are in most circumstances not limited by the increased PCO2 and the decreased PO2 in the alveoli related to the brief period of breath holding. In turns which last longer than about 5.5 s, the swimmers may experience a strong urge to breathe. This "breaking point" sensation is brief and need not compromise the conclusion of a well-executed turn.

  5. Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam on Breath Holding Spells in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ashrafzadeh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells (BHS is a type of syncope in children , most commonly encontered in the early years of life. Although these athacks don't damage the brain , if these are frequent or prolonged cause , parents frighten , so physician should intervent. In this study we evaluated clinical efficacy of piracetam on B.H.S of children in Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2001-2002.In this double blind placebo control study , piracetam or placebo on a randomized basis was administered to children with 40 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 2 months. From the 41 children that were enrolled , 21 cases received piracetam and 20 cases received placebo. Parents denoted the numbers of spells two months before and two months after taking drug. Control of breath holding spells were observed in 90.5% of patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 40% in the group taking placebo (P = 0.002. Of the all patients 10 cases had iron deficiency anemia so they had taken elemental Fe too. The side effects were the same in these two groups. The results of this study indicated that piracetam was efficient for the treatment of children with B.H.S without greater incidence adverse effects than placebo.

  6. Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin

    2012-12-01

    Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

  7. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  8. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, David, E-mail: David.wiant@conehealth.com; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB-DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P-DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB-DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB-DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB-DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P-DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P-DIBH plans were

  9. Monte Carlo study of holding forces for tank cars on grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    This paper describes a numerical procedure to examine the holding forces needed to secure a cut of railroad tank cars staged on a grade during loading and unloading operations. Holding forces are created by applying emergency brake systems and blocki...

  10. Advanced technologies: Trends and implications for security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, A.

    1990-01-01

    As the world moves towards the close of the twentieth century, three technological trends will strongly influence security. In order of importance they are: first, the increasing globalization of the ability to develop and use high technology, much of which has both civilian and military applications; secondly, the broad dissemination of militarily-relevant technology world-wide; and thirdly, the continued development by the United States and the USSR (and a few other nations) of advanced technology for military applications. The military balance between the super-Powers and their allies has been strongly rooted in advancing military technology. Great changes in technology have resulted in adjustments -mostly in limited aspects such as the armour/ anti-armour balance - but have not caused it to change wildly. This seems likely to remain the case for the foreseeable future. There are arguments that Western technology has been a prime causative factor behind Soviet willingness to engage in negotiations to reduce forces. They claim that fear of the Strategic Defense Initiative is behind progress in the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks, and that perceived Western mastery of the technology for systems combining quick reaction, deep strike and high kill probabilities led the Soviet Union to reassess its potential for a successful land campaign in Europe. If current arms control negotiations are successful, the momentum is maintained, and other political changes take hold, the military balance could be taken to a point where ft would not be very sensitive to technological change. One should be aware that the arms control negotiations are very complex, primarily because of technological issues, and we should not yet bank on it all working out well. If it fails, the military technical competition will heat up again. Even under a strict arms control regime we can expect the competition to continue as each side seeks to develop counters to what ft sees as the other side

  11. The climate technology initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Adam

    2000-01-01

    The CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) aims to promote those technologies which cause the minimum of harm to the environment: reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and supporting those countries most vulnerable to climate change are priorities. A strong case for cogeneration is made and it is pointed out that both the European Union and the USA aim to double their cogeneration capacity by 2010. The CTI holds training courses and seminars all over the world where the barriers to the expansion of climate-friendly technology are discussed. The article also mentions the CTI Co-operation Technology Implementation Plan, research and development, its website and search engine, its presence at all UNFCCC events and its awards programme

  12. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concern are subject to best technology in process and treatment requirements. Lake Superior Basin... to the Lake Superior Basin shall identify the best technology in process and treatment to eliminate... shall adopt an antidegradation standard applicable to all waters of the Great Lakes System and identify...

  13. Partnering Events | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  14. Nobody Knows Anything, But These Things I Guess: Great Theatre and the New Golden Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Freeman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores ideas of “Great Theatre”, linking these to notions of cultural specificity rather than universality and drawing on distinctions between objective and subjective spectatorship. Connections are suggested between recent approaches to artistic research and the ways in which live performance is viewed. Whilst not amounting to an all-out defense of relativism, the paper champions the individual's right to hold his or her views on performance in spite of a dearth of supporting critical commentary. That the individuals holding these views have an obligation to make their case in the light of resistant opinion is axiomatic, and some of the ways in which this is achieved are discussed here.

  15. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101 Bank holding... company and do not have a value greater than 5 percent of the value of the bank holding company's total... prohibition of the Act against retention of nonbanking interests applies to indirect as well as direct...

  16. 26 CFR 1.556-3 - Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income. 1.556-3 Section 1.556-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Holding Companies § 1.556-3 Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... time during the last half of such taxable year, more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding...

  18. Ten years of Dutch loss compensation regime for holding and financing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, A.C.P.; Braeken, B.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch holding and financing companies are subject to a specific tax loss compensation regime, the so-called holding company loss rule. In short, the purpose of this rule is the prevention of the compensation of losses resulting from holding and financing activities with profits from operational

  19. Automated daily breath hold stability measurements by real-time imaging in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Hans C J; Van Den Bongard, Desirée J G; van Asselen, B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Breath hold is increasingly used for cardiac sparing in left-sided breast cancer irradiation. We have developed a fast automated method to verify breath hold stability in each treatment fraction. Material and methods We evaluated 504 patients treated with breath hold. Moderate

  20. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  1. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    resources were scarce in postwar Britain, the British government declined the project. Chain then took a post in 1948 at Rome's Instituto Superiore di Sanitá, establishing a new biochemistry department with a pilot plant. During that period, his department developed important new antibiotics (including the first semisynthetic antibiotics) as well as improved technological processes to produce a wide variety of important microbial metabolites that are still in wide use today. Chain was also responsible for helping several countries to start up a modern penicillin industry following World War II, including the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. In 1964, Chain returned to England to establish a new biochemistry department and industrial scale fermentation pilot plant at Imperial College in London. Imperial College became the preeminent biochemical department in Europe. Chain was also a pioneer in changing the relationship between government, private universities, and private industry for collaboration and funding to support medical research. Ernst Chain has left a lasting impact as a great scientist and internationalist.

  2. The Great Recession and confidence in homeownership

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Julian Jamison

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in homeownership shifts for those who personally experienced real estate loss during the Great Recession. Older Americans are confident in the value of homeownership. Younger Americans are less confident.

  3. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  4. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  5. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  6. A Hold-down Margin Assessment using Statistical Method for the PWR Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, S. Y.; Park, N. K.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, H. K.

    2007-01-01

    The hold-down springs provide an acceptable hold down force against hydraulic uplift force absorbing the length change of the fuel assembly relative to the space between the upper and lower core plates in PWR. These length changes are mainly due to the thermal expansion, irradiation growth and creep down of the fuel assemblies. There are two kinds of hold-down springs depending on the different design concept of the reactor internals of the PWR in Korea, one is a leaf-type hold down spring for Westinghouse type plants and the other is a coil-type hold-down spring for OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000). There are four sets of hold-down springs in each fuel assembly for leaf type hold-down spring and each set of the hold-down springs consists of multiple tapered leaves to form a cantilever leaf spring set. The length, width and thickness of the spring leaves are selected to provide the desired spring constant, deflection range, and hold down force. There are four coil springs in each fuel assembly for coil-type hold-down spring. In this study, the hold-down forces and margins were calculated for the leaf-type and coil-type hold-down springs considering geometrical data of the fuel assembly and its components, length changes of the fuel assembly due to thermal expansion, irradiation growth, creep, and irradiation relaxation. The hold-down spring forces were calculated deterministically and statistically to investigate the benefit of the statistical calculation method in view of hold-down margin. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was used for the statistical hold down force calculation

  7. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-11-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale BHs in pancreatic cancer patients. Twelve patients with intratumoral fiducials were included and asked to perform three consecutive 30-second inhale BHs on each of three measurement days. During BH, lateral fluoroscopic movies were obtained and a two-dimensional (2D) image correlation algorithm was used to track the fiducials and the diaphragm, yielding the tumor and diaphragm motion during each BH. The tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was obtained from the difference in initial tumor position between consecutive BHs on a single measurement day. We observed tumor motion during BH with a mean absolute maximum displacement over all BHs of 4.2 mm (range 1.0-11.0 mm) in inferior-superior (IS) direction and 2.7 mm (range 0.5-8.0 mm) in anterior-posterior (AP) direction. We found only a moderate correlation between tumor and diaphragm motion in the IS direction (Pearson's correlation coefficient |r|>0.6 in 45 of 76 BHs). The mean tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was 0.2 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7] mm in the inferior direction and 0.5 (SD 0.8) mm in the anterior direction. We observed substantial pancreatic tumor motion during BH as well as considerable position variation between consecutive BHs on a single day. We recommend further quantifying these uncertainties before introducing breath-hold during radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. Also, the diaphragm cannot be used as a surrogate for pancreatic tumor motion.

  8. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  9. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  10. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  11. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    presently limited to two species; and finally the question of tihe bioavailability . (p. 24) 1978 Annual Report ScienL~sts have different opinions on...substances into the Great ’akes and their environmental and human health effects (p. 7) methodology for determining relative bioavailability of various...institutiuns which are nut incluoea ir, this review that ricmy unuertake sone projects dealing with the Great Lakes. However, the intention of this

  12. The diverse impacts of the great recession

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession had a large negative impact on the U.S. economy. Asset prices, most notably stock and house prices, declined substantially, resulting in a loss in wealth for many American households. In this article, Makoto Nakajima documents how diverse households were affected in a variety of dimensions during the Great Recession, in particular between 2007 and 2009, using newly available data from the 2007-2009 Survey of Consumer Finances. He discusses why it is important to look at th...

  13. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  14. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  15. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems....

  16. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  17. Effects of Calcination Holding Time on Properties of Wide Band Gap Willemite Semiconductor Nanoparticles by the Polymer Thermal Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mustapha Alibe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Willemite is a wide band gap semiconductor used in modern day technology for optoelectronics application. In this study, a new simple technique with less energy consumption is proposed. Willemite nanoparticles (NPs were produced via a water–based solution consisting of a metallic precursor, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, and underwent a calcination process at 900 °C for several holding times between 1–4 h. The FT–IR and Raman spectra indicated the presence of metal oxide bands as well as the effective removal of PVP. The degree of the crystallization and formation of the NPs were determined by XRD. The mean crystallite size of the NPs was between 18.23–27.40 nm. The morphology, particle shape and size distribution were viewed with HR-TEM and FESEM analysis. The willemite NPs aggregate from the smaller to larger particles with an increase in calcination holding time from 1–4 h with the sizes ranging between 19.74–29.71 nm. The energy values obtained from the experimental band gap decreased with increasing the holding time over the range of 5.39 eV at 1 h to at 5.27 at 4 h. These values match well with band gap obtained from the Mott and Davis model for direct transition. The findings in this study are very promising and can justify the use of these novel materials as a potential candidate for green luminescent optoelectronic applications.

  18. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  19. A digital divide: Kiswahili holds the key | Kamau | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. An Overview of the Smart Grid in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the current status of the development of the smart grid in Great Britain (GB. The definition, policy and technical drivers, incentive mechanisms, technological focus, and the industry's progress in developing the smart grid are described. In particular, the Low Carbon Networks Fund and Electricity Network Innovation Competition projects, together with the rollout of smart metering, are detailed. A more observable, controllable, automated, and integrated electricity network will be supported by these investments in conjunction with smart meter installation. It is found that the focus has mainly been on distribution networks as well as on real-time flows of information and interaction between suppliers and consumers facilitated by improved information and communications technology, active power flow management, demand management, and energy storage. The learning from the GB smart grid initiatives will provide valuable guidelines for future smart grid development in GB and other countries.

  1. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL; Yeung, R; Phan, T; Hudson, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients

  2. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  3. Technology Specialisation 1, 2 & 3 Compendium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Koch, Christian; Hansen, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    and progressive move forward inspired by the spirit of engineering. This compendium gives broad information on many aspects of the Technology Specialisation project courses relating to aim, method, mentor company roles, individual versus group performance, scientific motivation and many other issues. The content......Within the Master of Science in Technology-based Business Development study program, Technology Specialisations are the recurring technological stronghold. The Technology Specialisations should hold the students focus on the technological platform of this program and ideally constitute a continuous...

  4. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  5. The Impact of Sustainable Development Technology on a Small Economy-The Case of Energy-Saving Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiding; Huang, Qinghua; Huang, Weilun; Li, Xue

    2018-02-08

    We investigated the impact of a sustainable development technology on the macroeconomic variables in a small economy utilizing a case study with a stochastically improving energy saving technology and a stochastically increasing energy price. The results show the technological displacement effects of energy saving technology are stronger, but there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns to physical capital. However, the energy saving technology's displacement effects might not affect the conditions under which the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler (HLM) effect holds. The effects of rising energy prices on bonds are stronger, and there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns, but the conditions under which the HLM effect holds are different.

  6. Technological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review

  7. Delivery of agricultural technology to resource-poor farmers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignouna, Hodeba D; Abang, Mathew M; Omanya, Gospel; Nang'ayo, Francis; Bokanga, Mpoko; Boadi, Richard; Muchiri, Nancy; Terry, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in agricultural science and technology have the potential to transform the agricultural sector in the developing world. These technological advances constitute key drivers of economic growth and hold great promise for poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural research and development in Africa is undergoing a major paradigm shift. Until recently, public-sector institutions in Africa worked in isolation to create and disseminate agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers. However, they need access to improved proprietary technologies developed for the most part by the private sector in developed countries. These technologies are currently concentrated in the hands of a few large corporations and are protected by intellectual property rights. The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) is a new initiative addressing the challenges associated with the access, development, and deployment of agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers in SSA. This article describes the AATF model of facilitating the creation of partnership alliances dedicated to promote and support collaboration among a wide variety of public- and private-sector organizations around shared agricultural research and development goals for the public good. It explains AATF's public-private partnership framework for technology delivery in the light of market failures, institutional constraints, and systemic weaknesses, which impede public-sector organizations from accessing and delivering pro-poor knowledge and technology to farmers. The article provides policy makers, research managers, and business decision makers with an understanding of how access to, and delivery of, proprietary technologies could contribute to food security and the improvement of farmers' livelihoods in Africa.

  8. An Analysis of Technology Acceptance in Turkey using Fuzzy Logic and Structural Equation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgin Şenel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is in a constant progress in the way of satisfying increasing human needs. This fact will hold true for the years to come. However, the level of adaptation to technological advancements varies greatly across countries. The pace of adjustment is directly proportional to the importance attached to and the funds allocated for this purpose. Despite the abundance of technological investments in Turkey in recent years, there are only a few studies analyzing the current level of individual interest in technology. This study therefore aims to determine the technology acceptance of Turkish people by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM developed by Davis (1989 and to demonstrate the reasons to accept or not accept technology departing from the links between dimensions. While accomplishing this aim, Structural Equation Model (SEM that is a highly strong multivariable analysis technique that makes possible the evaluation of latent structures like psychosocial needs, and the Fuzzy Logic Theorem that provides strong and significant instruments for the measurement of ambiguities and provides the opportunity to meaningfully represent ambiguous concepts expressed in the natural language were used. According to the findings of this study, it was determined that the perceived ease of use is more influential in people’s acceptance of technology than the perceived usefulness is. It was also found that technology acceptance does not differ significantly at the statistical significance level of 0.05 with respect to the participants’ demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, hometown etc.. In addition, analyses performed to define the relationships between the dimensions of the TAM yielded results that highly supported the TAM. In other words, the dimensions affect technology acceptance to positive and significant degrees

  9. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  10. The Great London Smog of 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    : The Great London Smog of December 1952 lasted five days and killed up to 12,000 people. The smog developed primarily because of extensive burning of high-sulfur coal. The health effects were both immediate and long lasting, with a recent study revealing an increased likelihood of childhood asthma development in those exposed to the Great Smog while in utero or during their first year of life. Subsequent pollution legislation-including the U.S. Clean Air Act and its amendments-have demonstrably reduced air pollution and positively impacted health outcomes. With poor air quality events like the Great Smog continuing to occur today, nurses need to be aware of the impact such environmental disasters can have on human health.

  11. Labor Unions and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milkman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of the Great Recession on the U.S. labor movement. After reviewing the classic industrial relations literature on the relationship between unionization rates and business cycles, we analyze historical union density trends. After documenting the relentless downward trend in the private sector from the early 1980s, with no apparent relationship to the business cycle, we analyze the negative impact of the political dynamic that unfolded in the wake of the Great Recession on public-sector unionism in sharp contrast to what took place during the Great Depression. We also explore the new forms of labor organizing that have emerged in the private sector, which have capitalized on the growing public concern about rising inequality sparked by Occupy Wall Street.

  12. A New Rootedness? Education in the Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Simon

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges facing educators in a time when modern technology, and especially modern social technology, has an increasingly powerful hold on our lives. The educational challenge does not primarily concern questions concerning the use of technology in the classroom, or as part of the learning environment, but a changeover in…

  13. Comparison of a multi-breath-hold and a single breath-hold cine imaging approach for 4D guide-point modeling of the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, C.; Schlosser, T.; Nassenstein, K.; Bruder, O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Guide-point modeling (GPM) enables reliable and time-efficient assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes when using sequences that allow acquisition of short- and long-axis scans within a single breath-hold. Slice misalignment may influence GPM analysis of standard multi-breath-hold images due to image acquisition in different breath-holds. Thus, our study aimed to assess if such an approach allows for reliable volumetric calculations in the clinical routine. Materials and Methods: 52 patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with multi-breath-hold acquisitions on the standard short- and long-axis using an SSFP (TR 3 ms, TE 1.5 ms, FA 60 ) sequence and a TPAT accelerated SSFP (TR 4.6 msec, TE 1.1msec, FA 60 , acceleration factor 3) sequence that covered the LV in 3 short- and 2 long-axis slices within a single breath-hold. For both datasets GPM was used to assess LV volumes. In addition, LV parameters were calculated by applying the summation of slices (SoS) approach (standard of reference) with the short-axis views of the multi-breath-hold dataset. Results: The post-processing times were shorter with both GPM approaches (both, p 0.97). Conclusion: Cine short- and long-axis images that had been acquired in different breath-holds can be reliably evaluated by the GPM approach. (orig.)

  14. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  15. Studies of radiation blistering effects on voltage holding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    The surfaces of niobium and tungsten wires were blistered by 300-keV helium-ion irradiation and then tested for voltage holding. A cylindrical projection-tube technique was employed so that regions of strong electron emission could be observed and later examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Blistering was found to cause significant increases in pre-breakdown currents. However, these currents tend to saturate over a region corresponding to around 200-400 kV/cm surface field such that the ultimate voltage breakdown limit is not seriously reduced. Emission image observations and SEM photographs suggest that, in many cases, parts of the blistered surface are gradually erected by the strong surface fields, but this may not occur until after several arc breakdowns. SEM photographs also indicate that vapor from the anode may play an important part in the breakdown mechanism. Implications of these results to the design of devices important to fusion development, such as direct collectors and ion sources, are briefly discussed. The importance of future in situ irradiation-voltage experiments is also stressed. (U.S.)

  16. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF on a maximal breath-hold (BH in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7 performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg. Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline, and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2 by about 26% (p < 0.01. Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04. In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa. The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01. These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2.

  17. The development of a Space Shuttle Research Animal Holding Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to maintain the well being of experiment animals is of primary importance to the successful attainment of life sciences flight experiment goals. To assist scientists in the conduct of life sciences flight experiments, a highly versatile Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) is being developed for use on Space Shuttle/Spacelab missions. This paper describes the design of the RAHF system, which in addition to providing general housing for various animal species, approximating the environment found in ground based facilities, is designed to minimize disturbances of the specimens by vehicle and mission operations. Life-sustaining capabilities such as metabolic support and environmental control are provided. RAHF is reusable and is a modular concept to accommodate animals of different sizes. The basic RAHF system will accommodate a combination of 24 500-g rats or 144 mice or a mixed number of rats and mice. An alternative design accommodates four squirrel monkeys. The entire RAHF system is housed in a single ESA rack. The animal cages are in drawers which are removable for easy access to the animals. Each cage contains a waste management system, a feeding system and a watering system all of which will operate in zero or one gravity.

  18. Antigen Loss Variants: Catching Hold of Escaping Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Maulik; Müller, Rolf; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Since mid-1990s, the field of cancer immunotherapy has seen steady growth and selected immunotherapies are now a routine and preferred therapeutic option of certain malignancies. Both active and passive cancer immunotherapies exploit the fact that tumor cells express specific antigens on the cell surface, thereby mounting an immune response specifically against malignant cells. It is well established that cancer cells typically lose surface antigens following natural or therapy-induced selective pressure and these antigen-loss variants are often the population that causes therapy-resistant relapse. CD19 and CD20 antigen loss in acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, and lineage switching in leukemia associated with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements are well-documented evidences in this regard. Although increasing number of novel immunotherapies are being developed, majority of these do not address the control of antigen loss variants. Here, we review the occurrence of antigen loss variants in leukemia and discuss the therapeutic strategies to tackle the same. We also present an approach of dual-targeting immunoligand effectively retargeting NK cells against antigen loss variants in MLL-associated leukemia. Novel immunotherapies simultaneously targeting more than one tumor antigen certainly hold promise to completely eradicate tumor and prevent therapy-resistant relapses.

  19. U.S. Solar Holdings Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Jake [U.S. Solar Holdings, Boise, ID (United States); Stekli, Joe [U.S. Solar Holdings, Boise, ID (United States); Rueckert, Tommy [U.S. Solar Holdings, Boise, ID (United States); Irwin, Levi [U.S. Solar Holdings, Boise, ID (United States); Mehos, Mark [U.S. Solar Holdings, Boise, ID (United States); Ho, Cliff [U.S. Solar Holdings, Boise, ID (United States)

    2012-03-06

    This report summarizes the work of the US Solar Thermal Storage LLC (“USSTS”) team on SandShifter subproject for Phase 2 of U.S. Department of Energy’s FOA #DE-FC36-08GO18155.005. This subproject develops a new-to-the-world, disruptive technology which leverages an abundant, inexpensive, and benign material, Sand, for application in Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in association with power generation from Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) systems. Sand, as a standalone TES media, has a 10 to 25X cost per unit of storage capacity cost advantage over the prevailing technology, molten salt. The work summarized herein suggests that SandShifter, which has a non-linear cost curve favoring higher hours of storage, could likely achieve economics of $15 per kWh-th or less for several hours of storage in high temperature steam- or salt-as-HTF configurations with further technology development.

  20. Ground Motion Prediction for Great Interplate Earthquakes in Kanto Basin Considering Variation of Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Broadband ground motions are estimated in the Kanto sedimentary basin which holds Tokyo metropolitan area inside for anticipated great interplate earthquakes along surrounding plate boundaries. Possible scenarios of great earthquakes along Sagami trough are modeled combining characteristic properties of the source area and adequate variation in source parameters in order to evaluate possible ground motion variation due to next Kanto earthquake. South to the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake along the Japan trench, we consider possible M8 earthquake. The ground motions are computed with a four-step hybrid technique. We first calculate low-frequency ground motions at the engineering basement. We then calculate higher-frequency ground motions at the same position, and combine the lower- and higher-frequency motions using a matched filter. We finally calculate ground motions at the surface by computing the response of the alluvium-diluvium layers to the combined motions at the engineering basement.

  1. Assessing and ensuring patient safety during breath-holding for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, M J; Green, S; Stevens, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2014-11-01

    While there is recent interest in using repeated deep inspiratory breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holds, to improve radiotherapy delivery, breath-holding has risks. There are no published guidelines for monitoring patient safety, and there is little clinical awareness of the pronounced blood pressure rise and the potential for gradual asphyxia that occur during breath-holding. We describe the blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding with air and test whether it can be abolished simply by pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We measured blood pressure, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate in 12 healthy, untrained subjects performing breath-holds. Even for deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, the blood pressure rose progressively (e.g. mean systolic pressure rose from 133 ± 5 to 175 ± 8 mmHg at breakpoint, p breath-hold duration and prevented the development of asphyxia but failed to abolish the pressure rise. The pressure rise was not a function of breath-hold duration and was not signalled by any fall in heart rate (remaining at resting levels of 72 ± 2 beats per minute). Colleagues should be aware of the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding that so far is not easily prevented. In breast cancer patients scheduled for breath-holds, we recommend routine screening for heart, cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular disease, routine monitoring of patient blood pressure and SpO2 during breath-holding and requesting patients to stop if systolic pressure rises consistently >180 mmHg and or SpO2 falls breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holding techniques, to improve radiotherapy delivery. But there appears to be no clinical awareness of the risks to patients from breath-holding. We demonstrate the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, which we show cannot be prevented by the simple expedient of pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We propose patient

  2. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  3. The Great Work of the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Berry explores the meaning of work from the standpoint of human civilization responding to the call of the universe, replacing use and exploitation of nature with the wonder, rapport, and intimacy so important to the psychic balance of the developing human and natural harmony of life on Earth. The Great Work is defined as the work of…

  4. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  5. A great potential for market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2003-01-01

    In a report the competition authorities of Norway, Sweden and Denmark conclude that there is a great potential for exerting market power in the Nordic countries. Bottlenecks in the transmission grid divide the Nordic market in shifting constellations of geographic markets and the market concentration in each market may therefore become very high

  6. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  7. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  8. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  9. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  10. Theodosius Dohzhansky: A Great Inspirer 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phy, and reading and writ- ing poetry in Urdu, Hindi ... this influence (of Dobzhansky on his students) never consisted to any great extent of direct transmission of facts in lecture sessions ... teacher, for he showed the way, he inspired by his example, in addition, of course, to his masterful ability to synthesize and organize the ...

  11. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  12. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ..., America's great outdoors have ignited our imaginations, bolstered our economy, and fueled our national... generation of urban parks and community green spaces; and create a new Conservation Service Corps so that... improve our quality of life and our health, rejuvenate local and regional economies, spur job creation...

  13. How To Become a Great Public Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Marylaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents interviews with Fred Kent, founder of the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) and Phil Myrick, PPS's assistant vice president, about transforming libraries into desirable public spaces. Discusses qualities people value in public spaces; great library buildings and what they are doing right; the first thing library directors should do when…

  14. Rain Forests: Do They Hold Up the Sky?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donna Gail; Dybdahl, Claudia S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses the topic of rain forests to demonstrate how a meaningful and relevant Science, Technology, and Society program can be designed for intermediate-level students. Students create and immerse themselves in a tropical rain forest, explore the forest ecosystem and peoples, and consider solutions to the problem of deforestation. (JDD)

  15. A digital divide: Kiswahili holds the key | Kamau | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... regions in the world are included in the 'global village'. Most developing countries especially in Africa are yet to make a mark in the ICT domain. Due to this fact there exists a digital divide between the developed and the developing nations of the world. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  16. Technology in geriatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Alberto; Boi, Raffaella; Petermans, Jean

    2018-03-13

    Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice. The most promising clinical applications of technologies are housing and safety to guarantee older people remaining in their own homes and communities, mobility and rehabilitation to improve mobility and gait and communication and quality of life by reducing isolation, improve management of medications and transportation. Many factors impair a broad use of technology in older age, including psychosocial and ethical issues, costs and fear of losing human interaction. A substantial lack of appropriate clinical trials to establish the clinical role of technologies to improve physical or cognitive performances and/or quality of life of subjects and their caregivers may suggest that the classical biomedical research model may not be the optimal choice to evaluate technologies in older people. In conclusion, successful technology development requires a great effort in interdisciplinary collaboration to integrate technologies into the existing health and social service systems with the aim to fit into the older adults' everyday life.

  17. Fast Determination of Flip Angle and T1 in Hyperpolarized Gas MRI During a Single Breath-Hold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianping; Ruan, Weiwei; Han, Yeqing; Sun, Xianping; Ye, Chaohui; Zhou, Xin

    2016-05-01

    MRI of hyperpolarized media, such as 129Xe and 3He, shows great potential for clinical applications. The optimal use of the available spin polarization requires accurate flip angle calibrations and T1 measurements. Traditional flip angle calibration methods are time-consuming and suffer from polarization losses during T1 relaxation. In this paper, we propose a method to simultaneously calibrate flip angles and measure T1 in vivo during a breath-hold time of less than 4 seconds. We demonstrate the accuracy, robustness and repeatability of this method and contrast it with traditional methods. By measuring the T1 of hyperpolarized gas, the oxygen pressure in vivo can be calibrated during the same breath hold. The results of the calibration have been applied in variable flip angle (VFA) scheme to obtain a stable steady-state transverse magnetization. Coupled with this method, the ultra-short TE (UTE) and constant VFA (CVFA) schemes are expected to give rise to new applications of hyperpolarized media.

  18. Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glenn, IL

    2009-10-13

    A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.

  19. 体力と息こらえ(breath holding)の相関関係

    OpenAIRE

    "川上, 雅之"; "カワカミ, マサユキ"; Masayuki", "Kawakami

    1980-01-01

    "This research is an analysis of the correlation of the length of the breath holding with physical fitness. These tests of physical fitness were measured by side step test, vertical jump, back strenrgth, grip strength, trunk extension, standing trunk flexion and step test. Following results were obtained : 1) The length of breath holding is correlated with physical characteristics such as height, circumference chest and body surface area. 2) The length of breath holding is correlated with phy...

  20. The koala hold from down under: another choice in breastfeeding position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Shannon C

    2013-05-01

    While there are no set rules about breastfeeding positions, Australian lactation practice has traditionally recommended some established ones. One position that can provide an alternative is the "Koala Hold." This hold mimics that of the koala such that the baby is straddled on the mother's knee, skin to skin, in the upright position. This article describes the techniques of the Koala Hold and identifies the advantages and considerations for the use of this position.

  1. Liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultraviolet-inactivated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultra-violet-inactivated vibrios have been investigated. Photoreactivation was highest (about 80%) for Vibrio cholerae (classical) strains but the liquid holding recovery was highest (about 29%) for Vibrio parahemolyticus ones. Significance of the differences between any two of the four vibrio biotypes in respect of their liquid holding recovery and also photoreactivation was analysed statistically. (auth.)

  2. Adults' preferences for side-of-hold as portrayed in paintings of the Madonna and Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren Julius; Cardénas, Rodrigo Andrés; Spradlin, Michael P; Almerigi, Jason B

    2009-11-01

    Most women hold infants on their left side. They do the same when depicted in works of art. Does the latter accurately reflect the real-life bias, the artist's own aesthetic preference, or something else, such as the artist's handedness, sex, direction of attentional bias, or even the artist's own side-preference for holding infants? As a first step to finding out, we showed 272 young adults (85 men, 187 women) 20 pairs of paintings of the Madonna and Child, the original on one side, its mirror-reversal on the other, and asked which one they preferred. Along with assessing the effects of the variables already mentioned, we used equal numbers of paintings originally depicting left-holds and right-holds to control for the possible effects of differences between the paintings other than side-of-hold itself, such as in their colour scheme, background details, and the type of hold shown (e.g., cradle vs seated on lap). Each pair was presented twice, once with the original on the left, once on the right, for a total of 40 trials. Women and men alike more often preferred left-hold images, but the difference was significant only for women. Preferences were also stronger for original left-hold paintings than for the mirror-reversals of original right-hold paintings, suggesting that the originals differed in ways affecting preference beyond those we tried to control. Overall preference for left-hold images was enhanced when the images were on the viewer's left. As for the other variables, they were for the most part unrelated to preferences. The reasons for the preference thus remain unclear but it is evidently affected by multiple variables, with at least some clearly different from those affecting side-of-hold preferences of real mothers holding real infants.

  3. EFFECTS OF ORAL IRON SUPPLEMENT ON BREATH-HOLDING SPELLS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. TONEKABONI; S. ALAVI; F. MAHVELATI; Z. TABASI

    2006-01-01

    Objectives:Breath holding spells are one of the most frequent and important diagnostic challenges in pediatrics. The aim of this study, conducted on pediatric patients referring to the pediatric neurology clinic in Hormozgan province, was to evaluate therapeutic effects of iron on breath holding spellsMaterials and Methods:35 children (19 males and 16 females), aged between 3 to 60 months, with a history of breath-holding spells, were included in the trial. To obtain all relevant data a speci...

  4. Digital security technology simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.

  5. The Impact of Information Technology on the Design, Development, and Implementation of a Lunar Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Sims, Michael H.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    From the beginning to the present expeditions to the Moon have involved a large investment of human labor. This has been true for all aspects of the process, from the initial design of the mission, whether scientific or technological, through the development of the instruments and the spacecraft, to the flight and operational phases. In addition to the time constraints that this situation imposes, there is also a significant cost associated with the large labor costs. As a result lunar expeditions have been limited to a few robotic missions and the manned Apollo program missions of the 1970s. With the rapid rise of the new information technologies, new paradigms are emerging that promise to greatly reduce both the time and cost of such missions. With the rapidly increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software systems, as well as networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between the human and the machine system. This new balance holds the promise of greatly increased exploration capability, along with dramatically reduced design, development, and operating costs. These new information technologies, utilizing knowledge-based software and very highspeed computer systems, will provide new design and development tools, scheduling mechanisms, and vehicle and system health monitoring capabilities that have hitherto been unavailable to the mission and spacecraft designer and the system operator. This paper will utilize typical lunar missions, both robotic and crewed, as a basis to describe and illustrate how these new information system technologies could be applied to all aspects such missions. In particular, new system design tradeoff tools will be described along with technologies that will allow a very much greater degree of autonomy of exploration vehicles than has heretofore been possible. In addition, new information technologies that will significantly reduce the human operational requirements will be discussed.

  6. Breath Holding Spells in Children with Long QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeffrey A; Bos, J Martijn; Etheridge, Susan P; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic heart rhythm disorder that may present with syncope, seizures, or sudden cardiac death. Breath holding spells (BHS) occur in 5% of all children and have been noted in children with LQTS anecdotally. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BHS in children diagnosed with LQTS at ≤5 years of age. A retrospective review was performed to identify children diagnosed with LQTS who were ≤5 years old at initial presentation to our LQTS clinic from August 1999 to November 2013. The mean length of follow-up was 6.4 ± 2.8 years. The electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation of BHS, as well as LQTS-associated symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatment. The study cohort consisted of 115 children with LQTS (58% male; median age at diagnosis, 11 months [range, birth to 5 years]; mean corrected QT interval (QTc), 478 ± 60 milliseconds). At presentation, 80% of patients were asymptomatic. Genetic testing revealed type 1 LQTS (LQT1) in 48%. Overall, 5 of 115 patients (4.3%) had BHS (2 of 5 [40%] male, mean QTc: 492 ± 14 milliseconds, 4 [80%] with family history of LQTS). BHS were the presenting symptom in 1 of 23 symptomatic patients (4.3%). All BHS occurred in patients with LQT1 (P = .02). Although BHS among children with LQTS are relatively rare and occur at similar frequency as the general population, they can be the presenting symptom for a heart rhythm disorder. Careful attention to BHS is important to distinguish an innocent BHS from a potential LQTS-triggered cardiac event so that proper treatment is initiated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Self-face Captures, Holds, and Biases Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał J. Wójcik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implicit self-recognition process may take place already in the pre-attentive stages of perception. After a silent stimulus has captured attention, it is passed on to the attentive stage where it can affect decision making and responding. Numerous studies show that the presence of self-referential information affects almost every cognitive level. These effects may share a common and fundamental basis in an attentional mechanism, conceptualized as attentional bias: the exaggerated deployment of attentional resources to a salient stimulus. A gold standard in attentional bias research is the dot-probe paradigm. In this task, a prominent stimulus (cue and a neutral stimulus are presented in different spatial locations, followed by the presentation of a target. In the current study we aimed at investigating whether the self-face captures, holds and biases attention when presented as a task-irrelevant stimulus. In two dot-probe experiments coupled with the event-related potential (ERP technique we analyzed the following relevant ERPs components: N2pc and SPCN which reflect attentional shifts and the maintenance of attention, respectively. An inter-stimulus interval separating face-cues and probes (800 ms was introduced only in the first experiment. In line with our predictions, in Experiment 1 the self-face elicited the N2pc and the SPCN component. In Experiment 2 in addition to N2pc, an attentional bias was observed. Our results indicate that unintentional self-face processing disables the top-down control setting to filter out distractors, thus leading to the engagement of attentional resources and visual short-term memory.

  8. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  9. Wireless cellular networks with Pareto-distributed call holding times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Dagnino, Ramon M.; Takagi, Hideaki

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest in providing internet to mobile users. For instance, NTT DoCoMo in Japan deploys an important mobile phone network with that offers the Internet service, named 'i-mode', to more than 17 million subscribers. Internet traffic measurements show that the session duration of Call Holding Time (CHT) has probability distributions with heavy-tails, which tells us that they depart significantly from the traffic statistics of traditional voice services. In this environment, it is particularly important to know the number of handovers during a call for a network designer to make an appropriate dimensioning of virtual circuits for a wireless cell. The handover traffic has a direct impact on the Quality of Service (QoS); e.g. the service disruption due to the handover failure may significantly degrade the specified QoS of time-constrained services. In this paper, we first study the random behavior of the number of handovers during a call, where we assume that the CHT are Pareto distributed (heavy-tail distribution), and the Cell Residence Times (CRT) are exponentially distributed. Our approach is based on renewal theory arguments. We present closed-form formulae for the probability mass function (pmf) of the number of handovers during a Pareto distributed CHT, and obtain the probability of call completion as well as handover rates. Most of the formulae are expressed in terms of the Whittaker's function. We compare the Pareto case with cases of $k(subscript Erlang and hyperexponential distributions for the CHT.

  10. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site.

  11. What Makes a Great Journal Great in Economics? The Singer Not the Song.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); L. Oxley (Les)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in economics, based on quantifiable measures. Alternative Research Assessment Measures (RAM) are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). The various ISI RAM that

  12. A clinical evaluation of visual feedback-guided breath-hold reproducibility of tumor location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Terashima, Kotaro; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Arimura, Hidetaka; Hirata, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of visual feedback-guided breath-hold using a machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera and a monocular head-mounted display. Sixteen patients with lung tumors who were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy were enrolled. A machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera was used for monitoring respiration. A monocular head-mounted display was used to provide the patient with visual feedback about the breathing trace. The patients could control their breathing so that the breathing waveform would fall between the upper and lower threshold lines. Planning and treatment were performed under visual feedback-guided expiratory breath-hold. Electronic portal images were obtained during treatment. The range of cranial-caudal motion of the tumor location during each single breath-hold was calculated as the intra-breath-hold (intra-BH) variability. The maximum displacement between the two to five averaged tumor locations of each single breath-hold was calculated as the inter-breath-hold (inter-BH) variability. All 16 patients tolerated the visual feedback-guided breath-hold maneuvers well. The intra- and inter-BH variability of all patients was 1.5 ± 0.6 mm and 1.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. A visual feedback-guided breath-hold technique using the machine vision system is feasible with good breath-hold reproducibility.

  13. Voluntary Breath-hold Technique for Reducing Heart Dose in Left Breast Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Frederick R.; Colgan, Ruth M.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Carr, Karen; Landeg, Steven; Clements, Nicola; McNair, Helen A.; Locke, Imogen; Evans, Philip M.; Haviland, Joanne S.; Yarnold, John R.; Kirby, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Breath-holding techniques reduce the amount of radiation received by cardiac structures during tangential-field left breast radiotherapy. With these techniques, patients hold their breath while radiotherapy is delivered, pushing the heart down and away from the radiotherapy field. Despite clear dosimetric benefits, these techniques are not yet in widespread use. One reason for this is that commercially available solutions require specialist equipment, necessitating not only significant capital investment, but often also incurring ongoing costs such as a need for daily disposable mouthpieces. The voluntary breath-hold technique described here does not require any additional specialist equipment. All breath-holding techniques require a surrogate to monitor breath-hold consistency and whether breath-hold is maintained. Voluntary breath-hold uses the distance moved by the anterior and lateral reference marks (tattoos) away from the treatment room lasers in breath-hold to monitor consistency at CT-planning and treatment setup. Light fields are then used to monitor breath-hold consistency prior to and during radiotherapy delivery. PMID:25046661

  14. An investigation on inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort of static posture holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin; Son, Minseok

    2015-01-01

    Realizing population-level discomfort evaluation and control of common static posture holding tasks requires an understanding of the inter-individual variation in discomfort perception. However, little research is available. This study aimed to determine the types of mathematical probability distribution suitable for modeling population discomfort distributions of various static posture holding tasks and characterize how the magnitude of inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort varies across static posture holding tasks. Ten male and ten female subjects participated. The participants conducted static posture holding for a set of 180 short-duration (20-second-long) static posture holding tasks and subjectively rated the overall perceived discomfort for each task using the Borg CR-10 discomfort scale. Statistical analyses were conducted according to the study objectives. The static posture holding tasks exhibited multifarious discomfort distribution patterns. Probability distribution identification analyses indicated that no single distribution type could represent population discomfort distributions universally across different static posture holding tasks. Sample standard deviation of discomfort ratings data quantifying the magnitude of inter-individual variation in discomfort perception varied considerably across static posture holding tasks. It seemed to have a positive relationship with sample mean within the range of the experimental conditions. Population-level evaluation of discomforts associated with static posture holding tasks must be based on careful examinations of empirical discomfort distributions.

  15. Pengaruh krisis keuangan global dan karakteristik perusahaan terhadap cash holding perusahaan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the global financial crisis and firm characteristics on corporate cash holdings in Indonesia. A total of 101 manufacturing firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2014 are examined. This study employs panel regression with fixed effect model. The results show that Indonesia firms hold more cash during the global financial crisis than in the normal times. Investment opportunities set and divident payment have positive effect on cash holding, meanwhile firm size, capital expenditure, liquid assets substitutes, and leverage have negative effect on cash holding

  16. No wonder you wonder! great inventions and scientific mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2016-01-01

    This book explores and explains scientific mysteries and principles, leavened with tongue-in-cheek humor and an abundance of illustrations. Chapters are short, but give an understanding of technology and science not available elsewhere. Questions include: • What holds a satellite up while it goes around the Earth? • Why is the sky (made out of clear air!) blue instead of green, or just black as night like the sky that high altitude jumper Felix Baumgartner saw? • How is laser light different from “normal” light? • Did Columbus really discover that the Earth is round? • Which one invention will assuredly survive our civilization? • Why can’t you travel back in time?  If you often feel embarrassed because you don’t have a clue about lasers, the difference between volts, amps and watts, or how jet planes really work – but you would like to understand the physical principles of our modern world, whether you’re a teen or a parent – this book is for you! To understand the basics of quantu...

  17. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  18. Autonomous ships – What does the future hold?

    OpenAIRE

    Ntovas, Alexandros X.M.; Veal, Robert; Tsimplis, M.N.; Serdy, Andrew; Quinn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous and unmanned vessels are already in use in the defence industry for mine clearance and targets; in the oil and gas industry for subsea positioning, surveying and environmental monitoring; and in oceanographic data collection. While these vessels are still on a small scale, the technology can be easily scaled up to SOLAS size. The paper will look at the issues involved with increasing autonomy in shipping with an introduction to the concept; an overview of current developments; the ...

  19. The Night of The Great Butcher The Night of The Great Butcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P. Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available John Bennett's stories are sometimes confusing but, he holds the reader's attention to discover what will come out of the next chapters till the end of the book. Being a sur realistic writer his writings demand much concentration on the reader's part. His themes are about art (plus drugs, sex, music and everyday life. At times they are shocking. Still the reader realizes that violence, opression, lack of humanity, drug problems and lack of understanding exists all over the world.

  20. Integrated Technologies for Large-Scale Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace-Agaskar, C.; Bramhavar, S.; Kharas, D.; Mehta, K. K.; Loh, W.; Panock, R.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; McConnell, R.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2016-05-01

    Atomic ions trapped and controlled using electromagnetic fields hold great promise for practical quantum information processing due to their inherent coherence properties and controllability. However, to realize this promise, the ability to maintain and manipulate large-scale systems is required. We present progress toward the development of, and proof-of-principle demonstrations and characterization of, several technologies that can be integrated with ion-trap arrays on-chip to enable such scaling to practically useful sizes. Of particular use are integrated photonic elements for routing and focusing light throughout a chip without the need for free-space optics. The integration of CMOS electronics and photo-detectors for on-chip control and readout, and methods for monolithic fabrication and wafer-scale integration to incorporate these capabilities into tile-able 2D ion-trap array cells, are also explored.

  1. Green Materials Science and Engineering Reduces Biofouling: Approaches for Medical and Membrane-based Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerianne M Dobosz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous engineered and natural environments suffer deleterious effects from biofouling and/or biofilm formation. For instance, bacterial contamination on biomedical devices pose serious health concerns. In membrane-based technologies, such as desalination and wastewater reuse, biofouling decreases membrane lifetime and increases the energy required to produce clean water. Traditionally, approaches have combatted bacteria using bactericidal agents. However, due to globalization, a decline in antibiotic discovery, and the widespread resistance of microbes to many commercial antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles, new materials and approaches to reduce biofilm formation are needed. In this mini-review, we cover the recent strategies that have been explored to combat microbial contamination without exerting evolutionary pressure on microorganisms. Renewable feedstocks, relying on structure-property relationships, bioinspired/nature-derived compounds, and green processing methods are discussed. Greener strategies that mitigate biofouling hold great potential to positively impact human health and safety.

  2. The Impact of Sustainable Development Technology on a Small Economy—The Case of Energy-Saving Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiding Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of a sustainable development technology on the macroeconomic variables in a small economy utilizing a case study with a stochastically improving energy saving technology and a stochastically increasing energy price. The results show the technological displacement effects of energy saving technology are stronger, but there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns to physical capital. However, the energy saving technology’s displacement effects might not affect the conditions under which the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler (HLM effect holds. The effects of rising energy prices on bonds are stronger, and there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns, but the conditions under which the HLM effect holds are different.

  3. The Impact of Sustainable Development Technology on a Small Economy—The Case of Energy-Saving Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Huang, Weilun; Li, Xue

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the impact of a sustainable development technology on the macroeconomic variables in a small economy utilizing a case study with a stochastically improving energy saving technology and a stochastically increasing energy price. The results show the technological displacement effects of energy saving technology are stronger, but there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns to physical capital. However, the energy saving technology’s displacement effects might not affect the conditions under which the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler (HLM) effect holds. The effects of rising energy prices on bonds are stronger, and there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns, but the conditions under which the HLM effect holds are different. PMID:29419788

  4. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  5. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  6. The power mix in Great-Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebuchet, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a new reform of the electric power sector in Great Britain: RIIO (Revenue = Incentives + Innovations + Outputs). The author discusses aspects related to market organisation and aspects related to the grid. First, she gives an overview of the situation of the electricity sector in Great-Britain by describing its evolution from the start of the liberalisation policy until our days, and by presenting the regulation of the electric power transport network. In a second part, she analyses which changes will be introduced by RIIO. She comments the general principles of this reform and discusses its implications for the sector. Appendices describe the LCN Fund (Low carbon network Fund) mechanism which is a specific bidding and selection process, and briefly indicate the projects selected by this fund in 2010 and 2011

  7. Alexander the Great's relationship with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liappas, J A; Lascaratos, J; Fafouti, S; Christodoulou, G N

    2003-05-01

    This study sought to clarify if Alexander the Great indulged pathologically in alcohol and whether it contributed to his death. The texts of the historians Diodorus of Sicily, Plutarch, Arrian, Curtius Rufus, Athenaeus, Aelian and Justin were studied, with their information concerning wine consumption by Macedonians, and especially Alexander, and were evaluated. The surviving historical texts, all later than Alexander's epoch, are based on a series of contemporary histories and especially on the 'Royal Journals', an official diary written in the imperial court. Alexander consumed large quantities of undiluted wine periodically, reaching pathological intoxication. However, the existing data do not provide convincing evidence that Alexander the Great manifested abuse of or dependence on alcohol according to DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria and it seems unlikely that alcohol was involved in his untimely death.

  8. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...... of Great Zimbabwe at around 1550 AD. However, new research findings suggest a different scenario. Combining geoarchaeolological investigations, soil micromorphology and geochemistry with the study of historical sources and ethnographic records, new datasets indicate prolonged availability and diversified...

  9. Population genetics of Great Basin feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, A T

    1994-06-01

    The genetic make-up of Great Basin wild (feral) horses was investigated by blood typing studies. Blood samples of 975 feral horses from seven trap sites in Nevada and Oregon were tested by serological and electrophoretic techniques for genetic markers at 19 polymorphic loci. The average number of variants for the seven feral populations [72.1 +/- 3.2 (SEM), range 62-85] was not significantly different from that of 16 domestic breeds (75.0 +/- 11.5, range 58-105). The expected average frequency of heterozygotes per locus (average heterozygosity) for the feral populations (0.402 +/- 0.009, range 0.368-0.442) was not significantly different from the domestic breeds (0.389 +/- 0.045, range 0.295-0.443). Dendrograms constructed using pairwise comparisons of Nei's distance measurements substantiated anecdotal accounts of the origins of Great Basin horses from Iberian, American saddle horse and draft horse breeds.

  10. Ultrasound assessment of great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander RK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajiv K Chander,1 Thomas S Monahan1,2 1Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Duplex ultrasonography is the ideal modality to assess great saphenous vein insufficiency. Duplex ultrasonography incorporates both gray scale images to delineate anatomy and color-Doppler imaging that visualizes the flow of blood in a structure. Assessment of great saphenous vein requires definition of the anatomy, augmentation of flow, evaluation for both superficial and deep vein thrombosis, and determining the presence of reflux. Currently, evolution in the treatment of reflux also relies on ultrasound for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the utilization of the ultrasound for the diagnosis and treatment of greater saphenous vein reflux is important for practitioners treating reflux disease. Keywords: duplex ultrasonography, small saphenous vein 

  11. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John Calvin; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  12. Assessment of US industry's technology trends and new technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The utility and effectiveness of a novel approach (the Applications Development, or AD approach), intended to augment the efficiency of NASA's technology utilization (TU) through dissemination of NASA technologies and joint technology development efforts with U.S. industry is tested. The innovative AD approach consists of the following key elements: selection of NASA technologies appearing to have leading edge attributes; interaction with NASA researchers to assess the characteristics and quality of each selected technology; identification of industry's needs in the selected technology areas; structuring the selected technologies in terms of specifications and standards familiar to industry (industrial Spec. Sheets); identification and assessment of industry's interest in the specific selected NASA technologies, utilizing the greatly facilitated communication made possible by the availability of the industrial Spec. Sheets; and matching selected NASA technologies with the needs of selected industries.

  13. Who will hold capacity in an era of uncertainty and unbundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirick, J.P.Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation addressed the role that local distribution companies (LDC) will play in the natural gas industry with reference to the impacts of unbundling and how state regulators should react to LDCs exceeding allowable capacity reserve margins. The paper discussed how enforced behaviour has emerged within the traditional natural gas industry. The author states that the industry went into its first chaotic state when open access transportation came into force. It went into the second chaotic state when it was again destabilized by the forces of energy convergence, residential unbundling, ownership transfer, market pricing and technological innovation. The author described the synergistic effects of energy convergence with market pricing, along with the effects of residential energy unbundling and whether it should cover the natural gas commodity or just the capacity. The chaotic states have taught the industry valuable lessons in terms of pricing, service to customers and implications for both the industry and regulators. The author states that LDC unbundling should change who holds capacity, claiming that it has to, particularly if customers choose a different supplier. Unbundling means that the LDC allows residential customers to buy from someone other than the LDC. He also states that there is a need for pipelines to charge market-based rates. tabs., figs

  14. Central Asia: A New Great Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-17

    Baku’s interest in reuniting with Iran’s Azeri population in return for a nonaggressive policy in Central Asia .25 Finally, the investment funds needed...CENTRAL ASIA : A NEW GREAT GAME? Dianne L. Smith June 17, 1996 ******* The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not...events in Central Asia . Perhaps nowhere on the continent was the Cold War transformation in the security environment more dramatic than in Central

  15. Academic Performance and the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Tanzi, Giulia M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study how the Great Recession affected university students in terms of performance, with a special focus on the dropout probability. To do so, we use individual-level data on a representative sample of university students in Italy in 2007 and 2011. We measure the severity of the recession in terms of increases in adult and youth unemployment rate and we exploit geographical variation to achieve identification. On the one hand, an increase in adult male unemployment rate deter...

  16. The Rule of Saint Basil the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pietrow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rules of monasticism were collected and published in a single work entitled Asketikon by Saint Basil the Great. It is arranged in the form of questions and answers to create one coherent work. It has two different publications.The first publication named The Small Asketikon dates to 370-370. It is the fruit of the Saint’s work among Pontic communities and consists of 203 questions and answers. The orignial Greek manuscript has not survived and it is available only in two translations: the Latin Rufin and fragments in Syrian language. The second publication named The Great Asketikon appeard in about 377 and presents the most mature step of cenobitic monasticismin Basil’s elaboration. The Great Asketikon was created by adding new questions to The Small Asketikon and consists of two parts called the The Longer Rules and The Shorter Rules. The Longer Rules are primarily a set of questions and answers. It includes a wide range of rules and norms of the overall life in community. It refers to the fundamental rules of spirituality, such as love, sacrifice, obedience and rudimental problems connected withcommunity organization, cenobitic monasticism and the role of the superior, work and prayer. The second part of The Great Asketikon consists of shorter rules. Two publications are known: the first one originated in Pont andincludes 286 questions and answers and second arose in Cezarei and includes 318 questions and answers. In this work, the Hierarch explains in detail issues regarding community life and solves difficult problems connected with conscience. He writes about behavior towards brothers and explains the significance of weaknesses and virtues.

  17. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  18. Trade Finance during the Great Trade Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem

    2011-01-01

    The bursting of the subprime mortgage market in the United States in 2008 and the ensuing global financial crisis were associated with a rapid decline in global trade. The extent of the trade collapse was unprecedented: trade flows fell at a faster rate than had been observed even in the early years of the great depression. G-20 leaders held their first crisis-related summit in November 20...

  19. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, L.E.; Miller, M.C.; Engman, J.; Evans, R.L.; Koch, R.W.; Brence, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fish sampling by electroshocking in the Great Miami River above and below the Fernald sit was designed to determine changes in the health of the fish community compared to the previous nine years and to collect samples for uranium analysis in fish filets. This document contains information describing the findings of this program. Topics discussed include: physical and chemical parameters, species richness, species diversity, and water analysis

  20. Natural selection in the great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Cagan, A.; Theunert, C.; Laayouni, H.; Santpere, G.; Pybus, M.; Casals, F.; Prüfer, K.; Navarro, A.; Marques-Bonet, T.; Bertranpetit, J.; Andrés, A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of bot...

  1. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  2. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. Keywords: neuropraxia, anesthesia, arthroscopy, great auricular nerve

  3. Catchment management and the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, J; Christie, C; Devlin, M; Haynes, D; Morris, S; Ramsay, M; Waterhouse, J; Yorkston, H

    2001-01-01

    Pollution of coastal regions of the Great Barrier Reef is dominated by runoff from the adjacent catchment. Catchment land-use is dominated by beef grazing and cropping, largely sugarcane cultivation, with relatively minor urban development. Runoff of sediment, nutrients and pesticides is increasing and for nitrogen is now four times the natural amount discharged 150 years ago. Significant effects and potential threats are now evident on inshore reefs, seagrasses and marine animals. There is no effective legislation or processes in place to manage agricultural pollution. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act does not provide effective jurisdiction on the catchment. Queensland legislation relies on voluntary codes and there is no assessment of the effectiveness of the codes. Integrated catchment management strategies, also voluntary, provide some positive outcomes but are of limited success. Pollutant loads are predicted to continue to increase and it is unlikely that current management regimes will prevent this. New mechanisms to prevent continued degradation of inshore ecosystems of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are urgently needed.

  4. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  5. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure

  6. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its “ghost images".

  8. Digital Actuator Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst

    2014-09-01

    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator

  9. Globalization and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian-Alexandru Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, very complex phenomenon, involves overcoming the barriers between different states, which allowed the rapid transfer of capital, technology, information, and the "toxins" from one country to another. First, the technology formed the basis of rapid expansion of great ideas promoted by globalization. Undeniable progress in the field of technology and science, has conferred to the man extraordinary powers that have been used most often to the detriment of his spiritual progress. We must not deny that science and technology have brought many benefits to human, and he could expand the knowledge horizon upon the world in which he lives, exploiting information acquired and share them with others. Science and technology must become for postmodern man ways of talk and communion between human and divinity, all to the praise of God and the perfection of the creature.

  10. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  11. The hand-hold polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Gao, Wanrong

    2017-08-01

    The polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) has the advantages of being able to measure the polarization properties of samples, such as phase-retardation, diattenuation, depolarization, and optical axis orientation, providing a contrast to identify the diseased area and normal area in tissues in PSOCT images. Conventionally, the sample arm of PSOCT is fixed on the stage where biomedical tissues or models is placed, and the OCT images is acquired by scanning with a galvanometer-based mirror. To be applied in the practical diagnosis, a promising way is to design a hand-held device. To this end, it is required that probe is assembled with a small volume to allow for comprehensively imaging large tissues areas at a microscopic scale, and is available to move on different samples to be acquired quickly with negligible motion artifacts. Meanwhile, the probe should be manufactured wih well stability to avoid system jitter error while it is used to detect the biological tissues in vivo. In this work, a design of a hand-hold fiber-based PSOCT is described. The device is of the size of 10 cm (length) × 8 cm (width) × 6 cm (height). Both the axial resolution and the imaging depth of the system are measured and were approximately 7 μm and 2.5 mm in air, respectively, which are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The A-scan rate of the system is 70 kHz. The structure is compact and all the components are fixed on the shell to reduce the motion artifact, resulting in a great stability on measuring the tissues in vivo. The cross sectional images of ex vivo chicken breast, ex vivo pork cartilage and in vivo forearm skin of human wolunteer are presented to demonstrate the capability of the system.

  12. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  13. Protecting chips against hold time violations due to variability

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, Gustavo; Reis, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    With the development of Very-Deep Sub-Micron technologies, process variability is becoming increasingly important and is a very important issue in the design of complex circuits. Process variability is the statistical variation of process parameters, meaning that these parameters do not have always the same value, but become a random variable, with a given mean value and standard deviation. This effect can lead to several issues in digital circuit design.The logical consequence of this parameter variation is that circuit characteristics, as delay and power, also become random variables. Becaus

  14. The Great Firewall of China: A Critical Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiting, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Censorship has a great impact on society as we enter the cyber environment. The Chinese "Great Firewall", as it is commonly called, brings great attention to China as they enter into the global economy...

  15. 77 FR 69454 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking...

  16. 78 FR 41063 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking...

  17. 77 FR 38816 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  18. 78 FR 7430 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  19. 78 FR 37222 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  20. 75 FR 30405 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  1. 77 FR 42312 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking...

  2. 77 FR 64993 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  3. 75 FR 26961 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  4. 78 FR 17206 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  5. 77 FR 48156 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  6. 46 CFR 154.305 - Segregation of hold spaces from the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. 154.305 Section 154.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.305 Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. In vessels having cargo...

  7. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(15)-1 - Indebtedness of certain personal holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indebtedness of certain personal holding...)-1 Indebtedness of certain personal holding companies. (a) Qualified indebtedness—(1) Carryover... for any indebtedness which was qualified indebtedness (as defined in section 545(c) and § 1.545-3) in...

  8. 12 CFR 225.122 - Bank holding company ownership of mortgage companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.122 Bank holding company ownership of mortgage..., assemble credit information, make property inspections and appraisals, and secure title information. The... decide whether to make any or all of the loans requested. The company would in addition solicit investors...

  9. 76 FR 58005 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... BFHI Holdings, LLC, both in Aventura Florida, and Florida Carpenters Regional Council Pension Fund..., Assistant Vice President) 1000 Peachtree Street, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30309: 1. Trade Street Investment..., Florida, and Florida Carpenters Regional Council Pension Fund, Hialeah, Florida; to become bank holding...

  10. 78 FR 48637 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption,'' that appeared in... ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a 120...

  11. 78 FR 11611 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Period for Information Collection Provisions AGENCY..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of... ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' FOR FURTHER...

  12. Effects of Holding Methods and Time on the Vitamin Contents of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The five leafy vegetables are fair sources of thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. There were losses in the vitamins as holding time increased, regardless of the holding method employed. The rate of loss of vitamins was highest in Lot I (the unwrapped leaves that were kept in a shade both day and night). The rate of loss of vitamins ...

  13. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company, is required to include indebtedness of a corporation, wholly owned by the holding company, that... company is an “affiliate of each of the holding company's majority-owned banks as that term is defined in... part of whose premises is owned by such an affiliate, must include the affiliate's total indebtedness...

  14. 12 CFR 225.102 - Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which is not a bank holding company and is not engaged in any business other than investing in... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries. 225.102 Section 225.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  15. 75 FR 28250 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice.... Cordia Bancorp Inc., Washington, DC; to become a bank holding company through the acqusition of up to 52...

  16. 18 CFR 284.403 - Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates. 284.403 Section 284.403 Conservation of Power and Water... Pipelines § 284.403 Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates. (a) To the extent...

  17. 76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... insolvency of an insurance company.'' \\10\\ The identical definition is found in Section 380.1 of Title 12 of... definition to mutual insurance holding companies because, under applicable state laws, a mutual insurance... holding company arguably does not fit squarely within a literal reading of the statutory definition of...

  18. 76 FR 19357 - FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting, Thursday, April 7, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including large print... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting, Thursday, April 7, 2011 March 31, 2011. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open Meeting on the subjects listed...

  19. 76 FR 4110 - Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Tuesday, January 25, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including large print... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Tuesday, January 25, 2011 January 18, 2011. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open...

  20. 75 FR 62818 - Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Thursday, October 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-5563; TTY (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Thursday, October 14, 2010 October 7, 2010. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open Meeting...

  1. 77 FR 73462 - Sunshine Act Meeting FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Wednesday, December 12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... alternative media, including large print/ type; digital disk; and audio and video tape. Best Copy and Printing... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Wednesday, December 12, 2012 December 5, 2012. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open...

  2. 75 FR 22681 - Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of... collection: Title of Proposal: Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies. OMB Number: 1550... company (SLHC), the SLHC or the individual will need to apply to the OTS for an approval order for a case...

  3. 75 FR 42833 - Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies. OMB Number: 1550...

  4. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  5. A metal aerosol holding chamber devised for young children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1995-01-01

    The low tidal volume and flow in preschool children may reduce the efficiency of aerosol delivery from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) through a traditional holding chamber. A prototype small-volume steel holding chamber with two one-way valves was devised to prolong aerosol availabilit...

  6. Air Force’s Combat Aircraft: A Future Holding into the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    erector launcher (TEL) giving the ability to “shoot and scoot,” and a radar that can be ready to move in only five minutes from full operation.81 In...8X8 heavy-duty wheeled chassis truck. It has two ammunition boxes each holding 500 rounds of ammunition of which one magazine typically holds armor

  7. problems in spinning in kolfe house-hold utencil factory abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolfe House-Hold Utensil Factory in Addis Ababa, is producing different types of utensils for house-hold use from commercial aluminium. Deep drawing or/and spinning are the methods used for shaping this metal to desired shape and size, though some small parts are cast too. One of their products is kettle, which is.

  8. 26 CFR 53.4943-7 - Special rules for readjustments involving grandfathered holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in Z will represent 50% of the fair market value of the outstanding Z stock. (ii) Under the... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for readjustments involving... Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-7 Special rules for readjustments involving grandfathered holdings. (a...

  9. Audiovisual biofeedback guided breath-hold improves lung tumor position reproducibility and volume consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be used to improve the reproducibility and consistency of breath-hold lung tumor position and volume, respectively. These results may provide a pathway to achieve more accurate lung cancer radiation treatment in addition to improving various medical imaging and treatments by using breath-hold procedures.

  10. A Real-Time Holding Decision Rule Accounting for Passenger Travel Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskaris,; Cats, O.; Jenelius, E; Viti, F

    2016-01-01

    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper

  11. Heterogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italian pig finishing holdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Merialdi, G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in finishing pig holdings was carried out in Italy in 2008. MRSA isolates were characterised by spa-. SCCmec- and antimicrobial susceptibility typing. A prevalence of 38% (45/118, 95% CI 29.4-46.9%) positive holdings was observed...

  12. 12 CFR 225.141 - Operations subsidiaries of a bank holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such prohibition should apply to the formation by a holding company of a wholly-owned subsidiary to... permit without any regulatory approval a bank holding company to form a wholly-owned subsidiary to... owned subsidiary of an approved 4(c)(8) company to engage in activities that such a company could itself...

  13. 75 FR 36395 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... regulations to become a bank holding company and/or to acquire the assets or the ownership of, control of, or... Corporation, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Aliant Bank, both of Alexander City, Alabama. B... application, Sheyenne Bancorp, Inc., has also applied to become a bank holding company. Board of Governors of...

  14. 77 FR 46437 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... regulations to become a bank holding company and/or to acquire the assets or the ownership of, control of, or... Alliance Bank Corporation, Fairfax, Virginia. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (Colette A. Fried... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice...

  15. 76 FR 20350 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Georgia 30309: 1. SC Acquisition Corporation, Cullman, Alabama; to become a bank holding company by... regulations to become a bank holding company and/or to acquire the assets or the ownership of, control of, or... Financial Corporation-Hagerstown, Inc.; and Centra Bank, all located in Morgantown, West Virginia. B...

  16. 17 CFR 210.3A-05 - Special requirements as to public utility holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements § 210.3A-05 Special requirements as to public utility holding companies. There shall be shown in the consolidated balance sheet of a public utility holding company the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES...

  17. 77 FR 26585 - Steel Partners Holdings L.P.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Delaware Corporation formed in 1997 as a holding company for Rose's Stores, Inc. In 1997, WebFinancial sold... narrow financial holding company engaged in the business of banking from the time of its acquisition of... business strategy and its prospects for achieving non-investment company status by the end of the requested...

  18. 12 CFR 225.143 - Policy statement on nonvoting equity investments by bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.143 Policy statement... nonvoting in the hands of the investing company, may result in such a substantial position of leverage over... investments by bank holding companies. 225.143 Section 225.143 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  19. 12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments? 225.172 Section 225.172 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED... (REGULATION Y) Regulations Merchant Banking Investments § 225.172 What are the holding periods permitted for...

  20. 12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments? 1500.3 Section 1500.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.3 What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking...

  1. 31 CFR 401.3 - Authority of District Directors of Customs to hold in custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Authority of District Directors of Customs to hold in custody. District Directors of Customs are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of District Directors of Customs to hold in custody. 401.3 Section 401.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  2. Do social factors influence investment behavior and performance? Evidence from mutual fund holdings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, Arian; Derwall, J.M.M.; Koedijk, Kees; ter Horst, Jenke

    2015-01-01

    We study the economic significance of social dimensions in investment decisions by analyzing the holdings of U.S. equity mutual funds over the period 2004-2012. Using these holdings, we measure funds' exposures to socially sensitive stocks in order to answer two questions. What explains

  3. 26 CFR 1.1223-3 - Rules relating to the holding periods of partnership interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... publicly traded partnership (as defined under section 7704(b)) may use the actual holding period of the... partnership interests. 1.1223-3 Section 1.1223-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Losses § 1.1223-3 Rules relating to the holding periods of partnership interests. (a) In general. A...

  4. Canine epididymal spermatozoa: A hidden treasure with great potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvoni, G C; Morselli, M G

    2017-04-01

    The hidden treasure represented by epididymal spermatozoa has great potential in the current reproductive technologies in dogs. In case of azoospermia or when a donor male accidentally dies or undergoes orchiectomy, the retrieval of epididymal spermatozoa opens new possibilities to generate progeny. Spermatozoa can be collected by different techniques from ex vivo or in vivo testicles and can be cryopreserved for a future use. Freeze tolerance of canine epididymal spermatozoa seems lower than that of ejaculated spermatozoa; however, puppies were born after artificial insemination with frozen epididymal semen, other than with fresh and chilled. Even though several aspects need to be further investigated, advances have been recently made in the use of epididymal spermatozoa in assisted reproduction in dogs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. THE ARCHITECTURAL PATRONAGE AND POLITICAL PROWESS OF HEROD THE GREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian A. Laughlin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After supporting Marc Antony in the Battle of Actium (31 B.C., King Herod, fearful of losing his power, went to Rome, apologized to Augustus and assured him that he was his biggest supporter. Augustus, giving Herod an opportunity to redeem himself, allowed him to return to Judea as King of the Jews. In an effort for Herod to express his continued commitment to Rome, he reconfigured his building styles by making cities that  would depict Rome in the Levant. Herod created architecture that implemented Roman technology, designs, and styles, while co-mingling them with his existing Hellenistic style of architecture that made him forever remembered as Herod the Great.

  6. Africa's Great Green Wall Initiative: a model for restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrahmouni, Nora; Sacande, Moctar

    2014-05-01

    The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative was launched to address the increasing challenges of land degradation, desertification and drought, climate change, food insecurity and poverty in more than 20 countries. Restoration of agro-sylvo-pastoral landscapes and degraded lands is one of the priority interventions initiated, enabling the springing up of green nests of life. When complete, the Great Green Wall of Africa will reverse the seemingly unstoppable desertification and address the development of its drylands' inhabitant rural communities. Today's planting of modest seedlings will grow into vast mosaics of forest and agroforestry landscapes and grasslands, which will provide essential ecosystem goods and services, restore lost livelihoods and create new wealth. The ambition of reforestation efforts within this initiative - the like of which the world has never seen before - sounds like an impossible dream. However, learning from past mistakes and capitalising on current advancement in science and technology, it is a reality that is taking root. Following a successful restoration model that RBG Kew experts have devised, we are helping to mobilise, train and support communities in four border regions in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In collaboration with FAO, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership is using its unique expertise to ensure that seeds of environmentally well-adapted and economically useful local species are collected and planted in communal gardens and village agroforestry systems managed by the communities themselves. In our first year, an estimated total of 162,000 seedlings and 61 kg of seeds from 40 useful native species, including grasses for livestock, have been planted to cover 237 ha of farmer-managed land in 19 villages. The keen interest it has created has indicated that these figures will rise five-fold in the second year. These green bricks are the foundations of the living wall that will eventually reach across the

  7. Properties of end-expiratory breath hold responses measured with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2011-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to assess the cerebrovascular response to breath hold. We measured eight healthy subjects during voluntary end-expiratory breath hold to study inter- and intraindividual variability of the deoxy- (HbR) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) response curves for the scalp and cerebral cortex. Although cortical [HbO2] behaves qualitatively similarly in all subjects, there is large inter- and intraindividual variability, and in the case of [HbR] also qualitative variability. However, the linearity of [HbO2] increase during the breath hold has encouraging measurement repeatability, and it may even indicate an individual's CO2 tolerance. This result may help understand why breath hold duration varies between subjects more than the total [HbO2] increase during breath hold.

  8. Music reduces stress and anxiety of patients in the surgical holding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, M J; Paskin, S; Baker, T

    1994-12-01

    Many patients in the Surgical Holding Area become stressed and anxious. In a hospital setting music reduces patients' anxiety. This study determined that music can reduce the anxiety and stress of patients in the Surgical Holding Area. In this study, one group of subjects listed to music while a second group did not. Subjects who listened to music while in the Surgical Holding Area had significantly less stress and anxiety than did those who did not listen to music. Both groups spent similar lengths of time in the Surgical Holding Area. The results strongly suggest that if music were available to all patients in the Surgical Holding Area, most would select this option, and they would experience less anxiety.

  9. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  10. The Seventh Great Cosmovision: Quantum Mechanics and Conscious Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Castilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the very general and old theme, but at the same time a very current one, of differences and possible relationships between matter and spirit. It is done through the consideration of phenomena so call, «worldviews», or general interpretations of what is our world and what men do in it, which emerge periodically in humanity as a result of great discoveries and great explanatory theories on the nature of our universe, including man within him. It is suggested that we are entering the seventh «worldview» in the history of humankind and it is defined in general terms. The enhancement of humans in physiological and mental terms may be one of the concrete results of the new interpretations and technological changes that accompany them, as well as the pervasive use of Strong Artificial Intelligence, creation of humanoid robots and the construction of «spiritual Machines». More important than all this, and to what we refer especially, is the fact that the new stage of man before him, can be characterized by an increased role of spirit, consciousness, and subjectivity in the progress of our world, something to what new ideas related to Quantum Mechanics and the possibility of existence of a Conscious Universe contribute in an important manner.

  11. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  12. A Close Loop Low-Power and High Speed 130 nm CMOS Sample and Hold Circuit Based on Switched Capacitor for ADC Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Z.; Ruslan, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    A sample and hold (S/H) block is typically used as an analogue to digital interface in the analogue to digital converter (ADC) system. Since ADC is widely used in processing signals, the power consumption of the ADC must be lowered to conserve energy. Therefore the S/H circuit must be of a low powered too. Sampling phase and hold phase are the two phases of the operation cycle of the S/H circuit. Switched capacitor (SC) techniques have been developed in order to allow the integration on a single silicon chip of both digital and analogue functions. By controlling switches around the SC, the SC circuit works by passing charge into and out of a capacitor. SC circuits are suitable for on chip implementations because they replace a resistor with switches and capacitors. In this research, a closed-loop sample and hold circuit based on SC is designed and simulated with Cadence EDA tools. The schematic, layout, and simulation of the circuit is done using generic Silterra 130 nm technology file. All the analysis is done using Virtuoso Analog Design Environment. Layout and schematic are drawn using Virtuoso Schematic Editor and Virtuoso Layout Editor, Calibre is used for post layout simulation. The closed loop S/H circuit based on SC is successfully designed and able to sample and hold the analogue input waveform. The power consumption of the circuit is 0.919 mW and the propagation delay is 64.96 ps.

  13. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Great deal achieved at Cape's nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Since the civil engineering contract commenced a great deal has been achieved at Escom's Koeberg nuclear power station north of Cape Town. About 50 percent of the civil work has now been done and the entire project remains on schedule for a January 1982 start-up on nuclear reactor unit number one and a January 1983 start-up on unit two. Final handover is scheduled for January 1984. Completion of the civil works is scheduled for December 1981. The construction of the Koeberg nuclear power station is discussed, as well as the contractors for the civil engineering work

  15. [The Great Rift Valley. Parasitological results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    East Africa is separated from the continent by the Great Rift Valley which was created at the end of the secondary era limiting then the East Africa under-continent with peculiar fauna and flora features. A several million years long isolation, during the tertiary era, seems to explain that a certain number of protozoan and helminthic diseases present peculiar clinical, epidemiological, therapeutical and parasitological features. The occurrence of those peculiar strains tends to indicate that in this region, for example, the resistance of P. falciparum to amino-4-quinolines is a regional feature which should not largely expand to the rest of the African continent.

  16. Commentary. The diseases of Alexander the Great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2004-06-01

    The accompanying articles that speculate that Alexander the Great had a traumatic carotid dissection or congenital cervical scoliosis demonstrate the difficulties in retrospective diagnosis as a historical enterprise. The extant primary sources were written centuries after Alexander's death and are ambiguous in their original languages, and even more so in translation. Thus we cannot be certain what illness Alexander actually had. Furthermore, anachronistic diagnosis removes Alexander from the medical context of this time, telling us little of historical significance about him. Such investigations also illustrate the more general limits that the absence of context imposes on the study of ancient history.

  17. A Graphical Method for Great Circle Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Tien-Pen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great circle route (GCR is the shortest route on a spherical earth model. Do we have a visual diagram to handle the shortest route? In this paper, a graphical method (GM is proposed to solve the GCR problems based on the celestial meridian diagram (CMD in celestial navigation. Unlike developed algebraic methods, the GM is a geometric method. Appling computer software to graph, the GM does not use any equations but is as accurate as using algebraic methods. In addition, the GM, which emphasizes the rotational surface, can depict a GCR and judge its benefit.

  18. Muslim Women and Islamophobia in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIB, Fatima Zohra

    2016-01-01

    The principle issues of Islam have a great impact on the British society which had shared a mission of reflecting the realities of feminism before Islam. The manifestation of Islam is also considered as a proof of the best realization in the history of women rights in UK. Thus, this research investigates Muslim woman’s life by showing her social status through time and space and studying her roles in the construction of the society. We tend mainly, to focus on the way she fought for her relig...

  19. The great fear of the nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, M.H.

    2000-09-01

    The public opinion always kept complex relations with the atom, done of fascination and repulsion. Is it then correct to speak of ''great fear of nuclear''? To answer this question the author presents, in five chapters, an analysis of the relations between the public and the nuclear. The two first chapters are devoted to historical aspects with respectively a presentation of the atomic episodes and the ground traumatisms. The chapters three and four presents the fears of the nuclear policy and the civil nuclear. The last chapter deals with the the fear of the military nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  20. Small Molecules, Diversity and Great Expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small Molecules, Diversity and Great Expectations · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27.