WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology geothermal energy

  1. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  2. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  3. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.B. (ed.)

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  4. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with p...

  5. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  6. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Development of technologies for utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In verifying the effectiveness of the deep geothermal resource exploration technology, development is being carried out on a fracture-type reservoir exploration method. The seismic exploration method investigates detailed structures of underground fracture systems by using seismic waves generated on the ground surface. Verification experiments for fiscal 1994 were carried out by selecting the Kakkonda area in which small fracture networks form reservoir beds. Geothermal resources in deep sections (deeper than 2000 m with temperatures higher than 350{degree}C) are promising in terms of amount of the resources, but anticipated with difficulty in exploration and impediments in drilling. To avoid these risks, studies are being progressed on the availability of resources in deep sections, their utilization possibility, and technologies of effective exploration and drilling. This paper summarizes the results of deep resource investigations during fiscal 1994. It also describes such technological development as hot water utilizing power generation. Development is performed on a binary cycle power generation plant which pumps and utilizes hot water of 150 to 200{degree}C by using a downhole pump. The paper also reports development on element technologies for hot rock power generation systems. It also dwells on development of safe and effective drilling and production technologies for deep geothermal resources.

  8. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  9. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  10. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  11. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  12. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  13. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Robert C. [Daemen College, Amherst, NY (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  14. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  15. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  16. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  17. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low...

  18. Geothermal Technology: A Smart Way to Lower Energy Bills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahan, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Heating costs for both natural gas and oil have risen dramatically in recent years--and will likely continue to do so. Consequently, it is important that students learn not only about traditional heating technology, but also about the alternative methods that will surely grow in use in the coming years. One such method is geothermal. In this…

  19. Geothermal Technology: A Smart Way to Lower Energy Bills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahan, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Heating costs for both natural gas and oil have risen dramatically in recent years--and will likely continue to do so. Consequently, it is important that students learn not only about traditional heating technology, but also about the alternative methods that will surely grow in use in the coming years. One such method is geothermal. In this…

  20. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  1. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  2. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  3. An assessment of leadership in geothermal energy technology research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-03-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the more promising renewable energy technologies because it is environmentally benign and, unlike most renewable energy sources, can provide base power. This report provides an assessment of the research and development (R&D) work underway in geothermal energy in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. While the R&D work underway in the US exceeds the R&D efforts of the other countries, the lead is eroding. This erosion is due to reductions in federal government funding for geothermal energy R&D and the decline of the US petroleum industry. This erosion of R&D leadership is hindering commercialization of US geothermal energy products and services. In comparison, the study countries are promoting the commercialization of their geothermal energy products and services. As a result, some of these countries, in particular Japan, will probably have the largest share of the global market for geothermal energy products and services; these products and services being targeted toward the developing countries (the largest market for geothermal energy).

  4. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This paper describes a simple technology where an in situ geothermal plant assisted by a heat pump would act as a high-temperature production (>150°C to provide excellent capacity of energy generation. The issue related to costs is interestingly cheaper on production, comparing to other technologies, such as solar, hydro, wind, and traditional geothermal technology as described in this article. Therefore, it is suggested that heat pump assisted in situ geothermal energy sources has a great potentiality to be a prime energy source in near future. Since the technology has a number of positive characteristics (simple, safe, and provides continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity and benign environmental attributes (zero emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx, it certainly would be an interesting technology in both developed, and developing countries as an attractive option to produce clean energy to confirm a better environment.

  5. Technology assessment of applied techniques for exploitation of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Studies were made to elucidate the effects of technological development of natural steam and hot water on the general social and industrial environments. These were followed by studies of enhanced methods for the forecasting of these impacts. The studies included assessments of actual conditions and the preparation of regional models, ranging from rural to urban-fringe situations. The economic implications of geothermal development in various regional situations are discussed, and the models developed provide for the integration of new data and their extrapolation to as yet uncertain situations.

  6. Overview of geothermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.

    1978-05-01

    The technology of geothermal resource development includes the technologies associated with finding the resource, defining it well enough to invest in its development, plumbing it to move the heat from the earth to where it will be used, using it, and finally disposing of it. The base of earth sciences experience needed to adequately project limited data so as to discover and define a geothermal resource is growing rapidly as new resources are developed and elucidated. Technologies for moving the fluid are improving as new challenges are faced, e.g., the development of downhole pumps in order to increase flow rates from costly wells. Although a wide variety of applications of geothermal resources exist, still to be evaluated commercially are the use of binary cycles in electric power production and the possibility of using geothermal energy in the production of heavy water and in sugar milling and refining. Disposal of spent geothermal fluid underground (in contrast to surface disposal) is receiving increasing favor, both because of its greater acceptability from an environmental point of view and because of its beneficial effects on minimizing subsidence and recovering additional heat stored in rock framework of a geothermal reservoir.

  7. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  8. Geothermal energy: Technology and general studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography contains 311 citations of Government-sponsored research on geothermal energy conversion, power plants, heat extraction, and space heating. Studies on fluid flow, heat transfer, rock fracturing, environmental impacts, pressure, and reservoir engineering are included. Reports on economics, legislation, technology assessment, comparative evaluation with other energy sources, Government policies, and planning are also cited.

  9. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  10. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  11. Wellhead anti-frost technology using deep mine geothermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; He Manchao; Yang Qin; Chen Chen

    2011-01-01

    The auxiliary shaft is an important location for coal mine heating in the winter,where the main purpose of heating is to prevent icing of the shaft.Wellhead heating requires characteristics of openness,no-noise and big heat loads.The original coal-fired boiler heating mode causes significant waste of energy and environmental pollution due to the low efficiency of the heat exchange.Therefore,to solve these problems,we will use deep mine geothermal energy to heat the wellhead by making full use of its negative pressure field and design a low-temperature water and fan-free heating system.Through numerical calculations we will simulate temperature fields,pressure fields and velocity fields under different air supply temperatures,as well as different air supply outlet locations and varying number of radiators in the wellhead room of a new auxiliary shaft to find the proper layout and number of radiators that meet wellhead anti-frost requirements from our simulation results,in order to provide guidelines for a practical engineering design.Tests on the Zhangshuanglou auxiliary shaft wellhead shows good,look promising and appear to resolve successfully the problem of high energy consumption and high pollution of wellhead heating by a coal-fired boiler.

  12. Geothermal Technologies Program - Geothermal Energy: Putting Creative Ideas to Work (Green Jobs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    Rapid expansion of U.S. geothermal capacity is opening new job opportunities across the nation. With more than 3,000 megawatts (MW) already installed, the United States leads the world in existing geothermal capacity.

  13. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelacic, Allan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Fortuna, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); LaSala, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nathwani, Jay [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nix, Gerald [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Renner, Joel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruton, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  14. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    kaolinization . Deposition of silica can easily be observed in the Geysers field, where fractures of one-inch width, completely filled and sealed...by silica and calcite, are common features. Kaolinization , associated with other more complicated hydrothermal rock alteration, is also...techniques. Surface corrosion may be extremely severe in geothermal fluids containing free hydrochloric, sulphuric or hydrofluoric acid

  15. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  16. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  17. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  19. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  20. Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.

  1. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  2. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  3. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Fruit drying with geothermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-14

    Largest problem was lack of proper recording and controlling instrumentation. Agricultural products tested were green papaya powder, banana slices, and pineapple slices. Results show that a temperature of 120 F is a good drying temperature. Papaya should be mature green and not overly ripe; banana ripeness is also important; and pineapple slice thickness should be very uniform for even drying. Geothermal drying is feasible. Figs, tabs.

  4. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  5. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  6. Geothermal Energy in China: Status and Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ke; Yang Deming

    2000-01-01

    The application of geothermal energy in China has a long history. From the 70's last century, the research and development of geothermal in the world has been greatly advanced, and the Chinese geologists have finished the fundmental work for geothermal prospecting. The application technology is much behind in china. With the fast growing of national economy, the public, as well as the government recognizes the importance of clean and renewable energy, large scale development of geothermal energy is on the gate in China. This paper gives an outline of the geothermal potentials in china, and points out the problems and technical needs in the research and development in the near future.

  7. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  8. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  9. Low-Temperature Projects of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program: Evaluation and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tom; Snyder, Neil; Gosnold, Will

    2016-10-23

    This paper discusses opportunities and challenges related to the technical and economic feasibility of developing power generation from geothermal resources at temperatures of 150 degrees C and lower. Insights from projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office inform these discussions and provide the basis for some lessons learned to help guide decisions by DOE and the industry in further developing this resource. The technical basis for low-temperature geothermal energy is well established and the systems can be economic today in certain situations. However, these applications are far from a 'plug and play' product; successful development today requires a good knowledge of geothermal system design and operation.

  10. Low-Temperature Projects of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program: Evaluation and Lessons Learned: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tom; Snyder, Neil; Gosnold, Will

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses opportunities and challenges related to the technical and economic feasibility of developing power generation from geothermal resources at temperatures of 150 degrees C and lower. Insights from projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office inform these discussions and provide the basis for some lessons learned to help guide decisions by DOE and the industry in further developing this resource. The technical basis for low-temperature geothermal energy is well established and the systems can be economic today in certain situations. However, these applications are far from a 'plug and play' product; successful development today requires a good knowledge of geothermal system design and operation.

  11. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  12. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  13. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  14. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    NGC. The briefs addressed: Benefits of Geothermal Energy Common Questions about Geothermal Energy Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Energy and Economic Development Geothermal Energy: Technologies and Costs Location of Geothermal Resources Geothermal Policy Options for States Guidelines for Siting Geothermal Power Plants and Electricity Transmission Lines

  15. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  16. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  17. Geothermal energy utilisation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K. [Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU), Regensburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The following article highlights some of the outcomes derived from a survey which has been conducted by an international consortium under the auspices of the German consultancy Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU) in the frame of a cooperative action entitled 'Promotion of Geothermal Energy Utilisation in Turkey'. The project which has been carried out under the umbrella of the European Union's Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development also featured a European business forum and technical site visit about 'Geothermal Energy Opportunities in Turkey' and a site visit tour to successful European geothermal utilisation schemes aiming to foster exchange of experience and to initiate business contacts between Turkish and European market actors. Special consideration has been given to investigate the potential of geothermal electricity generation with future-oriented binary cycle processes (e.g. based on Kalina technology) specifically suitable to exploit Turkey's low temperature geothermal reservoirs. Following up the activities ZREU has entered into a co-operation scheme with e.terras AG and leading technology providers to develop high efficient European turn-key solutions for promising goethermal markets worldwide. (orig.)

  18. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  19. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  20. Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Robert P.

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pollution control technologies that may be applicable are described along with preliminary cost estimates for their application. Finally discharge and emission limitations are suggested that may serve as interim guidance for pollution control during early geothermal development.

  1. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  2. Geothermal energy. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief descriptions of geothermal projects funded through the Department of Energy during FY 1978 are presented. Each summary gives the project title, contractor name, contract number, funding level, dates, location, and name of the principal investigator, together with project highlights, which provide informaion such as objectives, strategies, and a brief project description. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal innovative technologies catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, D. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    The technology items in this report were selected on the basis of technological readiness and applicability to current technology transfer thrusts. The items include technologies that are considered to be within 2 to 3 years of being transferred. While the catalog does not profess to be entirely complete, it does represent an initial attempt at archiving innovative geothermal technologies with ample room for additions as they occur. The catalog itself is divided into five major functional areas: Exploration; Drilling, Well Completion, and Reservoir Production; Materials and Brine Chemistry; Direct Use; and Economics. Within these major divisions are sub-categories identifying specific types of technological advances: Hardware; Software; Data Base; Process/Procedure; Test Facility; and Handbook.

  4. Geoexchange technology, its advantages, potential and role in decentralised energy context : Canada's geothermal energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantrowitz, T. [Canadian GeoExchange Coalition, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The advantages and role of geothermal technology in a decentralized energy context were presented. Geoexchange refers to a system of buried pipes that carry a heat transfer fluid that either takes heat from the earth or releases heat to it. The pipes circulate the heat transfer fluid through a heat pump. The heat pump removes heat from the fluid or releases heat to the fluid depending on whether the home is being heated or cooled. Warm or cool air is distributed through a ductwork by a fan in the heat pump enclosure. This presentation included two case studies where a geoexchange system has been used in a decentralized energy context. Examples included geothermal industrial parks and a deep lake water cooling system used to heat and cool more than 130 buildings in downtown Toronto. This paper described the customer, economic and environmental advantages of geoexchange. Geoexchange offers the lowest local emissions and no concerns for flammability. It is quiet and saves usable space and possibly requires less maintenance. It can also significantly lower exposure to future variable fossil fuel costs. tabs., figs.

  5. The Potential of Geothermal as a Major Supplier of U.S. Primary Energy using EGS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well-distributed nationally. To transition from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system, we will need to expand and diversify the portfolio of options we currently have. One such option that has been undervalued and often ignored completely in national assessments is geothermal energy from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in groundsource heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. For example, a 2006 MIT-led study focused on the potential for EGS to provide 100,000 MWe of base-load electric generating capacity in the US by 2050. Since that time, a Cornell-led study has evaluated the potential for geothermal to meet the more than 25 EJ per year demand in the US for low temperature thermal energy for heating and other direct process applications Field testing of EGS in the US, Europe, and Australia is reviewed to outline what remains to be done for large-scale deployment. Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) needs in five areas important to geothermal deployment on a national scale will be reviewed: 1. Resource - estimating the magnitude and distribution of the US resource 2. Reservoir Technology - establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation 3. Utilization - exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co-generation. 4. Environmental impacts and tradeoffs -- dealing with water and land use and seismic risk and quantifying the reduction in carbon emissions with increased deployment 5. Economics - projecting costs

  6. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  7. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Noreddine Ghaffour; , Hacene Mahmoudi; Mattheus Goosen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only...

  8. Geothermal energy: an important resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, Carolyn B; Neumann, Klaus; Florea, Lee J

    2016-01-01

    .... Contributions include studies on the feasibility of integrating geological modeling with system design, extraction of low-temperature geothermal energy in underground coal mines, ground-source heat...

  9. Earthquake and Geothermal Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Surya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

  10. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  11. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  12. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  13. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  14. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  15. Geothermal project summaries. Geothermal energy research, development and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    Summaries of all Division of Geothermal Energy supported projects for which contracts have been executed are compiled. Each summary includes pertinent statistical data for that project and an abstract summarizing the project plans and accomplishments. The projects summarized fall into six categories: engineering research and development, resource exploration and assessment, hydrothermal technology applications, advanced technology applications, utilization experiments, and environmental control and institutional studies. (MHR)

  16. Project Independence. Final task force report: geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-11-01

    This report contains the final technical analysis of the Project Independence Interagency Geothermal Task Force chaired by the National Science Foundation. The potential of geothermal energy, resources, fuel cycles, and the status of geothermal technology are outlined. Some constraints inhibiting rapid and widespread utilization and some Federal actions to remove utilization barriers are described. (MOW)

  17. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  18. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  19. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  20. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, Robert John; Laney, Patrick Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  1. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  2. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  3. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  4. 2015 Annual Report - Geothermal Technologies Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    Over the past year, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) supported a number of exciting initiatives and research and development (R&D)activities! The GTO budget was increased in Fiscal Years (FY) 2015-2016, providing the opportunity to invest in new technologies and initiatives, such as the DOE-wide Subsurface Crosscut Initiative, and the Small Business Vouchers (SBV)Program, which is focused on growing our small business and national laboratory partnerships. These efforts will continue to advance geothermal as an economically competitive renewable energy.

  5. Competition and Synergy of Different Technologies in the Subsurface: A Case Study for CCS vs. Geothermal Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Juan-Lien Ramírez, Alina; Class, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the resulting turn towards renewable sources of energy lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, "renewable" methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas, and coal. The different uses of the subsurface can result in competition for the limited subsurface space, but in some cases there may also be synergetic effects, if the technologies are combined in a clever way. The idea behind this case study is to investigate the effects of a CCS site on a geothermal power plant operated in its vicinity and present both positive and negative impacts. During CCS operations large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) are injected into a storage formation. This causes a pressure increase as the brine in the formation is displaced by CO2. These elevations in pressure can have an extent of several tens of kilometers from the injection well in contrast to the much smaller extent of the CO2 plume. If geothermal power plants operate in the range influenced by pressure evaluation, this may have an impact on their performance. For example: Increased discharge of "warm" brine could be favorable for geothermal power plants as the time until thermal depletion of the reservoir may also increase Early breakthrough of the cold water front between an injection and an extraction well due to a brine discharge "pushing" the cold water front towards the extraction well may lead to a decrease in performance of the power plant Of course, there is a huge number of possible hydrogeological settings and technical configurations for geothermal power production that may be combined to an even larger number of possible scenarios. In this work however we use a simple model setup in which we incorporate and vary the parameters that we think are crucial. Only porous (not fractured

  6. Geothermal project summaries. Geothermal energy research, development, and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    The Division of Geothermal Energy ''Geothermal Project Summaries'' provides pertinent information on each active ERDA Geothermal project, includes a listing of all contractors and a compilation of completed projects. New project summaries and necessary revisions to current project data will be prepared on a quarterly basis.

  7. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  8. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  9. Energy analysis of geothermal-electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herendeen, R.A.; Plant, R.

    1979-12-01

    Standard energy analysis was applied to 4 types of geothermal-electric technologies: liquid dominated, hot dry rock, geopressure, and vapor dominated. It was found that all are net energy producers. Expected uncertainties are not large enough to threaten this conclusion. Vapor dominated, the only technology in current commercial use to produce electricity in the US, has the highest energy ratio (13 +- 4). These results for energy ratio are equal to or less than some from other workers. In the case of liquid dominated, environmental control technology has a considerable energy requirement.

  10. 76 FR 38648 - Availability of the Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Report and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Availability of the Geothermal Technologies Program Blue... Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Geothermal...

  11. 欧盟地热能源技术研发及未来发展趋势%Development of Geothermal Energy Technologies and Its Future Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勤

    2013-01-01

      欧盟地热能源技术相对成熟,但其进一步的研发创新和技术推广应用存在技术和政策屏障。当前最主要的障碍是,钻井的高成本和储量不能达到预期生产目标。排除这些障碍,将成为欧盟地热能源技术未来的研发趋势和发展方向。通过详细分析欧盟地热能源技术的研发现状、市场前景和发展趋势,旨在为中国新能源技术的可持续发展提供有益的路径和经验借鉴。%Geothermal energy technologies in the EU are relatively mature, however, their further R&D and innovation as well as technology application encounter both technology barriers and policy ones, for example, the cost of drilling is too high;its geothermal energy reserves cannot reach the expected output goals. The trends of R&D and innovation for geothermal energy technologies will be to make breakthrough in key areas of geothermal energy in the EU. This paper analyzes the R&D status, market prospect and development trends of geothermal energy technologies in the EU, hoping to provide beneficial clue and important references for the sustainable development of new energy technologies in China.

  12. 2014 Annual Report, Geothermal Technologies Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) made significant gains—increased budgets, new projects, key technology successes, and new staff. The Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget is at $55 million—roughly a 20% increase over FY 2014, and a strong vote of confidence in what the sector is doing to advance economically competitive renewable energy. GTO also remains committed to a balanced portfolio, which includes new hydrothermal development, EGS, and targeted opportunities in the low-temperature sector.

  13. A Technology Roadmap for Strategic Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziagos, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Benjamin R. [SRA International, Inc. and Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Boyd, Lauren [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Jelacic, Allan [SRA International, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Hass, Eric [U.S. DOE, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-13

    Realization of EGS development would make geothermal a significant contender in the renewable energy portfolio, on the order of 100+ GWe in the United States alone. While up to 90% of the geothermal power resource in the United States is thought to reside in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), hurdles to commercial development still remain. The Geothermal Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began in 2011 to outline opportunities for advancing EGS technologies on five- to 20-year timescales, with community input on the underlying technology needs that will guide research and ultimately determine commercial success for EGS. This report traces DOE's research investments, past and present, and ties them to these technology needs, forming the basis for an EGS Technology Roadmap to help guide future DOE research. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  14. Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of development. This abundant resource generates energy around the clock and has the potential to supply more than 100 GWe of electricity—roughly one-tenth of America’s energy demand. By optimizing the value stream for electricity production and cascaded uses, the office aims to make geothermal energy a fully cost-competitive, widely available, and geographically diverse component of the national energy mix.

  15. Geothermal Energy Program Summary Document, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal energy is derived from the internal heat of the earth. Much of it is recoverable with current or near current technology. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural applications. Three principal types of geothermal resources are exploitable through the year 2000. In order of technology readiness, these resources are: hydrothermal; geopressured (including dissolved natural gas); and hot dry rock. In hydrothermal systems, natural water circulation moves heat from deep internal sources toward the earth's surface. Geothermal fluids (water and steam) tapped by drilling can be used to generate electricity or provide direct heat. Geopressured resources, located primarily in sedimentary basins along the Gulf Coast of Texas and of Louisiana, consist of water and dissolved methane at high pressure and at moderately high temperature. In addition to recoverable methane, geopressured resources provide thermal energy and mechanical energy derived from high fluid pressures, although methane offers the greatest immediate value. Commercial development of geopressured energy may begin in the mid-1980s. Economic feasibility depends on the amount of methane that a given well can produce, a highly uncertain factor at present.

  16. United States geothermal technology: Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This document has two intended audiences. The first part, ``Geothermal Energy at a Glance,`` is intended for energy system decision makers and others who are interested in wide ranging aspects of geothermal energy resources and technology. The second part, ``Technology Specifics,`` is intended for engineers and scientists who work with such technology in more detailed ways. The glossary at the end of the document defines many of the specialized terms. A directory of US geothermal industry firms who provide goods and services for clients around the world is available on request.

  17. Developing Geothermal Energy Research Capabilities at University College Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmingway, Phil; Long, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ireland has one of the highest energy dependencies in Europe and as such must adapt quickly to increase renewable energy exploitation levels in order to secure its energy future. A mix of renewable energy technology types (wind, solar, biomass, wave, tidal, geothermal) will be required in order to achieve Ireland’s national renewable energy generation targets. Geothermal (or ground source) energy can have a part to play in this mix. Over the last number of years the School of Civil, Structura...

  18. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  19. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  20. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  1. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  2. Geothermal Energy Resource Development Reporting and Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Arnold

    1977-02-01

    A Monitoring System is described for reporting, in a timely and comprehensive fashion, the important aspects of the development and utilization of geothermal energy in the United States. The Federal program for geothermal energy addresses technological, environmental, institutional, economic and financial problems. The system for monitoring geothermal resource development has been designed to measure progress in developing geothermal energy online and progress in enabling geothermal resources for development, thereby increasing the potential for future exploitation of geothermal resources, as a consequence of successes in the Federal program in solving technological, environmental, institutional, economic and financial problems that currently impede exploitation of geothermal resources. The key indicator of progress in the development of geothermal energy will be ''power online''. Projections of power online will signal deviations from national goals with sufficient warning time to effect corrective action. Correlation of Federal programs with national progress indicators will show where corrective action is needed. Preliminary indicators of geothermal resource development, based on very limited data, are presented. The analyses are illustrative rather than definitive. Some conclusions are drawn from these analyses.

  3. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal Technologies Program 2011 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollett, Douglas [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    On June 6-10, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP or the Program) conducted its annual program peer review in Bethesda, Maryland. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the program and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future program planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  5. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  6. Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Younger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy has been harnessed for recreational uses for millennia, but only for electricity generation for a little over a century. Although geothermal is unique amongst renewables for its baseload and renewable heat provision capabilities, uptake continues to lag far behind that of solar and wind. This is mainly attributable to (i uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex. Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management—supported by robust models—and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power. Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, exploited far beyond its traditional confines in the world’s volcanic regions.

  7. Hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G.; Murphy, H.; Nunz, G.; Potter, R.

    1981-08-01

    Man-made geothermal systems are discussed which make it possible to extract heat from hot rocks in areas where natural fluids are insufficient for the development of hydrothermal energy. The location and magnitude of high- and low-temperature geothermal resources in the USA for such hot dry rock (HDR) systems are examined. An HDR concept is described in which water is injected into one of two nearly parallel wells connected at depth by man-made fractures; the injected water circulates through the fracture system, where it is heated by conduction from the hot rock, and hot fluid, which can be used for heating or for electric power generation, rises through the second well. Some heat-extraction experiments using the described concept are reviewed which are being conducted in a complex volcanic field in New Mexico. The economics of HDR energy is evaluated.

  8. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  9. Careers in Geothermal Energy: Power from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new energy resources, scientists have discovered ways to use the Earth itself as a valuable source of power. Geothermal power plants use the Earth's natural underground heat to provide clean, renewable energy. The geothermal energy industry has expanded rapidly in recent years as interest in renewable energy has grown. In 2011,…

  10. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Supplement to the technical assessment of geoscience-related research for geothermal energy technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Detailed information (e.g., project title, sponsoring organization, research area, objective status, etc.) is presented for 338 geoscience/geothermal related projects. A summary of the projects conducted by sponsoring organization is presented and an easy reference to obtain detailed information on the number and type of efforts being sponsored is presented. The projects are summarized by research area (e.g., volcanology, fluid inclusions, etc.) and an additional project cross-reference mechanism is also provided. Subsequent to the collection of the project information, a geosciences classification system was developed to categorize each project by research area (e.g., isotope geochemistry, heat flow studies) and by type of research conducted (e.g., theoretical research, modeling/simulation). A series of matrices is included that summarize, on a project-by-project basis, the research area addressed and the type of R and D conducted. In addition, a summary of the total number of projects by research area and R and D type is given.

  12. Warm water geothermal and cold energy in western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peachey, B. [New Paradigm Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)]|[Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada's low carbon futures study was discussed along with a study in which scenarios were developed for three resources, notably bitumen in carbonate reservoirs; conventional heavy oil; and warm water geothermal energy from operating oil wells. The presentation provided an overview of geothermal systems including hot dry rock; dry steam resources; hot water resources; warm water resources; and low temperature systems. A warm water geothermal study for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was also presented. Although high quality geothermal energy sources are rare in Canada, there are large warm water geothermal reservoirs, ranging in temperature from 50 to 180 degrees C in the WCSB. This presentation focused on the potential for recovery of the warm water geothermal energy already being brought to surface from the WCSB's oil wells. Several energy approaches were also presented, such as warm geothermal or produced water being used for heating an oil reservoir; using produced mechanical energy for field pumping; and producing renewable electricity from binary plants with propane. Illustrations were also provided for the organic Rankine cycle; low pump geothermal power; and no pump geothermal system. Combined geothermal and oil production were also discussed. Other topics that were presented included industrial cooling; municipal cooling; mined oilsands barriers and tailings; containment of in-situ oilsands; and rural freeze desalination. The report concluded with discussions of the Canadian minerals industry; cold Arctic construction; and ice roads in the North. It was concluded that there is potential for warm water geothermal in existing oilfield operations in Canada. tabs., figs.

  13. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  14. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  15. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...

  16. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  17. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  18. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of geothermal energy production process means the minimization of all energy losses from the reservoir conditions to the user. As the available energy is being utilized mostly in the wellbore and in the surface equipment, process optimization requires scientific access including the extraction technology parameters.Specific energy on the geothermal wellhead is calculated for two possible cases. The first embraces only geothermal water production, while the other takes into account the saturated steam production as well. Each of these working conditions defines unambiguously designed pressure on the wellhead.The steam and water energy ratio, in function of predicted sink temperature for reinjection of geothermal water, points out the possibilities for commercialization of reservoir Velika Ciglena.

  19. Preliminary Cost Estimates of Pollution Control Technologies for Geothermal Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, R.; Houser, G.; Richard, G.; Cotter, J.; Weller, P.; Pulaski, E.

    1979-10-01

    This is the first report from the EPA estimating the cost of technology for mitigating pollution that might arise from geothermal power systems. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an initial step towards the establishment of regulatory standards for the geothermal industry by preparing a document entitled Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development. This report supports that document by providing pollution control cost information. The objective of this report is to provide preliminary cost estimates for air and water pollution treatment and disposal technologies applicable for geothermal energy conversion systems. Cost estimates include both annualized capital investment and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for various levels of environmental requirements. [DJE-2005

  20. Geothermal well technology: drilling and completions program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, M.M.; Barnett, J.H.; Baker, L.E.; Varnado, S.G.; Polito, J.

    1978-03-01

    The drilling and completion portion of the long-range Geothermal Well Technology Program is presented. A nine-year program is outlined based upon an objective of reducing the cost of geothermal energy development and providing a major stimulus to meeting the power-on-line goals established by the Department of Energy. Major technological challenges to be addressed in this program include improvements in geothermal drilling fluids, downhole drilling motors, rock bits and the development of high flow rate, high temperature completion and reinjection techniques. In addition, fundamental studies will be conducted in drilling energetics to improve the understanding of drilling mechanics. This will lead to advanced development of high performance, low cost geothermal drilling systems.

  1. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P.S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. `Neofit Rilsky`, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  2. THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Renner

    2006-11-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for reevaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and welldistributed nationally. This analysis will help determine how we can enlarge and diversify the portfolio of options we should be vigorously pursuing. One such option that is often ignored is geothermal energy, produced from both conventional hydrothermal and Enhanced (or engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS). An 18-member assessment panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of EGS becoming a major supplier of primary energy for U.S. base-load generation capacity by 2050. This report documents the work of the panel at three separate levels of detail. The first is a Synopsis, which provides a brief overview of the scope, motivation, approach, major findings, and recommendations of the panel. At the second level, an Executive Summary reviews each component of the study, providing major results and findings. The third level provides full documentation in eight chapters, with each detailing the scope, approach, and results of the analysis and modeling conducted in each area.

  3. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  4. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    Experience has shown that corrosion occurring during geothermal energy utilization system downtime--shutdown corrosion--can pose a serious threat to successful operations. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal plants appears more severe than would be expected in their nongeothermal analogs, and its mitigation may pose a severe challenge to corrosion engineering personnel. This paper presents four case histories of geothermal shutdown corrosion problems. General methods of mitigation are explored.

  5. Geothermal energy in Europe; Geothermische Energie in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurter, S. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben (NLfB-GGA), Hannover (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Most European countries use some form of goethermal energy. Electric power generation is restricted to the tectonically and volcanically active areas (Iceland and the Mediterranean area). Lower enthalpy groundwaters are widely exploited in major sedimentary basins such as the North German Basin, the Paris Basin, and the Pannonian Basin. This energy is used in space and greenhouse heating, balneology and for industrial processes. The Hot-Dry-Rock technology is being developed to supply electric power from geothermal energy also in areas where groundwater supply is insufficient for current traditional power generation technology. (orig.)

  6. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  7. 2013 Geothermal Technologies Office Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    For the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), 2013 was a year of major achievements and repositioning to introduce major initiatives. Read all about our progress and successes this year, and as we look ahead, our new opportunities and initiatives.

  8. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  9. Geothermal Technologies Office 2012 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    On May 7-10, 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in Westminster, CO. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the office and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future office planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the office and to assess progress made against stated objectives. Project scoring results, expert reviewer comments, and key findings and recommendations are included in this report.

  10. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  11. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  12. Department of Energy--Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Program: Geothermal Risk Mitigation Strategies Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-02-15

    An overview of general financial issues for renewable energy investments; geothermal energy investment barriers and risks; and recommendations for incentives and instruments to be considered to stimulate investment in geothermal energy development.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  14. Geothermal energy and the production of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varet, J.

    Geothermal production of electricity, about 2,500 MW throughout the world, is considered. The types of geothermal resources are reviewed. A geothermal field can be used for the production of electricity only if the layer, a porous and permeable stock located at depths of 500 and 1500 m, is carried by a magmatic source at high temperatures. Prospecting and development of high energy geothermal energy are discussed, including feasibility studies and the construction of electric power stations. Once the existence of a field is determined, exploitation can begin, consisting of drilling, steam collecting and purifying, and the construction of turboalternator power plants. An example, the Bouillante-Guadeloupe geothermal power station, is presented. Production sites across the globe are reviewed, and electrical energy costs are discussed.

  15. Seismic characterisation for geothermal energy prospecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huck, A.; Groot, P. de; Simmelink, E.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Willemsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The city of The Hague intends to use geothermal energy to heat approx. 4000 houses in a planned urban development area called The Hague South-West. This paper describes the application of advanced seismic interpretation workflows to help positioning a geothermal doublet consisting of one injector -

  16. Seismic characterisation for geothermal energy prospecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huck, A.; Groot, P. de; Simmelink, E.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Willemsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The city of The Hague intends to use geothermal energy to heat approx. 4000 houses in a planned urban development area called The Hague South-West. This paper describes the application of advanced seismic interpretation workflows to help positioning a geothermal doublet consisting of one injector -

  17. International Legislation of Shallow Geothermal Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnlein, S.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change, energy savings and energy autonomy are frequently discussed topics. Hence, renewable energy resources are currently promoted worldwide. One of these is geothermal energy. Worldwide the number of shallow geothermal installations (review the current international legal status of thermal use of groundwater. We present the results of an international survey, which offers comprehensive insight in the worldwide legal situation of closed and open systems of shallow geothermal installations. The focus is on minimum distances of these systems and limits for groundwater temperature changes. We can conclude that there are only few regulations and recommendations for minimum distances of these installations and groundwater temperature changes. Some countries have no regulations and in addition if recommendations are given, these are not legally binding. However, to promote shallow geothermal energy as an economically attractive and sustainable energy source, an international homogeneous legislation is necessary.

  18. Bibliography: injection technology applicable to geothermal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnell, A.J.; Eichelberger, R.L.

    1982-03-19

    This bibliography cites 500 documents that may be helpful in planning, analysis, research, and development of the various aspects of injection technology in geothermal applications. These documents include results from government research; development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected references from the literature; symposia; references from various technical societies and installations; reference books; reviews; and other selected material. The cited references are from (1) subject searching, using indexing, storage, and retrieval information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center's on-line retrieval system, RECON; (2) searches of references from the RECON data base, of work by authors known to be active in the field of geothermal energy research and development; (3) subject and author searches by the computerized data storage and retrieval system of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; and (4) selected references from texts and reviews on this subject. Each citation includes title, author, author affiliation, date of publication, and source. The citations are listed in chronological order (most recent first) in each of the subject categories for which this search was made. The RECON accession number is also given.

  19. Program in geothermal well technology directed toward achieving DOE/DGE power-on-line goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, J.; Varnado, S.G.

    1978-10-01

    This document presents the material used in an oral presentation to the DOE/Division of Geothermal Energy, which was designed to illustrate the importance of well technology development in reducing geothermal well costs, and to achieve geothermal power-on-line goals. Examination of recent studies of the economics of geothermal energy leads to the conclusion that the overall sensitivity of geothermal power-on-line to well cost is in the range of one to two. Current data suggest that a vigorous R and D program in rotary drilling technology can reduce geothermal drilling costs by about 20%, but a reduction of 40 to 50% is needed to achieve DOE/DGE goals. Research in advanced drilling systems is needed to satisfy this more stringent requirement. Some critical technological deficiencies that occur when current rotary drilling techniques are used for geothermal drilling are discussed. A broadly based development program directed at correcting these deficiencies is defined.

  20. Geothermal energy systems. Exploration, development, and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenges, Ernst (ed.) [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Presenting boundary conditions for the economic and environmental utilization of geothermal technology, this is the first book to provide basic knowledge on the topic in such detail. The editor is the coordinator of the European Geothermic Research Initiative, while the authors are experts for the various geological situations in Europe with high temperature reservoirs in shallow and deep horizons. With its perspectives for R and D in geothermic technology concluding each chapter, this ready reference will be of great value to scientists and decision-makers in research and politics, as well as those giving courses in petroleum engineering, for example. (orig.)

  1. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  2. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. Symposium in the field of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Miguel; Mock, John E.

    1989-04-01

    Mexico and the US are nations with abundant sources of geothermal energy, and both countries have progressed rapidly in developing their more accessible resources. For example, Mexico has developed over 600 MWe at Cerro Prieto, while US developers have brought in over 2000 MWe at the Geysers. These successes, however, are only a prologue to an exciting future. All forms of energy face technical and economic barriers that must be overcome if the resources are to play a significant role in satisfying national energy needs. Geothermal energy--except for the very highest grade resources--face a number of barriers, which must be surmounted through research and development. Sharing a common interest in solving the problems that impede the rapid utilization of geothermal energy, Mexico and the US agreed to exchange information and participate in joint research. An excellent example of this close and continuing collaboration is the geothermal research program conducted under the auspices of the 3-year agreement signed on April 7, 1986 by the US DOE and the Mexican Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The major objectives of this bilateral agreement are: (1) to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary and fractured igneous rocks; (2) to investigate how the geothermal resources of both nations can best be explored and utilized; and (3) to exchange information on geothermal topics of mutual interest.

  4. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  6. Regulation of geothermal energy development in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Forman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The regulatory system is presented in a format to help guide geothermal energy development. State, local, and federal agencies, legislation, and regulations are presented. Information sources are listed. (MHR)

  7. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D. V.

    1992-07-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  8. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-09-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  9. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  10. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armani F. B.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the first European and world’s fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  11. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim, Nichols [Truckee Meadows Community College, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  12. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  13. Geothermal energy in California: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, O.; Davis, C.; Fredrickson, C.; Granit, R.; Kerrisk, D.; Leibowitz, L.; Schulkin, B.; Wornack, J.

    1976-06-30

    The potential for electric energy from geothermal resources in California is currently estimated to be equivalent to the output from 14 to 21 large (1000 MW) central station power plants. In addition, since over 30 California cities are located near potential geothermal resources, the non-electric applications of geothermal heat (industrial, agriculture, space heating, etc.) could be enormous. Therefore, the full-scale utilization of geothermal resources would have a major impact upon the energy picture of the state. This report presents a summary of the existing status of geothermal energy development in the state of California as of the early part of 1976. The report provides data on the extent of the resource base of the state and the present outlook for its utilization. It identifies the existing local, state, and federal laws, rules and regulations governing geothermal energy development and the responsibilities of each of the regulatory agencies involved. It also presents the differences in the development requirements among several counties and between California and its neighboring states. Finally, it describes on-going and planned activities in resource assessment and exploration, utilization, and research and development. Separate abstracts are prepared for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) for Sections II--VI and the three Appendixes.

  14. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  15. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Philip; Polsky, Yarom; Anovitz, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or "engineered" within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  16. Environmental advantages to the utilization of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, P. [EGS Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a technically-proven, cost effective source of electrical and thermal energy that has been utilized for many decades. recent estimates indicate that over 6700 MWe and 8200 MWt are currently developed throughout the world. This paper discusses the specific environmental advantages to the development of geothermal electrical power and direct use projects and demonstrates how environmental impacts can be easily mitigated using existing technologies. In the areas of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} emissions, land disturbance per MWe and disposal of waste products, geothermal energy has significantly fewer impacts than most other energy sources, particularly conventional fossil and nuclear fuels. Examples are sited where goethermal developments have occurred in pristine areas with no significant impacts and even offering the opportunity for improving environmental conditions. (author)

  17. Geothermal energy and heat storage in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewalts, W.P.G.; Geluk, M.C.; Heederik, J.P.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Mourik, G.J. van; Postma, A.D.; Snijders, A.L.; Walter, F.; Willemsen, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the first energy crisis in 1973 various research programmes to do with energy conservation and diversification of energy resources were set up in the Netherlands. A number of these were directed to the rest of the subsoil for the following purposes: - the extraction of geothermal energy from g

  18. Geothermal energy and heat storage in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewalts, W.P.G.; Geluk, M.C.; Heederik, J.P.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Mourik, G.J. van; Postma, A.D.; Snijders, A.L.; Walter, F.; Willemsen, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the first energy crisis in 1973 various research programmes to do with energy conservation and diversification of energy resources were set up in the Netherlands. A number of these were directed to the rest of the subsoil for the following purposes: - the extraction of geothermal energy from

  19. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  20. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  1. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  2. Basic research needed for the development of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, R.L.; Riecker, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Basic research needed to facilitate development of geothermal energy is identified. An attempt has been made to make the report representative of the ideas of productive workers in the field. The present state of knowledge of geothermal energy is presented and then specific recommendations for further research, with status and priorities, are listed. Discussion is limited to a small number of applicable concepts, namely: origin of geothermal flux; transport of geothermal energy; geothermal reservoirs; rock-water interactions, and geophysical and geochemical exploration.

  3. Geothermal. Efficient energy store; Geothermie. Der effiziente Energiespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, Rolf; Clauss, Frithjof; Waberseck, Thomas; Wagner, Isabel [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. und Versuchsanstalt fuer Geotechnik

    2011-07-01

    Storage of thermal energy in surface-level geothermal strata is getting increasing attention. The technology makes use of the seasonal difference between energy demand in winter and excess energy supply in summer. The main problem is the calculation of the thermal energy storage capacity of the underground strata. The contribution presents methods for this and describes their practical application during construction of the high-rise project 'PalaisQuartier' at Frankfurt/Main.

  4. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States, Sensitivity analysis-cost of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S.M.; Kroll, P.; Nilo, B.

    1982-12-01

    The Geothermal Resources Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model is a computer code designed to estimate the costs of geothermal energy systems. The interactive program allows the user to vary resource, demand, and financial parameters to observe their effects on delivered costs of direct-use geothermal energy. Due to the large number and interdependent nature of the variables that influence these costs, the variables can be handled practically only through computer modeling. This report documents a sensitivity analysis of the cost of direct-use geothermal energy where each major element is varied to measure the responsiveness of cost to changes in that element. It is hoped that this analysis will assist those persons interested in geothermal energy to understand the most significant cost element as well as those individuals interested in using the GRITS program in the future.

  5. Review of geothermal energy resources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Zaigham, Nayyer [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Alam Nayyar, Zeeshan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Hisamuddin, Noushaba [422 Wycliffe, Irvine, CA 92602 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports of hydrocarbon products to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional and as well non-conventional. Many of them have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Geothermal energy is one of them. Pakistan can be benefited by harnessing the geothermal option of energy generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. Most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world are within the seismic belts associated with zones of crustal weakness like the seismo-tectonic belt that passes through Pakistan having inherited a long geological history of geotectonic events. The present study of the geotectonic framework suggests that Pakistan should not be lacking in commercially exploitable sources of geothermal energy. This view is further strengthened by (a) the fairly extensive development of alteration zones and fumeroles in many regions of Pakistan, (b) the presence of a fairly large number of hot springs in different parts of the country, and (c) the indications of Quaternary volcanism associated with the Chagai arc extending into Iran and Afghanistan border areas. These manifestations of geothermal energy are found within three geotectonic or geothermal environments, i.e., (1) geo-pressurized systems related to basin subsidence, (2) seismo-tectonic or suture-related systems, and (3) systems related to Neogene-Quaternary volcanism. A few localities, scattered sporadically all over the country, have been studied to evaluate only some of the basic characteristic parameters of the geothermal prospects. The present review study the geothermal activities of varying intensity and

  6. 2016 Geothermal Technologies Office Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-01

    This report highlights project successes and continued efforts in all of our program areas – EGS, Hydrothermal, Low-Temperature, and Systems Analysis – which are flanked by useful tools and resources and links to more information. Such highlights include FORGE and EGS successes, projects reducing geothermal costs and risks, and advancements in technology research and development.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of January 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=geo_heat.pr_crit_geo_heat_pumps

  8. Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, Bernie [CHSR,LLC Owner

    2013-05-31

    The primary objective for the Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project is to provide another source of base-load renewable energy in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). To accomplish this, Chena Hot Springs Resort (Chena) drilled a re-injection well to 2700 feet and a production well to 2500 feet. The re-injection well allows a greater flow of water to directly replace the water removed from the warmest fractures in the geothermal reservoir. The new production will provide access to warmer temperature water in greater quantities.

  9. The Value of CO2-Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage to Reducing CO2 Emissions Compared to Conventional Bulk Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland-Hand, J.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary basin geothermal resources and CO2 that is captured from large point sources can be used for bulk energy storage (BES) in order to accommodate higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy resources. Excess energy is stored by pressurizing and injecting CO2 into deep, porous, and permeable aquifers that are ubiquitous throughout the United States. When electricity demand exceeds supply, some of the pressurized and geothermally-heated CO2 can be produced and used to generate electricity. This CO2-BES approach reduces CO2 emissions directly by storing CO2 and indirectly by using some of that CO2 to time-shift over-generation and displace CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants that would have otherwise provided electricity. As such, CO2-BES may create more value to regional electricity systems than conventional pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) or compressed air energy storage (CAES) approaches that may only create value by time-shifting energy and indirectly reducing CO2 emissions. We developed and implemented a method to estimate the value that BES has to reducing CO2 emissions from regional electricity systems. The method minimizes the dispatch of electricity system components to meet exogenous demand subject to various CO2 prices, so that the value of CO2 emissions reductions can be estimated. We applied this method to estimate the performance and value of CO2-BES, PHES, and CAES within real data for electricity systems in California and Texas over the course of a full year to account for seasonal fluctuations in electricity demand and variable renewable resource availability. Our results suggest that the value of CO2-BES to reducing CO2 emissions may be as much as twice that of PHES or CAES and thus CO2-BES may be a more favorable approach to energy storage in regional electricity systems, especially those where the topography is not amenable to PHES or the subsurface is not amenable to CAES.

  10. Technology for the Utilization of Deep Geothermal Reservoirs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geothermal Technology Program at GFZ identify suitable geological structures and horizons for extracting energy and develop new methods to increase the productivity of deep geothermal reservoirs. In this context, the former gas exploration well Groß Schönebeck EGrSk3/90 (50 km northeast of Berlin was reopened and deepened to the 4309 m depth to serve as a geothermal in situ laboratory for testing stimulation concepts. The objective of these stimulation operations was to create secondary flow paths and to improve the inflow performance of the well.In addition, Groß Schönebeck is the only test site of the EU-project I-GET (Integrated Geophysical Exploration Technologies for deep fractured geothermal systems, where new, cost-effective and reliable geothermal exploration techniques are developed to increase the success rate of drilling.Based on the data of deep neighbouring wells and the industry seismic measurements, a model was generated to visualise the geological setting and to plan the course of the second well. The well encounters a typical sequence of various geological formations, known in the North German Basin. A series of 2370 m of Quaternary to Triassic sediments is underlain by 1492 m of Zechstein salts, and the following section of this well, which was foreseen for testing, comprises 400 m of Rotliegend formation (siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and 60 m of underlying volcanic rocks down to the final depth of 4309 m.The well Groß Schönebeck makes the deep sedimentary Rotliegend reservoir accessible, which is characterized by water bearing porous and fractured rocks. The Rotliegend reservoir consists of a sequence of sandstones, conglomerates, and volcanic rocks with formation fluids of 150 °C at porosities of up to 10 %. Experiments in this in-situ geothermal laboratory should lead to a reliable technology for a sufficient production of deep fluids in such reservoirs.

  11. Innovation versus monopoly: geothermal energy in the West. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.L.; Stover, D.F.; Nelson, P.A.; Lamont, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The following subjects are covered: geothermal energy and its use, electric utilities and the climate for geothermal development, the raw fuels industry and geothermal energy, and government and energy. The role of large petroleum companies and large public utilities is emphasized. (MHR)

  12. Geothermal Technology Development Program. Annual progress report, October 1983-September 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program. The work reported is sponsored by the Department of Energy/Geothermal Hydropower Technology Division (DOE/GHTD), with program management provided by Sandia National Laboratories. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, diagnostics technology, and permeability enhancement. 102 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Program Review - Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program; Including a Report of the Reservoir Engineering Technical Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Dennis L., ed.

    1979-12-01

    In 1978, The Division of Geothermal Energy of the Department of Energy established the Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program. The purpose of this program is to ''provide assistance to the Nation's industrial community by helping to remove technical and associated economic barriers which presently inhibit efforts to bring geothermal electric power production and direct heat application on line''. In the near term this involves the adaptation of exploration and assessment techniques from the mineral and petroleum industry to geothermal applications. In the near to far term it involves the development of new technology which will improve the cost effectiveness of geothermal exploration.

  14. Geothermal energy. Robust and reliable; Geothermie. Robuust en betrouwbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrauwen, A. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Geothermal energy is a sustainable technique that uses heat from the earth to heat buildings or greenhouses. The heat originates from deep hot water sources (60C and higher) two kilometers below surface. Production facilities are not required because the energy in the hot water can be converted relatively easily. The technique is robust and reliable. Unlike other renewable energy technologies weather conditions do not have an impact on the supply of energy from a geothermal source [Dutch] Geothermie is een duurzame techniek die warmte uit de aarde gebruikt om gebouwen of kassen te verwarmen. De warmte is afkomstig uit diepe warmwaterbronnen (60C en hoger) die zich twee kilometer onder de oppervlakte bevinden. Productiefaciliteiten zijn overbodig omdat de in het warme water aanwezige energie relatief eenvoudig kan worden omgezet. De techniek is robuust en betrouwbaar. In tegenstelling tot andere duurzame technieken beinvloeden weersomstandigheden de energielevering uit een geothermische bron niet.

  15. Industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy is currently limited by the limited knowledge of the resource's distribution. However, the resource assessment activity in the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, has identified a number of fairway or potential resource zones. These zones are located in Kenedy County; in and about Corpus Christi and Nueces Bays in Nueces, San Patricio, and Aransas Counties; in the coastal zones of Matagorda County; and in a crescent-shaped zone parallel to the coastline in Brazoria and Galveston Counties. The Kenedy and Matagorda County zones are situated in rural areas with little or no industrial activity. The Corpus Christi and Brazoria-Galveston zones are in and adjacent to highly industrialized and urbanized districts. The rural zones will require the establishment of new industries for geothermal fluid utilization while the industrial-urban zones will require either new industry, expansion to existing industry, or modification to existing plant and process. Proposed industries for geothermal fluid utilization can be considered with respect to fitting the industry to the available fluids; this has been the usual approach. An alternate approach is to fit the abailable fluids to the proposed industry. In order to follow the alternate approach requires consideration of ways to upgrade the quality of existing geothermal fluids or geothermal-derived or -energized fluids.

  16. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real

  18. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  19. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a technical handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This technical handbook includes comprehensive discussions on nature and occurrence of the geothermal resource, its development, utilization, economics, financing, and regulation. Information on pricing parameters for the direct use of geothermal energy is included as an appendix. (MRH)

  20. 5{sup th} international geothermal conference. Conference volume. Risk management, financing, power plant technology, EGS/HFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jochen; Hoffmann, Nadine; Brian, Marcus (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the 5th International Geothermal Conference at 27th to 28th April, 2009, in Freiburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Worldwide development of geothermal energy (Ladislaus Rypach); (b) Geothermal developments and applications in Turkey (Orhan Mertoglu); (c) Guermat Elektrik: Turkish experiences in geothermal financings (John F. Wolfe); (d) Geothermal exploration success: Using data and best practices from the oil and gas industry (Jan-Diederik van Wees); (e) Implementing geothermal power projects - risk management and financing from the investor's point of view (Christian Jokiel); (f) Risks and risk mitigation in the Upper Rhine Graben geothermal province (Christian Hecht); (g) The Soultz geothermal plant: from the concept to the first geothermal kWh (Albert Genter); (h) Binary power plant technologies for geothermal power generation (Kathrin Rohloff); (i) Kalina power plants - 10 years of operational experience (Gestur R. Bardarson); (j) 1,200 MW experience with innovative geothermal power plants (Hilel Legmann); (k) Challenges of managing geothermal power plant projects (Norbert Hartlieb); (l) Requirements for geothermal power plants (Athanasios Tsoubaklis); (m) Credit programme on productivity risk in deep geothermal projects (Karin Freier, Peter Hasenbein, Stephan Jacob); (n) Geothermal projects in the light of the financial crisis (Thomas G. Engelmann); (o) Insurability of geothermal projects (Matthias Kliesch); (p) Requirements for equity investors to finance a geothermal project (Thoma G. Engelmann); (q) Aspects of project development from an investor's perspective (Bernhard Gubo); (r) Project requirements and challenges in geothermal projects (Olaf Heil); (s) The 'quest' for appropriate locations for HFR projects in Southern Germany (Wolfgang Bauer); (t) Status of the Soultz geothermal power plant and the deep reservoir after some months of circulation (Albert Genter); (u) Hot

  1. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  2. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  3. Geothermal energy market potential in industrial processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.J.; Hanny, J.A.; Knuth, W.H.

    1978-11-01

    Geothermal energy is currently being used for a number of industrial processes in countries throughout the world. Its application in the United States is mainly limited to space heating even though the temperature of the geothermal fluid is sufficient for process uses, and could be sold at attractive prices while maintaining a high return on investment. The temperature span for industrial use ranges from 40 to 275/sup 0/C, thus encompassing both the abundant low temperature and the less available high temperature resources. Hydrothermal fluids can be used either directly or indirectly dependent upon fluid quality and process needs. The barriers facing hydrothermal industrial process development are (a) the development infrastructure does not exist, (b) energy users are not aware of hydrothermal energy and its advantages, (c) federal incentives are limited, (d) resources are not fully defined.

  4. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program (The Program). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC, in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE).

  5. Feasibility study and energy efficiency estimation of geothermal power station based on medium enthalpy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .

  6. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Geothermal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  7. 75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Notice of the Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy... the Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop. SUMMARY: The DOE Geothermal....geothermal.energy.gov . DATES: The Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop will...

  8. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  9. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  10. Geothermal Energy Databook for the Western United States (Draft Copy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Tavana, M.; Leung, K.; Schwartz, S.R.

    1979-06-01

    The National Geothermal Information Resource (GRID) project of the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory was initiated in 1974 with the objective of compiling both basic and site-specific data on major aspects of geothermal energy utilization. During the past ten years much progress has been made in the United States to develop geothermal energy and to construct power plants. Current electrical power produced is 608 MWe at The Geysers in California which obtains steam to drive turbines from steam wells. However, the major new sources of geothermal energy in the next decade are expected to be hot brine systems located in the Western United States. Data on the power potential and progress toward utilization is needed for these new areas to identify impediments to utilization and to forecast power on-line in the next decades. However, the data is widely scattered and largely unevaluated, thereby impeding the analysis for predictions of power production in the decades 1980, 1990, and beyond the year 2000. The objective of this work is to provide a single, comprehensive database containing evaluated reference data useful in assessing geothermal sites for their potential to produce electrical power. The compilation and evaluation constitute a databook of current information for plant construction, modeling, research and development for conversion of geothermal energy to electric power production. The result of this work include identification of areas where data are lacking or are inadequate and where technology development is needed. The interest in site-specific data stems from two important concerns: (1) forecasts of power production related to local, state, and national goals, for example, the second report on geothermal energy by the Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council which contains forecasts for power on-line to the year 2000 and beyond, and (2) the assessment of each site to produce power in an economic manner for a 20 to 30-year time period. The currently

  11. A study of geothermal drilling and the production of electricity from geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the production of electricity from geothermal energy with particular emphasis on the drilling of geothermal wells. A brief history of the industry, including the influence of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, is given. Demand and supply of electricity in the United States are touched briefly. The results of a number of recent analytical studies of the cost of producing electricity are discussed, as are comparisons of recent power purchase agreements in the state of Nevada. Both the costs of producing electricity from geothermal energy and the costs of drilling geothermal wells are analyzed. The major factors resulting in increased cost of geothermal drilling, when compared to oil and gas drilling, are discussed. A summary of a series of interviews with individuals representing many aspects of the production of electricity from geothermal energy is given in the appendices. Finally, the implications of these studies are given, conclusions are presented, and program recommendations are made.

  12. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  13. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Benjamin R. [SRA International Inc. and Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ziagos, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Hass, Eric [Geothermal Technologies Office, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-13

    Characterizing productive geothermal systems is challenging yet critical to identify and develop an estimated 30 gigawatts electric (GWe) of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western U.S. This paper, undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), summarizes needs and technical pathways that target the key geothermal signatures of temperature, permeability, and fluid content, and develops the time evolution of these pathways, tying in past and current GTO exploration Research and Development (R&D) projects. Beginning on a five-year timescale and projecting out to 2030, the paper assesses technologies that could accelerate the confirmation of 30 GWe. The resulting structure forms the basis for a Geothermal Exploration Technologies Roadmap, a strategic development plan to help guide GTO R&D investments that will lower the risk and cost of geothermal prospect identification. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  14. 2013 Geothermal Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geothermal Technologies Office

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in April of 2013. The review provided an independent, expert evaluation of the technical progress and merit of GTO-funded projects. Further, the review was a forum for feedback and recommendations on future GTO strategic planning. During the course of the peer review, DOE-funded projects were evaluated for 1) their contribution to the mission and goals of the GTO and 2) their progress against stated project objectives. Principal Investigators (PIs) came together in sessions organized by topic “tracks” to disseminate information, progress, and results to a panel of independent experts as well as attendees.

  15. Geothermal energy plants. Technologies and risk of soil and groundwater pollution; Jordvarmeanlaeg. Teknologier og risiko for jord- og grundvandsforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villumsen, B. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    Ground source heat systems utilise the natural heat in the ground to heat houses and domestic hot water. The technology is energy-saving and can therefore contribute to the targets of reducing Denmark's CO{sub 2} emissions. All else being equal, a ground source heat system containing chemicals poses a potential contamination risk to soil and groundwater. Therefore a permit is required when installing a ground source heat system, and the general regulations for implementing the system etc. combined with the municipality's administrative procedures for the area must ensure sufficient protection of the groundwater. This project only deals with the heat exchanging system, which is the part of the ground source heat system which involves risk of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of the project is to procure an overall updated knowledge base about the different types of ground source heat systems and the contamination risk associated with them. The project also reviews how disadvantages can be managed or minimized. (au)

  16. Application of Ultra-long Electromagnetic Wave Technology to Exploration of Urban Geothermal Energy Sources: An Example in the Laoyachen Geothermal Field%超长电磁波技术在城市地热资源勘察中的应用-以郑州市老鸦陈地热田为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢山立; 袁广祥

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical technology plays a critical role in exploration of the geothermal energy sources, especially in cities. In this study, we utilized the ultra-long electromagnetic wave technology to explore urban geothermal resources in the Laoyachen geothermal field, Zhengzhou City.. We defined standard curves of strata and geothermal anomalies for ultra-long electromagnetic waves based on the three known drill boreholes, and established 10 sta- tions according to the geology in Zhengzhou. Then, we interpreted the strata, faults and geothermal anomalies on each station based on the standard curves. The results of the exploration by the ultra-long electromagnetic wave method suggest that there are three types of geothermal reservoirs in the Laoy- achen geothermal field: geothermal water in the shallow basement rock in the southwest, geothermal water above top of basement rock and hot water in deep basement rock.%在进行地热资源勘察中,地球物理方法是很重要的,尤其是在城市中。以郑州市老鸦陈地热田为例,利用超长电磁波技术进行城市地热资源的勘察。首先根据已有的钻孔,建立地层和热储异常解释的标志曲线;其次,根据郑州的地质条件,布置10个测点;最后,根据标志曲线,对各测点的地层、断层和热储异常进行解释。勘察结果表明,郑州地热田主要由三种类型:西南浅部基岩中的地热水、基岩顶面以上地热水、深部基岩中的地热水。

  17. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  18. Geoplat-Spanish Geothermal technology platform-; Geoplat-Plataforma Tecnologica Espanola de Geotermia-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorio, M. de

    2009-07-01

    It was recently created the Spanish Geothermal Technology Platform-GEOPLAT- to provide a framework within, all sectors involved in the development of geothermal energy, leading the industry, work together in a coordinated way to ensure the commercial settlement of this renewable energy and its continuous growth, in a competitive and sustainable form. Its main objectives and structure are briefly described in the paper. (Author)

  19. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  20. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect ov

  1. Geothermal energy potential in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The background of the area itself is investigated considering the geography, population, economy, attitudes of residents, and energy demands of the area. The requirements for geothermal energy development are considered, including socio-economic, institutional, and environmental conditions as well as some technical aspects. The current, proposed, and potential geothermal energy developments are described. The summary, conclusions, and methodology are included. (MHR)

  2. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  3. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  4. Status in quo and future of geothermal energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiuhua; Zhao Jun; Du Limeng

    2011-01-01

    Energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction are critical tasks currently, and great effort has been made by Chinese government. Renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions and reduction plan in China are introduced in this paper. Analysis is also made on present status and prospect of geothermal power generation and direct use in China respectively. Now, there is a new understanding of geothermal resources, and hot dry rock, considered as the future of geothermal resources, is likely used to generate electricity.

  5. Using Geothermal Energy for Raffine Heating in Copper Production

    OpenAIRE

    Arnar Freyr Sigmundsson 1985

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of using geothermal energy for heating raffine (raffinate) solution in the process of copper production. Small-scale experiments have indicated that copper extraction levels can be improved significantly by adding heat to the solution. Two thermal energy sources were considered, namely the cooling water sourced from an adjacent geothermal power plant and low-temperature geothermal brine produced in the vicinity of the mine. These two alternati...

  6. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  7. Geothermal energy from theoretical models to exploration and development

    CERN Document Server

    Stober, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The internal heat of the planet Earth represents an inexhaustible reservoir of thermal energy. This form of energy, known as geothermal energy has been utilized throughout human history in the form of hot water from hot springs. Modern utilization of geothermal energy includes direct use of the heat and its conversion to other forms of energy, mainly electricity. Geothermal energy is a form of renewable energy and its use is associated with very little or no CO2-emissions and its importance as an energy source has greatly increased as the effects of climate change become more prominent. Becaus

  8. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  9. NEDO geothermal energy subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO chinetsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Reporting on geothermal energy-related efforts, Taro Yamayasu, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, explains the promotion of researches on geothermal energy exploitation, researches on small and medium scale geothermal binary power system utilization, researches on geothermal exploration technology verification, and joint researches on small scale geothermal exploration on remote islands. Achievement reports are delivered concerning geothermal survey technology verification involving the development of reservoir fluctuation probing technology, deep-seated geothermal resources survey, and international joint projects. Concerning the research cooperation promotion project, a joint research program is reported involving a comprehensive geothermal resources analysis system for a remote island in the eastern part of Indonesia. In relation with the development of thermal water power plants, reports are delivered on the development of a 10MW class demonstration plant, development of technologies (study of elements) for a hot dry rock power system, development of a hole bottom data detection system for drilling in thermal water, and the development of deep-seated geothermal resources sampling technologies. (NEDO)

  10. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  11. GEOTHERM, a programme for enhanced utilisation of geothermal energy; GEOTHERM: Programm zur Foerderung der Nutzung geothermischer Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Ochmann, N. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    GEOTHERM is a programme for enhancing the utilisation of geothermal energy in developing countries, funded by the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and carried out by the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hanover. Project partners can be geological services, energy ministries or private or state-owned utilities. The project started in 2003. First, promising countries were contacted according to a catalogue of criteria, eight of which have since then submitted a detailed project application. Suggested projects included feasibility studies of geothermal sites, training, support in introducing legislation on geothermal energy, economic efficiency investigations and environmental impact statements and, of course, detailed geoscientific analyses of projected sites. The first countries to receive support were Kenia, Uganda and Eritrea. The work carried out in these countries comprised pre-feasibility studies, site ranking, and training of two scientists at the UN university in Iceland (UNU-GTP). Further countries will be supported in the second project phase from 2005, with the focus on East Africa because of the intended cooperation with the UNEP-initiated African Rift Geothermal Development Facility (ARGeo) which will make it possible to use synergy effects. (orig.) [German] GEOTHERM ist ein Programm zur Foerderung der Nutzung von geothermischer Energie in Entwicklungslaendern. Die Mittel werden vom Bundesministerium fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ) zur Verfuegung gestellt. Durchgefuehrt wird das Programm von der Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) in Hannover. Projektpartner koennen Geologische Dienste, Energieministerien oder private sowie staatliche Energieversorgungsunternehmen sein. Zu Beginn der Projektlaufzeit im Jahre 2003 wurden entsprechend einem Kriterienkatalog aussichtsreiche Laender kontaktiert und acht dieser Laender haben daraufhin einen detaillierten

  12. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  13. Deep Geothermal Energy for Lower Saxony (North Germany) - Combined Investigations of Geothermal Reservoir Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Barbara; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, successful deep geothermal projects are mainly situated in Southern Germany in the Molassebecken, furthermore in the Upper Rhine Graben and, to a minor extend, in the North German Basin. Mostly they are hydrothermal projects with the aim of heat production. In a few cases, they are also constructed for the generation of electricity. In the North German Basin temperature gradients are moderate. Therefore, deep drilling of several thousand meters is necessary to reach temperatures high enough for electricity production. However, the porosity of the sedimentary rocks is not sufficient for hydrothermal projects, so that natural fracture zones have to be used or the rocks must be hydraulically stimulated. In order to make deep geothermal projects in Lower Saxony (Northern Germany) economically more attractive, the interdisciplinary research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo) was initiated in 2009. It comprises four focus areas: Geosystem, Drilling Technology, Materials and Technical System and aims at improving exploration of the geothermal reservoir, reducing costs of drilling and optimizing exploitation. Here we want to give an overview of results of the focus area "Geosystem" which investigates geological, geophysical, geochemical and modeling aspects of the geothermal reservoir. Geological and rock mechanical investigations in quarrys and core samples give a comprehensive overview on rock properties and fracture zone characteristics in sandstones and carbonates. We also show that it is possible to transfer results of rock property measurements from quarry samples to core samples or to in situ conditions by use of empirical relations. Geophysical prospecting methods were tested near the surface in a North German Graben system. We aim at transferring the results to the prospection of deep situated fracture zones. The comparison of P- and S-wave measurements shows that we can get hints on a possible fluid content of the

  14. Basic research needs in seven energy-related technologies, conservation, conversion, transmission and storage, environmental fission, fossil, geothermal, and solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This volume comprises seven studies performed by seven groups at seven national laboratories. The laboratories were selected because of their assigned lead roles in research pertaining to the respective technologies. Researches were requested to solicit views of other workers in the fields.

  15. Geothermal energy - Energy potential under our feet; Geothermie - Energiepotenzial unter unseren Fuessen. Neue Ansaetze zur Nutzungsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, E. [CST Communication, Science and Technology GmbH, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews new approaches to optimising the use of geothermal energy resources. Switzerland is quoted as being world leader in research into the use of geothermal resources. Work being done at the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology in Zurich and Lausanne is reviewed. This includes research into the better use of energy-relevant geological structures. This work includes the simulation of thermo-mechanical behaviour and work done on reducing the costs involved in the construction of boreholes for geothermal installations. Uncertainties encountered are discussed and a pilot installation in Lausanne is described which used heat-exchanger piles for foundations. The results obtained are discussed. Also, various tests carried out in the rest of Europe are discussed. A method for the splintering of bedrock is described.

  16. Current status of geothermal energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carella, R.

    Italy has been one of the first countries to develop applications or its geothermal energy resources. As a resource it is both abundant and available in the high temperature range. A world premiere was the electricity production in Tuscany (Western Italy) output 56 which at present is 3200 GWh/y from 624 MW of operating capacity. In the low-enthalpy field Italy has enjoyed widespread development of spas, both for therapeutic and heating purposes. The latter's output has now attained presently 127,000 TOE/y. District and other residential heating amount to about 37,000 TOE/y and include two recent very significant projects in the Po Valley (Ferrara and Vicenza). Some large-size greenhouse complexes are heated by geothermal fluids (M. Amiata in Tuscany and Pantani in Latium) as well as fish farms on the Tyrrhenian coast. Agricultural applications account for 19,000 TOE/y. While the outlook is bright for electricity production which is due to increase substantially in the next decade, the short-term future is uncertain for low enthalpy resources, especially in view of low energy prices. Given the abundance of the resources and their environmental benefits, longer term prospects should be good, particularly if energy prices firm up. 1 fig.

  17. Geothermal technology transfer for direct heat applications: Final report, 1983--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a geothermal technology transfer program, performed by Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, used to aid in the development of geothermal energy for direct heat applications. It provides a summary of 88 technical assistance projects performed in 10 states for space heating, district heating, green-houses, aquaculture, industrial processing, small scale binary electric power generation and heat pump applications. It describes an inventory compiled for over 100 direct heat projects that contains information on project site, resource and engineering data. An overview of information services is provided to users of the program which includes; advisory, referrals, literature distribution, geothermal technology library, quarterly Bulletin, training programs, presentations and tours, and reporting of activities for the USDOE Geothermal Progress Monitor.

  18. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. More specific information is included under the planning regions and site specific data summaries. A brief discussion of the geothermal characteristics and a listing of a majority of the known hot springs is included. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented, including: economics, financing, state leasing, federal leasing, direct-use technology, water quality laws, water rights, and the Major Facility Siting Act. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. More specific information is included under the planning regions and site specific data summaries. A brief discussion of the geothermal characteristics and a listing of a majority of the known hot springs is included. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented, including: economics, financing, state leasing, federal leasing, direct-use technology, water quality laws, water rights, and the Major Facility Siting Act. (MHR)

  20. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  1. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) well construction technology evaluation report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, Louis, Jr. (Thermasource Inc.); Huh, Michael; Swanson, Robert (Thermasource Inc.); Raymond, David Wayne; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production from geothermal resources is currently based on the exploitation of hydrothermal reservoirs. Hydrothermal reservoirs possess three ingredients critical to present day commercial extraction of subsurface heat: high temperature, in-situ fluid and high permeability. Relative to the total subsurface heat resource available, hydrothermal resources are geographically and quantitatively limited. A 2006 DOE sponsored study led by MIT entitled 'The Future of Geothermal Energy' estimates the thermal resource underlying the United States at depths between 3 km and 10 km to be on the order of 14 million EJ. For comparison purposes, total U.S. energy consumption in 2005 was 100 EJ. The overwhelming majority of this resource is present in geological formations which lack either in-situ fluid, permeability or both. Economical extraction of the heat in non-hydrothermal situations is termed Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The technologies and processes required for EGS are currently in a developmental stage. Accessing the vast thermal resource between 3 km and 10 km in particular requires a significant extension of current hydrothermal practice, where wells rarely reach 3 km in depth. This report provides an assessment of well construction technology for EGS with two primary objectives: (1) Determining the ability of existing technologies to develop EGS wells. (2) Identifying critical well construction research lines and development technologies that are likely to enhance prospects for EGS viability and improve overall economics. Towards these ends, a methodology is followed in which a case study is developed to systematically and quantitatively evaluate EGS well construction technology needs. A baseline EGS well specification is first formulated. The steps, tasks and tools involved in the construction of this prospective baseline EGS well are then explicitly defined by a geothermal drilling contractor in terms of sequence, time and

  2. Geothermal energy and its application opportunities in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Nenad M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is accumulated heat in the fluid and rock masses in the Earth 's crust. The natural decay of radioactive elements (uranium, thorium and potassium in rocks produces heat energy. The simplest use of geothermal energy for heating is by heat pump. Geothermal energy can be used for production of electricity. It uses hot water and steam from the earth to run the generator. Serbia has significant potential for geothermal energy. The total amount of accumulated heat in geothermal resources in a depth of 3 km is two times higher than the equivalent thermal energy that could be obtained by burning all types of coal from all their sites in Serbia! The total abundance of geothermal resources in Serbia is 4000 l/s. Abundance of wells in Vojvodina is 10-20 l/s, and the temperature is from 40 to 60°C. Exploitation of thermal waters in Mačva could cause heating of following cities: Bogatić, Šabac, Sremska Mitrovica and Loznica, with a total population of 150.000 people. The richest hydrogeothermal resources are in Mačva, Vranje and Jošanička Banja. Using heat pumps, geothermal water can be exploited on the entire territory of Serbia! Although large producer, Serbia is importing food, ie., fruits and vegetables. With the construction of greenhouses, which will be heated with geothermal energy, Serbia can become an exporting country.

  3. Geothermal energy utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L.; Sifford, Alex; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  4. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L (Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR); Sifford, Alex (Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  5. Can you take the heat? – Geothermal energy in mining

    OpenAIRE

    Preene, M.; Younger, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, there are less than 20 documented examples of operational geothermal systems on mine sites worldwide. This is surprising, since on remote mine sites, where fuels may have to be shipped in over great distances, heating and cooling from low-enthalpy geothermal sources may have a significant advantage in operational cost over conventional energy sources.\\ud A review of factors affecting the feasibility of geothermal systems on mining projects has been undertaken, and has identified the ...

  6. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  7. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  8. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  9. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  10. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  11. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  12. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF PRODUCTION AND USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Lymarenko, O.; Taranenko, O.

    2015-01-01

    General potential of geothermal resources of Ukraine and the possibilities of their use as an alternative fuel are considered in the article. The most promising regions of Ukraine for the development of geothermal energy were determined and the characteristics of the heat-transfer agent were described. Value engineering analysis of modern technologies of extraction of heat was carried out, taking into account a feasibility study. Possibilities of using depleted oil and gas fields were studied...

  14. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  15. Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges and Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    One of environmental friendly renewable energies with huge potential in Indonesia is geothermal. Indonesia has the largest geothermal potential in the world, reaching up to 40% of world reserves or about 27,000 MW to 29,000 MW. However the development of geothermal currently is only about 4.2% (1,226 MW) of the existing reserves. The government of Indonesia has issued both fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to encourage geothermal development including establishing Fast Track Program II in 2010...

  16. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  17. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  18. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  19. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  20. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G.; Nix, G.

    2007-03-01

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.

  1. Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Finger, John T.; Carrigan, Charles R.; Foris, Adam; Kennedy, Mack B.; Corbet, Thomas F.,; Doughty, Christine A.; Pye, Steven; Sonnenthal, Eric L.

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the key findings from the Reservoir Maintenance and Development (RM&D) Task of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study had the objective of conducting analyses of future geothermal growth based on sets of current and future geothermal technology developments. The RM&D Task is one of seven tasks within the GeoVision Study with the others being, Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Institutional Market Barriers, Environmental and Social Impacts, Thermal Applications, and Hybrid Systems. The full set of findings and the details of the GeoVision Study can be found in the final GeoVision Study report on the DOE-GTO website. As applied here, RM&D refers to the activities associated with developing, exploiting, and maintaining a known geothermal resource. It assumes that the site has already been vetted and that the resource has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality to move towards full-scale development. It also assumes that the resource is to be developed for power generation, as opposed to low-temperature or direct use applications. This document presents the key factors influencing RM&D from both a technological and operational standpoint and provides a baseline of its current state. It also looks forward to describe areas of research and development that must be pursued if the development geothermal energy is to reach its full potential.

  2. Low enthalpy geothermal energy: borehole heat exchangers (BHE. Geological and geothermal supervision during active construction in support of the energy certification of buildings - ESBE certification plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cadrobbi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the experience matured while working with low-enthalpy geothermic installations both in the design and executive phase as well as ongoing monitoring, within the scope of energy conservation as it relates to building and construction. The goal is to illustrate the feasibility of adopting the ESBE certification protocol (Certification of Energy Efficient Low-Enthalpy Probes aimed at optimizing the harnessing of local geothermic resources to satisfy the energy requirements of a building, measured against the initial investment. It is often the case, in fact, that during the course of a construction project for a given low-enthalpy installation, we verify incompa tibilities with the local geologic and geothermic models, which, if inadequate during construction, can compromise the proper functioning of the installation and its subsequent operation. To this end, the ESBE method, which adheres to the governing environmental regulations, and which takes its cue from technical statutes within the sector, permits us to validate via verification, simulations and tests, the geothermic field probes used in construction in an objective and standardized manner, thereby joining and supporting the most recent protocols for energy certification of buildings (LEED 2010, CASACLIMA 2011, UE 20120/31 Directive. ESBE certification operates through a dedicated Certifying Entity represented by the REET unit (Renewable Energies and Environmental Technologies of FBK (Bruno Kessler Foundation of Trento. The results obtained by applying the ESBE method to two concrete cases, relative to two complex geothermic systems, demonstrate how this protocol is able to guarantee, beyond the correct execution in the field of geothermic probes, an effective coverage of the energy requirements of the building during construction adopting the best optimization measures for the probes in keeping with the local geological and geothermic model.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of High Temperature Geothermal Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Mathilde; Blanc, Isabelle; Marquand, Aline; Beylot, Antoine; Bezelgues-Courtade, Sophie; Traineau, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    International audience; European and French regulations state that 50% of the energy mix in the French Caribbean should be sourced from renewable energies by 2020. Because of the volcanic conditions of the French Caribbean islands, geothermal energy would seem to be a very favorable solution to reach this ambitious objective, as, unlike other renewable sources, it is continuous and weather independent. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), geothermal energy source...

  4. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  5. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  6. Non-electrical uses of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber E.; Fanelli, M.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review covers the recognition of natural hot fluids in ancient times and their use for therapeutic baths; the first production of electricity from geothermal steam at Larderello, Italy, in 1904; the widespread geographical occurrence of geothermal fluids; exploration techniques; the extraction of geothermal fluids and their uses in spas, agriculture, aquaculture, domestic heating, and industrial applications; geothermal greenhouse heating world-wide; geothermal heating of animal and poultry houses, in culture of alligators and crocodiles (in Atagawa, Japan), and in fish culture; piping arrangements for district heating, and a tabulation of district heating installations world-wide; downhole exchanger systems used in Klamath Falls, Oregon, for domestic heating; industrial heating applications; and methods of disposal of geothermal fluids. Maps, diagrams, graphs, photographs, tables, and 48 references are included.

  7. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.W.

    1977-05-01

    Topics covered include: geothermal energy development at LLL, energy conversion engineering, continuing education at LLL, and the Western states uranium resource survey. Separate abstracts were prepared for 3 sections. (MCG)

  8. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  9. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal Energy Production from Oil/Gas Wells and Application for Building Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honggang [Rutgers University; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    One significant source of low-temperature geothermal energy is the coproduced hot water from oil/gas field production. In the United States, daily oil production has reached above 8 million barrels in recent years. Considering various conditions of wells, 5-10 times or more water can be coproduced in the range of temperature 120 F to 300 F. Like other geothermal resources, such energy source from oil/gas wells is under-utilized for its typical long distance from consumption sites. Many oil/gas fields, however, are relatively close (less than 10 miles) to consumers around cities. For instance, some petroleum fields in Pennsylvania are only a few miles away from the towns in Pittsburg area and some fields in Texas are quite close to Houston. In this paper, we evaluate geothermal potential from oil/gas wells by conducting numerical simulation and analysis of a fractured oil well in Hastings West field, Texas. The results suggest that hot water can be continuously coproduced from oil wells at a sufficient rate (about 4000 gallons/day from one well) for more than 100 years. Viable use of such geothermal source requires economical transportation of energy to consumers. The recently proposed two-step geothermal absorption (TSGA) system provides a promising energy transport technology that allows large-scale use of geothermal energy from thousands of oil/gas wells.

  11. Geothermal exploration technology. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: electrical and electromagnetic computer modeling techniques; minicomputer for in-field processing of magnetotelluric data; superconducting thin-film gradiometer and magnetometers for geophysical applications; magnetotellurics with SQUID magnetometers; controlled-source electromagnetic system; geothermal seismic field system development; Klamath Basin geothermal resource and exploration technique evaluation; Mt. Hood geothermal resource evaluation; East Mesa seismic study; seismological studies at Cerro Prieto; self-potential studies at Cerro Prieto; resistivity studies at Cerro Prieto; magnetotelluric survey at Cerro Prieto; and precision gravity studies at Cerro Prieto. (MHR)

  12. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  13. Electricity from geothermal energy: Costs and cost reduction potentials; Strom aus Geothermie. Kosten und Kostensenkungspotenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbel, Thomas; Eggeling, Lena [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Forschung und Innovation; Kruck, Christoph [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Weimann, Thorsten [gec-co Global Engineering and Consulting-Company GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of geothermal energy for power generation in low-enthalpy devices is a young technology. The first German plant was taken in operation in 2004 at Neustadt-Glewe (Federal Republic of Germany). Three more plants came up by the end of 2009. Although the demonstration stage just was left, investigations provided prime costs similar to those of other renewable energies.

  14. Comprehensive Cross-Training among STEM Disciplines in Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Dutrow, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    One of the foremost areas of sustainability is society's need for energy. The US uses more energy per capita than any other country in the world with most of this energy coming from fossil fuels. With its link to climate change coupled with declining resources, renewable alternatives are being pursued. Given the high demand for energy, it is not a question of if these alternatives will be utilized but when and where. One of the "greenest" of the green technologies is geothermal energy. It is a renewable resource with a small environmental footprint. To educate advanced undergraduate and graduate students from across STEM disciplines in geothermal energy, a series of three distinct but linked and related courses are being developed and taught. Courses are focused on one of the STEM disciplines to provide students with essential discipline-specific knowledge and taught by different faculty members in the departments of geology, petroleum engineering and mathematics. These courses provide the foundation necessary for interdisciplinary research projects. The first course on Geologic Properties and Processes of Geothermal Energy was developed and taught in 2012. The class had an enrollment of 27 students including: 5 undergraduates and 4 graduate students in Geology, 12 undergraduates and two graduate students in Petroleum Engineering, and 4 non-matriculated undergraduate students. The course began with the essentials of heat and mass transfer, a common deficiency for all students, then progressed to the geologic materials of these systems: minerals, rocks and fluids. To provide students with first hand experience, two short research projects were embedded into the course. The first project involved analyses of cuttings from a well-studied geothermal system (Salton Sea, CA). Students were in teams consisting of both engineers and geologists. The first assignment was to identify minerals in the cuttings. They were then provided with XRD patterns for their cuttings to

  15. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  16. Harnessing geothermal energy with heat pumps : a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisi, J.A. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion emits large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Renewable fuel sources that do not have a negative impact on the environment are needed to reduce the risk of climatic change. This abstract discussed recent research related to geothermal energy. Two types of geothermal energy were investigated: (1) deep underground heat using turbines to produce electricity; and (2) shallow depth heat using heat pumps to provide space heating. A review of recent research on shallow depth heat harnessing was presented. The costs and GHG emission reductions related to the installation of a geothermal heat pump system for space heating were also discussed.

  17. Dark horse : long in the shadows of clean energies such as wind and solar power, geothermal energy may be coming to Alberta's oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2008-05-15

    The growth of the geothermal energy industry in Alberta was discussed. Geothermal energy can be captured by drilling into the earth in order to mine its inherent heat, which is then converted into electricity by generating turbines driven by natural steam or binary fluids heated by hot geothermal water. Drilling costs are typically constitute a huge part of the costs associated with using geothermal energy. In Alberta, attempts are now being made to convert deep abandoned oil and gas wells with high temperature water to geothermal power generation in order to reduce the capital costs of standard geothermal projects. A research program is currently testing wells drilled below 2500 metres with bottomhole temperatures higher than 120 degrees C. The aim of the project was to create 2 to 3 MW of power for a new industrial park. Geothermal energy is also being used to provide base-load electricity generation. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) technologies can be deployed commercially on timescales that will produce more than 100,000 MW by 2050. The United States currently has 3200 MW of installed geothermal electricity generation. New Canadian prospects for geothermal electricity may be developed at sites in British Columbia located near hot springs. 1 fig.

  18. New Mexico statewide geothermal energy program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Parker, S.K. (ed.)

    1988-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of geothermal energy resource assessment work conducted by the New Mexico Statewide Geothermal Energy Program during the period September 7, 1984, through February 29, 1988, under the sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy and the State of New Mexico Research and Development Institute. The research program was administered by the New Mexico Research and Development Institute and was conducted by professional staff members at New Mexico State University and Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. The report is divided into four chapters, which correspond to the principal tasks delineated in the above grant. This work extends the knowledge of the geothermal energy resource base in southern New Mexico with the potential for commercial applications.

  19. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  20. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  1. Geothermal energy prospects for the next 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    Three facets of geothermal energy--resource base, electric power potential, and potential nonelectric uses--are considered, using information derived from three sources: (1) analytic computations based on gross geologic and geophysical features of the earth's crust, (2) the literature, and (3) a worldwide questionnaire. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: geothermal resources; electric energy conversion; nonelectric uses; recent international developments; environmental considerations, and bibliography. (JGB)

  2. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  3. Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of environmental friendly renewable energies with huge potential in Indonesia is geothermal. Indonesia has the largest geothermal potential in the world, reaching up to 40% of world reserves or about 27,000 MW to 29,000 MW. However the development of geothermal currently is only about 4.2% (1,226 MW of the existing reserves. The government of Indonesia has issued both fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to encourage geothermal development including establishing Fast Track Program II in 2010 to procure 17,918 MW of which 28% of them are geothermal. But apparently the amount of electricity that can be supplied from geothermal is only about 2.7% of total installed generations in Indonesia. This paper presents the progress of geothermal development in Indonesia and the role of the government including the policy, regulatory framework, and government incentives. It also identifies the challenges of the geothermal development, as well as its prospects in the future. Methodology used in this research is qualitative-descriptive method focused on literature review to obtain literature or secondary data.

  4. Survey for making a data book on the new energy technological development. Waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traversal themes; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika, gas ka oyobi odanteki tema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper concerns the following six fields among the fields of new energy technology: the waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction and coal gasification. The up-to-date data made public were collected and classified into the following items: outline of systems, specific examples of the introduction in Japan and other countries, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems, production quantity/actual amount of introduction/projected amount of introduction (target), cost, terminology, listing of main related companies and groups, etc. Further, arrangement was traversally conducted on the outlook of the energy introduction by the Japanese government and measures taken for development of new energy by Japan and other countries. Namely, the items of the book are as follows: classification of new energy, outlook for energy supply/demand, cost of new energy technology (power generation) and outlook for the introduction, menus of buying surplus electricity of electric companies, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems concerning the new energy introduction in Japan and overseas, and a list of organizations engaged in the new energy technological development.

  5. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  6. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy--- A new energy agenda for the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tester, J.W.; Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.

    1989-07-01

    Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' and the accelerating destruction of forests and crops by acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nation's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States and in several other countries. On a national scale, we can begin to develop this new energy source, using it directly for geothermal power or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fueled systems, in diverse applications such as: baseload power generation, direct heat use, feedwater heating in conventional power plants, and pumped storage/load leveling power generation. This report describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept in several applications. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source. 37 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  9. Geothermal energy employment and requirements 1977-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    An assessment of the manpower needs of the geothermal industry is presented. The specific objectives were to: derive a base line estimate of the manpower involved in geothermal activities, determine if there is any current or impending likelihood of skill shortages, forecast future employment in the geothermal industry, conduct a technology assessment to ascertain the possibilities of some sudden breakthrough, and suggest alternatives commensurate with the findings. The methodology for fulfilling the objectives is described. Detailed results of these pursuits (objectives) are presented. Alternatives that are suggested, based upon the findings of the study, are summarized.

  10. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are presented. To assess the potential for geothermal resource development in Idaho, several kinds of data were obtained. These include information regarding institutional procedures for geothermal development, logistical procedures for utilization, energy needs and forecasted demands, and resource data. Area reports, data sheets, and scenarios were prepared that described possible geothermal development at individual sites. In preparing development projections, the objective was to base them on actual market potential, forecasted growth, and known or inferred resource conditions. To the extent possible, power-on-line dates and energy utilization estimates are realistic projections of the first events. Commercialization projections were based on the assumption that an aggressive development program will prove sufficient known and inferred resources to accomplish the projected event. This report is an estimate of probable energy developable under an aggressive exploration program and is considered extremely conservative. (MHR)

  11. Geothermics of Nile delta and southeast Mediterranean: Investigation and geothermal energy potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein El-Din, M.Y.; Zaghloul, Z.M.; Khidr, I.H. (Al Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1988-08-01

    The authors collected 289 temperature readings from 66 exploratory wells randomly distributed in an area about 57,000 km{sup 2} from different rock units of Tertiary and Quaternary ages. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) readings were corrected using an empirical equation based on actual static formation temperatures collected from the study area. The authors modified the Fertl and Wichmann method to apply to the study area. If the Fertl and Wichmann curve is applied, readings can be corrected using a deduced relation. The geothermal gradient for each well calculated used the best-fit method utilizing all recorded BHTs in that well. A new geothermal gradient map was constructed using the corrected BHT values. A genetic relationship between the geothermal gradient and lithology, tectonic setup, gas saturation, and water saturation of the subsurface formations in the Nile delta and southeast Mediterranean area was sought. Isothermal maps at different depths in the study area were constructed. Areas of relatively high subsurface temperature were delineated. The Abu Madi gas field as a case study for geothermal behavior was emphasized. The geothermal reservoirs in the study area as possible new and renewable energy resources were defined and classified as low-temperature reservoirs. Two geothermal reservoirs have been recorded: a shallow one associated with Mit Ghamr-El Wastani rock units and a deep one associated with abu Madi-Qawassim Formations.

  12. Use of Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Desalination in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cath, Tzahi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vanneste, Johan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This joint project between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Colorado School of Mines has examined the potential of using low-temperature geothermal resources for desalination. The temperature range in question is not well suited for electricity generation, but can be used for direct heating. Accordingly, the best integration approaches use thermal desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation (MED) or membrane distillation (MD), rather than electric-driven technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO). The examination of different desalination technologies led to the selection of MD for pairing with geothermal energy. MD operates at near-ambient pressure and temperatures less than 100°C with hydrophobic membranes. The technology is modular like RO, but the equipment costs are lower. The thermal energy demands of MD are higher than MED, but this is offset by an ability to run at lower temperatures and a low capital cost. Consequently, a geothermal-MD system could offer a low capital cost and, if paired with low-cost geothermal energy, a low operating cost. The target product water cost is $1.0 to $1.5 per cubic meter depending on system capacity and the cost of thermal energy.

  13. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  14. Main aspects of geothermal energy in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiriart, G.; Gutierrez-Negrin, L.C.A. [Comision Federal de Electridad, Morelia (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    With an installed geothermal electric capacity of 853 MW{sub e}, Mexico is currently the third largest producer of geothermal power worldwide, after the USA and the Philippines. There are four geothermal fields now under exploitation: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Virgenes. Cerro Prieto is the second largest field in the world, with 720 MW{sub e} and 138 production wells in operation; sedimentary (sandstone) rocks host its geothermal fluids. Los Azufres (88 MW{sub e}), Los Humeros (35 MW{sub e}) and Las Tres Virgenes (10 MW{sub e}) are volcanic fields, with fluids hosted by volcanic (andesites) and intrusive (granodiorite) rocks. Four additional units, 25 MW{sub e} each, are under construction in Los Azufres and due to go into operation in April 2003. One small (300 kW) binary-cycle unit is operating in Maguarichi, a small village in an isolated area with no link to the national grid. The geothermal power installed in Mexico represents 2% of the total installed electric capacity, but the electricity generated from geothermal accounts for almost 3% of the national total. (author)

  15. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a preliminary engineering and economic assessment of five direct use projects using low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. Each project site and end-use application was selected because each has a high potential for successful, near-term (2 to 5 years) commercial development. The report also includes an extensive bibliography, and reference and contact lists. The five projects are: Wendel Agricultural Complex, East Mesa Livestock Complex, East Mesa Vegetable Dehydration Facility, Calapatria Heating District and Bridgeport Heating District. The projects involve actual investors, resource owners, and operators with varying financial commitments for project development. For each project, an implementation plan is defined which identifies major barriers to development and methods to overcome them. All projects were determined to be potentially feasible. Three of the projects cascade heat from a small-scale electric generator to direct use applications. Small-scale electric generation technology (especially in the 0.5 to 3 MW range) has recently evolved to such a degree as to warrant serious consideration. These systems provide a year-round heating load and substantially improve the economic feasibility of most direct use energy projects using geothermal resources above 200/sup 0/F.

  16. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  17. Geothermal energy in Wyoming: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    An overview of geothermal energy and its current and potential uses in Wyoming is presented. Chapters on each region are concluded with a summary of thermal springs in the region. The uniqueness of Yellowstone is discussed from both an institutional point of view and a natural one. The institutional situation at the federal and state level is discussed as it applies to geothermal development in Wyoming. (MHR)

  18. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  20. Fracture detection and mapping for geothermal reservoir definition: an assessment of current technology, research, and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1984-11-01

    The detection and mapping of fractures and other zones of high permeability, whether natural or manmade, has been a subject of considerable economic and scientific interest to the pertroleum industry and to the geothermal community. Research related to fractured geothermal reservoirs has been conducted under several past DOE geothermal energy development programs. In this paper we review the present state of technology in fracture detection and mapping. We outline the major problems and limitations of the ''conventional'' techniques, and current research in new technologies. We also present research needs.

  1. Geothermal energy potential for district and process heating applications in the U. S. : an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.; McDonald, C.L.

    1977-08-01

    Geothermal energy is competitive for space and process heating applications over significant distances when employed on a large scale to serve concentrated markets. Under these conditions geothermal energy from 90 to 150/sup 0/C hydrothermal resources should be economically competitive for high-density urban district heating out to distances of 50 miles from the wellhead. Supply curves (price-quantity relationships) were developed for both process heating and district heating applications for distances out to 50 miles. The 90 to 150/sup 0/C hydrothermal resources, which were identified in the assessment of geothermal resources by the U.S. Geological Survey, contain usable energy for space and process heat equivalent to 50 billion barrels of oil. The potential demand for space and process heat near these hydrothermal resources is large; over 10% of the U.S. population resides within 40 miles of the resources. The sensitivity of production costs to the important factors of production was determined. The most important factors are well costs, well flow rate, resource temperature, distance separating demand and supply, population density, size of demand, and the system load factor. Technological advances are needed to reduce costs and increase the distances over which geothermal energy can be competitive. Institutional deterrents to widespread nonelectric applications of geothermal energy will probably be significant. Among these will be the acquisition of rights-of-way, the need to organize concentrated markets, and price competition from the conventional fuels based on average cost rather than marginal cost.

  2. Cascaded Use of Geothermal Energy and the Thermal Energy Production with Low Costs at the University of Oradea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANCEA Cristian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of heat pump technology has led to new opportunities of approaching issues about geothermalism and in particular the use of low and very low enthalpy geothermal resources. Regarding the use of geothermal energy, a special place have the research aimed to ensure the indoor thermal comfort using this form of energy. There have been made a series of research on the best option to use geothermal energy cascade, accompanied by the heat pump technology in the existing thermal station at the University of Oradea. As shown in the research undertaken until now, the possibilities of exploiting geothermal energy within a substation are not entirely used, the research can successfully continue addressing variants with hot air or by other methods. As a remarkable result of this research, it should be noted that the theoretical analyzes performed for some case and the analyzes carried out on a similar functional system, led to the possibility to optimize the automation strategies of the existing thermal power station and implicitly to its operation.

  3. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  4. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  5. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  6. Geothermal energy: Geology, exploration, and developments. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grose, Dr. L.T.

    1971-11-01

    Geology, exploration, and initial developments of significant geothermal areas of the world are summarized in this report which is divided into two parts. Part 1 is a review of the geological and explorational aspects of geothermal energy development; areas of potential development in the Western United States are also discussed. The most favorable geological environment for exploration and development of geothermal steam is characterized by recent normal faulting, volcanism, and high heat flow. Successful exploration for steam consists of coordinated multidisciplinary application of geological, geophysical, and geochemical knowledge and techniques. These are reviewed. California leads in known geothermal reserves and is followed by Nevada, Oregon, and New Mexico. Specific prospective areas in these 11 Western States are described.

  7. DEVELOPING DIRECT USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ORADEA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASIU I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy demand for district heating in the city of Oradea is supplied at present, almost at whole, by the Cogeneration Thermal Power Plant, based on classical fuels, mainly consisting of low grade coal and natural gas, with a small contribution of the geothermal energy. Geothermal resource at low enthalpy, located within the city area of Oradea, available at an estimated level of 250 GWh/year, exploited at present by 12 production wells, can provide a share of 55 GWh/year for district heating, representing at present about 7 % from the overall thermal demand at the end users inlet. Geothermal energy is delivered by means of 3 main thermal stations, in order to prepare, especially household warm water, but sometimes also secondary agent for space heating, using additionally heat, based on natural gas. At present, in the city area of Oradea, more than 7,000 dwellings are supplied by geothermal stations with warm water and in addition for about 3,400 dwellings is assured simultaneously warm water and space heating. Even if the geothermal energy provides at present only a small part of the overall heating requirement at the city level, nevertheless by increased financial support, in the near future is expected its much more contribution, as an alternative to polluting energy of coal and natural gas.

  8. Proceedings of the technical review on advances in geothermal reservoir technology---Research in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This proceedings contains 20 technical papers and abstracts describing most of the research activities funded by the Department of Energy (DOE's) Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, which is under the management of Marshall Reed. The meeting was organized in response to several requests made by geothermal industry representatives who wanted to learn more about technical details of the projects supported by the DOE program. Also, this gives them an opportunity to personally discuss research topics with colleagues in the national laboratories and universities.

  9. Innovations in the financing of geothermal energy for direct-use applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwass, P.

    1981-10-01

    The applications of direct use geothermal energy, its advantages, and its relative costs are examined. The following are discussed: capital needs for direct-use geothermal development, sources of geothermal financing, barriers to geothermal financing, and selected case studies of curent financing alternatives.

  10. The Geothermal Field Camp: Capacity building for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I.; Sule, R.; Saptadji, N. M.; Deon, F.; Herdianita, N. R.; Jolie, E.; Suryantini, N.; Erbas, K.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2011, the first geothermal field camp was hold on Java/Indonesia near the city Bandung south of the volcanic field Tangkuban Perahu. The course was organized by the Institut Teknologie Bandung (ITB) and International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR) of the German Centre of Geosciences (GFZ). The purpose of the Geothermal Field Camp is to combine both field based work and laboratory analysis to ultimately better understand the data collected in field and to integrate data gained by various disciplines. The training belongs to a capacity building program for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia and initially aims to train the trainers. In a later stage, the educational personal trained by the Geothermal Field Camp shall be able to hold their individual Geothermal Field Camp. This is of special interest for Indonesia where the multitude of islands hindered a broad uniform education in geothermal energy systems. However, Indonesia hold the largest geothermal potential worldwide and educated personal is necessary to successfully develop this huge potential scattered over region in future. The interdisciplinary and integrative approach combined with field based and laboratory methodologies is the guiding principle of the Geothermal Field Camp. Tangkuban Perahu was selected because this field allows the integration of field based structural geological analysis, observation and sampling of geothermal manifestations as hot springs and sinters and ultimately of structural geology and surface geochemistry. This innovative training introduces in methods used in exploration geology to study both, fault and fracture systems and fluid chemistry to better understand the selective fluid flow along certain fractures and faults. Field geology covered the systematic measurement of faults and fractures, fault plane and fracture population analysis. In addition, field hydro-geochemistry focused on sampling techniques and field measurements onsite. Subsequent data analysis

  11. Report on the U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Program's 2009 Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Augustine, C.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    NREL conducted an annual program risk analysis on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP). NREL implemented a probabilistic risk analysis of GTP-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) work, primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The analysis examined estimates of improvement potential derived from program RD&D work for two types of technology performance metric (TPM): EGS-enabling technologies potential and EGS cost improvement potential. Four risk teams (exploration, wells/pumps/tools, reservoir engineering, and power conversion) comprised of industry experts, DOE laboratory researchers, academic researchers, and laboratory subcontractors estimated the RD&D impacts and TPM-improvement probability distributions. The assessment employed a risk analysis spreadsheet add-in that uses Monte Carlo simulation to drive the Geothermal Electric Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). The GETEM-based risk analysis used baseline data from the experts' discussion of multiple reports and data sources. Risk results are expressed in terms of each metric's units and/or the program's top-level metric: levelized costs of electricity (LCOE). Results--both qualitative comments and quantitative improvement potential--are thorough and cohesive in three of the four expert groups. This conference paper summarizes the industry's current thinking on various metrics and potential for research improvement in geothermal technologies.

  12. National Geothermal Data System: Interactive Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Clark, Ryan; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan; Matti, Jordan; Pape, Estelle; Musil, Leah

    2012-01-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network via the U.S. Department of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. An initial set of thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define a standardized interchange format: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, earthquake hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature descriptions data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal properties, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed preferentially from existing community use in order to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate minimum metadata quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other NGDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (USGS, Southern Methodist University, Boise State University Geothermal Data Coalition) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to provide access to a comprehensive

  13. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Podgorney, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelkar, Sharad M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McClure, Mark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Danko, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghassemi, Ahmad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bahrami, Davood [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barbier, Charlotte [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Qinglu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chiu, Kit-Kwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detournay, Christine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsworth, Derek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Furtney, Jason K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gao, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guo, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, Yue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horne, Roland N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Norbeck, Jack [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Safari, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sesetty, Varahanaresh [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tao, Qingfeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Signe K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wong, Yang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xia, Yidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-02

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  14. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  16. Energy R and D. Geothermal energy and underground reservoirs; R et D energie. Geothermie et reservoirs souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Geothermal energy appears as a viable economic alternative among the different renewable energy sources. The French bureau of geological and mining researches (BRGM) is involved in several research and development programs in the domain of geothermal energy and underground reservoirs. This document presents the content of 5 programs: the deep hot dry rock system of Soultz-sous-Forets (construction and testing of the scientific pilot, modeling of the reservoir structure), the development of low and high enthalpy geothermal energy in the French West Indies, the comparison of the geothermal development success of Bouillante (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) with the check of the geothermal development of Nyssiros (Greece) and Pantelleria (Italy), the development of the high enthalpy geothermal potentialities of Reunion Island, and the underground storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in geologic formations (deep aquifers, geothermal reservoirs, abandoned mines or oil reservoirs). (J.S.)

  17. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson (eds.)

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  18. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  19. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Hawaii glass project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. [comp.; Irwin, B.

    1988-01-20

    Objective was to develop a glass utilizing the silica waste material from geothermal energy production, and to supply local artists with this glass to make artistic objects. A glass composed of 93% indigenous Hawaiian materials was developed; 24 artists made 110 objects from this glass. A market was found for art objects made from this material.

  20. Geothermics - energy for the future. Proceedings; Geothermie - Energie der Zukunft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The proceedings volume of the 4th Geothermal Congress, held in Constance in 1996, comprises 74 papers on the following subjects: 1. Practical applications of hydrogeothermal resources; 2. Hot dry rock; 3. Geothermal heat pumps; 4; Economic aspects of geothermal energy. (AKF) [Deutsch] Der Tagungsband zur 4. Geothermischen Fachtagung 1996 in Konstanz enthaelt 74 Beitraege, die sich mit den folgenden Schwerpunkten befassen: 1. Praktische Anwendungen der Hydrogeothermie; 2. Hot-dry-rock; 3. Oberflaechennahe/untiefe Geothermie; 4. Geothermie und wirtschaftliche Fragen. (AKF)

  1. Neutron radigoraphy of fluid flow for geothermal energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Jacobson, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the “particles” and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  2. Geothermal energy in Switzerland - outline lecture; Uebersichtsvortrag Geothermie Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, M. [Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft, Bern (Switzerland); Gorhan, H.L. [Elektrowatt Engineering AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    CO{sub 2}- emission in Switzerland need to be reduced over the next 50 years. In 1990, a first step towards improvement was taken by the Swiss Feseral Office of Energy by establishing the ``Energy 2000`` action plan. Apart from practical recommendations for general energy saving measures, this programme provides also clear objectives in respect to increased and more effecient utilization of indigenious and renewable energy resources. Geothermal energy is one of these resources. In addition to the amount of geothermal heat delivered in 1990, it is planned to produce a further 170 GWh of geothermal energy by the year 2000. This correesponnds to about 6% of a total of 3000 GWh which, it is envisaged, will be produced by all alternative heat resources together by the year 2000. Today, most geothermal energy is provided by shallow borehole heat exchangers. However, intensive development of wide ranging and innovative geothermal techniques is taking place at present. These R and D activities, as well as projects at present being realised, receive significant support from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den kommenden 50 Jahren soll und muss CO{sub 2}-Emission in der Sweiz betraechtlich reduziert werden. Einen ersten Schritt dazu bildet das. im Jahre 1990 vom bundesamtes fuer Energiewirtschaft erarbeitete, Programm ``Energie 2000``. Nebst konkreten Vorschlaegen zum allgemeinen Energiesparen wurden in diesem programm auch Zielsetzungen fuer eine vermehrte, innovative und efficiente Nutzung von einheimischen und erneuerbaren Energieressourcen formuliert. Dazu zaelt auch die Geometrie. Zusaetzlich zur bereits im Jahre 1990 produzierten Waerme soll die Geometrie im Jahr 2000 ca. 170 GWh an Waermeenergie lifern. Das entspricht ca.6% der fuer das Jahr 2000 geplanten Gesamtalternativ- Energieproduktion von 3000 GWh. Bei der geothermischen Energieproduktion satmmt bis heute der groesste Anteil von untiefen Erdwaermesonden. Die Anwendung neuer und

  3. Geothermal energy systems plan for Boise City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This is a plan for development of a downtown Boise geothermal district space heating system incorporating legal, engineering, organizational, geological, and economic requirements. Topics covered include: resource characteristics, system design and feasibility, economic feasibility, legal overview, organizational alternatives, and conservation. Included in appendices are: property ownership patterns on the Boise Front, existing hot well data, legal briefs, environmental data, decision point communications, typical building heating system retrofit schematics, and background assumptions and data for cost summary. (MHR)

  4. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, James [West Chester Univ., West Chester (PA)

    2016-08-05

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems are changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  5. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuprak, Greg [West Chester Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2016-11-02

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution’s carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems is changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE’s efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  6. Future Scenario Development from Disruptive Exploration Technologies and Business Models in the U.S. Geothermal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Anna

    2017-05-01

    With recent trends toward intermittent renewable energy sources in the U.S., the geothermal industry in its current form faces a crossroad: adapt, disrupt, or be left behind. Strategic planning with scenario analysis offers a framework to characterize plausible views of the future given current trends - as well as disruptions to the status quo. To inform strategic planning in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO), the Geothermal Vision Study is tasked with offering data-driven pathways for future geothermal development. Scenario analysis is a commonly used tool in private industry corporate strategic planning as a way to prioritize and manage large investments in light of uncertainty and risk. Since much of the uncertainty and risk in a geothermal project is believed to occur within early stage exploration and drilling, this paper focuses on the levers (technical and financial) within the exploration process that can be pulled to affect change. Given these potential changes, this work first qualitatively explores potential shifts to the geothermal industry. Future work within the Geothermal Vision Study will incorporate these qualitative scenarios quantitatively, in competition with other renewable and conventional energy industries.

  7. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike; Detwiler, Russell L; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  8. Geothermal energy planning and communication for native Americans. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.

    1982-03-30

    The purpose was to explore and develop geothermal energy resources on Indian lands. Activities included the following: (1) continued review of Indian communities and their potential for geothermal energy development; (2) introduced tribes to the availability of geothermal energy and removed the barriers to the implementation of this energy source; (3) provided information by telephone and by mailing packages of information; (4) published articles on geothermal energy development in the UIPA newsletter and supplied articles to other Indian publication; (5) conducted two seminars specific to geothermal energy development on Indian lands in western states; (6) carried out survey of Indian attitudes and opinions toward energy in general and geothermal energy in specific; (7) incorporated geothermal energy development information in Economic Development Administration sponsored tribal government management programs, and (8) developed draft written material addressing Indian planning problems and supporting their ability to affect a more productive working relationship with government agencies and reduced dependency.

  9. Building a regulatory framework for geothermal energy development in the NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holroyd, Peggy; Dagg, Jennifer [Pembina Institute (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    There is a high potential in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) for using geothermal energy, the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth, and this could help the NWT meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The Pembina Institute was engaged by the government of the NWT to perform a jurisdictional analysis of geothermal energy legislation and policy around the world; this report presents its findings. The jurisdictional review was carried out in 9 countries and interviews were conducted with various geothermal energy experts. Following this research, the Pembina Institute made recommendations to the NWT government on the development of a geothermal energy regulatory framework which would cover the need to define geothermal energy legislation and resource ownership as well as a plan and vision for geothermal energy use. This report highlighted that with an effective government policy in place, the use of geothermal energy in the NWT could provide the territories with a stable and secure energy supply.

  10. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  11. Systems and methods for multi-fluid geothermal energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2017-09-19

    A method for extracting geothermal energy from a geothermal reservoir formation. A production well is used to extract brine from the reservoir formation. At least one of nitrogen (N.sub.2) and carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) may be used to form a supplemental working fluid which may be injected into a supplemental working fluid injection well. The supplemental working fluid may be used to augment a pressure of the reservoir formation, to thus drive a flow of the brine out from the reservoir formation.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  13. Balancing energy and the environment: the case of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Brewer, S.

    1978-06-01

    The results of part of a Rand study on the federal role in resolving environmental issues arising out of the implementation of energy projects are reported. The projects discussed are two geothermal programs in California: the steam resource development at The Geysers (Lake and Sonoma counties) in northern California, and the wet brine development in the Imperial Valley in southern California.

  14. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  15. Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L. [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 (United States); Freeston, Derek H. [Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2005-12-01

    This paper is a review of worldwide direct applications of geothermal energy. It attempts to update the surveys presented at and after the World Geothermal Congresses of 1995, 2000 and 2005. Seventy-two countries report direct utilization of geothermal energy. In May 2005, the direct-use projects had an estimated installed thermal capacity of 28,268MWt. The thermal energy usage is 273,372TJ/year (75,943GWh/year), a 43% increase over 2000; the annual compound growth rate is 7.5%. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 32% for geothermal heat pumps, 30% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 20% for space heating (of which 83% is for district heating), 7.5% for greenhouse and open-ground heating, 4% for industrial process heat, 4% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, <1% for agricultural drying, <1% for snow melting and cooling, and <0.5% for other uses. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. (author)

  16. GOCE and Future Gravity Missions for Geothermal Energy Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorutti, Alberto; Braitenberg, Carla; Pivetta, Tommaso; Mariani, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Geothermal energy is a valuable renewable energy source the exploitation of which contributes to the worldwide reduction of consumption of fossil fuels oil and gas. The exploitation of geothermal energy is facilitated where the thermal gradient is higher than average leading to increased surface heat flow. Apart from the hydrologic circulation properties which depend on rock fractures and are important due to the heat transportation from the hotter layers to the surface, essential properties that increase the thermal gradient are crustal thinning and radiogenic heat producing rocks. Crustal thickness and rock composition form the link to the exploration with the satellite derived gravity field, because both induce subsurface mass changes that generate observable gravity anomalies. The recognition of gravity as a useful investigation tool for geothermal energy lead to a cooperation with ESA and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) that included the GOCE derived gravity field in the online geothermal energy investigation tool of the IRENA database. The relation between the gravity field products as the free air gravity anomaly, the Bouguer and isostatic anomalies and the heat flow values is though not straightforward and has not a unique relationship. It is complicated by the fact that it depends on the geodynamical context, on the geologic context and the age of the crustal rocks. Globally the geological context and geodynamical history of an area is known close to everywhere, so that a specific known relationship between gravity and geothermal potential can be applied. In this study we show the results of a systematic analysis of the problem, including some simulations of the key factors. The study relies on the data of GOCE and the resolution and accuracy of this satellite. We also give conclusions on the improved exploration power of a gravity mission with higher spatial resolution and reduced data error, as could be achieved in principle by flying

  17. Renewable energy technology handbook for military engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Renewable energy applications are introduced that are considered promising for military use in the 1980s. These are: solar hot water for buildings, active solar hot water and space heating for buildings, passive solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar industrial process heata, solar ponds, photovoltaic power for homes, photovoltaic power for remote applications, parabolic dish solar systems for remote applications, wind energy for buildings, wind energy for central power plants, wind energy for water pumping, biomass energy systems for buildings, biomass energy systems for central power plants, geothermal energy for process heat, and geothermal energy for central power plants. For each of these is given: a brief history of the technology and information on how the technology works; a detailed technical and economic profile of an operating system; and a summary listing of operating civilian and military systems that are open for public viewing.

  18. Promotion of geothermal energy development in 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The paper investigates hot springs in fumarolic gas in the Iwatesan west area and evaluates effects of regional development on the neighboring environment. Details of each spring--PH, total evaporation residue, and spring quality--are as follows: 7.8, 2190mg/l, and Ca(center dot)Mg-HCO3(center dot)SO4 spring for Water well No. 18; 7.4, 1285mg/l, and Na-HCO3(center dot) Cl spring for Genbu hot spring; 7.6, 471mg/l, and Na(center dot)Ca-HCO3 type simple spring for Nukumori hot spring; and 2.9, 461mg/l, and acidity-Ca-SO4 type simple spring for Matsukawa hot spring. Variations are smaller than those in fiscal 1989. Only the Matsukawa hot spring has a large variation in its output of hot water, but a coefficient of its correlation with precipitation is 0.38. When installing a geothermal power plant, it is necessary to investigate the injection of geothermal water into the ground, hydrologic structures, etc. and to give careful consideration to the effect of the development on the sources of the hot spring.

  19. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  20. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    In Central Europe, the Pannonian Basin and adjacent areas are holding some of the most attractive geothermal energy resources available from subsurface hot water reservoirs. In fact, utilization of geothermal energy has a long-standing tradition in the region, mainly for thermal and medicinal bathing. Nevertheless, putting to use the extractable heat in a technical and economical optimum manner, and integrating the various energy flows (heating, cooling, vitiated air, etc.) in the application system as well as returning the cooled effluent (excluding used bath water) back to the reservoir, has not found general acceptance to date. This is regrettable not least because thermal spas can be regarded as virtually ideal objects for an integrated management of energy flows on a low temperature level. Hardly any other facilities are in nearly constant, year-round need of heat at a low temperature, as is actually delivered by most thermal aquifers. Also, waste heat and solar energy can be added without much inconvenience, and if hotels and/or therapeutic facilities are to be supplied, there will be cooling demand as well. Many spas in the region are about to update their technology. Complementing this development by an initiative for an integrated and therefore economical use of all the heat sinks and sources that may be present was the main objective of the "network project" PANTHERM (www.pantherm.eu) designed at the University of Applied Life Sciences and Natural Resources, Vienna, in cooperation with four Austrian and ten Hungarian, Slovak and Slovenian partners, and funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, Vienna. In the course of a technical feasibility study it was dealt with the problem, and - by example of the spa of Sárvár in Hungary - demonstrated also, in which way the given mass and energy flows need to be interconnected in order to achieve an optimum energy yield, always with an eye on cost-effectiveness and sustainability. The other Eastern

  1. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting the decision on effectiveness of conversion of geothermal energy intoelectricity. Given are the review of the research necessary to establish the geothermal potential and assessment oftechnological and economic possibilities of installing geothermal power plants in Slovenia. The paper also describesthe state of knowledge of middle- and high temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia with initial conditions forconstructing geothermal power plants. In addition, we present theoretical calculations of the conversion efficiencyof geothermal energy into electricity with conventional turbines and present some problems for the exploitationof geothermal energy, which are associated with additional costs and further reduce the efficiency of investment.Described are the characteristics and performance of binary geothermal power plants and foreign experience inobtaining electricity from the EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System. We also address the overlapping of the oil andgas industry with the operation of the EGS and the possibility of exploiting oil and gas wells for producing thegeothermal electricity.

  2. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  3. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-07-01

    Geothermal budget actual amounts are shown for FY 1989 -1992, broken down by about 15 categories. Here, the main Program categories are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology, Conversion Technology (power plants and materials), Industry-Coupled Drilling, Drilling Applications, Reservoir Engineering Applications, Direct Heat, Geopressured Wells Operation, and Hot Dry Rock Research. Here the title--Industry-Coupled Drilling--covered case studies of the Coso, CA, and Dixie Valley, NV, fields, and the Long Valley Exploratory Well (which had started as a magma energy exploration project, but reported here as a hydrothermal prospect evaluation well). (DJE 2005)

  4. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  5. Energy Optimization Modeling of Geothermal Power Plant (Case Study: Darajat Geothermal Field Unit III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Darmanto, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Darajat unit III geothermal power plant is developed by PT. Chevron Geothermal Indonesia (CGI). The plant capacity is 121 MW and load 110%. The greatest utilization power is consumed by Hot Well Pump (HWP) and Cooling Tower Fan (CTF). Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modelling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430.The possibility of energy saving is indicated by Specific Steam Consumption (SSC) net in relation to wet bulb temperature fluctuation from 9°C up to 20.5°C. Result shows that the existing daily operation reaches its optimum condition. The installation of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) could be applied to optimize both utility power of HWP and CTF. The highest gain is obtained by VFD HWP installation as much as 0.80% when wet bulb temperature 18.5 °C.

  6. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  7. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  8. The New Energy Saving Technology of High Temperature Multifunctional Soil-geothermal Pump%高温多功能地源热泵节能新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令国; 秦松祥

    2013-01-01

    地源热泵技术是从近地表的地下摄取能源,该能源是一种取之不尽、用之不竭的可再生清洁能源,具有高能效、长寿命、环保、天然、绿色的特点。阐述了实施高温多功能地源热泵的设计措施,采用“二次冷凝制冷循环”技术、选用新型高效双螺杆压缩机,辅以压力、温度、过载、过热及断水延时自动保护等功能设计。经研究比较表明,应用该技术所生产的地源热泵产品与目前国内外同类产品相比具有出水温度高、高温不增压、运行噪声低、运转平稳安静的优势,并且可以制热、制冷、供生活热水同时进行,是一项值得大力推广应用的节能新技术。%Ground source heat pump technology is an inexhaustible renewable and clean energy , and has the characteristics with high energy efficiency , long life, environmental protection , natural production and green .It elaborates the design measures of implementing the high temperature multifunctional ground source heat pump , applies "quadratic congealed refrigerating cycle"technology , slects a new type highly efficient twin screw com-pressor .The functioning design includes pressure , temperature , overloading , superheating and automatic protec-tion of wate breaking of time delay .Comparing with like products at home and abroad , the testing result indicates that the productions of the ground source heat pump have the advantages of a high outlet water temperature in high temperatures , a lower operating noise and a smooth running .This technology can supply heating , refrigera-tion and hot living water simultaneously , and be a new energy-saving technology .

  9. Energy from the Earth's core. Using geothermal power efficiently; Heisse Energiequellen. Erdwaerme effizient nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    The heat stored and flowing beneath the surface of the Earth is an endless source of natural energy. It powers volcanoes, hot springs and geysers - and could supply the world with warmth and power. Linde engineers are using innovative technologies to help capture this geothermal energy efficiently. (orig.)

  10. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  11. Proceedings of the second NATO-CCMS information meeting on dry hot rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.J. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    A summary is presented of the second and last NATO-CCMS (North Atlantic Treaty Organization--Committee on Challenges of Modern Society) Geothermal Pilot Study Information Meeting on Dry Hot Rock Geothermal Energy. Only summaries of the formal presentations are included. Overviews of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geothermal projects are included with emphasis on the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Reports of developments in nine foreign countries and on geothermal projects in US universities are also presented.

  12. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  13. EPRI geothermal energy R and D 5-year program plan (1975 to 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F.

    1974-10-17

    The recommended EPRI Geothermal Research and Development 5-Year Program Plan has been defined to complement and provide focus for federally sponsored geothermal energy R and D efforts. The scope of the program includes: verification of hydrothermal reservoir capability and low salinity brine heat transfer characteristics at a potential demonstration site followed by design, development and construction of a low salinity hydrothermal demonstration plant in conjunction with an electric utility or utility consortium. Development of a comprehensive set of Guidelines Manuals for use by utility management and engineers spanning the full range of geothermal resource utilization from exploration through plant startup, including not only technical, but environmental, institutional and regulatory factors. A subprogram to define the potential and requirements for Geothermal Systems. A supporting research and technology subprogram oriented toward minimizing the risk associated with utilization of low and high salinity hydrothermal sources. An Advanced Research and Technology subprogram to assess the potential of geopressure resources in conjunction with the Federal government and limited R and D on advanced concepts for utilization of hydrothermal fluids. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1981-12-01

    The potential geothermal direct-use energy market and its application to projects in California are assessed. Project identification effort is to be focused on those that have the highest probability for near-term successful commercial operations. Near-term herein means 2 to 5 years for project implementation. Phase I has been focused on defining and assessing: (1) the geothermal direct-use resources that are suitable for near-term utilization; and (2) the generic applications (municipal heating districts, horticultural greenhouse firms, laundries, etc.) that are suitable for near-term projects. Five economic development regions in the state, containing recognized geothermal direct-use resources, have been defined. Thirty-eight direct use resources have been evaluated in these regions. After assessment against pre-selected criteria, twenty-seven have been rated with a priority of I, II or III, thereby qualifying them for further marketing effort. The five areas with a priority of I are summarized. These areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development. Twenty-nine generic categories of applications were assessed against previously selected criteria to determine their near term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Some twenty industry, commercial and institutional application categories were rated with a priority of I, II or III and warrant further marketing efforts. The seven categories with a priority of I are listed. These categories were found to have the least impediments to near-term application projects.

  15. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  16. Geothermal energy and the law. I. The Federal Lands Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.; McNamara, J.

    1975-09-30

    A broad range of problems in the legal and institutional environment which hampers the development of the geothermal industry is discussed. The topics include: the development of geothermal energy; pre-leasing procedures--public vs. private assessment; exploratory permits and related strategies; the rate of geothermal leasing-past and future; compensation strategies; lessee qualifications; lands available for leasing; noncompensatory lease terms; ongoing leasehold and production requirements; problems of ''secondary'' geothermal uses; and water law conflicts. (LBS)

  17. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Rajver; Andrej Lapanje; Nina Rman

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting t...

  18. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  19. Mountain Home Geothermal Project: geothermal energy applications in an integrated livestock meat and feed production facility at Mountain Home, Idaho. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B.; Brink, W.R.; Fisher, L.A.; Matherson, R.H.; Neilson, J.A.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-02-01

    The Mountain Home Geothermal Project is an engineering and economic study of a vertically integrated livestock meat and feed production facility utilizing direct geothermal energy from the KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) southeast of Mountain Home, Idaho. A system of feed production, swine raising, slaughter, potato processing and waste management was selected for study based upon market trends, regional practices, available technology, use of commercial hardware, resource characteristics, thermal cascade and mass flow considerations, and input from the Advisory Board. The complex covers 160 acres; utilizes 115 million Btu per hour (34 megawatts-thermal) of geothermal heat between 300/sup 0/F and 70/sup 0/F; has an installed capital of $35.5 million;produces 150,000 hogs per year, 28 million lbs. of processed potatoes per year, and on the order of 1000 continuous horsepower from methane. The total effluent is 200 gallons per minute (gpm) of irrigation water and 7300 tons per year of saleable high grade fertilizer. The entire facility utilizes 1000 gpm of 350/sup 0/F geothermal water. The economic analysis indicates that the complex should have a payout of owner-invested capital of just over three years. Total debt at 11% per year interest would be paid out in 12 (twelve) years.

  20. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  1. The geothermal energy potential in Denmark - updating the database and new structural and thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Sparre Andersen, Morten; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Leth Hjuler, Morten; Kristensen, Lars; Mathiesen, Anders; Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of structural, hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. In the framework of a project under the Danish Research program 'Sustainable Energy and Environment' funded by the 'Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation', fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the utilization of geothermal energy in Denmark was compiled, analyzed and re-interpreted. A 3D geological model was constructed and used as structural basis for the development of a national subsurface temperature model. In that frame, all available reflection seismic data were interpreted, quality controlled and integrated to improve the regional structural understanding. The analyses and interpretation of available relevant data (i.e. old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion allowed a consistent correlation of seismic surfaces for whole Denmark and across tectonic features. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 16 geological units from the top pre-Zechstein to the surface were drawn. A new 3D structural geological model was developed with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well-logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal properties of potential geothermal reservoirs and to develop a parameterized numerical 3D conductive subsurface temperature model. Reservoir properties and quality were estimated by integrating petrography and diagenesis studies with porosity-permeability data. Detailed interpretation of the reservoir quality of the geological formations was made by estimating net reservoir sandstone thickness based on well-log analysis, determination of mineralogy including sediment provenance analysis, and burial history data. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 64-84 mW/m2) were determined for the Danish

  2. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  3. Economic assessment of geothermal direct heat technology: A review of five DOE demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hederman, William F. Jr.; Cohen, Laura A.

    1981-06-01

    In this report the cost of using low temperature geothermal energy resources for direct heating applications is compared to the costs associated with conventional heating fuels. The projects compared all involved replacing conventional fuels (e.g., natural gas and fuel oils) with geothermal energy in existing heating systems. The cost of using geothermal energy in existing systems was also compared with the cost of new coal-fired equipment.

  4. Direct use geothermal energy utilization for ethanol production and commercial mushroom growing at Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Technical feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The report is concerned with the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating two geothermally cascaded facilities, a bio-mass fuel ethanol production facility and a mushroom growing facility, where Geothermal Food Processors presently operates the world's largest direct-use geothermal vegetable dehydration facility. A review and analysis of the data generated from the various project tasks indicates that existing, state-of-the-art, ethanol production and mushroom growing technologies can be successfully adapted to include the use of geothermal energy. Additionally, a carefully performed assessment of the geothermal reservoir indicates that this resource is capable of supporting the yearly production of 10 million gallons of fuel ethanol and 1.5 million pounds of mushrooms, in addition to the demands of the dehydration plant. Further, data indicates that the two facilities can be logistically supported from existing agricultural and commerce sources located within economical distances from the geothermal source.

  5. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-09

    Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described, including the depth to reservoir, production rates of existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, legal, and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.

  6. Geothermal technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1981-September 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1983-08-01

    The status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program is described. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, diagnostics technology, and permeability enhancement.

  7. Geothermal technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    The status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program is described. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, and diagnostics technology.

  8. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-17

    Presently the US imports a large proportion of its petroleum requirements. This dependence on foreign petroleum has had a major impact on our economy. As a result, the Federal government is sponsoring programs to offset this foreign reliance by conservation of oil and gas, conversion of petroleum using facilities to coal and nuclear energy and the development of alternate sources of energy. One of the most acceptable alternate resources is geothermal. It offers an environmentally sound energy resource, can be developed at reasonable cost in comparison to other forms of energy and has a long term production capacity. On September 3, 1974, the Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act was enacted to further the research, development and demonstration of geothermal energy technologies. This Act also established the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program to assist in the financing of geothermal resource development, both electrical and non-electrical. The highlights of that Guaranty Program are detailed in this report.

  10. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-17

    Presently the US imports a large proportion of its petroleum requirements. This dependence on foreign petroleum has had a major impact on our economy. As a result, the Federal government is sponsoring programs to offset this foreign reliance by conservation of oil and gas, conversion of petroleum using facilities to coal and nuclear energy and the development of alternate sources of energy. One of the most acceptable alternate resources is geothermal. It offers an environmentally sound energy resource, can be developed at reasonable cost in comparison to other forms of energy and has a long term production capacity. On September 3, 1974, the Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act was enacted to further the research, development and demonstration of geothermal energy technologies. This Act also established the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program to assist in the financing of geothermal resource development, both electrical and non-electrical. The highlights of that Guaranty Program are detailed in this report.

  11. College Industrial Park : An Innovative Approach to Energy Conservation Through the Use of Geothermal Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Institute of Technology (Klamath Falls, Or.). Geo-Heat Center; William E. Nork, Inc.

    1986-11-18

    Geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology campus and Merle West Medical Center has been discharged to an open drainage ditch adjacent to the City's College Industrial Park since 1964. Over the past few years there has been increasing concern for conservation and preservation of the geothermal aquifers in Klamath Falls, Oregon. An effective way of improving the energy utilization is to cascade the approximately 130/sup 0/F effluent for heating buildings in the industrial park and disposal of the effluent in an existing injection well. An aquifer stress test was performed using the 1500 foot well in the industrial park. Based on the specific capacity, data indicate that the well is capable of accepting an injection rate of at least 700 gpm of the thermal effluent. A plume of degraded water will develop down-gradient of the well. However, the plume is expected to bypass nearby water supply wells and will have no impact on OIT and MWMC space heating wells.

  12. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

  13. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1981-06-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods as they apply to advanced drilling systems.

  14. 重力热管自吸地热改善热采井井筒热损失研究%A Study of Reducing Heat Loss of Thermal Recovery Wellbore by Gravity Heatpipe Technology through Absorbing Geothermal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 李春生; 朱兰

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the principle of gravity heat pipe decreasing heat loss in wellbore during thermal re covery and heat transfer of wellbore during oil production, calculation models of thermal energy engineering and heat transfer loss of wellbore were established and were used to calculate an example of testing well. The results show that the measured temperature of produced liquid is close to the calculated one, fractional error of which is 5.52%. The temperature of produced liquid inceases by 10℃ with gravity heatpipe in comparison with that of the regular wellbore, which could prove that gravity heatpipe is able to change the temperature distribution of fluids in wellbore. Gravity heatpipe absorbing geothermal energy is a new technology in oil production and can be applied to an extended extent in thermal recovery wells of heavy oil.%在深入探讨重力热管改善抽油井井筒热损失原理的基础上,结合井筒传热模型,建立了稠油热采井重力热管自吸热过程的热工计算及井筒热损失的计算模型.并结合矿场应用实例进行了计算.结果表明,井口产出液实测温度与计算值相对误差为5.52%,符合工程要求.热管正常工作后能将井口流体温度提高近10℃,在井筒中起到了平衡流体温场的作用.重力热管自吸地热采油技术是采油工程领域一项全新的探索,在稠油热采中有着广泛的应用前景.

  15. The age of alternative energies: the current status of new energy technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines Japan's Sunshine Project and presents the current status of the principal research and development programs involved. These are as follows: 1) solar energy (solar photovoltaic power generation, solar energy systems for industrial use); 2) geothermal energy (technology for geothermal exploration and excavation, hydrothermal power generation, discovery of high-temperature rock); 3) coal energy (coal liquefaction and gasification technology); 4) hydrogen energy (technology for production, transport, storage and utilization of hydrogen); 5) others (wind power and ocean thermal power generation). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  17. The potential for geothermal energy in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work is a review of goethermal prospects in the UK. The book summarizes the results of an investigation of Britain's geothermal energy potential by the British Geological Survey between 1977 and 1984, supported by the Department of Energy and the EEC. The assessment covers both resources and the prospects for their development. Hot groundwaters in deep sedimentary basins and heat stored in 'hot dry rocks' are considered. The structure of the basins and the nature and properties of the sediments they contain are described and illustrated with maps and diagrams.

  18. Multicomponent CO2-Brine Simulations of Fluid and Heat Transfer in Sedimentary-Basin Geothermal Systems: Expanding Geothermal Energy Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    In a carbon dioxide plume geothermal (CPG) system, carbon dioxide (CO2) is pumped into existing high-permeability geologic formations that are overlain by a low-permeability caprock. The resulting CO2 plume largely displaces native formation fluid and is heated by the natural in-situ heat and background geothermal heat flux. A portion of the heated CO2 is piped to the surface to produce power and/or to provide heat for direct use before being returned to the geologic reservoir. Non-recoverable CO2 in the subsurface is geologically sequestered, serving as a CO2 sink. As such, this approach results in a geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. We present results of calculations concerning geothermal power plant efficiencies and energy production rates in both traditional reservoir-based systems and engineered geothermal systems (EGS) when CO2, rather than water, is used as the subsurface working fluid. While our previous studies have examined geologic systems with established CO2 plumes, we focus here on multicomponent (CO2 + brine) systems. Numerical simulations (e.g., Randolph and Saar, Geophysical Research Letters, 2011) indicate that CPG systems provide several times the heat energy recovery of similar water-based systems. Furthermore, the CPG method results in higher geothermal heat extraction efficiencies than both water- and CO2-based EGS. Therefore, CPG should further extend the applicability of geothermal energy utilization to regions with subsurface temperatures and heat flow rates that are even lower than those that may be added due to switching from water- to CO2-based EGS. Finally, simulations at present suggest that multicomponent effects - e.g., buoyant flow as CO2 rises over denser brine - may enhance heat extraction in CPG systems compared to traditional water-based geothermal approaches.

  19. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  20. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  1. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently

  2. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  3. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  4. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M. (eds.)

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  5. Enabling CCS via Low-temperature Geothermal Energy Integration for Fossil-fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C. L.; Heldebrant, D. J.; Bearden, M. D.; Horner, J. A.; Freeman, C. J.

    2017-07-01

    Among the key barriers to commercial scale deployment is the cost associated with CO2 capture. This is particularly true for existing large, fossil-fired assets that account for a large fraction of the electricity generation fleet in developed nations, including the U.S. Fitting conventional combustion technologies with CO2 capture systems can carry an energy penalty of thirty percent or more, resulting in an increased price of power to the grid, as well as an overall decrease in net plant output. Taken together with the positive growth in demand for electricity, this implies a need for accelerated capital build-out in the power generation markets to accommodate both demand growth and decreased output at retrofitted plants. In this paper, the authors present the results of a study to assess the potential to use geothermal energy to provide boiler feedwater preheating, capturing efficiency improvements designed to offset the losses associated with CO2 capture. Based on NETL benchmark cases and subsequent analysis of the application using site-specific data from the North Valmy power plant, several cases for CO2 capture were evaluated. These included geothermally assisted MEA capture, CO2BOLs capture, and stand-alone hybrid power generation, compared with a baseline, no-geothermal case. Based on Case 10, and assuming 2.7 MMlb/h of geothermally sourced 150 ºC water, the parasitic power load associated with MEA capture could be offset by roughly seven percent, resulting in a small (~1 percent) overall loss to net power generation, but at levelized costs of electricity similar to the no-geothermal CCS case. For the CO2BOLs case, the availability of 150°C geothermal fluid could allow the facility to not only offset the net power decrease associated with CO2BOLs capture alone, but could increase nameplate capacity by two percent. The geothermally coupled CO2BOLs case also decreases LCOE by 0.75 ¢/kWh relative to the non-hybrid CO2BOLs case, with the improved

  6. Advanced Percussive Drilling Technology for Geothermal Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Raymond, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prasad, Somuri [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfer, Dale [Atlas-Copco Secoroc LLC, Fagersta (Sweden)

    2017-06-12

    Percussive hammers are a promising advance in drilling technology for geothermal since they rely upon rock reduction mechanisms that are well-suited for use in the hard, brittle rock characteristic of geothermal formations. The project research approach and work plan includes a critical path to development of a high-temperature (HT) percussive hammer using a two phase approach. The work completed in Phase I of the project demonstrated the viability of percussive hammers and that solutions to technical challenges in design, material technology, and performance are likely to be resolved. Work completed in Phase II focused on testing the findings from Phase I and evaluating performance of the materials and designs at high operating temperatures. A high-operating temperature (HOT) drilling facility was designed, built, and used to test the performance of the DTH under extreme conditions. Results from the testing indicate that a high-temperature capable hammer can be developed and is a viable alternative for use in the driller’s toolbox.

  7. A sustainability analysis of geothermal energy development on the island of Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kiyana Marie-Jose

    Dominica is heavily dependent on fossil fuels to meet its electricity generation needs. Dominica's volcanic origin and current volcanic activity allow the island to be an ideal place for the production of geothermal energy. Once geothermal exploration and development has begun in Dominica, it is uncertain whether the efforts will produce an environmentally, economically and socially feasible exploitation of the resource. Using content analysis and cost benefit analysis, this study examined the impacts of geothermal energy development based on the triple bottom line of sustainability for the Wotten Waven community, as well as the island as a whole. The results indicate that this project will have an overall positive impact on the triple bottom line of sustainability for Dominica. Therefore, geothermal energy may provide substantial net benefits to economic and sustainable development of the island. Assessing the sustainability of geothermal development is important as Dominica begins to produce geothermal energy.

  8. Geothermal Program Overview: Fiscal Years 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-11-01

    Geothermal energy represents the largest U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. This overview looks at the basic science behind the various geothermal technologies and provides information on DOE Geothermal Energy Program activities and accomplishments.

  9. Puna Geothermal Research Facility technology transfer program. Final report, August 23, 1985--August 23, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, P.

    1989-12-31

    The funds were used in a series of small grants to entrepreneurs demonstrating the direct use of geothermal heat supplied by Hawaii`s HGP-A well; this effort was known as the Community Geothermal Technology Program. Summaries are presented of the nine completed projects: fruit dehydration, greenhouse bottom heating, lumber kiln, glass making, cloth dyeing, aquaculture (incomplete), nursery growing media pasteurization, bronze casting, and electrodeposition from geothermal brine.

  10. Notre Dame Geothermal Ionic Liquids Research: Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this project was to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications. The first goal was to design ionic liquids as high temperature heat transfer fluids. We identified appropriate compounds based on both experiments and molecular simulations. We synthesized the new ILs, and measured their thermal stability, measured storage density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. We found that the most promising compounds for this application are aminopyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ILs. We also performed some measurements of thermal stability of IL mixtures and used molecular simulations to better understand the thermal conductivity of nanofluids (i.e., mixtures of ILs and nanoparticles). We found that the mixtures do not follow ideal mixture theories and that the addition of nanoparticles to ILs may well have a beneficial influence on the thermal and transport properties of IL-based heat transfer fluids. The second goal was to use ionic liquids in geothermally driven absorption refrigeration systems. We performed copious thermodynamic measurements and modeling of ionic liquid/water systems, including modeling of the absorption refrigeration systems and the resulting coefficients of performance. We explored some IL/organic solvent mixtures as candidates for this application, both with experimentation and molecular simulations. We found that the COPs of all of the IL/water systems were higher than the conventional system – LiBr/H2O. Thus, IL/water systems appear very attractive for absorption refrigeration applications.

  11. Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steidel, R.F.

    1978-09-01

    A hybrid system consists of two or more energy conversion processes. This study examines the use of three energy conversion machines in hybrid systems: the conventional single-phase turbine, and the two-phase expanders known as the Lysholm engine and the radial outflow reaction turbine. Two hybrid systems are presented. The first is a two-stage, single-flash system with the Lysholm engine as the first stage, and a separator and conventional turbine as the second stage. The second system adds a radial outflow reaction turbine to recover a part of the energy rejected in the second stage. A theoretical specific power of 41.3 kW.s/lb is predicted for the two-stage, single-flash hybrid system. The addition of the radial outflow rotary turbine increases performance to 44.8 kW.s/lb. Both are superior to the double-flash system, with a specific power of 37.8 kW.s/lb. In addition, the hybrid system offers operating flexibility.

  12. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  13. Geothermal program review 16: Proceedings. A strategic plan for geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The proceedings contain 21 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Exploration technology (4 papers); Reservoir technology (5 papers); Energy conversion technology (8 papers); Drilling technology (2 papers); and Direct use and geothermal heat pump technology (2 papers). An additional section contains a report on a workshop on dual-use technologies for hydrothermal and advanced geothermal reservoirs.

  14. Technology assessment of geothermal pumping equipment. final report, July 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.E.; Malgieri, A.J.

    1978-09-01

    Twenty-eight separate interviews were conducted with DOE personnel, DOE contractors doing geothermal research, persons associated with geothermal installations, companies engaged in the drilling and completion of geothermal well, and pump manufactures. The reports of these interviews are presented and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  15. Transported Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Thermal End Uses Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhiyao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jan-Mou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The use of geothermal energy is an emerging area for improving the nation’s energy resiliency. Conventionally, geothermal energy applications have focused on power generation using high temperature hydrothermal resources or enhanced geothermal systems. However, many low temperature (below 150°C/300°F) geothermal resources are also available but have not been fully utilized. For example, it is estimated that 25 billion barrels of geothermal fluid (mostly water and some dissolved solids) at 176°F to 302°F (80°C to 150°C) is coproduced annually at oil and gas wells in the United States (DOE 2015). The heat contained in coproduced geothermal fluid (also referred as “coproduced water”) is typically wasted because the fluid is reinjected back into the ground without extracting the heat.

  16. Prospecting for geothermal energy through satellite based thermal data: Review and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Howari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal investors need to be confident with the methods and results of exploration programs. Also cutting the upfront cost of geothermal exploration will further encourage investors to consider investment in this emerging clean energy field. Hence, it is of paramount importance to improve prospecting techniques in order to explore where economic concentrations of geothermal energy are to be expected.  The current study evaluates different approaches for downscaling thermal data from remote sensing images together with factors in surface and subsurface environment. The paper discusses case studies, the challenge and the way forward for geothermal prospecting as well as practical solutions to discrepancy that faces the mapping and documentation of spatial geothermal anomalies.  It also discusses main criteria that should be considered while prospecting for geothermal energy.

  17. Electronic Submersible Pump (ESP) Technology and Limitations with Respect to Geothermal Systems (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    The current state of geothermal technology has limitations that hinder the expansion of utility scale power. One limitation that has been discussed by the current industry is the limitation of Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) technology. With the exception of a few geothermal fields artificial lift technology is dominated by line shaft pump (LSP) technology. LSP's utilize a pump near or below reservoir depth, which is attached to a power shaft that is attached to a motor above ground. The primary difference between an LSP and an ESP is that an ESP motor is attached directly to the pump which eliminates the power shaft. This configuration requires that the motor is submersed in the geothermal resource. ESP technology is widely used in oil production. However, the operating conditions in an oil field vary significantly from a geothermal system. One of the most notable differences when discussing artificial lift is that geothermal systems operate at significantly higher flow rates and with the potential addition of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) even greater depths. The depths and flow rates associated with geothermal systems require extreme horsepower ratings. Geothermal systems also operate in a variety of conditions including but not limited to; high temperature, high salinity, high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), and non-condensable gases.

  18. Solar and geothermal energy utilization n SF-2: a sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H.; LaSala, R.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-04-05

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted of the utilization levels for Solar, Geothermal, and Advanced Energy Systems (ASGA) technologies during the 1985-2000 time period. In particular, the sensitivity of the utilization levels was tested with respet to both analytical techniques and to specific parameter assumptions. The sensitivity to analytical techniques was examined insofar as certain criteria were examined to elucidate their importance in determining the level of use of the ASGA technologies. The criteria incorporated consideration of such factors as total cost of the energy system, environmental impacts, and resource use patterns. The parameter assumptions studied included costs of ASGA costs of ASGA technologies, costs of non-renewable resources, and limitations on the use of technologies and resources. (MHR)

  19. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen [SIMBOL Materials

    2014-04-30

    Materials is evaluating other products with greater commercial value. Potassium Silicotitanates, zeolites and other sorbents were evaluated as potential reagents for the extraction of potassium from geothermal brines and production of potassium chloride (potash). It was found that zeolites were effective at removing potassium but the capacity of the zeolites and the form that the potassium is in does not have economic potential. Iron-silica by-product The conversion of iron-silica by-product produced during silica management operations into more valuable materials was studied at the laboratory scale. Results indicate that it is technically feasible to convert the iron-silica by-product into ferric chloride and ferric sulfate solutions which are precursors to a ferric phosphate product. However, additional work to purify the solutions is required to determine the commercial viability of this process. Conclusion Simbol Materials is in the process of designing its first commercial plant based on the technology developed to the pilot scale during this project. The investment in the commercial plant is hundreds of millions of dollars, and construction of the commercial plant will generate hundreds of jobs. Plant construction will be completed in 2016 and the first lithium products will be shipped in 2017. The plant will have a lithium carbonate equivalent production capacity of 15,000 tonnes per year. The gross revenues from the project are expected to be approximately $ 80 to 100 million annually. During this development program Simbol grew from a company of about 10 people to over 60 people today. Simbol is expected to employ more than 100 people once the plant is constructed. Simbol Materials’ business is scalable in the Imperial Valley region because there are eleven geothermal power plants already in operation, which allows Simbol to expand its business from one plant to multiple plants. Additionally, the scope of the resource is vast in terms of potential products such

  20. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeger, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  1. Use of geothermal energy for desalination in New Mexico: a feasibility study. Final report, January 1, 1977-May 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L.; Keyes, C.G. Jr.; Swanberg, C.A.; Gupta, Y.F.; Davis, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    The water requirements and availability for New Mexico are described. The possibility of using geothermal resources for desalination of the state's saline water sources is discussed. The following aspects of the problem are covered: resource evaluation, geothermal desalination technology, potential geothermal desalination sites, saline and geothermal aquifer well fields design, geothermal desalination plant waste brine disposal, process water pumping and brine disposal unit costs, environmental considerations, and legal and institutional considerations. (MHR)

  2. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  3. Geothermal power plants around the world. A sourcebook on the production of electricity from geothermal energy, draft of Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1979-02-01

    This report constitutes a consolidation and a condensation of several individual topical reports dealing with the geothermal electric power stations around the world. An introduction is given to various types of energy conversion systems for use with geothermal resouces. Power plant performance and operating factors are defined and discussed. Existing geothermal plants in the following countries are covered: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States. In each case, the geological setting is outlined, the geothermal fluid characteristics are given, the gathering system, energy conversion system, and fluid disposal method are described, and the environmental impact is discussed. In some cases the economics of power generation are also presented. Plans for future usage of geothermal energy are described for the above-mentioned countries and the following additional ones: the Azores (Portugal), Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Panama. Technical data is presented in twenty-two tables; forty-one figures, including eleven photographs, are also included to illustrate the text. A comprehensive list of references is provided for the reader who wishes to make an in-depth study of any of the topics mentioned.

  4. Geothermal materials project input for conversion technology task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    This ongoing laboratory-based high risk/high payoff R D program has already yielded several durable cost-effective materials of construction which are being used by the geothermal energy industry. In FY 1992, R D in the following areas will be performed: (1) advanced high-temperature (300{degrees}C) CO{sub 2}-resistant lightweight well-cementing materials, (2) high-temperature chemical systems for lost-circulation control, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchange applications, (4) corrosion mitigation at the Geysers, and (5) high-temperature chemical coupling materials to bond elastomers to steel substrates. Work to address other materials problems will commence in FY 1993, as their needs are verified. All of the activities will be performed as cost-shared activities with other National Laboratories and/or industry. Successful developments will significantly reduce the cost of well drilling and completion, and energy-extraction processes. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Ing. Ulvi Arslan, Univ., ., Dr. _., Prof.; Heiko Huber, Dipl.-Ing.

    2010-05-01

    KEYWORDS Geothermal sciences, geothermics, research, theory and application, numerical calculation, geothermal modeling, Technical University Darmstadt, Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) INTRODUCTION In times of global warming renewable, green energies are getting more and more important. The development of application of geothermal energy as a part of renewable energies in Germany is a multidisciplinary process of fast growing research and improvements. Geothermal energy is the energy, which is stored below earth's surface. The word geothermal derives from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermos (heat), so geothermal is a synonym to earth heat. Geothermal energy is one of the auspicious renewable energies. In average the temperature increases 3°C every 100 m of depth, which is termed as geothermal gradient. Therefore 99 percent of our planet is hotter than 1.000°C, while 99 percent of that last percent is even hotter than 100°C. Already in a depth of about 1 kilometer temperatures of 35 - 40°C can be achieved. While other renewable energies arise less or more from the sun, geothermal energy sources its heat from the earth's interior, which is caused mostly by radioactive decay of persistent isotopes. This means a possibility of a base-loadable form of energy supply. Especially efficient is the use of deep geothermal energy of high-enthalpie reservoirs, which means a high energy potential in low depths. In Germany no high-enthalpie reservoirs are given. To use the given low-enthalpie potential and to generate geothermal power efficiently inventions and improvements need to be performed. An important part of geothermal progresses is performed by universities with multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling. Especially in deep geothermal systems numerical calculations are essential for a correct dimensioning of the geothermal system. Therefore German universities and state aided organizations are developing numerical programs for a detailed use of

  6. Geothermal heating systems for greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.F.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-08-12

    Ways to utilize low-temperature geothermally heated water for a flow-through system are presented. The geothermal energy used for this system is the waste heat discharged from space heating 500,000 square feet of floor space at Oregon Institute of Technology with geothermal water pumped directly from the campus wells. The information collected and analyzed is from data developed from operating a greenhouse on the Oregon Institute of Technology campus from December 1979 to April 1980. Methods for calculating heating requirements of greenhouses using geothermal energy were developed from the analyses of the data obtained. (MHR)

  7. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  8. Governance Obstacles to Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Winters

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having 40 per cent of the world’s potential for geothermal power production, Indonesia exploits less than five per cent of its own geothermal resources. We explore the reasons behind this lagging development of geothermal power and highlight four obstacles: (1 delays caused by the suboptimal decentralisation of permitting procedures to local governments that have few incentives to support geothermal exploitation; (2 rent-seeking behaviour originating in the point-source nature of geothermal resources; (3 the opacity of central government decision making; and (4 a historically deleterious national fuel subsidy policy that disincentivised geothermal investment. We situate our arguments against the existing literature and three shadow case studies from other Pacific countries that have substantial geothermal resources. We conclude by arguing for a more centralised geothermal governance structure.

  9. Reservoir Engineering Studies of Geopressured Geothermal Energy Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Sang [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-04-30

    Transient pressure analysis techniques were used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir which has been monitored and tested under U.S. Department of Energy geopressured -geothermal research program. Analysis of transient pressure data furnished a reservoir description such as the formation parameters, pore volume and shape of the reservoir, and average reservoir pressure. Results of pressure tests suggest that the Gladys McCall reservoir probably has a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. During both production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. An aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir. Results of analyses provided a quantitative evaluation of the reservoir and a better understanding of the reservoir energy drive mechanism. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  10. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  11. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110367 Cheng Jian(College of Energy Resources,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Duoyi Research on the Wenchuan Earthquake "Endpoint Effect":On the Geothermal Anomaly in Longquanyi,Chengdu,Sichuan Province,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,37(2),2010,p.155-159,4 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:seismic effects,thermal

  12. Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-05-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  13. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  14. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-07-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  15. Assessing Induced Seismicity Models for Use in Deep Geothermal Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, E.; Zechar, J. D.; Gischig, V.; Karvounis, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2014-12-01

    The decision to phase out nuclear power in Switzerland by 2034 accelerated research on deep geothermal energy, which has the ability to contribute to long-term energy resources. Induced seismicty is a nessesary tool to create an enhanced geothermal system; however, potential seismic hazard poses a major challange to the widespread implementation of this technology. Monitoring and controlling induced seismicity with warning systems requires models that are updated as new data arrive and that are cast in probabilistic terms. Our main question is: is it possible to forecast the seismic response of the geothermal site during and after stimulation with models based on observed seismicity and hydraulic data? To answer the question, we explore the predictive performance of various stochastic and hybrid models. The goal is to find the most suitable model or model combination for forecasting induced microseismicity and unexpected events in geothermal reservoirs.In this study, we consider the Basel 2006 dataset and generate forecasts of the number and spatial distribution of seismicity in the next six hours. We explore two models: (1) a hydro-geomechanical stochastic seed model based on pore pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement; and (2) four variants of a 3D "Shapiro" model which combine estimates of seismogenic index with a spatial forecast based on kernel-smoothed seismicity and temporal weighting. For both models, hydraulic and seismic parameters are calibrated against data from a learning period (starting at the beginning of injection) every six hours. We assess the models using metrics developed by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability: we check the overall consistency of forecasts with the observations by comparing the number, magnitude and spatial distribution of forecast events with the observed induced earthquakes. We also compare the models with each other in terms of information gain, allowing pairwise ranking.

  16. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  17. 2014 Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Reinhardt, Program Manager

    2014-09-01

    As a growing sector of geothermal energy development, the Low-Temperature Program supports innovative technologies that enable electricity production and cascaded uses from geothermal resources below 300° Fahrenheit.

  18. DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Augustine, C.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This presentation summarizes the methodology and results for a probabilistic risk analysis of research, development, and demonstration work-primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program.

  19. Geothermal energy and district heating in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the possibilities for using shallow geothermal energy for heating purposes in Ny-Ålesund. The current energy supply in Ny-Ålesund is a diesel generator, which does not comply with the Norwegian government and Ny-Ålesund Science Managers Committee’s common goal to maintain the natural environment in Ny-Ålesund. Ny-Ålesund has a potential for replacing the heat from the current diesel based energy source with geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is considered to have low im...

  20. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, P.T.

    2002-08-31

    This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  1. Energy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, Leif; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt

    Risø International Energy Conference 2011 took place 10 – 12 May 2011. The conference focused on: - Future global energy development options, scenarios and policy issues - Intelligent energy systems of the future, including the interaction between supply and end-use - New and emerging technologies...... for the extended utilisation of sustainable energy - Distributed energy production technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen, bioenergy, wind, hydro, wave, solar and geothermal - Centralised energy production technologies such as clean coal technologies, CCS and nuclear - Renewable energy for the transport sector...

  2. Geothermal Research at the Geo-Heat Center Oregon Institute of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    1997-01-01

    The Geo-Heat Center was established in 1975 to provide information and technical services for geothermal energy direct-use and development--mainly utilizing low- and moderate-temperature resources (<150oC). The Center is funded by the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). Our main functions are (1) technical assistance, (2) resource information, (3) advising and referrals, (4) speaker’s bureau, (5) tours of geothermal systems, (6) publications, (7) research, and (8) stocking a geothermal library. During 1997, the Geo-Heat Center staff provided assistance to 761 individuals, companies and municipalities--up to eight hours of technical assistance can be provided free of charge. Staff members have also participated in numerous international geothermal direct-use projects. The Center has developed a “Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook” and publishes a free “Quarterly Bulletin” on geothermal direct-use projects and research. The Geo-Heat Center also has a website (http://www.oit.edu/~geoheat). Several of these direct-use research projects are discussed in the paper, including: a) Downhole Heat Exchangers, b) A Cost Comparison of Commercial Ground- Source Heat Pump Systems, c) A Spreadsheet for Geothermal Energy Cost Evaluation, d) Utilization of Silica Waste from Geothermal Power Production, e) Fossil Fuel-Fired Peak Heating for Geothermal Greenhouses, f) Selected Cost Considerations for the Geothermal District Heating in Existing Single-Family Residential Areas, and g) Collocated Resources Inventory of Wells and Hot Springs in the Western U.S.

  3. Outstanding issues for new geothermal resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A critical question for the future energy policy of the United States is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to an ever-increasing demand for electricity. Electric power production from geothermal sources exceeds that from wind and solar combined, yet the installed capacity falls far short of the geothermal resource base characterized in past assessments, even though the estimated size of the resource in six assessments completed in the past 35 years varies by thousands of Megawatts-electrical (MWe). The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working closely with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir permeability, limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production, and include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology.

  4. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1995-12-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-95. It describes 80 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal energy cost evaluation and marketing strategy for geothermal district heating. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  5. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a layman's guide. Geothermal Resources Council special report No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: nature and distribution of geothermal energy; exploration, confirmation, and evaluation of the resource; reservoir development and management; utilization; economics of direct-use development; financing direct-use projects; and legal, institutional, and environmental aspects. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal power for communities and industry. Lecture meeting; Geothermische Energie fuer Kommunen und Industrie. Vortragsveranstaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Geothermal energy is utilized in many ways in Germany for heating, cooling and power generation. The first industrial-scale power generation plant was commissioned in Neustadt-Glewe, Mecklenburg, in late 2003. This marks the beginning of an era of rapid development which will make geothermal power a key element of power supply in Germany. Studies show a vast geothermal potential. This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers which illustrate the many applications of geothermal power and its legal and economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of the 'Canton de Vaud', Switzerland; Evaluation du potentiel geothermique du canton de Vaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J. [Jules Wilhelm, Pully (Switzerland); Bianchetti, G. [ALPGEO, Sierre (Switzerland); Vuataz, F.-D. [University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents an assessment of the geothermal energy potential in the provincial state of Vaud in western Switzerland. According to the authors the prospect for the three current main technologies: low-temperature surface water, deep hot water springs and advanced geothermal systems, is good. In about 10 years it would be possible to extract some 3.6x10{sup 6} MJ per year from low-temperature surface water while the energy production from deep hot springs could be near to 2x10{sup 4} MJ. Finally, in the forthcoming 20 years the construction of 3 advanced geothermal power plants ('Deep Heat Mining', i.e. the extraction of deep-rock thermal energy by water circulation) could produce about 30 MW electricity in a cogeneration operation mode. Recommendations are given regarding measures needed at the political level to promote geothermal power plants.

  8. Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

    2004-03-09

    To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

  9. Geothermal program overview: Fiscal years 1993--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Geothermal Energy Program is involved in three main areas of research: finding and tapping the resource; power generation; and direct use of geothermal energy. This publication summarizes research accomplishments for FY 1993 and 1994 for the following: geophysical and geochemical technologies; slimhole drilling for exploration; resource assessment; lost circulation control; rock penetration mechanics; instrumentation; Geothermal Drilling Organization; reservoir analysis; brine injection; hot dry rock; The Geysers; Geothermal Technology Organization; heat cycle research; advanced heat rejection; materials development; and advanced brine chemistry.

  10. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  11. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  12. Recirculation System for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoury, J. E.; Detwiler, R. L.; Serajian, V.; Bruno, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought and have the potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. In particular, hot permeable sedimentary formations provide many advantages over traditional geothermal recovery and enhanced geothermal systems in low permeability crystalline formations. These include: (1) eliminating the need for hydraulic fracturing, (2) significant reduction in risk for induced seismicity, (3) reducing the need for surface wastewater disposal, (4) contributing to decreases in greenhouse gases, and (5) potential use for CO2 sequestration. Advances in horizontal drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock these geothermal resources. Here, we present experimental results from a laboratory scale circulation system and numerical simulations aimed at quantifying the heat transfer capacity of sedimentary rocks. Our experiments consist of fluid flow through a saturated and pressurized sedimentary disc of 23-cm diameter and 3.8-cm thickness heated along its circumference at a constant temperature. Injection and production ports are 7.6-cm apart in the center of the disc. We used DI de-aired water and mineral oil as working fluids and explored temperatures from 20 to 150 oC and flow rates from 2 to 30 ml/min. We performed experiments on sandstone samples (Castlegate and Kirby) with different porosity, permeability and thermal conductivity to evaluate the effect of hydraulic and thermal properties on the heat transfer capacity of sediments. The producing fluid temperature followed an exponential form with time scale transients between 15 and 45 min. Steady state outflow temperatures varied between 60% and 95% of the set boundary temperature, higher percentages were observed for lower temperatures and flow rates. We used the flow and heat transport simulator TOUGH2 to develop a numerical model of our laboratory setting. Given

  13. 中国地热能发展路线图%A Roadmap to Geothermal Energy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞忠和; 胡圣标; 汪集旸

    2012-01-01

    中国地热能潜力巨大,可以为应对气候变化作出显著贡献.本文提出中国地热能技术发展途径是“四化”,即多元化、规模化、精细化、绿色化;地热能产业发展道路是“三步走”,即近期——中低温利用与高温水热发电、中期——中低温水热发电、远期——干热发电与利用.政府的政策引导与产、学、研、用相结合是实现地热能技术与产业发展目标之关键.%China possesses a high potential of geothermal energy. A suitable roadmap for technology and industry development is required in order to realize the vision meeting demand on global climate change mitigation. It is proposed that the future geothermal technology development in China will be characterized by the diversification of resources and utilizations, the scale enlargement of development projects, the refinement of advanced technologies, and sustainability guarantee. The geothermal industry development will be focused on low-medium temperature direct use and high- temperature geothermal power generation in the near future, power generation from low-medium temperature in middle period, and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) energy combined heal and power in the long term. The leading role piayeel by government, supplemented by the coordination among researchers, educators, producers, and consumers will be the key to successful geothermal technology and industry development in China.

  14. Investigations on the improvement of the energy output of a Closed Loop Geothermal System (CLGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Sven-Uwe

    2008-08-04

    (electricity, heat or combined heat and power (CHP)) that can be supplied to the grids. This goes along with the simultaneously calculation of the achievable incomes that are related to the expenses in the form of static annual cash flows. After the theoretical introduction and derivation of the model a set of examples is processed that proves the functionality of the model on the one hand and shows the energy utilization potential of the CLGS technology on the other hand. The examples are divided into a set of general examples under ideal conditions that are adequate to demonstrate the model behaviour. Secondly an assumed example that is not reality but based on real geological and technical data is processed and evaluated. The second part of these investigations discusses possible steps and optimization approaches for the improvement of the calculated energy output. The discussion of the risks with regard to the system in comparison to enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) as well as to other types of renewable energy systems shows the state of the CLGS. An evaluation and plausibility discussion of the model finalizes the investigations leading to the derivation of the limits of this technology. (orig.)

  15. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  16. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.

    1977-05-01

    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  17. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  19. The Silting-Up Prevention in the Geothermal Absorbent Openings of Geothermal Energy Plant Pyrzyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents precipitation results from cold thermal water deposits that are the main cause of clogging in absorbent geothermal wells and borehole areas. As a result of physical and chemical analysis, laboratory tests and observation of the operation of a geothermal installation, a new method was developed to prevent the precipitation of sludge from cooled thermal water. The method being a modification of soft acidising was tentatively named as a super soft acidising method

  20. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of Dublin. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 75 sites (33 consist of only

  1. Noise-control needs in the developing energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.

    1978-03-01

    The noise characteristics of existing energy conversion technologies, e.g., from obtaining and processing fossil fuels to power plants operations, and of developing energy technologies (wind, geothermal sources, solar energy or fusion systems) are discussed in terms of the effects of noise on humans, animals, structures, and equipment and methods for noise control. Regulations for noise control are described. Recommendations are made for further research on noise control and noise effects. (LCL)

  2. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, C.D.

    1977-11-15

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a significant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospect in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  3. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  4. Estimating commercial electric energy conversion costs at liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Jacobson, W.O.; Newell, D.G.; Van Wagenen, L.G.; Carroll, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives are to: (1) present an overview of the existing state-of-the-art in geothermal power plant technology; (2) identify the categories of uncertainties as currently understood; and (3) discuss specific activities and/or methods for reducing significant uncertainties. The overview generally describes geothermal resources, briefly reviews worldwide experience, characterizes resources in the Imperial Valley and disscusses conversion technology. A discussion of the categories of uncertainty will define flash cycle cost elements, cost sensitivity, and other economic risks. The discussion then addresses the Commercial Risk Reduction Activities of SDG and E, how these activities integrate with the activities of others and a perspective on geothermal power production.

  5. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  6. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  7. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  8. Issue Paper Potential Water Availability Problems Associated with Geothermal Energy Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-19

    The report is the first to study and discuss the effect of water supply problems of geothermal development. Geothermal energy resources have the potential of making a significant contribution to the U.S. energy supply situation, especially at the regional and local levels where the resources are located. A significant issue of concern is the availability and cost of water for use in a geothermal power operation primarily because geothermal power plants require large quantities of water for cooling, sludge handling and the operation of environmental control systems. On a per unit basis, geothermal power plants, because of their inherent high heat rejection rates, have cooling requirements several times greater than the conventional fossil fuel plants and therefore the supply of water is a critical factor in the planning, designing, and siting of geothermal power plants. However, no studies have been specifically performed to identify the water requirements of geothermal power plants, the underlying causes of water availability problems, and available techniques to alleviate some of these problems. There is no cost data included in the report. The report includes some descriptions of known geothermal areas. [DJE-2005

  9. Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Christopher L.

    At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of

  10. Federal Assistance Program Quarterly Project Progress Report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information Dissemination, Public Outreach, and Technical Analysis Activities. Reporting Period: January 1 - March 31, 2001 [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    The final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  11. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  12. Geothermal energy sources as opportunity for Turkish greenhouse horticulture and the Dutch commercial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.; Ruijs, M.N.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify the opportunities offered by exploration of geothermal energy sources, and to specify actions to be taken by Dutch governmental bodies and private companies in collaboration with Turkish partners.

  13. Geothermal energy sources as opportunity for Turkish greenhouse horticulture and the Dutch commercial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.; Ruijs, M.N.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify the opportunities offered by exploration of geothermal energy sources, and to specify actions to be taken by Dutch governmental bodies and private companies in collaboration with Turkish partners.

  14. Environmental considerations for geothermal energy as a source for district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1996-01-01

    Geothermal energy currently provides a stable and environmentally attractive heat source for approximately 20 district heating (DH) systems in the United States. The use of this resource eliminates nearly 100% of the conventional fuel consumption (and, hence, the emissions) of the loads served by these systems. As a result, geothermal DH systems can rightfully claim the title of the most fuel-efficient CH systems in operations today. The cost of producing heat from a geothermal resource (including capitalization of the production facility and cost for pumping) amounts to an average of $1.00 per mission Btu (0.0034 $/kWh). The major environmental challenge for geothermal systems is proper management of the producing aquifer. Many systems are moving toward injection of the geothermal fluids to ensure long-term production.

  15. German energy technology prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, M

    1982-12-24

    After more than 25 years of development of nuclear power and almost 10 years of research and development in numerous areas of nonnuclear energy, there is now a good basis for judging the future prospects of energy technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The development of nuclear power has provided an important and economically advantageous new source of energy. Further efforts are needed to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in all stages and to exploit the potential of advanced reactors. In all other areas of energy technology, including energy conservation, new energy sources, and coal, economics has turned out to be the key problem, even at today's energy prices. Opportunities to overcome these economic problems through additional R & D are limited. There is some potential for special applications, and there are many technologies that could contribute to the energy supply of developing countries. In general, however, progress in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources will depend on the degree to which energy policy measures can improve their economic basis. For some technologies, such as solar thermal power stations and coal liquefaction, large-scale economic deployment cannot be foreseen today. Instead of establishing costly demonstration projects, emphasis will be put on improving key components of these technologies with the aim of having the most advanced technology available when the economic parameters are more favorable.

  16. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume V. Legal, institutional, and environmental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Three separate abstracts were prepared for Volume V of the Proceedings of the Conference. Sections are entitled: Legal Issues in the Development of Geopressured--Geothermal Resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast; The Development of Geothermal Energy in the Gulf Coast; Socio-economic, Demographic, and Political Considerations; and Geothermal Resources of the Texas Gulf Coast--Environmental Concerns arising from the Production and Disposal of Geothermal waters. (MCW)

  17. An empirical investigation to use solar–geothermal hybrid energy system for small towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Orougi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been increasing interest to find a replacement for gas consumption in Iranian small towns and cities. The government believes delivering cheap gas to small towns is not economical and can be replaced with recent technological solar–geothermal hybrid energy system. In this paper, we present an empirical study to calculate internal rate of return (IRR for a small town located near the city of Qom, Iran. We consider three scenarios of population, namely 1000, 1500 and 2000 households and various rates for gas price from 7 to 40 cents. The results show that a gas distribution unit yields 2% to 20% in terms of return. This brings us to conclude that gas distribution for small towns far from major cities is not economically justified for government. Therefore, we need to use alternative methods such as solar–geothermal hybrid energy system. We use TOPSIS method, as a multi criteria decision making approach, to prioritize ten small towns in Qom province and the results are analyzed.

  18. Progress of the LASL dry hot rock geothermal energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of extracting energy from geothermal reservoirs which do not spontaneously yield useful amounts of steam or hot water are discussed. The system for accomplishing this which is being developed first is a pressurized-water circulation loop intended for use in relatively impermeable hot rock. It will consist of two holes connected through the hot rock by a very large hydraulic fracture and connected at the surface through the primary heat exchanger of an energy utilization system. Preliminary experiments in a hole 2576 ft (0.7852 km) deep, extending about 470 ft (143 m) into the Precambrian basement rock underlying the Jemez Plateau of north-central New Mexico, revealed no unexpected difficulties in drilling or hydraulically fracturing such rock at a temperature of approximately 100 C, and demonstrated a permeability low enough so that it appeared probable that pressurized water could be contained by the basement rock. Similar experiments are in progress in a second hole, now 6701 ft (2.043 km) deep, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of the first one.

  19. Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The article summarizes the geothermal potential, the status and the prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany and arrives at the following conclusions: Even in a country like Germany with no active vulcanism the resources for geothermal power production and direct use are very high and exceed those of conventional energy sources by far. Geothermal use in Germany however is still in its initial stage. The installed capacity in 2005 amounted to 135 MW{sub th} for direct use and to only 230 kW{sub el} for power production. The uprating of the allowance for geothermal power from 0.09 Euro/kWh to 0.15 Euro/kWh in 2004 and the R and D-programme for renewable energy of the Ministry of Environment has initiated a great number of new projects especially in the Upper Rhine Valley and in the Fore Alp Region near Munich. The success of these projects will be critical for the development of geothermal power production in Germany in the near future. Geothermal energy use in Germany is so far restricted to deep seated hot water aquifers. One of the major barriers for a wider application of this resource is our poor knowledge about the hydraulic properties of these aquifers leading to a great and in many cases unacceptable risk for potential investors. For this reason a geothermal information system is under development at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover which will help to supply investors with the best information available and to quantify the risk for insurance companies and geothermal funds. Though hot water aquifers suitable for geothermal power production are rare in Germany the size of this resource is comparable to the German oil and gas resources. Nevertheless their contribution to the national power production will remain small and will hardly exceed a few hundred MW{sub el}. Their potential for direct use is much higher. But since heat has to be produced very close to the consumer to prevent excessive costs for transportation this huge

  20. Data assimilation for the investigation of deep temperature and geothermal energy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Damien; Limberger, Jon; Lipsey, Lindsey; Cloetingh, Sierd; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2016-04-01

    Deep geothermal energy systems, mostly for the direct use of heat, have been attracting more and more interest in the past 10 years in Western Europe. In the Netherlands, where the sector took off with the first system in 2005, geothermal energy is seen has a key player for a sustainable future. To support the development of deep geothermal energy system, the scientific community has been working on tools that could be used to highlight area of potential interest for geothermal exploration. In the Netherlands, ThermoGIS is one such tool that has been developed to inform the general public, policy makers, and developers in the energy sector of the possibility of geothermal energy development. One major component incorporated in this tool is the temperature model. For the Netherlands, we created a thermal model at the lithospheric scale that focus on the sedimentary deposits for deep geothermal exploration. This regional thermal modelling concentrates on the variations of geological thermal conductivity and heat production both in the sediments and in the crust. In addition, we carried out special modelling in order to specifically understand convectivity in the basin, focusing on variations at a regional scale. These works, as well as recent improved of geological knowledge in the deeper part of the basin, show interesting evidence for geothermal energy development. At this scale, the aim of this work is to build on these models and, using data assimilation, to discriminate in the actual causes of the observed anomalies. The temperature results obtained for the Netherlands show some thermal patterns that relate to the variation of the thermal conductivity and the geometry of the sediments. There is also strong evidence to indicate that deep convective flows are responsible for thermal anomalies. The combination of conductive and local convective thermal patterns makes the deeper part of the Dutch sedimentary basin of great interest for the development of geothermal

  1. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  2. Estimation of the resource and technological prospective of geothermal energy in Mexico (Annexe 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva tecnologica de la geotermia en Mexico (Anexo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias R, Eduardo; Arellano G, Victor; Torres R, Rodolfo Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Due to its individual geologic-structural characteristics, Mexico counts on abundant geothermal resources. At the moment we count on a database that includes 2,332 geothermal manifestations distributed in 27 of the 32 Mexican states, the geothermal resources are classified as high temperature and intermediate or low temperature resources. Those of high temperature can be used for the generation of electrical energy. Those of intermediate to low temperature are more appropriate for direct applications of the geothermal heat. As of today, in Mexico exist four geothermal fields of high temperature that are being exploded for the electrical generation. [Spanish] Debido a sus particulares caracteristicas geologico-estructurales, Mexico cuenta con abundantes recursos geotermicos. Actualmente contamos con una base de datos que incluye 2,332 manifestaciones geotermicas distribuidas en 27 de los 32 estados mexicanos, los recursos geotermicos se clasifican en de alta temperatura y recursos de temperatura intermedia a baja. Los de alta temperatura pueden utilizarse para la generacion de energia electrica. Los de temperatura intermedia a baja son mas apropiados para aplicaciones directas del calor geotermico. Actualmente en Mexico existen cuatro campos geotermicos de alta temperatura que estan siendo explotados para la generacion electrica.

  3. Thermal Properties of Cement-Based Composites for Geothermal Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohua; Memon, Shazim Ali; Yang, Haibin; Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-04-27

    Geothermal energy piles are a quite recent renewable energy technique where geothermal energy in the foundation of a building is used to transport and store geothermal energy. In this paper, a structural-functional integrated cement-based composite, which can be used for energy piles, was developed using expanded graphite and graphite nanoplatelet-based composite phase change materials (CPCMs). Its mechanical properties, thermal-regulatory performance, and heat of hydration were evaluated. Test results showed that the compressive strength of GNP-Paraffin cement-based composites at 28 days was more than 25 MPa. The flexural strength and density of thermal energy storage cement paste composite decreased with increases in the percentage of CPCM in the cement paste. The infrared thermal image analysis results showed superior thermal control capability of cement based materials with CPCMs. Hence, the carbon-based CPCMs are promising thermal energy storage materials and can be used to improve the durability of energy piles.

  4. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, the lifecycle cost (LCC analysis incorporated maintenance costs (reflecting repair and replacement cycles based on construction work specifications of a new renewable energy facility and initial construction costs (calculated based on design drawings for its practical installation. It is expected that the findings of this study will help in the selection of an economically viable geothermal energy facility at the building construction planning phase.

  5. Geothermal energy and the environment - The global experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The paper discusses the impact of environmental problems on the world's geothermal generating stations. The significant impacts include conflicts in land use, air pollution, subsidence, water pollution, induced seismicity, blowouts, and noise. Development of geothermal resources has been slowed down in some countries: in U.S., the emission of hydrogen sulfide produced a problem; in Japan, land use in national parks and waste-water disposal resulted in difficulties; and in El Salvador, waste-water disposal presented a difficulty. Geothermal development faces many regulations and difficulties, particularly in U.S., a country which could stimulate a global acceleration in this field with appropriately relaxed controls.

  6. Proceedings of conference on geothermal energy and the law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Work group reports are presented for the following problem areas: legal and other institutional barriers complicating efforts at the earliest stages of geothermal development; the perspective of potential investors and the connection with specific uncertainties in the legal environment; preserving the interests of the government, the public generally, and the private geothermal lessors; the various water law conflicts, including potential conflicts between users of water in geothermal production and users of water for other purposes; jurisdictional conflict and overlapping administration; and problems of utilities and dependent users. (MHR)

  7. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  8. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  9. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-04-01

    In this report, the DOE Geothermal Program activities were split between Core Research and Industrial Development. The technical areas covered are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology (including Hot Dry Rock Research and The Geyser Cooperation), and Conversion Technology (power plants, materials, and direct use/direct heat). Work to design the Lake County effluent pipeline to help recharge The Geysers shows up here for the first time. This Progress Report is another of the documents that are reasonable starting points in understanding many of the details of the DOE Geothermal Program. (DJE 2005)

  10. Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function of: Working Fluid, Technology, and Location, Location, Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Paul [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Selman, Nancy [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Volpe, Anthony Della [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Moss, Deborah [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Mobley, Rick [Plasma Energy Services, LLC, Putnam, CT (United States); Dickey, Halley [Turbine Air Systems, Houston, TX (United States); Unruh, Jeffery [Fugro NV/Wm. Lettis & Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Hitchcock, Chris [Fugro NV/Wm. Lettis & Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Tanguay, Jasmine [Conservation Law Foundation/CLF Ventures, Boston, MA (United States); Larsen, Walker [Conservation Law Foundation/CLF Ventures, Boston, MA (United States); Sanyal, Sabir [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Butler, Steven [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Stacey, Robert [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gutoski, Greg [Fairbanks Morse Engines (FME), Beloit, WI (United States); Fay, Jamie M. [Fort Point Associates, Boston, MA (United States); Stitzer, John T. [Fort Point Associates, Boston, MA (United States); Oglesby, Ken [Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Substantial unexploited opportunity exists for the US, and the world, in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). As a result of US DOE investment, new drilling technology, new power generation equipment and cycles enable meaningful power production, in a compact and modular fashion; at lower and lower top side EGS working fluid temperatures and in a broader range of geologies and geographies. This cost analysis effort supports the expansion of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), furthering DOE strategic themes of energy security and sub goal of energy diversity; reducing the Nation's dependence on foreign oil while improving the environment.

  11. Geothermal energy in Washington: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1979-04-01

    This is an attempt to identify the factors which have affected and will continue to affect geothermal assessment and development in the state. The eight potential sites chosen for detailed analysis include: Indian Heaven KGRA, Mount St. Helens KGRA, Kennedy Hot Springs KGRA, Mount Adams PGRA (Potential Geothermal Resource Area), Mount Rainier PGRA, Mount Baker PGRA, Olympic-Sol Duc Hot Springs, and Yakima. The following information is included for each site: site data, site location and physical description, geological/geophysical description, reservoir characteristics, land ownership and leasing, geothermal development status, institutional characteristics, environmental factors, transportation and utilities, and population. A number of serious impediments to geothermal development were identified which can be solved only by legislative action at the state or federal level and/or changes in attitudes by regulatory agencies. (MHR)

  12. Joint geophysical data analysis for geothermal energy exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Antony Munika

    Geophysical data modelling often yields non-unique results and hence the interpretation of the resulting models in terms of underlying geological units and structures is not a straightforward problem. However, if multiple datasets are available for a region of study, an integrated interpretation of models for each of the geophysical data may results to a more realistic geological description. This study not only demonstrates the strength of resistivity analysis for geothermal fields but also the gains from interpreting resistivity data together with other geophysical data such as gravity and seismic data. Various geothermal fields have been examined in this study which includes Silali and Menengai geothermal fields in Kenya and Coso geothermal field in California, USA.

  13. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    California's geographic and end-use markets which could directly use low and moderate temperature geothermal resources are ranked and described, as well as those which have the highest potential for near-term commercial development of these resources. Building on previous market surveys, the assessment determined that out of 38 geothermal resource areas with characteristics for direct use development, five areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development: Susanville, Litchfield, Ontario Hot Springs, Lake Elsinore, and the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Twenty-nine applications were compared with previously selected criteria to determine their near-term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Seven categories were found to have the least impediments to development; agriculture and district heating applications are considered the highest. Ten-year projections were conducted for fossil fuel displacement from the higher rated applications. It is concluded that greenhouses have the greatest displacement of 18 x 10/sup 6/ therms per year.

  14. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Idaho, including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, lease and development status, institutional factors, legal aspects, population and market, and development. (MHR)

  15. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.R.

    1979-04-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Alaska including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, base and development status, institutional factors, economics, population and market, and development potential. (MHR)

  16. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  17. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  18. The Romanian perspective on geothermal energy resources. The chemistry of the geothermal waters from Oradea Triassic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra M. Petrescu-Mag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the European Commission put forward a proposal for a new directive (COM (200830 on renewable energies to replace the existing measures adopted in 2001. According to the proposal, each member state should increase its share of renewable energies - such as solar, wind or hydro - in an effort to boost the EU's share from 8.5% today to 20% by 2020. According to Cohuţ & Bendea (2000 in Romania are over 200 wells drilled to depths between 800 and 3500 m that encountered geothermalresources at temperatures from 40 to 120 °C. These wells have a total thermal capacity of about 480 Mwt. The Oradea aquifer was identified between 1963-1964 by the drills 4005 and 4006. To establish the content of the major elements of the geothermal waters from the production wells from Oradea, the geothermal fluids were sampled and analyzed during six months (since October 2007 to March 2008, by using ion chromatographic (IC method. In this period of the year, the geothermal installations are used at the maximum capacity.

  19. International Programs and Agreements in Geothermal Energy. An Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Fein, E.; Bye, J.

    1978-06-01

    This report contains the interim results of a study for the Division of Geothermal Energy on the Division's international programs and activities. The complete research program, which is scheduled to be finished i November 1978, will have the following elements: (1) an assessment of objectives that have motivated the formulation of international programs and an explanation of any changes in the evolution of those programs. These objectives will be assessed for their internal consistency, degree of governmental consensus, their practicality, the current status of their accomplishments, and the implications of their accomplishments for the role of DGE. (2) An assessment of organizational structures and teams, including the identity of key decisionmakers, the nature of the interagency process, procedures for generating nongovernmental support for international programs and the success of these procedures, and the effectiveness of the interface with foreign partners. (3) Assessment of results of international cooperative programs, which involve the development of an overall balance sheet of benefits and disbenefits attributed to each international program. (4) The formulation of future international cooperative programs based on the assessments described. These programs may involve the development of new exchanges, alteration or elimination of existing exchanges, and revisions in the management of exchanges by US government agencies.

  20. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.V.

    1979-07-01

    A summary of known information about the nature of the resource, its potential for development, and the infrastructure of government which will guide future development is presented. Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are included. Leasing and development status, institutional parameters, and a legal overview of geothermal resources in Idaho are given. (MHR)

  1. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  2. The new energy technologies in Australia; Les nouvelles technologies de l'energie en Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  3. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  4. Methods for the estimation of the energy stored in geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Donatini, F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyze the problem of the estimation of the potential of geothermal reservoirs with the objective of sizing of geothermal power plants in order to reach the goal of a correct matching of renewability and economic related issues. After an analysis of the typical approaches based on the First Order Method diffused in the literature since the late 70s and of the uncertainties connected with the use of simplified approaches, that have determined general overestimation of the geothermal energy stored in the reservoirs and of the size of the plants connected to various geothermal fields, the authors discuss about possible improvements based on the combination of theoretical simplified approaches with experimental data of heat flow, taking into account not only the energy stored, but also the possibility of producing a recharge.

  5. Geothermal resources in Arizona: a bibliography. Circular 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography references all reports and maps generated by the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology and the Arizona Geothermal Commercialization Team of the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arizona. To provide a more comprehensive listing of geothermal energy in Arizona, all available geothermal papers from other sources have been included. A total of 224 references are presented. (MHR)

  6. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  7. The Present and Future of Szigetvár Spa – An Economic Analysis of Geothermal Energy Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Pálné Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, geothermal energy has proved to be an economical source of energy for direct use. It highlights the pros and cons of including renewable energy in the power generation mix of Hungary, and the pros and cons of local application. This paper looks at the operation of Szigetvár Spa from both economic and social aspects. In this study, qualitative analysis is used for the basic economic and social introduction of the Spa, and then real options, based on quantitative methods, are described to identify the long-term financial consequences of the project. In 1966, thermal water was found in Szigetvár. In 1997, this thermal water was certified as medicinal water. The wellhead temperature of Szigetvár thermal water is 62°C in the 790 metres deep thermal well. It is used as so-called domestic hot water in the Szent István housing estate and in Szigetvár Spa. One of the problems with the project is that it is based on single stage thermal water utilization, another problem is that the waste water is too hot. This can be solved by exploiting the heat energy of thermal water more intensively. This way, maximum benefits can be gained from geothermal energy with minimum use of energy. Static and dynamic investment analyses were carried out to examine the spa from a financial aspect. The methods used include static payback period, average rate of return, levelized cost of electricity, net present value, profitability index, dynamic payback period, internal rate of return and real options. By pricing geothermal technology, it is possible to identify the strategic value of flexibility, to quantify what was previously left unquantified, and thus to show that geothermal investments are profitable not only from a social but also from a financial aspect as well.

  8. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  9. Reservoir engineering technology used for geothermal reservoir assessment studies in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, H. [ISTec, Inst. fuer Sicherheitstechnologie, Koeln (Germany); Pusch, G. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik, TU Clausthal (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The development of the geothermal reservoirs needs and uses the know-how and technology of petroleum reservoir engineering. The interaction of both disciplines is due to the similarities of underground geothermal systems to the oil and gas reservoirs. Because of the its earlier development, petroleum engineering concepts and technologies play an important role in geothermal field developments worldwide since many years. In Germany good examples of this interaction is also seen in the last years especially in exploration and development stages. The assessment of the defined heat reserves needs also to profit from the reservoir assessment and management techniques and technologies of petroleum engineering. Especially modelling of all production stages, from the near wellbore in the reservoir, to the surface could be examined based on the know-how and developed tools of the petroleum industry.

  10. Hydrochemical characterization of a mine water geothermal energy resource in NW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Loredo, C; Ordóñez, A; Garcia-Ordiales, E.; Álvarez, R.; Roqueñi, N.; Cienfuegos, P.; Peña, A.; Burnside, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abandoned and flooded mine networks provide underground reservoirs of mine water that can be used as a renewable geothermal energy source. A complete hydrochemical characterization of mine water is required to optimally design the geothermal installation, understand the hydraulic behavior of the water in the reservoir and prevent undesired effects such as pipe clogging via mineral precipitation. Water pumped from the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir (Asturias, NW Spain), which is currently e...

  11. German-Indonesian Cooperation on Sustainable Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia - Status and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kemal Erbas; M. Jaya; P. Jousset; Fiorenza Deon; Rachmat M. Sule; Stephanie Frick; Ernst Huenges; David Bruhn

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 cooperation between Germany and Indonesia has been initiated in the field of sustainable geothermal energy development. Within this German project “Sustainability concepts for exploitation of geothermal reservoirs in Indonesia – capacity building and methodologies for site deployment” several research activities have been carried out which were closely accompanied by capacity building measures, such as a PhD-program in Germany with focus on Indonesian topics. Research activit...

  12. THE COMPARISION OF SOMA LIGNITE COAL AN FUEL-OIL WITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR HEATING BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNTÜRKÜN, Rüstü

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a house that has four storeys and one hundred square meters flat was taken sample. Because this house can be heated with three different alternatives Soma lignite coal, fuel oil and geothermal, necessary first investment and annual heating costs were investigated. In addition, at heating building of geothermal energy whether became economic was researched. Economic analysis of used fuels at heating to a flat that is one hundred square meters been done. According to result of...

  13. Energy Technology Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Anmeldelse af bogen: Energy Technology Innovation – Learning from Historical Successes and Failures, A. Grubler, C. Wilson (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York (2014) 387p., ISBN: 978-1-107-02322-2......Anmeldelse af bogen: Energy Technology Innovation – Learning from Historical Successes and Failures, A. Grubler, C. Wilson (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York (2014) 387p., ISBN: 978-1-107-02322-2...

  14. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Pagosa Springs, Colorado. Final report, June 1979-June 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Pagosa Springs Geothermal District Heating System was conceptualized, designed, and constructed between 1979 to 1984 under the US Department of Energy Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program to demonstrate the feasibility for utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources for direct-use applications. The Pagosa Springs system successfully provides space heating to public buildings, school facilities, residences, and commercial establishments at costs significantly lower than costs of available conventional fuels. The Pagosa Springs project encompassed a full range of technical, institutional, and economic activities. Geothermal reservoir evaluations and testing were performed, and two productive approx.140/sup 0/F geothermal supply wells were successfully drilled and completed. Transmission and distribution system design, construction, startup, and operation were achieved with minimum difficulty. The geothermal system operation during the first two heating seasons has been fully reliable and well respected in the community. The project has proven that low to moderate-temperature waters can effectively meet required heating loads, even for harsh winter-mountain environments. The principal difficulty encountered has been institutional in nature and centers on the obtaining of the geothermal production well permits and the adjudicated water rights necessary to supply the geothermal hot water fluids for the full operating life of the system. 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

  16. Cost of district heating using geothermal energy; Ist geothermische Waerme wirtschaftlich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, G. [GRUNEKO AG, Ingenieure fuer Energiewirtschaft, Basel (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The environmental advantages of a district heating network using geothermal energy are obvious. On the other hand utilizing geothermal energy is considered to be very expensive. The goal of this paper is to compare the costs of geothermal energy with other renewable energy sources. Based on the costs of realized plants and projects the following energy sources have been analysed. Geothermal energy, water of tunnel-drainage, waste heat of a sewage disposal platn and waste wood. All plants have a district heating network. The results are a contribution to the actuel discussion about public subsiding of geothermal energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die oekologischen Vorteile einer geothermischen Fernwaermeversorgung sind fuer jeden, der Bohrungen in Erwaegung zieht, unschwer erkennbar. Wie steht es aber mit den Kosten einer geothermischen Nutzung? Hier beleben Horrorzahlen wie auch Wunschdenken die Diskussionen. Der Artikel beabsichtigt einen sachlichen Beitrag zu dieser Diskussion uz liefern. Konkrete Bauprojekte im Megawattbereich der GRUNEKO AG werden kostenmaessig nach gleichen Kriterien analysiert und verglichen. Auf goethermischer Seite wird ein Doublettensystem und eine Tunnelwasserwaermenutzung kostenmaessig analysiert. Als Quervergleich werden ebenfalls GRUNEKO-Projekte mit regenerierbaren Energietraegern herangezogen (Holzschnitzelanlage, Klaeranlagenabwaerme, Seewasser-Abkuehlung). Alle Analgen haben Waermeverteilnetze. Die nachgewiesenen Kostendifferenzen zwischen Geothermie und anderen regenerativen Waermversorgungen koennten einen Beitrag leisten zu der gegenwaertig aktuellen `Ueberpruefung staatlicher Foerderungsmassnahmen zugunsten einer verstaerkten Nutzung der Geothermie`. (orig.)

  17. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  18. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-09

    The results of the analyses as well as a plan for geothermal development are described. The major findings and specific barriers to development that would have to be addressed are identified. Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described. These characteristics include physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they would relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described. Based on available information, the reservoir is generally described, defining the depth to the reservoir, production rates of the existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The amounts and types of energy currently consumed, by end-user, are estimated. From this information, a conceptual engineering design and cost estimates are presented. Finally, the results of a life cycle analysis of the economic feasibility are discussed. A time-line chart shows the tasks, the time estimated to be required for each and the interrelatioships among the activities. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed. These include the financial, environmental, legal and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering, and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.

  19. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  20. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Silica bronze project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchini, H.

    1989-10-01

    Objective was to incorporate waste silica from the HGP-A geothermal well in Pohoiki with other refractory materials for investment casting of bronze sculpture. The best composition for casting is about 50% silica, 25% red cinders, and 25% brick dust; remaining ingredient is a binder, such as plaster and water.

  1. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  2. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  3. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  4. High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes: potential geothermal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuderman, J.F.; Chu, T.Y.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    High Energy Gas Fracturing is a tailored pulse fracturing technique which uses propellants to obtain controlled fracture initiation and extension. Borehole pressurization rates can be tailored, by suitable choice of propellants, to produce four or eight fractures radiating from the wellbore. High Energy Gas Fracture (HEGF) research is conducted at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in a tunnel complex where experiments can be done under realistic in situ stress conditions (1400 psi (9.7 MPa) overburden stress). Pressure measurements are made in the test borehole during all fracturing experiments. Experiments are mined back to provide direct observation of fracturing obtained. The initial objective of HEGF research was to develop multiple fracturing technology for application in gas well stimulation. HEGF research at NTS and in Devonian shale demonstration tests has resulted in a completed technology for multiple fracturing in uncased, liquid-free wellbores. Current resarch is directed toward extending the technique to liquid-filled boreholes for application in geothermal in addition to gas and oil wells. For liquid-free boreholes, multiple fracturing is specified in terms of pressure risetime required for a given borehole diameter. Propellants are mixed to achieve the desired risetime using a semiempirical mixing equation. The same techniques were successfully applied to fracturing in liquid-filled wellbores. However, the addition of liquid in the borehole results in a significantly more complicated fracturing behavior. Hydrodynamic effects are significant. Multiple fractures are initiated but only some propagated. Multiple- and hydraulic-type fracturing and wellbore crushing have been observed in the same experiment. The potential of using HEGB for geothermal well stimulation has been demonstrated through the present experiments. 18 refs., 40 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The projection of world geothermal energy consumption from time series and regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanullang, Elwin Y.; Supriatna, Agus; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2015-12-01

    World population growth has many impacts on human live activities and other related aspects. One among the aspects is the increase of the use of energy to support human daily activities, covering industrial aspect, transportation, domestic activities, etc. It is plausible that the higher the population size in a country the higher the needs for energy to support all aspects of human activities in the country. Considering the depletion of petroleum and other fossil-based energy, recently there is a tendency to use geothermal as other source of energy. In this paper we will discuss the prediction of the world consumption of geothermal energy by two different methods, i.e. via the time series of the geothermal usage and via the time series of the geothermal usage combined with the prediction of the world total population. For the first case, we use the simple exponential smoothing method while for the second case we use the simple regression method. The result shows that taking into account the prediction of the world population size giving a better prediction to forecast a short term of the geothermal energy consumption.

  6. Geothermal Systems for School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  7. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  8. Energy technology for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M. [H2 Logic (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    World energy demand for transport has increased significantly for many years. This trend is projected to continue in the years to come, one reason being that large and rapidly developing economies bring increasing demand for the transport of goods and people, including rising transport demand due to greater integration of developing countries in the international trade. Transport not only account for approximately 20 % of the total world energy consumption, but is almost entirely based on limited and expensive fossil energy resources. Technology development and economic incentives are key areas in bringing clean energy to the transportation sector. This chapter recommends that technology development must aim to make each link of the energy conversion chain cheaper, cleaner and more efficient. It should be driven by public-private partnerships, with a funding basis balance that reflects the nearness of each technology to commercial application. Onboard storage, for instance, still needs basic research, whereas fuel cells are already competitive in certain markets. For consumers, fossil fuels are certain to remain the cheapest option for transport as long as energy prices do not reflect the cost of environmental damage. To reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from transport, governments are recommended to set up strong economic or other incentives to encourage consumers to opt for low-carbon vehicles or public transport. As well as reducing environmental damage, such measures could generate money to support research and development in clean energy technologies. (BA)

  9. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  10. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  11. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  12. Does shallow geothermal energy use threaten groundwater ecosystem functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne I.; Ferraro, Francesco; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Griebler, Christian; Lueders, Tillmann

    2010-05-01

    Today, the use of geothermal energy is strongly promoted as an alternative and sustainable source of energy. However, regarding the authorization, regulation and monitoring of such facilities with respect to possible environmental impacts, a severe lack of knowledge has been identified. Aquifers are not only abiotic reservoirs of water and sediment, but they are complex ecosystems harbouring an almost untapped diversity of microorganisms and fauna. Intrinsic groundwater organisms are highly adapted to extremely oligotrophic, but stable conditions including temperature. At the same time, groundwater biota are the key drivers of important ecosystem services, especially functions connected to water quality. So what happens if groundwater biota need to cope with sudden temperature dynamics caused by GSHP use? Potential effects of thermal use on pristine aquifers, and on groundwater systems already facing enhanced loads of nutrients or contamination require urgent scientific attention. Within this project, we have assessed - both in the field and in the laboratory - the impacts of temperature discharge and withdrawal on biotic parameters and functional characteristics of exemplary shallow groundwater systems. In the field, aquifer microbes did not show significant impacts under increased temperatures in terms of total cell numbers, selected enzyme activities and carbon production. However, bacterial diversity clearly increased with temperature, accompanied by the appearance of new bacterial lineages and the disappearance of others. On the contrary, faunal diversity decreased with temperature, highlighting the temperature sensitivity of groundwater invertebrates. These results demonstrate that aquifer thermal energy discharge can affect intrinsic aquifer biotic populations, while at the same time being only one of several drivers contributing to total variability connected to seasonal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity. In laboratory column experiments covering a larger

  13. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  14. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  15. Fact sheets relating to use of geothermal energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    A compilation of data relating to geothermal energy in each of the 50 states is presented. The data are summarized on one page for each state. All summary data sheets use a common format. Following the summary data sheet there are additional data on the geology of each state pertaining to possible hydrothermal/geothermal resources. Also there is a list of some of the reports available pertaining to the state and state energy contacts. The intent of these documents is to present in a concise form reference data for planning by the Department of Energy.

  16. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  17. A national strategy for the export of US geothermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This document presents a proposal for an explicit US strategy to focus this still diffuse interest into a coordinated effort by the public and private sectors to increase exports of US geothermal goods and services over the next five to ten years. This document summarizes the background and need for an explicit US strategy, the factors influencing the development of this strategy, strategy options, and a recommended strategy.

  18. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  19. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  20. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-11

    This is a proceedings of the NEDO International Geothermal Symposium held in Sendai in 1997. The worldwide geothermal energy power generation capacity exceeds 7000 MW. Geothermal energy is widely used also for heating, snow melting, greenhouse cultivation as well as electric power generation. Geothermal energy generates far less CO2 causing the global warming than fossil fuels. The geothermal energy is clean and renewable. Considering the environmental issue and energy supply/demand of the world, we have to exert further efforts for the geothermal development. In this conference, discussions were made on each country`s experiences of the geothermal development, and future prediction and strategies for geothermal utilization in the Asia/Pacific region, in particular. Further, in the technical session, conducted were the IEA study and technical presentation/discussion for technical cooperation. The proceedings includes research reports of more than 30, which are clarified into three fields: impacts of the geothermal development on the environment, technical development of the hot dry rock power generation system, and development of technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resource