WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology genetic engineering

  1. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  2. [Genetic engineering technologies of stimulating angiogenesis as an innovation trend in angiology and vascular surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, A V; Voronov, D A

    2015-01-01

    Presented herein is a review of the principles, fundamental concepts, and possibilities of genetic engineering technologies of stimulating angiogenesis for treatment of patients with lower limb chronic ischaemia. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the structure and results of Russian and foreign studies on this direction, also considering the causes of differences of their results. Outlined is a circle of clinical situations in relation to which these technologies may be regarded as most promising.

  3. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

  4. Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, C. Keith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

  5. Evaluating oversight systems for emerging technologies: a case study of genetically engineered organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Najmaie, Pouya; Larson, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. oversight system for genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) was evaluated to develop hypotheses and derive lessons for oversight of other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. Evaluation was based upon quantitative expert elicitation, semi-standardized interviews, and historical literature analysis. Through an interdisciplinary policy analysis approach, blending legal, ethical, risk analysis, and policy sciences viewpoints, criteria were used to identify strengths and weaknesses of GEOs oversight and explore correlations among its attributes and outcomes. From the three sources of data, hypotheses and broader conclusions for oversight were developed. Our analysis suggests several lessons for oversight of emerging technologies: the importance of reducing complexity and uncertainty in oversight for minimizing financial burdens on small product developers; consolidating multi-agency jurisdictions to avoid gaps and redundancies in safety reviews; consumer benefits for advancing acceptance of GEO products; rigorous and independent pre- and post-market assessment for environmental safety; early public input and transparency for ensuring public confidence; and the positive role of public input in system development, informed consent, capacity, compliance, incentives, and data requirements and stringency in promoting health and environmental safety outcomes, as well as the equitable distribution of health impacts. Our integrated approach is instructive for more comprehensive analyses of oversight systems, developing hypotheses for how features of oversight systems affect outcomes, and formulating policy options for oversight of future technological products, especially nanotechnology products.

  6. Biotechnology and genetic engineering in the new drug development. Part I. DNA technology and recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewska, Agnieszka; Kiepura, Katarzyna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Lochyński, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical biotechnology has a long tradition and is rooted in the last century, first exemplified by penicillin and streptomycin as low molecular weight biosynthetic compounds. Today, pharmaceutical biotechnology still has its fundamentals in fermentation and bioprocessing, but the paradigmatic change affected by biotechnology and pharmaceutical sciences has led to an updated definition. The biotechnology revolution redrew the research, development, production and even marketing processes of drugs. Powerful new instruments and biotechnology related scientific disciplines (genomics, proteomics) make it possible to examine and exploit the behavior of proteins and molecules. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies (genetic, protein, and metabolic engineering) allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins, and biochemicals from naturally nonproducing cells. This technology, now approximately 25 years old, is becoming one of the most important technologies developed in the 20(th) century. Pharmaceutical products and industrial enzymes were the first biotech products on the world market made by means of rDNA. Despite important advances regarding rDNA applications in mammalian cells, yeasts still represent attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review we describe these processes.

  7. Genetic engineering in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedate, C.A.; Morales, J.C.; Lopez, E.H.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone; insulin; treatment of blood cells, Talasemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; and more nutritious soya), transfer to higher organisms, and cellular fusion; (3) biological risks and precautions; (4) possible applications (production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, alcohol, chemicals, enzymes, peptides, viral antigens, monoclonal antibodies, genes, proteins, and insecticides; metal extraction; nitrogen fixation; biodegradation; and new varieties of plants and animals; and (5) international activities.

  8. Genetic engineering, medicine and medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of DNA technology in the near future will be on the manufacture of biologic agents and reagents that will lead to improved therapy and diagnosis. The use of DNA technology for prenatal and preclinical diagnosis in genetic diseases is likely to affect management of genetic diseases considerably. New and old questions regarding selective abortion and the psychosocial impact of early diagnosis of late appearing diseases and of genetic susceptibilities are being raised. Somatic therapy with isolated genes to treat disease has not been achieved. True germinal genetic engineering is far off for humans but may find applications in animal agriculture.

  9. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  10. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  11. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  12. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code.

  13. Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruanbao (Inventor); Gibbons, William (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The disclosed embodiments provide cyanobacteria spp. that have been genetically engineered to have increased production of carbon-based products of interest. These genetically engineered hosts efficiently convert carbon dioxide and light into carbon-based products of interest such as long chained hydrocarbons. Several constructs containing polynucleotides encoding enzymes active in the metabolic pathways of cyanobacteria are disclosed. In many instances, the cyanobacteria strains have been further genetically modified to optimize production of the carbon-based products of interest. The optimization includes both up-regulation and down-regulation of particular genes.

  14. Genetic Engineering Workshop Report, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Slezak, T

    2010-11-03

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies (TMT) program. The high-level goal of TMT is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve this goal, there is a need to assess the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, potential application as well as detection and mitigation strategies. LLNL was tasked to coordinate a workshop to determine the scope of investments that DTRA should make to stay current with the rapid advances in genetic engineering technologies, so that accidental or malicious uses of GE technologies could be adequately detected and characterized. Attachment A is an earlier report produced by LLNL for TMT that provides some relevant background on Genetic Engineering detection. A workshop was held on September 23-24, 2010 in Springfield, Virginia. It was attended by a total of 55 people (see Attachment B). Twenty four (44%) of the attendees were academic researchers involved in GE or bioinformatics technology, 6 (11%) were from DTRA or the TMT program management, 7 (13%) were current TMT performers (including Jonathan Allen and Tom Slezak of LLNL who hosted the workshop), 11 (20%) were from other Federal agencies, and 7 (13%) were from industries that are involved in genetic engineering. Several attendees could be placed in multiple categories. There were 26 attendees (47%) who were from out of the DC area and received travel assistance through Invitational Travel Orders (ITOs). We note that this workshop could not have been as successful without the ability to invite experts from outside of the Beltway region. This workshop was an unclassified discussion of the science behind current genetic engineering capabilities. US citizenship was not required for attendance. While this may have limited some discussions concerning risk, we felt that it was more important for this first workshop to focus on the scientific state of

  15. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Paper Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

    Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

  17. Genetic and metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Yea-Tyng; Bennett, George N.; San, Ka-yiu

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology techniques, analytical methods and mathematical tools have led to a growing interest in using metabolic engineering to redirect metabolic fluxes for industrial and medical purposes. Metabolic engineering is referred to as the directed improvement of cellular properties through the modification of specific biochemical reactions or the introduction of new ones, with the use of recombinant DNA technology (Stephanopoulos, 1999). This multidisciplinary field dr...

  18. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  19. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  20. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jacob Hedemand

    , including genetic tools that allow metabolic engineering. The cyanobacterial phylum represents a diverse group of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria that are widespread in nature. Cyanobacteria shaped our atmosphere by oxygen evolution through the splitting of water using energy from sunlight. The sole carbon...... and characterized for growth phenotype and glycogen content. While no difference in growth rate or glycogen content was detected between the phosphorylase double mutant and wild type strain, we found that both glycogen phophyrylases must be genetically inactivated to eliminate glycogen phosphorylase activity...

  1. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  2. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jacob Hedemand

    , including genetic tools that allow metabolic engineering. The cyanobacterial phylum represents a diverse group of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria that are widespread in nature. Cyanobacteria shaped our atmosphere by oxygen evolution through the splitting of water using energy from sunlight. The sole carbon...... and its natural ability to take up and stably integrate heterologous DNA make Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 a good candidate for metabolic engineering. For targeted gene inactivation, a suite of vectors were made by adaptation of a system previously used in plants and fungi. The vectors include a cassette...... and characterized for growth phenotype and glycogen content. While no difference in growth rate or glycogen content was detected between the phosphorylase double mutant and wild type strain, we found that both glycogen phophyrylases must be genetically inactivated to eliminate glycogen phosphorylase activity...

  3. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  4. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sobiah Rauf; Zubair Anwar; Hussain Mustatab Wahedi; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Talal Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial imp...

  5. A genetic engineering approach to genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, J S; Kazakov, V

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard GA, it provides some computational advantages as well as a tool for automatic generation of hierarchical genetic representations specifically tailored to suit certain classes of problems.

  6. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  7. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas...... but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....

  8. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas...... but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....

  9. Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, D N; Toole, J J

    1985-06-01

    It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first

  10. Small engine technology programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Described here is the small engine technology program being sponsored at the Lewis Research Center. Small gas turbine research is aimed at general aviation, commuter aircraft, rotorcraft, and cruise missile applications. The Rotary Engine program is aimed at supplying fuel flexible, fuel efficient technology to the general aviation industry, but also has applications to other missions. The Automotive Gas Turbine (AGT) and Heavy-Duty Diesel Transport Technology (HDTT) programs are sponsored by DOE. The Compound Cycle Engine program is sponsored by the Army. All of the programs are aimed towards highly efficient engine cycles, very efficient components, and the use of high temperature structural ceramics. This research tends to be generic in nature and has broad applications. The HDTT, rotary technology, and the compound cycle programs are all examining approaches to minimum heat rejection, or 'adiabatic' systems employing advanced materials. The AGT program is also directed towards ceramics application to gas turbine hot section components. Turbomachinery advances in the gas turbine programs will benefit advanced turbochargers and turbocompounders for the intermittent combustion systems, and the fundamental understandings and analytical codes developed in the research and technology programs will be directly applicable to the system projects.

  11. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  12. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobiah Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial importance and of transferring genetic material from one organism to another. In order to achieve potential benefits of genetic engineering the only need is to develop perfect tools and techniques. Once it has been perfected then all of the problems associated with food production can be solved, the world environment can be restored, and human health and lifestyle will improve beyond imagination. No doubt that there are almost no limits to what can be achieved through responsible genetic engineering. Classical field of genetic engineering and some of its advancements are discussed in this review.

  13. Genetically engineered yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate semialde......A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate...

  14. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  15. "Genetically Engineered" Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.; Stoica, Adrian; Cwik, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The quantum mechanical functionality of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared-photodetectors (QWIPs), quantum well lasers, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) is enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The design and optimization of such devices requires a fundamental understanding of electron transport in such dimensions. The Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO) is a general-purpose quantum device design and analysis tool based on a fundamental non-equilibrium electron transport theory. NEW was combined with a parallelized genetic algorithm package (PGAPACK) to evolve structural and material parameters to match a desired set of experimental data. A numerical experiment that evolves structural variations such as layer widths and doping concentrations is performed to analyze an experimental current voltage characteristic. The genetic algorithm is found to drive the NEMO simulation parameters close to the experimentally prescribed layer thicknesses and doping profiles. With such a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment design synthesis can be performed.

  16. Problem formulation and option assessment (PFOA) linking governance and environmental risk assessment for technologies: a methodology for problem analysis of nanotechnologies and genetically engineered organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristen C; Andow, David A; Banker, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Societal evaluation of new technologies, specifically nanotechnology and genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), challenges current practices of governance and science. Employing environmental risk assessment (ERA) for governance and oversight assumes we have a reasonable ability to understand consequences and predict adverse effects. However, traditional ERA has come under considerable criticism for its many shortcomings and current governance institutions have demonstrated limitations in transparency, public input, and capacity. Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) is a methodology founded on three key concepts in risk assessment (science-based consideration, deliberation, and multi-criteria analysis) and three in governance (participation, transparency, and accountability). Developed through a series of international workshops, the PFOA process emphasizes engagement with stakeholders in iterative stages, from identification of the problem(s) through comparison of multiple technology solutions that could be used in the future with their relative benefits, harms, and risk. It provides "upstream public engagement" in a deliberation informed by science that identifies values for improved decision making.

  17. Chromosome engineering: power tools for plant genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Simon W L

    2010-12-01

    The term "chromosome engineering" describes technologies in which chromosomes are manipulated to change their mode of genetic inheritance. This review examines recent innovations in chromosome engineering that promise to greatly increase the efficiency of plant breeding. Haploid Arabidopsis thaliana have been produced by altering the kinetochore protein CENH3, yielding instant homozygous lines. Haploid production will facilitate reverse breeding, a method that downregulates recombination to ensure progeny contain intact parental chromosomes. Another chromosome engineering success is the conversion of meiosis into mitosis, which produces diploid gametes that are clones of the parent plant. This is a key step in apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) and could help to preserve hybrid vigor in the future. New homologous recombination methods in plants will potentiate many chromosome engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FY04 Engineering Technology Reports Technology Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, R M

    2005-01-27

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate has two primary discretionary avenues for its investment in technologies: the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program and the ''Tech Base'' program. This volume summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts in FY2004. The Engineering Technical Reports exemplify Engineering's more than 50-year history of researching and developing (LDRD), and reducing to practice (technology-base) the engineering technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and technical resources. This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow''. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge. These require a significant level of research or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice''. Tech Base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. The objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and

  19. Microscale technologies for cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians,...

  20. Modularization of genetic elements promotes synthetic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Liu, Duo; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-11-15

    In the context of emerging synthetic biology, metabolic engineering is moving to the next stage powered by new technologies. Systematical modularization of genetic elements makes it more convenient to engineer biological systems for chemical production or other desired purposes. In the past few years, progresses were made in engineering metabolic pathway using synthetic biology tools. Here, we spotlighted the topic of implementation of modularized genetic elements in metabolic engineering. First, we overviewed the principle developed for modularizing genetic elements and then discussed how the genetic modules advanced metabolic engineering studies. Next, we picked up some milestones of engineered metabolic pathway achieved in the past few years. Last, we discussed the rapid raised synthetic biology field of "building a genome" and the potential in metabolic engineering.

  1. Improving Technology and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Improving Technology and Engineering Education for All Students: A Plan of Action is the theme of this year's International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) annual conference, which meets March 7-9 in Columbus, OH. The theme is aligned with ITEEA's 2012-15 Strategic Plan: Investing in People as Educational Change Agents.…

  2. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  3. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    and reduction of chemicals applied during production of ornamental plants. Numerous chemicals used in modern plant production have negative impacts on human health and are hazardous to the environment. In Europe, several compounds have lost their approval and further legal restrictions can be expected....... This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed......Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources...

  4. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectati......This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...... the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions....

  5. Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A.Pinkert

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this time, there are no commercially viable agricultural species. In contrast to commercialization concerns, in a variety of existing transgenic animal models, basic research into the regulation and function of specific genes (including both gain-of-function and ablation of potentially deleterious gene products has persevered. Pioneering efforts in transgenic animal technology have markedly influenced our appreciation of the factors that govern gene regulation and expression, and have contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology of mammalian development.

  6. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emerging Engine Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, susch...

  8. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria as biodiesel feedstock.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne.; Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are a renewable energy source with the potential to replace conventional petroleum-based fuels, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The economic feasibility of commercial algal fuel production, however, is limited by low productivity of the natural algal strains. The project described in this SAND report addresses this low algal productivity by genetically engineering cyanobacteria (i.e. blue-green algae) to produce free fatty acids as fuel precursors. The engineered strains were characterized using Sandias unique imaging capabilities along with cutting-edge RNA-seq technology. These tools are applied to identify additional genetic targets for improving fuel production in cyanobacteria. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates successful fuel production from engineered cyanobacteria, identifies potential limitations, and investigates several strategies to overcome these limitations. This project was funded from FY10-FY13 through the President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a program sponsored by the LDRD office at Sandia National Laboratories.

  9. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  10. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…

  11. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  12. FY2012 Engineering Research & Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Monya

    2014-07-22

    This report documents engineering research, development, and technology advancements performed by LLNL during fiscal year 2012 in the following areas: computational engineering, engineering information systems, micro/nano-devices and structures, and measurement technologies.

  13. Advanced Technology for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technology for Engineering Education, held at the Peninsula Graduate Engineering Center, Hampton, Virginia, February 24-25, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced technologies for engineering education and to explore the possibility of forming a consortium of interested individuals/universities for curriculum reform and development using advanced technologies. The presentations covered novel delivery systems and several implementations of new technologies for engineering education. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  14. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency

  15. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency

  16. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.

  17. Genetic engineering with T cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Morgan, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    In the past two decades, human gene transfer research has been translated from a laboratory technology to clinical evaluation. The success of adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive lymphocytes to treat the patients with metastatic melanoma has led to new strategies to redirect normal T cells to recognize tumor antigens by genetic engineering with tumor antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) genes. This new strategy can generate large numbers of defined antigen-specific cells for therapeutic application. Much progress has been made to TCR gene transfer systems by optimizing gene expression and gene transfer protocols. Vector and protein modifications have enabled excellent expression of introduced TCR chains in human lymphocytes with reduced mis-pairing between the introduced and endogenous TCR chains. Initial clinical studies have demonstrated that TCR gene-engineered T cells could mediate tumor regression in vivo. In this review, we discuss the progress and prospects of TCR gene-engineered T cells as a therapeutic strategy for treating patients with melanoma and other cancers.

  18. Genetic technologies meet the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To clarify concerns that the public has with genetic technologies, the article presents the results of focus group interviews conducted in Denmark in 2000. The concerns of the public are divided into three ideal-typical categories: social (dealing with environmental and health risks), economic (d...

  19. [DEVELOPMENT OF CELL SHEET ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING VASCULARIZED TISSUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Ma, Dongyang; Ren, Liling

    2015-03-01

    To review the development of cell sheet engineering technology in engineering vascularized tissue. The literature about cell sheet engineering technology and engineering vascularized tissue was reviewed, analyzed, and summarized. Although there are many methods to engineer vascularized tissue, cell sheet engineering technology provides a promising potential to develop a vascularized tissue. Recently, cell sheet engineering technology has become a hot topic in engineering vascularized tissue. Co-culturing endothelial cells on a cell sheet, endothelial cells are able to form three-dimensional prevascularized networks and microvascular cavities in the cell sheet, which facilitate the formation of functional vascular networks in the transplanted tissue. Cell sheet engineering technology is a promising strategy to engineer vascularized tissue, which is still being studied to explore more potential.

  20. Manipulating DNA repair for improved genetic engineering in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødvig, Christina Spuur

    engineering strategies. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the genus Aspergillus and some of the tools relevant to fungal genetic engineering. It also contains a short introduction to DNA repair and its interplay with gene targeting and finally an overview over the different genome editing technologies......Aspergillus is a genus of filamentous fungi, which members includes industrial producers of enzymes, organic acids and secondary metabolites, important pathogens and a model organism. As such no matter the specific area of interest there are many reasons to perform genetic engineering, whether...... it is metabolic engineering to create better performing cell factory, elucidating pathways to study secondary metabolism etc. In this thesis, the main focus is on different ways to manipulate DNA repair for optimizing gene targeting, ultimately improving the methods available for faster and better genetic...

  1. Genetic Engineering and Manufacturing of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The marketing approval of genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs as the first-line therapy for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID is a tribute to the substantial progress that has been made regarding HSC engineering in the past decade. Reproducible manufacturing of high-quality, clinical-grade, genetically engineered HSCs is the foundation for broadening the application of this technology. Herein, the current state-of-the-art manufacturing platforms to genetically engineer HSCs as well as the challenges pertaining to production standardization and product characterization are addressed in the context of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs and other monogenic disorders.

  2. Military engine computational structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Daniel E.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Initiative (IHPTET) goals require a strong analytical base. Effective analysis of composite materials is critical to life analysis and structural optimization. Accurate life prediction for all material systems is critical. User friendly systems are also desirable. Post processing of results is very important. The IHPTET goal is to double turbine engine propulsion capability by the year 2003. Fifty percent of the goal will come from advanced materials and structures, the other 50 percent will come from increasing performance. Computer programs are listed.

  3. Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenier, R.E.; Meer, van der I.M.; Bino, R.J.; Koops, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We in

  4. [Advances in genetic modification technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baixue; Sun, Qixin; Li, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Genetic modification technology is a new molecular tool for targeted genome modification. It includes zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technology and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) (CRISPR-Cas) nucleases technology. All of these nucleases create DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) at chromosomal targeted sites and induce cell endogenous mechanisms that are primarily repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathway, resulting in targeted endogenous gene knock-out or exogenous gene insertion. In recent years, genetic modification technologies have been successfully applied to bacteria, yeast, human cells, fruit fly, zebra fish, mouse, rat, livestock, cynomolgus monkey, Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco, maize, sorghum, wheat, barley and other organisms, showing its enormous advantage in gene editing field. Especially, the newly developed CRISPR-Cas9 system arose more attention because of its low cost, high effectiveness, simplicity and easiness. We reviewed the principles and the latest research progress of these three technologies, as well as prospect of future research and applications.

  5. Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J

    1995-01-01

    Viruses have developed successful strategies for propagation at the expense of their host cells. Efficient gene expression, genome multiplication, and invasion of the host are enabled by virus-encoded genetic elements, many of which are well characterized. Sequences derived from plant DNA and RNA viruses can be used to control expression of other genes in vivo. The main groups of plant virus genetic elements useful in genetic engineering are reviewed, including the signals for DNA-dependent a...

  6. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. ... Food Science and Technology, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Energy, ... Pretreatment effect on sun and solar drying of carrot slices · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  7. Natural genetic engineering: intelligence & design in evolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    function. Shapiro argues that what we see in genomes is 'Natural Genetic Engineering', or designed evolution: "Thinking about genomes from an informatics perspective, it is apparent that systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process than the conventional view of evolution...

  8. 130 FEMINISM AND HUMAN GENETIC ENGINEERING: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Abstract. Human genetic in the area of Bio-ethics is a new, rapidly advancing. Science. ... Human genetic engineering, a recent one in medical science and practice, is one ..... The Church on Cloning and Stem Cell Research. The teaching of ...

  9. Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

  10. Genetic engineering of microbial pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce C. Carlton

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology make possible the cloning and genetic manipulation of genes for insecticidal activities from natural insect pathogens. Using recombinant DNA methods and site-directed mutagenesis of specific gene regions, production of new and improved biorationals should be possible.

  11. Commercialising genetically engineered animal biomedical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Eddie J; Pommer, Jerry; Robl, James M

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past two decades has increased the quality and quantity of tools available to produce genetically engineered animals. The number of potentially viable biomedical products from genetically engineered animals is increasing. However, moving from cutting-edge research to development and commercialisation of a biomedical product that is useful and wanted by the public has significant challenges. Even early stage development of genetically engineered animal applications requires consideration of many steps, including quality assurance and quality control, risk management, gap analysis, founder animal establishment, cell banking, sourcing of animals and animal-derived material, animal facilities, product collection facilities and processing facilities. These steps are complicated and expensive. Biomedical applications of genetically engineered animals have had some recent successes and many applications are well into development. As researchers consider applications for their findings, having a realistic understanding of the steps involved in the development and commercialisation of a product, produced in genetically engineered animals, is useful in determining the risk of genetic modification to the animal nu. the potential public benefit of the application.

  12. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  13. 基因工程食品%Genetic engineering food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪秋安

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 概述 近年来,生物技术在食品行业的应用迅速发展,食品生物技术包括基因工程(genetic engineering)、蛋白质工程(protein enginering)、酶工程(enzyme engineering)、发酵技术(fermentation technology)、组织与细胞培养(tissue and cell culture)、反义RNA(antisense RNA)技术等.

  14. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic engineering has evolved through three stages in history: transgenesis, gene targeting, and gene editing. Since the birth of the first transgenic pig, genetic engineering in livestock has been advancing slowly due to inherent technical limitations. A major breakthrough has been the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer, which, for the first time, provided the technical ability to produce site-specific genome-modified domestic animals. However, the low efficiency of gene targeting events in somatic cells prohibits its wide use in agricultural and biomedical applications. Recently, rapid progress in tools and methods of genome engineering has been made, allowing genetic editing from mutation of a single base pair to the deletion of entire chromosomes. Here, we review the major advances of genetic engineering in domestic animals with emphasis placed on the introduction of latest designer nucleases.

  15. Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pu Shi, Joshua A Gustafson, J Andrew MacKayDepartment of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins.Keywords: polymeric drug carrier, non-polymeric drug carrier, gene delivery, GE drug carriers

  16. Genetic Engineering: and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Journal of Mental Retardation, 1977

    1977-01-01

    In a transcript from a radio show, Nobel Prize Winner Sir Macfarlane Burnet stresses the critical need for scientists to regulate their own activities in genetic research and cites the potential danger of creating a new form of polio which might escape. (CL)

  17. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  18. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-01-01

    Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic enginee...

  19. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-01-01

    Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic enginee...

  20. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  1. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments.

  2. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in the mid-1990s, genetically engineered (GE) crops have been the topic of much debate. This report reviews evidence accumulated from experiences on the most widely grown GE crops to date: herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties of maize, soybean, and cotton. Whil

  3. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in the mid-1990s, genetically engineered (GE) crops have been the topic of much debate. This report reviews evidence accumulated from experiences on the most widely grown GE crops to date: herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties of maize, soybean, and cotton.

  4. ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies are outlined. The following topics are discussed: evolutionary approach using proven technology, substantial improvement to plant safety, utility perspective up front in developing design, integrated design, competitive plant cost, operability and maintainability, standardization, and completion of US NRC technical review.

  5. [The microencapsulated genetic engineering cells: a new platform on treatment of cancer instead of genetic engineering drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuelong; Zheng, Shu

    2003-06-01

    The microencapsulated genetic cells may be a new platform instead of genetic engineering drugs, as they can overcome the genetic engineering drugs' shortages such as short half-life in vivo, low activity, and incomplete elimination of organic solvent. This article reviews and summarizes the advantages, possible problems and solution and the feasibility of using microencapsulated genetic engineering cells in the treatment of cancer.

  6. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail; Noor Hamizah Hussain; Norhayati Mohamed Nor; Normah Mulop; Zainai Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologi...

  7. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  8. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  9. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hamizah Hussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government. This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs. Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion

  10. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government.  This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs.Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion 

  11. Software engineering technology transfer: Understanding the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1993-01-01

    Technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this report, the mechanisms developed by NASA to transfer technology are explored and the actual mechanisms used to transfer software development technologies are investigated. Time, cost, and effectiveness of software engineering technology transfer is reported.

  12. FY02 Engineering Technology Reports Volume 1: Technology Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2003-01-28

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E. O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; and (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering. The Centers attract and retain top staff, develop and maintain critical core technologies, and enable programs. Through their technology-base projects, they oversee the application of known engineering approaches and techniques to scientific and technical problems.

  13. Software Engineering Technology Infusion Within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this paper, several software engineering technologies used within NASA are studied, and the mechanisms, schedules, and efforts at transferring these technologies are investigated. The goals of this study are: 1) to understand the difference between technology transfer (the adoption of a new method by large segments of an industry) as an industry-wide phenomenon and the adoption of a new technology by an individual organization (called technology infusion); and 2) to see if software engineering technology transfer differs from other engineering disciplines. While there is great interest today in developing technology transfer models for industry, it is the technology infusion process that actually causes changes in the current state of the practice.

  14. Software Engineering Technology Infusion Within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this paper, several software engineering technologies used within NASA are studied, and the mechanisms, schedules, and efforts at transferring these technologies are investigated. The goals of this study are: 1) to understand the difference between technology transfer (the adoption of a new method by large segments of an industry) as an industry-wide phenomenon and the adoption of a new technology by an individual organization (called technology infusion); and 2) to see if software engineering technology transfer differs from other engineering disciplines. While there is great interest today in developing technology transfer models for industry, it is the technology infusion process that actually causes changes in the current state of the practice.

  15. Handbook of manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Springer Reference Work Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology provides overviews and in-depth and authoritative analyses on the basic and cutting-edge manufacturing technologies and sciences across a broad spectrum of areas. These topics are commonly encountered in industries as well as in academia. Manufacturing engineering curricula across universities are now essential topics covered in major universities worldwide.

  16. Recent Technology Advances in Distributed Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work performed at NASA Glenn Research Center in distributed engine control technology. This is control system hardware technology that overcomes engine system constraints by modularizing control hardware and integrating the components over communication networks.

  17. Handbook of technology law. General funamentals, environment law, genetic engineering act, energy act, telecommunication act and media act, patent act, computer act. 2. ed.; Handbuch des Technikrechts. Allgemeine Grundlagen Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Martin; Schroeder, Rainer (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    2011-07-01

    On the boundaries between technology sciences, jurisprudence, social sciences and economic science the technology law proves as a cross-sectional area par excellence. The bases of the technology law are presented: individual, particularly important scopes of the technology law (appliance safety regulations, technology law and environment law, genetic engineering act, energy right, telecommunications law and media law, patent law, computer law, data security, legally binding telecooperation) are analyzed in detail. The manual contacts all lawyers who want to provide a first in-depth insight of this new field of law. [German] Im Grenzbereich von Technik-, Rechts-, Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften erweist sich das Technikrecht als Querschnittsmaterie par excellence. Die Grundlagen des Technikrechts werden dargestellt; einzelne, besonders wichtige Bereiche des Technikrechts (Geraetesicherheitsrecht, Technik und Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht, Datensicherheit, Rechtsverbindliche Telekooperation) werden eingehend analysiert. Das Handbuch wendet sich an alle in Wissenschaft und Praxis mit dem Technikrecht befassten Juristen, die sich einen ersten vertieften Einblick in dieses neue Rechtsgebiet verschaffen wollen. (orig.)

  18. Genetic engineering of plant food with reduced allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Stephan; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are a major health concern in industrialized countries. Since a specific immunotherapy for food allergies is not available in clinical routine praxis till now, reduction of allergens in foods, either by food processing or genetic engineering are strategies to minimize the risk of adverse reactions for food allergic patients. This review summarizes biotechnological approaches, especially the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, for the reduction of selected allergens in plant foods. So far, only a limited number of reports showing proof-of-concept of this methodology are available. Using RNAi an impressive reduction of allergen accumulation was obtained which was stable in the next generations of plants. Since threshold doses for most food allergens are not known, the beneficial effect has to be evaluated by oral challenge tests in the future. The article critically addresses the potential and limitations of genetic engineering, as well as of alternative strategies to generate "low allergic" foods.

  19. Insights on bovine genetic engineering and cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F. Bressan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has become an essential tool for the development of animal biotechnologies, and animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enabled the generation of genetically modified animals utilizing previously modified and selected cell lineages as nuclei donors, assuring therefore the generation of homogeneous herds expressing the desired modification. The present study aimed to discuss the use of SCNT as an important methodology for the production of transgenic herds, and also some recent insights on genetic modification of nuclei donors and possible effects of gene induction of pluripotency on SCNT.

  20. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJEST publishes articles that emphasizes research, development and application within the fields of engineering, science and technology. ... Other sites related to this journal: http://www.ijest-ng.com/ ... Rahul Singh, Dhirendra Patel, 1-10 ...

  1. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  2. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 2: Technology Base FY01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2002-07-01

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E.O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships.

  3. Genetically engineering adenoviral vectors for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral (Ad) vectors are commonly used for various gene therapy applications. Significant advances in the genetic engineering of Ad vectors in recent years has highlighted their potential for the treatment of metastatic disease. There are several methods to genetically modify the Ad genome to incorporate retargeting peptides which will redirect the natural tropism of the viruses, including homologous recombination in bacteria or yeast. However, homologous recombination in yeast is highly efficient and can be achieved without the need for extensive cloning strategies. In addition, the method does not rely on the presence of unique restriction sites within the Ad genome and the reagents required for this method are widely available and inexpensive. Large plasmids containing the entire adenoviral genome (~36 kbp) can be modified within Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and genomes easily rescued in Escherichia coli hosts for analysis or amplification. A method for two-step homologous recombination in yeast is described in this chapter.

  4. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  5. FY08 Engineering Research and Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; McNichols, D

    2009-02-24

    This report summarizes the core research, development, and technology accomplishments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2008. These efforts exemplify Engineering's more than 50-year history of developing and applying the technologies needed to support the Laboratory's national security missions. A partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, Engineering has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and technical resources developed through both internal and external venues. These accomplishments embody Engineering's mission: 'Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow.' Engineering's mission is carried out through basic research and technology development. Research is the vehicle for creating competencies that are cutting-edge, or require discovery-class groundwork to be fully understood. Our technology efforts are discipline-oriented, preparing research breakthroughs for broader application to a variety of Laboratory needs. The term commonly used for technology-based projects is 'reduction to practice.' As we pursue this two-pronged approach, an enormous range of technological capabilities result. This report combines our work in research and technology into one volume, organized into thematic technical areas: Engineering Modeling and Simulation; Measurement Technologies; Micro/Nano-Devices and Structures; Engineering Systems for Knowledge and Inference; and Energy Manipulation. Our investments in these areas serve not only known programmatic requirements of today and tomorrow, but also anticipate the breakthrough engineering innovations that will be needed in the future.

  6. Ontologies for software engineering and software technology

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, Coral; Piattini, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Covers two applications of ontologies in software engineering and software technology: sharing knowledge of the problem domain and using a common terminology among all stakeholders; and filtering the knowledge when defining models and metamodels. This book is of benefit to software engineering researchers in both academia and industry.

  7. Application of Statistics in Engineering Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei; Fink, Rainer; Fang, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is a critical tool for robustness analysis, measurement system error analysis, test data analysis, probabilistic risk assessment, and many other fields in the engineering world. Traditionally, however, statistics is not extensively used in undergraduate engineering technology (ET) programs, resulting in a major disconnect from industry…

  8. Xenomicrobiology: a roadmap for genetic code engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Budisa, Nediljko

    2016-09-01

    Biology is an analytical and informational science that is becoming increasingly dependent on chemical synthesis. One example is the high-throughput and low-cost synthesis of DNA, which is a foundation for the research field of synthetic biology (SB). The aim of SB is to provide biotechnological solutions to health, energy and environmental issues as well as unsustainable manufacturing processes in the frame of naturally existing chemical building blocks. Xenobiology (XB) goes a step further by implementing non-natural building blocks in living cells. In this context, genetic code engineering respectively enables the re-design of genes/genomes and proteins/proteomes with non-canonical nucleic (XNAs) and amino (ncAAs) acids. Besides studying information flow and evolutionary innovation in living systems, XB allows the development of new-to-nature therapeutic proteins/peptides, new biocatalysts for potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry and biocontainment strategies for enhanced biosafety. In this perspective, we provide a brief history and evolution of the genetic code in the context of XB. We then discuss the latest efforts and challenges ahead for engineering the genetic code with focus on substitutions and additions of ncAAs as well as standard amino acid reductions. Finally, we present a roadmap for the directed evolution of artificial microbes for emancipating rare sense codons that could be used to introduce novel building blocks. The development of such xenomicroorganisms endowed with a 'genetic firewall' will also allow to study and understand the relation between code evolution and horizontal gene transfer. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Genetic Engineering In BioButanol Production And Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Rao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. Higher-chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Ethanol and butanol are two products which are used as biofuel. Butanol production was more concerned than ethanol because of its high octane number. Unfortunately, these alcohols are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. The synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of bio-butanol. Knock out and over-expression of genes is the major approaches towards genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering of microbes. Yet there are TargeTron Technology, Antisense RNA and CRISPR technology has a vital role in genome manipulation of C.acetobutylicum. This review concentrates on the recent developments for efficient production of butanol and butanol tolerance by various genetically engineered microbes.

  10. International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology, held on London, UK, November 24-25, 2011.   Mechanical engineering technology is the application of physical principles and current technological developments to the creation of useful machinery and operation design. Technologies such as solid models may be used as the basis for finite element analysis (FEA) and / or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the design. Through the application of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), the models may also be used directly by software to create "instructions" for the manufacture of objects represented by the models, through computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining or other automated processes, without the need for intermediate drawings.   This volume covers the subject areas of mechanical engineering and technology, and also covers interdisciplinary subject areas of computers, communications, control and automation...

  11. FY06 Engineering Research and Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; Alves, S W; Anderson, A T; Bennett, C V; Brown, C G; Brown, W D; Chinn, D; Clague, D; Clark, G; Cook, E G; Davidson, J C; Deri, R J; Dougherty, G; Fasenfest, B J; Florando, J N; Fulkerson, E S; Haugen, P; Heebner, J E; Hickling, T; Huber, R; Hunter, S L; Javedani, J; Kallman, J S; Kegelmeyer, L M; Koning, J; Kosovic, B; Kroll, J J; LeBlanc, M; Lin, J; Mariella, R P; Miles, R; Nederbragt, W W; Ness, K D; Nikolic, R J; Paglieroni, D; Pannu, S; Pierce, E; Pocha, M D; Poland, D N; Puso, M A; Quarry, M J; Rhee, M; Romero, C E; Rose, K A; Sain, J D; Sharpe, R M; Spadaccini, C M; Stolken, J S; Van Buuren, A; Wemhoff, A; White, D; Yao, Y

    2007-01-22

    This report summarizes the core research, development, and technology accomplishments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2006. These efforts exemplify Engineering's more than 50-year history of developing and applying the technologies needed to support the Laboratory's national security missions. A partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, Engineering has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and technical resources developed through both internal and external venues. These accomplishments embody Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow''. Engineering's investment in technologies is carried out primarily through two internal programs: the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program and the technology base, or ''Tech Base'', program. LDRD is the vehicle for creating technologies and competencies that are cutting-edge, or require discovery-class research to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to prepare those technologies to be more broadly applicable to a variety of Laboratory needs. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice''. Thus, LDRD reports have a strong research emphasis, while Tech Base reports document discipline-oriented, core competency activities. This report combines the LDRD and Tech Base summaries into one volume, organized into six thematic technical areas: Engineering Modeling and Simulation; Measurement Technologies; Micro/Nano-Devices and Structures; Precision Engineering; Engineering Systems for Knowledge and Inference; and Energy Manipulation.

  12. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

  13. Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

  14. Mod II engine and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The second-generation automotive Stirling engine, known as the Mod II, will be used to accomplish the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program objectives. Preliminary design has advanced to the point of procuring long-lead components to evaluate manufacturability. The heater head castings of the Hot Engine System (working gas cycle) are being procured, while the V-block casting of the Cold Engine/Drive system is being sectioned for evaluation. The technology required for these designs, and their impact on Mod II performance, have progressed to the design substantiation stage, and successful accomplishment of the program objectives is expected.

  15. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  16. Recombinase technology for precise genome engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of recombinases for genomic engineering is no longer a new technology. In fact this technology has entered its third decade since the initial discovery that recombinases function in heterologous systems. The random insertion of a transgene into a plant genome by traditional methods generates...

  17. Vaccine engineering improved by hybrid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2004-08-01

    The term 'vaccination' describes the induction of protective immune responses against infectious diseases, but is also used to define antigen-specific forms of immunotherapy for allergy, cancer and autoimmunity. Successful vaccination requires either immune modulation or the induction of robust specific immunity to several disease-causing antigens. However, natural antigen sources may contain greatly varying amounts of these antigens and some of them may exhibit low immunogenicity. An approach for overcoming the latter problems has been developed for allergy vaccines recently. This approach is based on the genetic engineering of hybrid molecules, consisting of several major disease-eliciting antigens/epitopes. Such hybrid molecules can be built to include the most relevant epitopes of complex antigen sources. Moreover, fusion of different antigens in the form of hybrid molecules strongly increases their immunogenicity. The hybrid approach can also be used for the generation of mosaic antigens with altered immunological properties, which consist of re-shuffled antigen pieces. We exemplify the use of hybrid technology for the generation of new allergy vaccines and discuss its potential applicability for the development of vaccines for infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity.

  18. Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Bolta, C.C.

    1976-03-01

    A scoping study for a Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility (TETF) is presented. The TETF is a tokamak with R = 3 m and I/sub p/ = 1.4 MA based on the counterstreaming-ion torus mode of operation. The primary purpose of TETF is to demonstrate fusion technologies for the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR), but it will also serve as an engineering and radiation test facility. TETF has several technological systems (e.g., superconducting toroidal-field coil, tritium fuel cycle, impurity control, first wall) that are prototypical of EPR.

  19. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  20. Using genetically engineered animal models in the postgenomic era to understand gene function in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Harris, R Adron; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene's function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput "next-generation sequencing" technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism.

  1. Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering.

  2. The delicate balance in genetically engineering live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, James E; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-07-31

    Contemporary vaccine development relies less on empirical methods of vaccine construction, and now employs a powerful array of precise engineering strategies to construct immunogenic live vaccines. In this review, we will survey various engineering techniques used to create attenuated vaccines, with an emphasis on recent advances and insights. We will further explore the adaptation of attenuated strains to create multivalent vaccine platforms for immunization against multiple unrelated pathogens. These carrier vaccines are engineered to deliver sufficient levels of protective antigens to appropriate lymphoid inductive sites to elicit both carrier-specific and foreign antigen-specific immunity. Although many of these technologies were originally developed for use in Salmonella vaccines, application of the essential logic of these approaches will be extended to development of other enteric vaccines where possible. A central theme driving our discussion will stress that the ultimate success of an engineered vaccine rests on achieving the proper balance between attenuation and immunogenicity. Achieving this balance will avoid over-activation of inflammatory responses, which results in unacceptable reactogenicity, but will retain sufficient metabolic fitness to enable the live vaccine to reach deep tissue inductive sites and trigger protective immunity. The breadth of examples presented herein will clearly demonstrate that genetic engineering offers the potential for rapidly propelling vaccine development forward into novel applications and therapies which will significantly expand the role of vaccines in public health.

  3. Genetic Technology and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States and globally, producers cultivate millions of hectares of genetically modified crops. In the United States, the USDA, EPA, and FDA govern authorization of GMOs under federal laws and agency regulations. Because food produced from GMOs is not considered materially different from

  4. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  5. Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm in Application of Scheduling Engineering Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaixiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the availability of the improved quantum genetic algorithm in solving the scheduling engineering personnel problem, the following work has been carried out: the characteristics of the scheduling engineering personnel problem are analyzed, the quantum encoding method is proposed, and an improved quantum genetic algorithm is applied to address the issue. Taking the low efficiency and the bad performance of the conventional quantum genetic algorithm into account, a universal improved quantum genetic algorithm is introduced to solve the scheduling engineering personnel problem. Finally, the examples are applied to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the improved quantum genetic algorithm and the rationality of the encoding method.

  6. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  7. Strategies to genetically engineer T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Nagato, Kaoru; Nishimura, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most promising and innovative approaches to treat cancer, viral infections, and other immune-modulated diseases. Adoptive immunotherapy using gene-modified T cells is an exciting and rapidly evolving field. Exploiting knowledge of basic T cell biology and immune cell receptor function has fostered innovative approaches to modify immune cell function. Highly translatable clinical technologies have been developed to redirect T cell specificity by introducing designed receptors. The ability to engineer T cells to manifest desired phenotypes and functions is now a thrilling reality. In this review, we focus on outlining different varieties of genetically engineered T cells, their respective advantages and disadvantages as tools for immunotherapy, and their promise and drawbacks in the clinic.

  8. Genetically modified cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyn, Dima; Mizrahi, Olga; Benjamin, Shimon; Gazit, Zulma; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

    2010-06-15

    Regenerative medicine appears to take as its patron, the Titan Prometheus, whose liver was able to regenerate daily, as the field attempts to restore lost, damaged, or aging cells and tissues. The tremendous technological progress achieved during the last decade in gene transfer methods and imaging techniques, as well as recent increases in our knowledge of cell biology, have opened new horizons in the field of regenerative medicine. Genetically engineered cells are a tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, albeit a tool whose development is fraught with difficulties. Gene-and-cell therapy offers solutions to severe problems faced by modern medicine, but several impediments obstruct the path of such treatments as they move from the laboratory toward the clinical setting. In this review we provide an overview of recent advances in the gene-and-cell therapy approach and discuss the main hurdles and bottlenecks of this approach on its path to clinical trials and prospective clinical practice.

  9. 77 FR 13159 - Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the Committee on Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the Committee on Technology, National Science and Technology Council Workshop ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), on behalf of the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology...

  10. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  11. Programmable genetic circuits for pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Moon, Tae Seok

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology has the potential to provide decisive advances in genetic control of metabolic pathways. However, there are several challenges that synthetic biologists must overcome before this vision becomes a reality. First, a library of diverse and well-characterized sensors, such as metabolite-sensing or condition-sensing promoters, must be constructed. Second, robust programmable circuits that link input conditions with a specific gene regulation response must be developed. Finally, multi-gene targeting strategies must be integrated with metabolically relevant sensors and complex, robust logic. Achievements in each of these areas, which employ the CRISPR/Cas system, in silico modeling, and dynamic sensor-regulators, among other tools, provide a strong basis for future research. Overall, the future for synthetic biology approaches in metabolic engineering holds immense promise.

  12. Integrated Engineering Information Technology, FY93 accommplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N.; Miller, D.K.; Neugebauer, G.L.; Orona, J.R.; Partridge, R.A.; Herman, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Engineering Information Technology (IEIT) project is providing a comprehensive, easy-to-use computer network solution or communicating with coworkers both inside and outside Sandia National Laboratories. IEIT capabilities include computer networking, electronic mail, mechanical design, and data management. These network-based tools have one fundamental purpose: to help create a concurrent engineering environment that will enable Sandia organizations to excel in today`s increasingly competitive business environment.

  13. Information Technology in Engineering and Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT can be regarded as the use of computers to store, analyze, and manipulate data (Daintith, 2009. With the rapid development of personal computers, IT has been widely applied in nearly every field (Davenport, 2013. This issue presents five papers covering engineering and project management, three of which focus on the application of IT to solve engineering and project management issues, while one presents research into public private partnerships, and another into cash flow forecasting.

  14. 20 Engineering Technologies Which Changed The World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Sik; Shin, Dong Won; Mun, Jung Yang and others

    2004-07-15

    This book deals with 20 engineering technologies which changed the world, these are about a, compass, papermaking, a lens, gunpowder, machine watch, printing technique, vaccine, a suspension bridge, a railroad, a loom, photograph, petroleum, automobile, electricity, wireless communications, synthetic medicine, a jet engine and a rocket, nuclear bombs, ENIAC, and polymerase chain reaction method. Each skill is introduced with history and the detailed reports by other persons.

  15. Lattice engineering technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shumin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains comprehensive reviews of different technologies to harness lattice mismatch in semiconductor heterostructures and their applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. While the book is a bit focused on metamorphic epitaxial growth, it also includes other methods like compliant substrate, selective area growth, wafer bonding and heterostructure nanowires etc. Basic knowledge on dislocations in semiconductors and innovative methods to eliminate threading dislocations are provided, and successful device applications are reviewed. It covers a variety of important semicon

  16. Mechanical technology for higher engineering technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Peter

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical Technology for Higher Engineering Technicians deals with the mechanics of machines, thermodynamics, and mechanics of fluids. This book presents discussions and examples that deal with the strength of materials, technology of machines, and techniques used by professional engineers. The book explains the strain energy of torsion, coil springs, and the effects of axial load. The author also discusses the forces that produce bending, shearing, and bending combined with direct stress, as well as beams subjected to a uniform bending moment or simply supported beams with concentrated non-c

  17. Mathematics for engineering, technology and computing science

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Hedley G

    1970-01-01

    Mathematics for Engineering, Technology and Computing Science is a text on mathematics for courses in engineering, technology, and computing science. It covers linear algebra, ordinary differential equations, and vector analysis, together with line and multiple integrals. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with a discussion on determinants and linear equations, with emphasis on how the value of a determinant is defined and how it may be obtained. Solution of linear equations and the dependence between linear equations are also considered. The next chapter introduces the reader to

  18. PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer's decision to purchase GM foods.

  19. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  20. Engineering research, development and technology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R T

    1999-02-01

    Nineteen ninety-eight has been a transition year for Engineering, as we have moved from our traditional focus on thrust areas to a more focused approach with research centers. These five new centers of excellence collectively comprise Engineering's Science and Technology program. This publication summarizes our formative year under this new structure. Let me start by talking about the differences between a thrust area and a research center. The thrust area is more informal, combining an important technology with programmatic priorities. In contrast, a research center is directly linked to an Engineering core technology. It is the purer model, for it is more enduring yet has the scope to be able to adapt quickly to evolving programmatic priorities. To put it another way, the mission of a thrust area was often to grow the programs in conjunction with a technology, whereas the task of a research center is to vigorously grow our core technologies. By cultivating each core technology, we in turn enable long-term growth of new programs.

  1. Suitable for human beings. Working world - genetic engineering - new technologies - ways of life - public authority. Documentation. Menschengerecht. Arbeitswelt - Genforschung - Neue Technik - Lebensformen - Staatsgewalt. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler-Gmelin, H.; Adlerstein, W. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    If a society decides to make use of the advantages of technologies that at the same time bear extensive potentials of harm, society has to prevent abuse of these potentials. Physical protection and other security measures inevitably entail a curtailment of personal liberty. The civil rights will not provide sufficient protection against such creeping loss of personal freedom. The high priority of the objects of legal protection in question will make it necessary to specify the civil rights according to conditions if the security measures are to become effective in practice. Weighing the legal merits and the principle of reasonableness will be the main instruments that will pave the way for a camouflaged change of legal concepts and, finally, a factual restriction of civil rights. Any policy of law intended to protect the civil rights therefore will have to clain responsible participation in research activities, technological development, and energy policy. The policy of law has to take care that the criterion of compatibility with the constitution, the weakening or strengthening effect of a technological system on the civil rights, will duly be taken into account in the process of democratic technology steering, and as early as possible. (orig./HSCH).

  2. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  3. Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hammer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant Genetic Resources (PGR continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion are discussed.4. Genetic Resources Conservation. Because of genetic erosion there is a need for conservation. PGR should be consigned to the appropriate method of conservation (ex situ, in situ, on-farm according to the scientific basis of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity and the evolutionary status of plants (cultivated plants, weeds, related wild plants (crop wild relatives.5. GMO. The impact of genetically engineered plants on genetic diversity is discussed.6. The Conclusions and Recommendations stress the importance of PGR. Their conservation and use are urgent necessities for the present development and future survival of mankind.

  4. Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm in Application of Scheduling Engineering Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Huaixiao Wang; Ling Li; Jianyong Liu; Yong Wang; Chengqun Fu

    2014-01-01

    To verify the availability of the improved quantum genetic algorithm in solving the scheduling engineering personnel problem, the following work has been carried out: the characteristics of the scheduling engineering personnel problem are analyzed, the quantum encoding method is proposed, and an improved quantum genetic algorithm is applied to address the issue. Taking the low efficiency and the bad performance of the conventional quantum genetic algorithm into account, a universal improved q...

  5. Vocabulary Development in Technology and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Pamela; Loveland, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Some students have trouble performing well on summative tests in technology and engineering education. This is largely due to the students' inability to apply the terms to real-world scenarios (Baker, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1995). Exams often provide situational questions and, with these, critical-thinking skills are required. Students may lack…

  6. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations are critical to the nation's continued economic competitiveness because of their direct ties to innovation, economic growth, and productivity, even though they will only be 5 percent of all jobs in the U.S. economy by 2018. The disproportionate influence of STEM raises a…

  7. Advances in gene technology: Human genetic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.A.; Ahmad, F.; Black, S.; Schultz, J.; Whelan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the papers presented at the conference on the subject of ''advances in Gene technology: Human genetic disorders''. Molecular biology of various carcinomas and inheritance of metabolic diseases is discussed and technology advancement in diagnosis of hereditary diseases is described. Some of the titles discussed are-Immunoglobulin genes translocation and diagnosis; hemophilia; oncogenes; oncogenic transformations; experimental data on mice, hamsters, birds carcinomas and sarcomas.

  8. Engineered Plant Minichromosome and Its Application in Genomics and Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Engineered minichromosomes have been constructed as novel artificial chromosome platforms for future genetic engineering in maize.We demonstrated that minichromosomes could be created by telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation of both normal A chromosomes and the supernumerary B

  9. Efforts and Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Yu, Allen Chi Shing; Chan, Ting Fung

    2017-03-14

    This year marks the 48th anniversary of Francis Crick's seminal work on the origin of the genetic code, in which he first proposed the "frozen accident" hypothesis to describe evolutionary selection against changes to the genetic code that cause devastating global proteome modification. However, numerous efforts have demonstrated the viability of both natural and artificial genetic code variations. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow the creation of synthetic organisms that incorporate noncanonical, or even unnatural, amino acids into the proteome. Currently, successful genetic code engineering is mainly achieved by creating orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA/synthetase pairs to repurpose stop and rare codons or to induce quadruplet codons. In this review, we summarize the current progress in genetic code engineering and discuss the challenges, current understanding, and future perspectives regarding genetic code modification.

  10. Efforts and Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This year marks the 48th anniversary of Francis Crick’s seminal work on the origin of the genetic code, in which he first proposed the “frozen accident” hypothesis to describe evolutionary selection against changes to the genetic code that cause devastating global proteome modification. However, numerous efforts have demonstrated the viability of both natural and artificial genetic code variations. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow the creation of synthetic organisms that incorporate noncanonical, or even unnatural, amino acids into the proteome. Currently, successful genetic code engineering is mainly achieved by creating orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA/synthetase pairs to repurpose stop and rare codons or to induce quadruplet codons. In this review, we summarize the current progress in genetic code engineering and discuss the challenges, current understanding, and future perspectives regarding genetic code modification.

  11. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  12. Complex engineering systems science meets technology

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    Every time that we take money out of an ATM, surf the internet or simply turn on a light switch, we enjoy the benefits of complex engineered systems. Systems like power grids and global communication networks are so ubiquitous in our daily lives that we usually take them for granted, only noticing them when they break down. But how do such amazing technologies and infrastructures come to be what they are? How are these systems designed? How do distributed networks work? How are they made to respond rapidly in 'real time'? And as the demands that we place on these systems become increasingly complex, are traditional systems-engineering practices still relevant? This volume examines the difficulties that arise in creating highly complex engineered systems and new approaches that are being adopted. Topics addressed range from the formal representation and classification of distributed networked systems to revolutionary engineering practices inspired by biological evolution. By bringing together the latest resear...

  13. Rhizobia species: A Boon for "Plant Genetic Engineering".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Urmi; Sinha, Sarika

    2011-10-01

    Since past three decades new discoveries in plant genetic engineering have shown remarkable potentials for crop improvement. Agrobacterium Ti plasmid based DNA transfer is no longer the only efficient way of introducing agronomically important genes into plants. Recent studies have explored a novel plant genetic engineering tool, Rhizobia sp., as an alternative to Agrobacterium, thereby expanding the choice of bacterial species in agricultural plant biotechnology. Rhizobia sp. serve as an open license source with no major restrictions in plant biotechnology and help broaden the spectrum for plant biotechnologists with respect to the use of gene transfer vehicles in plants. New efficient transgenic plants can be produced by transferring genes of interest using binary vector carrying Rhizobia sp. Studies focusing on the interactions of Rhizobia sp. with their hosts, for stable and transient transformation and expression of genes, could help in the development of an adequate gene transfer vehicle. Along with being biologically beneficial, it may also bring a new means for fast economic development of transgenic plants, thus giving rise to a new era in plant biotechnology, viz. "Rhizobia mediated transformation technology."

  14. Analysis of Engineering Content within Technology Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, Todd D.; Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively teach engineering, technology teachers need to be taught engineering content, concepts, and related pedagogy. Some researchers posit that technology education programs may not have enough content to prepare technology teachers to teach engineering design. Certain technology teacher education programs have responded by…

  15. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  16. Electrical principles and technology for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to introduce students to the basic electrical and electronic principles needed by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of the subject, and the author has followed his usual successful formula, incorporating many worked examples and problems (answers supplied) into the learning process.Electrical Principles and Technology for Engineering is John Bird's core text for Further Education courses at BTEC levels N11 and N111 and Advanced GNVQ. It is also designed to provide a comprehe

  17. Scheduling in a Meta Search Engine by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The meta search engines provide service to the users bydispensing the users' requests to the existing search engines. The existing search engines sele cted by meta search engine determine the searching quality. Because the performa nce of the existing search engines and the users' requests are changed dynamical ly, it is not favorable for the fixed search engines to optimize the holistic pe rformance of the meta search engine. This paper applies the genetic algorithm (G A) to realize the scheduling strategy of agent manager in our meta search engine , GSE(general search engine), which can simulate the evolution process of living things more lively and more efficiently. By using GA, the combination of search engines can be optimized and hence the holistic performance of GSE can be impro ved dramatically.

  18. Information technologies in environmental engineering. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.; Rizzoli, Andrea E. [Istituto dalle Molle di Studi sull' Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Manno (Switzerland); Mitkas, Pericles A. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); Marx Gomez, Jorge (eds.) [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Wirtschaftsinformatik

    2009-07-01

    Information technologies have evolved to an enabling science for natural resource management and conservation, environmental engineering, scientific simulation and integrated assessment studies. Computing plays a significant role in every day practices of environmental engineers, natural scientists, economists, and social scientists. The complexity of natural phenomena requires interdisciplinary approaches, where computing science offers the infrastructure for environmental data collection and management, scientific simulations, decision support documentation and reporting. Ecology, environmental engineering and natural resource management comprise an excellent real-world testbed for IT system demonstration, while raising new challenges for computer science. Complexity, uncertainty and scaling issues of natural systems form a demanding application domain for sensor networks and earth observation systems; modelling, simulation and scientific workflows, data management and reporting, decision support and intelligent systems, distributed computing environments, geographical information systems, heterogeneous systems integration, software engineering, accounting systems and control systems. This books offers a collection of papers presented at the 4th International Symposium on Environmental Engineering, held in May 2009, in Thessaloniki, Greece. Recent success stories in ecoinformatics, promising ideas and new challenges are discussed among computer scientists, environmental engineers, economists and social scientists, demonstrating new paradigms for problem solving and decision making. (orig.)

  19. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 2: Technology Base FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, A L; Langland, R T; Minichino, C

    2001-10-03

    In FY-2000, Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory faced significant pressures to meet critical project milestones, and immediate demands to facilitate the reassignment of employees as the National Ignition Facility (the 600-TW laser facility being designed and built at Livermore, and one of the largest R&D construction projects in the world) was in the process of re-baselining its plan while executing full-speed its technology development efforts. This drive for change occurred as an unprecedented level of management and program changes were occurring within LLNL. I am pleased to report that we met many key milestones and achieved numerous technological breakthroughs. This report summarizes our efforts to perform feasibility and reduce-to-practice studies, demonstrations, and/or techniques--as structured through our technology centers. Whether using computational engineering to predict how giant structures like suspension bridges will respond to massive earthquakes or devising a suitcase-sized microtool to detect chemical and biological agents used by terrorists, we have made solid technical progress. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering, as well as impact all of LLNL. Each Center is responsible for the vitality and growth of the core technologies it represents. My goal is that each Center will be recognized on an international scale for solving compelling national problems requiring breakthrough innovation. The Centers and their leaders are as follows: Center for Complex Distributed Systems--David B. McCallen; Center for Computational Engineering--Kyran D. Mish; Center for Microtechnology--Raymond P. Mariella, Jr.; Center for Nondestructive Characterization--Harry E. Martz, Jr.; and Center for Precision Engineering--Keith Carlisle.

  20. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  1. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF ALFALFA THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faragó

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a pasture legume crop of primary importance to animal production throughout the world. The nutritional quality of alfalfa, as of other leguminous forage crops, is mainly determined by their content in selected essential amino acids (EAAs, such as methionine (Met and cysteine (Cys. In alfalfa, however, these S-containing amino acids constitute only about 1% or less of crude proteins (Frame et al., 1998. This is significantly less than the 3.5% Met+Cys content in the recommended FAO reference protein (FAO, 1973. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow to use the transgenic approach to increase the content of specific essential amino acids in target plant species. A number of different molecular approaches have been developed to address this issue, such as over-expression of a heterologous or homologous Met-rich protein, expression of a synthetic protein, modification of protein sequence, and metabolic engineering of the free amino acid pool and protein sink. To study the possibility of transgenic enhancement of nutritional quality of alfalfa, we used the approach of expression of a heterologous protein rich in Met+Cys in cells of alfalfa. The T-DNA introduced into the genome of alfalfa, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation, contained the selectable merker gene nptII for kanamycin (Kn resistance, and a cDNA of Ov gene from Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix coding for a high Met+Cys containing ovalbumine (Mucha et al., 1991, both under constitutive promoters. After cocultivation of petiole segment- and leaf blade-explants of two highly embryogenic alfalfa genotypes Rg9/I-14-22 and Rg11/I-10-68 (Faragó et al., 1997 with cells of A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 carrying the nptII and Ov genes, and selection of transgenic cells on Kn containing selective media, more than one hundred putatively transgenic regenerants were obtained through somatic embryogenesis. Biological (Kn rooting assay

  2. Year 2000 small engine technology payoffs in cruise missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Benstein, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been conducted for advanced small (450-850 pounds thrust) gas turbine engines for a subsonic strategic cruise missile application, using projected year-2000 technology. Engine performance and configuration analyses were performed for two and three spool turbofan and propfan engine concepts. Mission and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analyses were performed in which the candidate engines were compared to the baseline engine over a prescribed mission. The advanced technology engines reduced system LCC up to 41 percent relative to the baseline engine. The critical aerodynamic materials and mechanical systems necessary for turbine engine technology were identified.

  3. Legal and regulatory aspects of genetically engineered animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D D

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of genetically engineered food animals will pose a number of legal and regulatory questions. These may be grouped into questions of process and questions of products. The process of animal genetic engineering with artificially constructed vectors will probably be regulated in much the same manner as other veterinary procedures. There may be some discussion, however, as to whether animal drug or animal biologic regulations are more applicable. The products of animal genetic engineering, i.e., transgenic food animals and food products made from them, also raise important questions about product safety and identity. These include whether and how genetically engineered food animals will be subject to federal inspection for wholesomeness, whether artificial vectors, foreign genes, or gene products will adulterate recipient animal tissues, and how food products made from such animals will be labeled. Prior federal experience with the inspection of interspecific hybrids of cattle and buffalo provides a useful basis for further policy developments in the inspection and labeling of genetically engineered food animals. In particular, the inspection of cattle/buffalo hybrids has established a phenotypic (based on appearance) criterion for deciding how novel food animals should be inspected. As the genetic engineering of food animals on a production basis draws nearer, it may be necessary to supplement the phenotypic criterion with genetic (based on pedigree) criteria to assure that the essential characteristics of animals slaughtered under current food statutes are maintained.

  4. Fluidization technologies: Aerodynamic principles and process engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Rahul; Puthli, Shivanand

    2009-11-01

    The concept of fluidization has been adapted to different unit processes of pharmaceutical product development. Till date a lot of improvements have been made in the engineering design to achieve superior process performance. This review is focused on the fundamental principles of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics associated with the fluidization technologies. Fluid-bed coating, fluidized bed granulation, rotor processing, hot melt granulation, electrostatic coating, supercritical fluid based fluidized bed technology are highlighted. Developments in the design of processing equipments have been explicitly elucidated. This article also discusses processing problems from the operator's perspective along with latest developments in the application of these principles.

  5. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  6. Sandia technology engineering and science accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Sandia is a DOE multiprogram engineering and science laboratory with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California, and a test range near Tonapah, Nevada. We have major research and development responsibilities for nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, the environment, economic competitiveness, and other areas of importance to the needs of the nation. Our principal mission is to support national defense policies by ensuring that the nuclear weapon stockpile meets the highest standards of safety, reliability, security, use control, and military performance. Selected unclassified technical activities and accomplishments are reported here. Topics include advanced manufacturing technologies, intelligent machines, computational simulation, sensors and instrumentation, information management, energy and environment, and weapons technology.

  7. Rapid Prototyping Technology of Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管金鹏

    2014-01-01

    In the modern medicine field, the transplant of organ and tissue is a big problem due to serious shortage of donor organ. Artificial organ and tissue is one of solutions. With the development of science, various tissue manufacture techniques emerged. Hereinto, due to its versatility both in materials and structure, rapid prototyping technology has become one of the important methods for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication in this field.

  8. Polymer microarray technology for stem cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Robert; Jia, Jia; Mei, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in developing soluble factors (e.g., small molecules and growth factors) to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activity has limited the realization of the enormous potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to a large number of materials properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties of materials) that can affect stem cell fate. This makes it challenging to design biomaterials to direct stem cell behavior. To address this, polymer microarray technology has been developed to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. In this article, we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing chemically defined media to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of the suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activities has been limiting the realization of the potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to the number of variables in material properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties) that can affect stem cells. Polymer microarray technology has shown to be a powerful tool to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. Here we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  10. Teaching Engineering Habits of Mind in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas; Dunn, Derrek

    2014-01-01

    With a new emphasis on the inclusion of engineering content and practices in technology education, attention has focused on what engineering content should be taught and assessed in technology education. The National Academy of Engineering (2010) proposed three general principles for K-12 engineering education in "Standards for K-12…

  11. Teaching Engineering Habits of Mind in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas; Dunn, Derrek

    2014-01-01

    With a new emphasis on the inclusion of engineering content and practices in technology education, attention has focused on what engineering content should be taught and assessed in technology education. The National Academy of Engineering (2010) proposed three general principles for K-12 engineering education in "Standards for K-12…

  12. Integrative Technology: 21st Century Technology for 21st Century Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemagno, Ph. D.

    2004-03-01

    Integrative technology, the merging of nanotechnology, biotechnology and informatics offers an opportunity for realizing true advances in the manner in which technology interacts with humanity. Using the power of nanotechnology to manipulate matter, that is the placing of molecules where we want, when we want, to perform functions that we want. Using the inspiration of biotechnology both to co-opt the tools of molecular manufacturing and to provide a baseline understanding of the way nature manipulates matter and information. And finally, using Informatics to create a robust framework for transforming the information implicit in molecular and larger scale interactions to engineer Complex Adaptive Systems that exhibit embedded higher-order behavior. Collectively these technologies established the basis for Integrative Technology, a new IT. The first examples of the implementation of Integrated Technology are manifested in the synthesis of a new class of smart materials. These materials have the potential to emulate much of the functionality associated with living systems such as the active transport and transformation of matter and information and, the transduction of energy into different forms. We will present the details of the technological demands and the results of efforts associated with the production of these new functional materials. Elements of the discussion will include the genetic engineering of active biological molecules into engineering building blocks, the precision assembly of these molecules into a stable, "active" material and, the promise of embedding intelligent behavior into the matrix of the assembled matter.

  13. "Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)

  14. International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sparrow, RW

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machine competition, is an initiative from MIT and has become the premiere undergraduate synthetic biology competition. The competing teams consist of students who work on a synthetic biology project...

  15. Between creation, evolution and genetic engineering: biology in need of a new bioethics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological interventions into biological processes through genetic engineering in the twenty-fi rst century could speed up evolution at the velocity of light years in comparison with the millions of years it took for Homo sapiens to reach this stage of evolution until this new millennium. Will th

  16. 78 FR 24241 - Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee; Committee on Technology, National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee; Committee on Technology, National Science and Technology Council; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  17. 77 FR 61448 - Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Subcommittee Committee on Technology, National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Subcommittee Committee on Technology, National Science and Technology Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings. SUMMARY: The...

  18. Virus resistant plums through genetic engineering - from lab to market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering (GE) has the potential to revolutionize the genetic improvement of fruit trees and other specialty crops, to provide greater flexibility and speed in responding to changes in climate, production systems and market demands, and to maintain the competitiveness of American agricultu...

  19. Optics and photonics: essential technologies for our nation (technology & engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Research, Committee on Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future; Sciences, Division on Engineering and Physical; Council, National Research

    2013-01-01

    Optics and photonics technologies are ubiquitous: they are responsible for the displays on smart phones and computing devices, optical fiber that carries the information in the internet, advanced precision manufacturing, enhanced defense capabilities, and a plethora of medical diagnostics tools. The opportunities arising from optics and photonics offer the potential for even greater societal impact in the next few decades, including solar power generation and new efficient lighting that could transform the nation's energy landscape and new optical capabilities that will be essential to support the continued exponential growth of the Internet. As described in the National Research Council report Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for our Nation, it is critical for the United States to take advantage of these emerging optical technologies for creating new industries and generating job growth. The report assesses the current state of optical science and engineering in the United States and abroad--incl...

  20. Engaging Students in the Ethics of Engineering and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiko, Yasukawa

    This paper argues that education for engineers and technologists should focus on the ethics of technology and engineering, and not just ethics in technology and engineering projects. It argues that one's expression of their ethical position is linked closely to their identity formation, and is di......, and is different to other "competencies" that are emphasised in engineering and technology education. Principles of sustainable development are proposed as a framework for engaging students in reflecting on their ethical positions and practices....

  1. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Rasala

    Full Text Available Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

  2. Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.

    1984-01-01

    Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

  3. Engineering research, development and technology FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R T

    2000-02-01

    The growth of computer power and connectivity, together with advances in wireless sensing and communication technologies, is transforming the field of complex distributed systems. The ability to deploy large numbers of sensors with a rapid, broadband communication system will enable high-fidelity, near real-time monitoring of complex systems. These technological developments will provide unprecedented insight into the actual performance of engineered and natural environment systems, enable the evolution of many new types of engineered systems for monitoring and detection, and enhance our ability to perform improved and validated large-scale simulations of complex systems. One of the challenges facing engineering is to develop methodologies to exploit the emerging information technologies. Particularly important will be the ability to assimilate measured data into the simulation process in a way which is much more sophisticated than current, primarily ad hoc procedures. The reports contained in this section on the Center for Complex Distributed Systems describe activities related to the integrated engineering of large complex systems. The first three papers describe recent developments for each link of the integrated engineering process for large structural systems. These include (1) the development of model-based signal processing algorithms which will formalize the process of coupling measurements and simulation and provide a rigorous methodology for validation and update of computational models; (2) collaborative efforts with faculty at the University of California at Berkeley on the development of massive simulation models for the earth and large bridge structures; and (3) the development of wireless data acquisition systems which provide a practical means of monitoring large systems like the National Ignition Facility (NIF) optical support structures. These successful developments are coming to a confluence in the next year with applications to NIF structural

  4. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  5. Integration of basic electromagnetism and engineering technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1995-01-01

    theoretical course contents have been reduced to a core of fundamental principles. These are combined with the study of magnetic properties of materials closely related to manufacturer's data sheets. To enhance the understanding of these fundamentals, practical topics from engineering technology are included....... Components or systems that combine magnetic, electrical and mechanical aspects are preferred. Also, a series of hands-on lab projects give the students an opportunity to learn by doing. The topics that are covered by the course are outlined. By integrating the teaching of basic physical laws...

  6. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    the mail and telephone surveys. The authors would also like to extend a special thanks to Mr. David Rose of the Naval Air Development Center for his...ADVANCED NUNAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TOOL TECHNOLOGIES 3/3 (U) CARLON ASSOCIATES INC FAIRFAX Yff S A FLEGER ET AL. UNCLRS 20 NAR B? DARI5-BS-C-NO64 WIL...34" ".--: :’-...2,,. ,..:,.- ,’-"-’:"- "’-::"-,2 ., ..,," ,.- ..’.-.-.’.-,-. : .....v. _ *’--..., ...-- ,,. - -.; , :¢ 4., 5 5 lPeter laines Mr. David M. Ilarrah

  7. Project Management for Engineering, Business, and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholas, John M

    2012-01-01

    There is an ever-growing need for better project management within the disciplines of engineering, business and technology and this new edition is a direct response to that need. By emphasizing practical applications, this book targets the ultimate purpose of project management; to unify and integrate the interests, resources and work efforts of many stakeholders to accomplish the overall project goal. The book encompasses the essential background material, from philosophy to methodology, that is required, before dedicating itself to presenting concepts and techniques of practical application

  8. Integration of molecular genetic technology with quantitative genetic technology for maximizing the speed of genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack; C.M.; DEKKERS

    2005-01-01

    To date,most genetic progress for quantita-tive traits in livestock has been made by selec-tion on phenotype or on estimates of breedingvalues(BBV)derived from phenotype,withoutknowledge of the number of genes that affect thetrait or the effects of each gene.In this quantita-tive genetic approach to genetic improvement,the genetic architecture of traits of interest hasessentially been treated as a‘black box’.De-spite this,the substantial rates of genetic im-provement that have been and continue to be a-chie...

  9. Engineering, Trade, and Technical Cluster. Task Analyses. Drafting and Design Technology, Precision Machining Technology, Electronics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    Developed in Virginia, this publication contains task analysis guides to support selected tech prep programs that prepare students for careers in the engineering, trade, and technical cluster. Three occupations are profiled: drafting and design technology, precision machining technology, and electronics technology. Each guide contains the…

  10. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  11. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  12. Improving student retention in computer engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

    The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

  13. [Progress on biogas technology and engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuexiang; Yan, Zhiying

    2010-07-01

    Dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources and the demand to increase the share of renewable energy for sustainability have increased the significance of biogas, the product of synergistic fermentation of biodegrable organic wastes from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities by microbial populations under anaerobic conditions. With extensive research and engineering practice, many technologies and modes have been developed for biogas production and application. Currently, the most widely used mode is the complete-mixing mesophilic fermentation. Europe, especially Germany, is leading the world in the combined heat and power production (CHP) from biogas. In this paper, updated progress in biogas technologies is reviewed, with focuses on anaerobic microorganisms, bioreactor configurations and process development, biogas production and applications, in which perspectives of biogas as a clean and renewable energy are projected.

  14. New Perspectives: Technology Teacher Education and Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Roger B.

    2006-01-01

    Initiatives to integrate engineering design within the field of technology education are increasingly evident (Lewis, 2005; Wicklein, 2006). Alliances between technology education and engineering were prominent in the development of the Standards for Technological Literacy (International Technology Education Association, 2000), and leaders from both disciplines have expressed support for the outcomes described in the Standards (Bybee, 2000; Council of the National Academy of Engineering, 2000...

  15. Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation in Electrical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation in Electrical Engineering includes select presentations on measuring technology and mechatronics automation related to electrical engineering, originally presented during the International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechanatronics Automation (ICMTMA2012). This Fourth ICMTMA, held at Sanya, China, offered a prestigious, international forum for scientists, engineers, and educators to present the state of the art of measuring technology and mechatronics automation research.

  16. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

  17. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  18. Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

  19. Field performance of a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Simmons

    Full Text Available Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT--mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts--has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field--ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area--were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests.

  20. Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

    Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

  1. Genetically Engineered Materials for Biofuels Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Agrivida, Inc., is an agricultural biotechnology company developing industrial crop feedstocks for the fuel and chemical industries. Agrivida's crops have improved processing traits that enable efficient, low cost conversion of the crops' cellulosic components into fermentable sugars. Currently, pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of the major cell wall components, cellulose and hemicellulose, into fermentable sugars is the most expensive processing step that prevents widespread adoption of biomass in biofuels processes. To lower production costs we are consolidating pretreatment and enzyme production within the crop. In this strategy, transgenic plants express engineered cell wall degrading enzymes in an inactive form, which can be reactivated after harvest. We have engineered protein elements that disrupt enzyme activity during normal plant growth. Upon exposure to specific processing conditions, the engineered enzymes are converted into their active forms. This mechanism significantly lowers pretreatment costs and enzyme loadings (>75% reduction) below those currently available to the industry.

  2. Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

  3. An Ethical Study on the Uses of Enhancement Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Koji

    A variety of biomedical technologies are being developed that can be used for purposes other than treating diseases. Such “enhancement technologies” can be used to improve our own and future generation's life-chances. While these technologies can help people in many ways, their use raises important ethical issues. Some arguments for anti-enhancement as well as pro-enhancement seem to rest, however, on shaky foundation. Both company engineers and the general public had better learn more from technological, economical and philosophical histories. For such subjects may provide engineers with less opportunities of technological misuses and more powers of self-esteem in addition to self-control.

  4. Engineered Plant Minichromosome and Its Application in Genomics and Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei-chang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Engineered minichromosomes have been constructed as novel artificial chromosome platforms for future genetic engineering in maize.We demonstrated that minichromosomes could be created by telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation of both normal A chromosomes and the supernumerary B chromosomes of maize,the minichromosomes were stable during both mitosis and meiosis,transgenes were expressed from minichromosomes,and we also demonstrated the proof of concept that minichromosomes could accept new genetic elements by a site-specific recombination system.

  5. Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévenier, Robert; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Bino, Raoul; Koops, Andries J

    2002-06-01

    Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We introduced the first enzyme involved in fructan synthesis, the sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (isolated from Jerusalem artichoke), into sugar beet. The transgenic sugar beet showed a dramatic change in the nature of the accumulated sugar, 90% of the sucrose being converted into fructan. The use of transgenic sugar beet for the production and isolation of fructans will result in a more efficient plant production system of fructans and should promote their use in human food. The second example shows how the over-expression of the key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis could increase anti-oxidant levels in tomato. Introduction of a highly expressed chalcone isomerase led to a seventyfold increase of the amount of quercetin glucoside, which is a strong anti-oxidant in tomato. We were also able to modify the essential amino acid content of potato in order to increase its nutritional value. The introduction of a feedback insensitive bacterial gene involved in biosynthesis of aspartate family amino acids led to a sixfold increase of the lysine content. Because the use of a bacterial gene could appear to be controversial, we also introduced a mutated form of the plant key enzyme of lysine biosynthesis (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) in potato. This modification led to a 15 times increase of the lysine content of potato. This increase of the essential amino acid lysine influences the nutritional value of potato, which normally has low levels of several essential amino acids. These three examples show how the metabolism of primary constituents of the plant cell such as sugar or amino acids, but also of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, can be modified by genetic

  6. Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Don (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.

  7. Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.

  8. TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

    2009-12-04

    A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

  9. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  10. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF ENHANCED MICROBIAL NITRIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgensis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposable genes on methods for p...

  11. Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, N.W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research is to first establish a plasmid-mediated genetic transformation system for the sulfur degrading Sulfolobus, and then to clone and overexpress the genes encoding the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes from Sulfolobus- as well as from other microorganisms, to develop a Sulfolobus-based microbial process for the removal of both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal.

  12. Current State and Development Strategy of CNPC Engineering Technology Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Challenges to CNPC engineering technology service Internal contraction and problems (1) Pricing mechanism for technology service. CNPC engineering technology companies have been under deficit for many years after restructuring, and eight subordinate companies lost 239 million RMB in 2008 and even 770 million RMB in 2009.

  13. Concise Review: Organ Engineering: Design, Technology, and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaushik, G.; Leijten, J.C.H.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technolog

  14. Concise Review: Organ Engineering: Design, Technology, and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaushik, G.; Leijten, J.C.H.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2017-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technolog

  15. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano Beja-Pereira; Rita Oliveira; Paulo C. Alves; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological...

  16. International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering System (ICITES 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yi-Cheng; Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems

    2013-01-01

    This book concentrates on intelligent technologies as it relates to engineering systems. The book covers the following topics: networking, signal processing, artificial intelligence, control and software engineering, intelligent electronic circuits and systems, communications, and materials and mechanical engineering. The book is a collection of original papers that have been reviewed by technical editors. These papers were presented at the International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems, held Dec. 13-15, 2012.

  17. Genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells using TALE nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P; Cost, Gregory J; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-07-07

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that TALENs employing the specific architectures described here mediate site-specific genome modification in human pluripotent cells with similar efficiency and precision as do zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs).

  18. Genetic program based data mining to reverse engineer digital logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Nguyen, Thanh Vu H.

    2006-04-01

    A data mining based procedure for automated reverse engineering and defect discovery has been developed. The data mining algorithm for reverse engineering uses a genetic program (GP) as a data mining function. A genetic program is an algorithm based on the theory of evolution that automatically evolves populations of computer programs or mathematical expressions, eventually selecting one that is optimal in the sense it maximizes a measure of effectiveness, referred to as a fitness function. The system to be reverse engineered is typically a sensor. Design documents for the sensor are not available and conditions prevent the sensor from being taken apart. The sensor is used to create a database of input signals and output measurements. Rules about the likely design properties of the sensor are collected from experts. The rules are used to create a fitness function for the genetic program. Genetic program based data mining is then conducted. This procedure incorporates not only the experts' rules into the fitness function, but also the information in the database. The information extracted through this process is the internal design specifications of the sensor. Uncertainty related to the input-output database and the expert based rule set can significantly alter the reverse engineering results. Significant experimental and theoretical results related to GP based data mining for reverse engineering will be provided. Methods of quantifying uncertainty and its effects will be presented. Finally methods for reducing the uncertainty will be examined.

  19. Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Rasala, Beth A; Syh-Shiuan Chao; Matthew Pier; Daniel J Barrera; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes withi...

  20. Biosynthesis and Genetic Engineering of Polyketides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiang-Cheng; WANG Qiao-Mei; SHEN Yue-Mao; DU Liang-Cheng; HUFFMAN Justin; GERBER Ryan; LOU Li-Li; XIE Yun-Xuan; LIN Ting; JORGENSON Joel; MARESCH Andrew; VOGELER Chad

    2008-01-01

    Polyketides are one of the largest groups of natural products produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. Many of these metabolites have highly complex chemical structures and very important biological activities, including antibiotic, anticancer, immunosuppressant, and anti-cholesterol activities. In the past two decades, extensive investigations have been carried out to understand the molecular mechanisms for polyketide biosynthesis. These efforts have led to the development of various rational approaches toward engineered biosynthesis of new polyketides. More recently, the research efforts have shifted to the elucidation of the three-dimentional structure of the complex enzyme machineries for polyketide biosynthesis and to the exploitation of new sources for polyketide production, such as filamentous fungi and marine microorganisms. This review summarizes our general understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms and the progress in engineered biosynthesis of polyketides.

  1. Textile Technologies and Tissue Engineering: A Path Toward Organ Weaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Tamayol, Ali; Bagherifard, Sara; Serex, Ludovic; Mostafalu, Pooria; Faramarzi, Negar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-06

    Textile technologies have recently attracted great attention as potential biofabrication tools for engineering tissue constructs. Using current textile technologies, fibrous structures can be designed and engineered to attain the required properties that are demanded by different tissue engineering applications. Several key parameters such as physiochemical characteristics of fibers, microarchitecture, and mechanical properties of the fabrics play important roles in the effective use of textile technologies in tissue engineering. This review summarizes the current advances in the manufacturing of biofunctional fibers. Different textile methods such as knitting, weaving, and braiding are discussed and their current applications in tissue engineering are highlighted.

  2. The Nazi engineers: reflections on technological ethics in hell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Engineers, architects, and other technological professionals designed the genocidal death machines of the Third Reich. The death camp operations were highly efficient, so these technological professionals knew what they were doing: they were, so to speak, good engineers. As an educator at a technological university, I need to explain to my students-future engineers and architects-the motivations and ethical reasoning of the technological professionals of the Third Reich. I need to educate my students in the ethical practices of this hellish regime so that they can avoid the kind of ethical justifications used by the Nazi engineers. In their own professional lives, my former students should not only be good engineers in a technical sense, but good engineers in a moral sense. In this essay, I examine several arguments about the ethical judgments of professionals in Nazi Germany, and attempt a synthesis that can provide a lesson for contemporary engineers and other technological professionals. How does an engineer avoid the error of the Nazi engineers in their embrace of an evil ideology underlying their technological creations? How does an engineer know that the values he embodies through his technological products are good values that will lead to a better world? This last question, I believe, is the fundamental issue for the understanding of engineering ethics.

  3. Practical microcontroller engineering with ARM technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts and practical techniques in designing and building ARM® microcontrollers in industrial and commercial applications Practical Microcontroller Engineering with ARM® Technology provides the full scope of components and materials related to ARM® Cortex®–M4 microcontroller systems. Chapters 2 through 9 provide the fundamentals and detailed discussions about ARM® Cortex®-M4 MCU applications with the most widely used peripherals such as flash memory, EEPROM, ADC, DAC, PWM, UART, USB, I2C, SSI, LCD and GPTM. The remaining chapters cover advanced and optional peripherals such as Control Area Network (CAN), Quadrature Encoder Interface (QEI), Analog Comparators (ACMP) and detailed discussions of Floating Point Unit (FPU) and ARM® Cortex®-M4 Memory Protection Unit (MPU).

  4. International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Sambath, Sabo; Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering

    2012-01-01

    This volume comprises the papers from 2011 International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011).  2011 International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011) has been held in Sanya, China, December 1-2, 2011. All the papers have been peer reviewed by the selected experts. These papers represent the latest development in the field of materials manufacturing technology, spanning from the fundamentals to new technologies and applications. Specially, these papers cover the topics of Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering. This book provides a greatly valuable reference for researchers in the field of Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering who wish to further understand the underlying mechanisms and create innovative and practical techniques, systems and processes. It should also be particularly useful for engineers in information technology and agriculture who are responsible for the efficient and effective ...

  5. Genome-scale genetic engineering in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaehwan; Cho, Namjin; Jung, Daehee; Bang, Duhee

    2013-11-01

    Genome engineering has been developed to create useful strains for biological studies and industrial uses. However, a continuous challenge remained in the field: technical limitations in high-throughput screening and precise manipulation of strains. Today, technical improvements have made genome engineering more rapid and efficient. This review introduces recent advances in genome engineering technologies applied to Escherichia coli as well as multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE), a recent technique proposed as a powerful toolkit due to its straightforward process, rapid experimental procedures, and highly efficient properties.

  6. Genetically engineered microorganisms for the detection of explosives' residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eShemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture and use of explosives throughout the past century has resulted in the extensive pollution of soils and groundwater, and the widespread interment of landmines imposes a major humanitarian risk and prevents civil development of large areas. As most current landmine detection technologies require actual presence at the surveyed areas, thus posing a significant risk to personnel, diverse research efforts are aimed at the development of remote detection solutions. One possible means proposed to fulfill this objective is the use of microbial bioreporters: genetically engineered microorganisms tailored to generate an optical signal in the presence of explosives’ vapors. The use of such sensor bacteria will allow to pinpoint the locations of explosive devices in a minefield. While no study has yet resulted in a commercially operational system, significant progress has been made in the design and construction of explosives-sensing bacterial strains. In this article we review the attempts to construct microbial bioreporters for the detection of explosives, and analyze the steps that need to be undertaken for this strategy to be applicable for landmine detection.

  7. Genetically engineered microorganisms for the detection of explosives’ residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Benjamin; Palevsky, Noa; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture and use of explosives throughout the past century has resulted in the extensive pollution of soils and groundwater, and the widespread interment of landmines imposes a major humanitarian risk and prevents civil development of large areas. As most current landmine detection technologies require actual presence at the surveyed areas, thus posing a significant risk to personnel, diverse research efforts are aimed at the development of remote detection solutions. One possible means proposed to fulfill this objective is the use of microbial bioreporters: genetically engineered microorganisms “tailored” to generate an optical signal in the presence of explosives’ vapors. The use of such sensor bacteria will allow to pinpoint the locations of explosive devices in a minefield. While no study has yet resulted in a commercially operational system, significant progress has been made in the design and construction of explosives-sensing bacterial strains. In this article we review the attempts to construct microbial bioreporters for the detection of explosives, and analyze the steps that need to be undertaken for this strategy to be applicable for landmine detection. PMID:26579085

  8. Genetic engineering in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): history, status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citadin, Cristiane T; Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2011-01-01

    In the last three decades, a number of attempts have been made to develop reproducible protocols for generating transgenic cowpea that permit the expression of genes of agronomic importance. Pioneer works focused on the development of such systems vis-à-vis an in vitro culture system that would guarantee de novo regeneration of transgenic cowpea arising from cells amenable to one form of gene delivery system or another, but any such system has eluded researchers over the years. Despite this apparent failure, significant progress has been made in generating transgenic cowpea, bringing researchers much nearer to their goal than thirty years ago. Now, various researchers have successfully established transgenic procedures for cowpea with evidence of inherent transgenes of interest, effected by progenies in a Mendelian fashion. New opportunities have thus emerged to optimize existing protocols and devise new strategies to ensure the development of transgenic cowpea with desirable agronomic traits. This review chronicles the important milestones in the last thirty years that have marked the evolution of genetic engineering of cowpea. It also highlights the progress made and describes new strategies that have arisen, culminating in the current status of transgenic technologies for cowpea.

  9. Genetic code expansion for multiprotein complex engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Christine; Sauter, Paul F; Wawryszyn, Mirella; Girona, Gemma Estrada; Gupta, Kapil; Landry, Jonathan J M; Fritz, Markus Hsi-Yang; Radic, Ksenija; Hoffmann, Jan-Erik; Chen, Zhuo A; Zou, Juan; Tan, Piau Siong; Galik, Bence; Junttila, Sini; Stolt-Bergner, Peggy; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Gyenesei, Attila; Schultz, Carsten; Biskup, Moritz Bosse; Besir, Hueseyin; Benes, Vladimir; Rappsilber, Juri; Jechlinger, Martin; Korbel, Jan O; Berger, Imre; Braese, Stefan; Lemke, Edward A

    2016-12-01

    We present a baculovirus-based protein engineering method that enables site-specific introduction of unique functionalities in a eukaryotic protein complex recombinantly produced in insect cells. We demonstrate the versatility of this efficient and robust protein production platform, 'MultiBacTAG', (i) for the fluorescent labeling of target proteins and biologics using click chemistries, (ii) for glycoengineering of antibodies, and (iii) for structure-function studies of novel eukaryotic complexes using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer as well as site-specific crosslinking strategies.

  10. Successes and failures in modular genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Joshua T; Wu, Gabriel C; Anderson, J Christopher

    2012-08-01

    Synthetic biology relies on engineering concepts such as abstraction, standardization, and decoupling to develop systems that address environmental, clinical, and industrial needs. Recent advances in applying modular design to system development have enabled creation of increasingly complex systems. However, several challenges to module and system development remain, including syntactic errors, semantic errors, parameter mismatches, contextual sensitivity, noise and evolution, and load and stress. To combat these challenges, researchers should develop a framework for describing and reasoning about biological information, design systems with modularity in mind, and investigate how to predictively describe the diverse sources and consequences of metabolic load and stress.

  11. Mapping Engineering Concepts for Secondary Level Education. Final Report. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Jenny L.

    2011-01-01

    Much of the national attention on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education tends to concentrate on science and mathematics, with its emphasis on standardized test scores. However as the National Academy of Engineering Committee on K-12 Engineering Education stressed, engineering can contribute to the development of an…

  12. Role of stem cells in large animal genetic engineering in the TALENs-CRISPR era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and gene targeting technologies in mice has revolutionised the field of genetics. The relative ease with which genes can be knocked out, and exogenous sequences introduced, has allowed the mouse to become the prime model for deciphering the genetic code. Not surprisingly, the lack of authentic ESCs has hampered the livestock genetics field and has forced animal scientists into adapting alternative technologies for genetic engineering. The recent discovery of the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by upregulation of a handful of reprogramming genes has offered renewed enthusiasm to animal geneticists. However, much like ESCs, establishing authentic iPSCs from the domestic animals is still beset with problems, including (but not limited to) the persistent expression of reprogramming genes and the lack of proven potential for differentiation into target cell types both in vitro and in vivo. Site-specific nucleases comprised of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulated interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) emerged as powerful genetic tools for precisely editing the genome, usurping the need for ESC-based genetic modifications even in the mouse. In this article, in the aftermath of these powerful genome editing technologies, the role of pluripotent stem cells in livestock genetics is discussed.

  13. Using Genetic Technologies To Reduce, Rather Than Widen, Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Dookeran, Keith A; Hampel, Heather; Tin, Adrienne; Maruthur, Nisa M; Schisler, Jonathan C; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Tucker, Katherine L; Ordovás, José M

    2016-08-01

    Evidence shows that both biological and nonbiological factors contribute to health disparities. Genetics, in particular, plays a part in how common diseases manifest themselves. Today, unprecedented advances in genetically based diagnoses and treatments provide opportunities for personalized medicine. However, disadvantaged groups may lack access to these advances, and treatments based on research on non-Hispanic whites might not be generalizable to members of minority groups. Unless genetic technologies become universally accessible, existing disparities could be widened. Addressing this issue will require integrated strategies, including expanding genetic research, improving genetic literacy, and enhancing access to genetic technologies among minority populations in a way that avoids harms such as stigmatization.

  14. Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Alvin JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics.

  15. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  16. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  17. American chestnut: A test case for genetic engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila. Pinchot

    2014-01-01

    The thought of genetically engineered (GE) trees might conjure images of mutant trees with unnatural and invasive tendencies, but there is much more to the story. GE trees are a new reality that, like it or not, will probably be part of the future of forestry. The basic inclination of most Forest Guild stewards is to reject GE trees as violating our principle to...

  18. Somatic structural rearrangements in genetically engineered mouse mammary tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varela, I.; Klijn, C.N.; Stephens, P.J.; Mudie, L.J.; Stebbings, L.; Galappaththige, D.; Van der Gulden, H.; Schut, E.; Klarenbeek, S.; Campbell, P.J.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Stratton, M.R.; Jonkers, J.; Futreal, P.A.; Adams, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Here we present the first paired-end sequencing of tumors from genetically engineered mouse models of cancer to determine how faithfully these models recapitulate the landscape of somatic rearrangements found in human tumors. These were models of Trp53-mutated breast cancer, Brca1- and B

  19. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not develo

  20. A Simple Interactive Introduction to Teaching Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, at key stage 4, students aged 14-15 studying GCSE Core Science or Unit 1 of the GCSE Biology course are required to be able to describe the process of genetic engineering to produce bacteria that can produce insulin. The simple interactive introduction described in this article allows students to consider the problem, devise a model and…

  1. Genetic Engineering--A Lesson on Bioethics for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kerri; Weber, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    A unit designed to cover the topic of genetic engineering and its ethical considerations is presented. Students are expected to learn the material while using a debate format. A list of objectives for the unit, the debate format, and the results from an opinion questionnaire are described. (KR)

  2. University Students' Knowledge and Attitude about Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Senol; Samanci, Nilay Keskin; Bozkurt, Orçun

    2007-01-01

    Genetic engineering and biotechnology made possible of gene transfer without discriminating microorganism, plant, animal or human. However, although these scientific techniques have benefits, they cause arguments because of their ethical and social impacts. The arguments about ethical ad social impacts of biotechnology made clear that not only…

  3. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert

    2017-03-01

    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  5. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  6. Infusing Software Engineering Technology into Practice at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressburger, Thomas; Feather, Martin S.; Hinchey, Michael; Markosia, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    We present an ongoing effort of the NASA Software Engineering Initiative to encourage the use of advanced software engineering technology on NASA projects. Technology infusion is in general a difficult process yet this effort seems to have found a modest approach that is successful for some types of technologies. We outline the process and describe the experience of the technology infusions that occurred over a two year period. We also present some lessons from the experiences.

  7. Effects of genetic engineering on the pharmacokinetics of antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colcher, D.; Goel, A.; Pavlinkova, G.; Beresford, G.; Booth, B.; Batra, S.K. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha NE (United States). Dept. of Pathology and Microbiology and Molecular Biology

    1999-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) may be considered 'magic bullets' due to their ability to recognize and eradicate malignant cells. MAbs, however, have practical limitations for their rapid application in the clinics. The structure of the antibody molecules can be engineered to modify functional domains such as antigen-binding sites and/or effectors functions. Advanced in genetic engineering have provided rapid progress the development of new immunoglobulin constructs of MAbs with defined research and therapeutic application. Recombinant antibody constructs are being engineered, such as human mouse chimeric, domain-dispositioned, domain-deleted, humanized and single-chain Fv fragments. Genetically-engineered antibodies differ in size and rate of catabolism. Pharmacokinetics studies show that the intact IgG (150 kD), enzymatically derived fragments Fab' (50 kD) and single chain Fv (28 kD) have different clearance rates. These antibody forms clear 50% from the blood pool in 2.1 days, 30 minutes and 10 minutes, respectively. Genetically-engineered antibodies make a new class of immunotherapeutic tracers for cancer treatment.

  8. Exergetic optimization of turbofan engine with genetic algorithm method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turan, Onder [Anadolu University, School of Civil Aviation (Turkey)], e-mail: onderturan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the growth of passenger numbers, emissions from the aeronautics sector are increasing and the industry is now working on improving engine efficiency to reduce fuel consumption. The aim of this study is to present the use of genetic algorithms, an optimization method based on biological principles, to optimize the exergetic performance of turbofan engines. The optimization was carried out using exergy efficiency, overall efficiency and specific thrust of the engine as evaluation criteria and playing on pressure and bypass ratio, turbine inlet temperature and flight altitude. Results showed exergy efficiency can be maximized with higher altitudes, fan pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature; the turbine inlet temperature is the most important parameter for increased exergy efficiency. This study demonstrated that genetic algorithms are effective in optimizing complex systems in a short time.

  9. Genetic engineering, a hope for sustainable biofuel production: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paudel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of recently developed genetic engineering tools in combination with organisms that have the potential to produce precursors for the production of biodiesel, promises a sustainable and environment friendly energy source. Enhanced lipid production in wild type and/or genetically engineered organisms can offer sufficient raw material for industrial transesterification of plant-based triglycerides. Bio-diesel, produced with the help of genetically modified organisms, might be one of the best alternatives to fossil fuels and to mitigate various environmental hazards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10644 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 311-323

  10. The new genetic technologies: why a theological perspective is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2003-01-01

    Secular bioethics poses questions that can be recognized as important, though it lacks the resources to answer them. Secular bioethics may retain the sense that there should be moral limits to the use of germline genetic engineering, but it lacks the basis to justify limits in principle. The contemporary practice of bioethics arose in the United States to fill a moral vacuum created by (1) the marginalization of medical ethics through the deprofessionalization of medicine, (2) the secularization of American society, and (3) an increased reliance on individual decision-making. The result is an ethics at the core of secular bioethics severed from a sense of ultimate purpose or direction for humans or the cosmos. This ethics and its bioethics are marked by (1) moral fragmentation and pluralism and (2) a loss of ultimate orientation. This bioethics can at best require (1) the prudent maximization of benefits over harms, (2) the condemnation of malevolent acts, and (3) the use of persons only with their consent. However, there fails to be a basis for a common view of benefit or of harm. Within this impoverished moral context, human biological nature can only appear to be a contingent outcome of spontaneous mutations, selective pressure, the constraints of physical laws, and random catastrophes. Such a bioethics, deprived of ultimate orientation, can provide no ground in principle for forbidding cloning, germline genetic engineering, or the fundamental recasting of human nature. Absent a theological point of orientation, medicine and the genetic technology are left with more power than ever but no clear moral sense of how to use that power.

  11. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. The Technology of Forming of Innovative Content for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Lilija A.; Savva, Lubov I.; Soldatchenko, Aleksandr L.; Sirazetdinov, Rustem M.; Akhmetov, Linar G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the modernization of engineering education aimed at specialists' training to solve engineering and economic problems effectively. The goal of the paper is to develop the technology of the innovative content's formation for engineering education. The leading method to the study of this problem is a…

  13. Introduction to the workshop on technology transfer in software engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Warren; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    The goal of the Workshop on Technology Transfer in Software Engineering is to increase our understanding of technology transfer in software engineering, and to learn from successful case studies. We wanted to bring researchers and practitioners together to create an inventory of problems in software

  14. Toys for Tots in Your Technology and Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeihiser, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Most technology and engineering (T&E) classes are elective, so teachers are always looking for ways to market programs, engage students, and remind administrators and school board members about the good things T&E teachers do with and for kids. In this article, the Unionville High School (PA) Technology and Engineering Department describes…

  15. Emerging methods, technologies and process management in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrucci, Filomena; Tortora, Genny; Tucci, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    A high-level introduction to new technologies andmethods in the field of software engineering Recent years have witnessed rapid evolution of software engineering methodologies, and until now, there has been no single-source introduction to emerging technologies in the field.

  16. DevelOpment Strategy of CNPC Engineering Technology Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingli; Liu Bingyi; Zheng Yi; Zhu Jingping; Jiang Xinsheng

    2011-01-01

    An overview of CNPC engineering technology service As an important backup and guarantee for CNPC's oil and gas business, engineering technology service companies have focused on the goal of building an integrated international energy company, and launched new round of specialized restructuring and business integration since the end of 2007, in accordance with the principle of intensification, specialization, and integration.

  17. Integrating Engineering Design into Technology Education: Georgia's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Cameron D.; Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive research study reported on Georgia's secondary level (grades 6-12) technology education programs capability to incorporate engineering concepts and/or engineering design into their curriculum. Participants were middle school and high school teachers in the state of Georgia who currently teach technology education. Participants…

  18. Modular projects and 'mean questions': best practices for advising an International Genetically Engineered Machines team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-07-01

    In the yearly Internationally Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition, teams of Bachelor's and Master's students design and build an engineered biological system using DNA technologies. Advising an iGEM team poses unique challenges due to the inherent difficulties of mounting and completing a new biological project from scratch over the course of a single academic year; the challenges in obtaining financial and structural resources for a project that will likely not be fully realized; and conflicts between educational and competition-based goals. This article shares tips and best practices for iGEM team advisors, from two team advisors with very different experiences with the iGEM competition.

  19. Effect of an Engineering Camp on Students’ Perceptions of Engineering and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hammack, Rebekah; Ivey, Toni A; Utley, Juliana; High, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Students’ knowledge about a profession influences their future decisions about careers. Research indicates that students tend to hold stereotypical views of engineers, which would hinder engineering as a career choice. The purpose of this study was to measure how participating in a week long engineering summer camp affected middle school students’ (N519) attitudes towards engineering and their conceptions of engineering and technology. Results indicate that participation in the programs had a...

  20. Challenges in Implementing Engineering Technology Education in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmah Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.As Malaysia races against time to achieve Vision 2020 to be a developed nation, there is an urgent need for highly-skilled human resources to fulfill the requirements of the industry. This calls for an expansion of the engineering technology program to increase the number of technical graduates.  However, various challenges are faced by the institutions in the implementation of the Engineering Technology programs, which have significant negative impact on the nation in general and in particular the graduates from the programs. Data was collected from a brainstorming session between six organizations involved in providing engineering technology education in Malaysia and the UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia (UTM and a convention on Engineering Technology Future in Malaysia. These challenges are categorized into four and discussed in this paper.Keywords: Accreditation, Challenges, Engineering technology; Human resources, Technical graduates.

  1. Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, N.W.Y. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some microorganisms can play a significant role in removing the sulfur compound from coal. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and related species are such microorganisms. The objective of this project is to develop a genetic transformation system for Sulfolobus species so that they could become the ideal host to overproduce homologous and heterologous enzymes that are most effective for the removal of sulfur from coal, particularly organic sulfur. Last quarter, we have identified three chemicals that can inhibit the growth of S. Acidocaldarius. These chemicals can be part of the selection system for the development of a transformation system for S. acidocaldarius. Due to the fact that Sulfolobus shibatae B12 becomes increasingly more attractive as a host for housing genes encoding desulfurization enzymes, in this period we also studied the affect of these three chemicals to growth of S. shibatae B12. We found that S. shibatae B12 is also sensitive to these chemicals. This quarter we succeeded in the isolation and purification of the double-stranded DNA virus from S. shibatae B12. Furthermore, the individual EcoRI and BamH1 fragments of the virus have also been cloned into pUC19 plasmid. These plasmids will be used for the construction of the final E. coli-Sulfolobus shuttle vector. 5 Flurouracil (5FU) is one of the chemicals that inhibit growth of Sulfolobus. Resistance strain of S. acidocaldarius to 5FU has also been isolated. DNA from the 5FU resistance strain has also been isolated. 2 figs.

  2. Mechanics of materials an introduction to engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavami, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    This book, framed in the processes of engineering analysis and design, presents concepts in mechanics of materials for students in two-year or four-year programs in engineering technology, architecture, and building construction, as well as for students in vocational schools and technical institutes. Using the principles and laws of mechanics, physics, and the fundamentals of engineering, Mechanics of Materials: An Introduction for Engineering Technology will help aspiring and practicing engineers and engineering technicians from across disciplines—mechanical, civil, chemical, and electrical—apply concepts of engineering mechanics for analysis and design of materials, structures, and machine components. The book is ideal for those seeking a rigorous, algebra/trigonometry-based text on the mechanics of materials. This book also: ·       Elucidates concepts of engineering mechanics in materials, including stress and strain, force systems on structures, moment of inertia, and shear and bending moments...

  3. Metabolic Engineering: Techniques for analysis of targets for genetic manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    enzymes. Despite the prospect of obtaining major improvement through metabolic engineering, this approach is, however, not expected to completely replace the classical approach to strain improvement-random mutagenesis followed by screening. Identification of the optimal genetic changes for improvement......Metabolic engineering has been defined as the purposeful modification of intermediary metabolism using recombinant DNA techniques. With this definition metabolic engineering includes: (1) inserting new pathways in microorganisms with the aim of producing novel metabolites, e.g., production...... of polyketides by Streptomyces; (2) production of heterologous peptides, e.g., production of human insulin, erythropoitin, and tPA; and (3) improvement of both new and existing processes, e.g., production of antibiotics and industrial enzymes. Metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary approach, which involves...

  4. Support of Study on Engineering Technology from Physics and Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Mynbaev, Djafar K; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya; Liou-Mark, Janet

    2008-01-01

    An approach that provides students with an ability to transfer learning in physics and mathematics to the engineering-technology courses through e-teaching and e-learning process is proposed. E-modules of courses in mathematics, physics, computer systems technology, and electrical and telecommunications engineering technology have been developed. These modules being used in the Blackboard and Web-based communications systems create a virtual interdisciplinary learning community, which helps the students to transfer knowledge from physics and mathematics to their study in engineering technology.

  5. Engineering genetic circuit interactions within and between synthetic minimal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Martin-Alarcon, Daniel A.; Guthrie-Honea, Katriona R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2017-05-01

    Genetic circuits and reaction cascades are of great importance for synthetic biology, biochemistry and bioengineering. An open question is how to maximize the modularity of their design to enable the integration of different reaction networks and to optimize their scalability and flexibility. One option is encapsulation within liposomes, which enables chemical reactions to proceed in well-isolated environments. Here we adapt liposome encapsulation to enable the modular, controlled compartmentalization of genetic circuits and cascades. We demonstrate that it is possible to engineer genetic circuit-containing synthetic minimal cells (synells) to contain multiple-part genetic cascades, and that these cascades can be controlled by external signals as well as inter-liposomal communication without crosstalk. We also show that liposomes that contain different cascades can be fused in a controlled way so that the products of incompatible reactions can be brought together. Synells thus enable a more modular creation of synthetic biology cascades, an essential step towards their ultimate programmability.

  6. 76 FR 8707 - Syngenta Seeds, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically Engineered To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are...

  7. Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H2 yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H2 production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

  8. Genetic engineering of algae for enhanced biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2010-04-01

    There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H(2) yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H(2) production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes.

  9. Centromeric DNA Facilitates Nonconventional Yeast Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Meirong; Lopez-Garcia, Carmen Lorena; Wu, Yutong; Seetharam, Arun Somwarpet; Severin, Andrew Josef; Shao, Zengyi

    2017-08-18

    Many nonconventional yeast species have highly desirable features that are not possessed by model yeasts, despite that significant technology hurdles to effectively manipulate them lay in front. Scheffersomyces stipitis is one of the most important exemplary nonconventional yeasts in biorenewables industry, which has a high native xylose utilization capacity. Recent study suggested its much better potential than Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a well-suited microbial biomanufacturing platform for producing high-value compounds derived from shikimate pathway, many of which are associated with potent nutraceutical or pharmaceutical properties. However, the broad application of S. stipitis is hampered by the lack of stable episomal expression platforms and precise genome-editing tools. Here we report the success in pinpointing the centromeric DNA as the partitioning element to guarantee stable extra-chromosomal DNA segregation. The identified centromeric sequence not only stabilized episomal plasmid, enabled homogeneous gene expression, increased the titer of a commercially relevant compound by 3-fold, and also dramatically increased gene knockout efficiency from <1% to more than 80% with the expression of CRISPR components on the new stable plasmid. This study elucidated that establishment of a stable minichromosome-like expression platform is key to achieving functional modifications of nonconventional yeast species in order to expand the current collection of microbial factories.

  10. System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

  11. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of resin biosynthesis and genetic engineering strategies to improve defenses in conifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGWei

    2003-01-01

    Since the first terpenoid synthase cDNA was obtained by the reverse genetic approach from grand fir, great pro-gress in the molecular genetics of terpenoid formation has been made with angiosperms and genes encoding a monoterpene synthase, a sesquiterpene synthase, and a diterpene synthase. Tree killing bark beetles and their vectored fungal pathogens are the most destructive agents of conifer forests worldwide. Conifers defend against attack by the constitutive and inducible production of oleoresin that accumulates at the wound site to kill invaders and both flush and seal the injury. Although toxic to the bark beetle and fungal pathogen, oleoresin also plays a central role in the chemical ecology of these boring insects. Re-cent advances in the molecular genetics of terpenoid biosynthesis provide evidence for the evolutionary origins of oleoresin and permit consideration of genetic engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses as a component of modern forest bio-technology. This review described enzymes of resin biosynthesis, structural feathers of genes genomic intron and exon or-ganization, pathway organization and evolution, resin production and accumulation, interactions between conifer and bark beetle, and engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses.

  12. 3D Nanoprinting Technologies for Tissue Engineering Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Woo Lee

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering recovers an original function of tissue by replacing the damaged part with a new tissue or organ regenerated using various engineering technologies. This technology uses a scaffold to support three-dimensional (3D) tissue formation. Conventional scaffold fabrication methods do not control the architecture, pore shape, porosity, or interconnectivity of the scaffold, so it has limited ability to stimulate cell growth and to generate new tissue. 3D printing technologies may ov...

  13. Introduction to the application of genetic algorithms in engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shaw

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms constitute a new research area in the field of artificial intelligence. This work is aimed at their application in specific areas of engineering where good results have already been achieved. The purpose of this work is to provide a basic introduction for students as well as experienced engineers who wish to upgrade their knowledge. A distinctive feature of artificial intelligence is that instead of mathematical models, either direct human experience or certain functions of the human brain for the modelling of physical phenomena are used.

  14. Vocabulary of genetic engineering. Terminology Bulletin No. 200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvin, E.; Pham, G.

    1990-01-01

    For some years, research, teaching and health care have been seriously affected by the lack of official terminology in the health sciences field. This vocabulary presents terminology in the field of genetic engineering, defined as those procedures arising from molecular biology which are used to manipulate DNA, the main carrier of genetic information. The vocabulary is arranged in strict alphabetical order of English terms, with cross-references to the recommended English term. These terms are accompanied by a French equivalent, followed by a context or a definition.

  15. Enhanced energy transport in genetically engineered excitonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heechul; Heldman, Nimrod; Rebentrost, Patrick; Abbondanza, Luigi; Iagatti, Alessandro; Alessi, Andrea; Patrizi, Barbara; Salvalaggio, Mario; Bussotti, Laura; Mohseni, Masoud; Caruso, Filippo; Johnsen, Hannah C.; Fusco, Roberto; Foggi, Paolo; Scudo, Petra F.; Lloyd, Seth; Belcher, Angela M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the challenges for achieving efficient exciton transport in solar energy conversion systems is precise structural control of the light-harvesting building blocks. Here, we create a tunable material consisting of a connected chromophore network on an ordered biological virus template. Using genetic engineering, we establish a link between the inter-chromophoric distances and emerging transport properties. The combination of spectroscopy measurements and dynamic modelling enables us to elucidate quantum coherent and classical incoherent energy transport at room temperature. Through genetic modifications, we obtain a significant enhancement of exciton diffusion length of about 68% in an intermediate quantum-classical regime.

  16. Transgenic dairy cattle: genetic engineering on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R J; Kerr, D E; Bondioli, K R

    1997-09-01

    Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportunity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene "pharming" industry is to produce pharmaceuticals for treating human diseases. It is argued that mammary glands are an ideal site for producing complex bioactive proteins that can be cost effectively harvested and purified. Consequently, during the past decade, approximately a dozen companies have been created to capture the US market for pharmaceuticals produced from transgenic bioreactors estimated at $3 billion annually. Several products produced in this way are now in human clinical trials. Another research direction, which has been widely discussed but has received less attention in the laboratory, is genetic engineering of the bovine mammary gland to alter the composition of milk destined for human consumption. Proposals include increasing or altering endogenous proteins, decreasing fat, and altering milk composition to resemble that of human milk. Initial studies using transgenic mice to investigate the feasibility of enhancing manufacturing properties of milk have been encouraging. The potential profitability of gene "pharming" seems clear, as do the benefits of transgenic cows producing milk that has been optimized for food products. To take full advantage of enhanced milk, it may be desirable to restructure the method by which dairy producers are compensated. However, the cost of producing functional transgenic cattle will remain a severe limitation to realizing the potential of transgenic cattle until inefficiencies of transgenic technology are overcome. These inefficiencies include low rates of gene integration, poor embryo survival, and unpredictable transgene

  17. Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed.

  18. Philosophy of technology and macro-ethics in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Wha-Chul

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to diagnose and analyze the gap between philosophy of technology and engineering ethics and to suggest bridging them in a constructive way. In the first section, I will analyze why philosophy of technology and engineering ethics have taken separate paths so far. The following section will deal with the so-called macro-approach in engineering ethics. While appreciating the initiative, I will argue that there are still certain aspects in this approach that can be improved. In the third, fourth, and fifth sections, I will point out three shortcomings of engineering ethics in terms of its macro-level discourse and argue that a number of certain insights taken from the study of philosophy of technology could be employed in overcoming those problems. In the concluding section, a final recommendation is made that topics of philosophy of technology be included in the curriculum of engineering ethics.

  19. Targeted drug delivery using genetically engineered diatom biosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalat, Bahman; Sheppard, Vonda C; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A; McPhee, Gordon; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Pillay, Vinochani; Johns, Terrance G; Kröger, Nils; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-11-10

    The ability to selectively kill cancerous cell populations while leaving healthy cells unaffected is a key goal in anticancer therapeutics. The use of nanoporous silica-based materials as drug-delivery vehicles has recently proven successful, yet production of these materials requires costly and toxic chemicals. Here we use diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells. The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is genetically engineered to display an IgG-binding domain of protein G on the biosilica surface, enabling attachment of cell-targeting antibodies. Neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells are selectively targeted and killed by biosilica displaying specific antibodies sorbed with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Treatment with the same biosilica leads to tumour growth regression in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. These data indicate that genetically engineered biosilica frustules may be used as versatile 'backpacks' for the targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs to tumour sites.

  20. 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book includes the original, peer reviewed research from the 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems (ICITES2014), held in December, 2014 at Cheng Shiu University in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Topics covered include: Automation and robotics, fiber optics and laser technologies, network and communication systems, micro and nano technologies, and solar and power systems. This book also Explores emerging technologies and their application in a broad range of engineering disciplines Examines fiber optics and laser technologies Covers biomedical, electrical, industrial, and mechanical systems Discusses multimedia systems and applications, computer vision and image & video signal processing.

  1. FY10 Engineering Innovations, Research and Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, M A; Aceves, S M; Paulson, C N; Candy, J V; Bennett, C V; Carlisle, K; Chen, D C; White, D A; Bernier, J V; Puso, M A; Weisgraber, T H; Corey, B; Lin, J I; Wheeler, E K; Conway, A M; Kuntz, J D; Spadaccini, C M; Dehlinger, D A; Kotovsky, J; Nikolic, R; Mariella, R P; Foudray, A K; Tang, V; Guidry, B L; Ng, B M; Lemmond, T D; Chen, B Y; Meyers, C A; Houck, T L

    2011-01-11

    This report summarizes key research, development, and technology advancements in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2010. These efforts exemplify Engineering's nearly 60-year history of developing and applying the technology innovations needed for the Laboratory's national security missions, and embody Engineering's mission to ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow.'' Leading off the report is a section featuring compelling engineering innovations. These innovations range from advanced hydrogen storage that enables clean vehicles, to new nuclear material detection technologies, to a landmine detection system using ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar. Many have been recognized with R&D Magazine's prestigious R&D 100 Award; all are examples of the forward-looking application of innovative engineering to pressing national problems and challenging customer requirements. Engineering's capability development strategy includes both fundamental research and technology development. Engineering research creates the competencies of the future where discovery-class groundwork is required. Our technology development (or reduction to practice) efforts enable many of the research breakthroughs across the Laboratory to translate from the world of basic research to the national security missions of the Laboratory. This portfolio approach produces new and advanced technological capabilities, and is a unique component of the value proposition of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The balance of the report highlights this work in research and technology, organized into thematic technical areas: Computational Engineering; Micro/Nano-Devices and Structures; Measurement Technologies; Engineering Systems for Knowledge Discovery; and Energy Manipulation. Our investments in these areas serve not only known programmatic requirements of today and tomorrow, but

  2. Pertussis toxins, other antigens become likely targets for genetic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, C.

    1990-11-14

    Genetically engineered pertussis vaccines have yet to be fully tested clinically. But early human, animal, and in vitro studies indicate effectiveness in reducing toxic effects due to Bordetella pertussis. The licensed pertussis vaccines consists of inactivated whole cells of the organism. Although highly effective, they have been associated with neurologic complications. While the evidence continues to mount that these complications are extremely rare, if they occur at all, it has affected the public's acceptance of pertussis immunization.

  3. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  4. Unraveling the neurobiology of nicotine dependence using genetically engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Astrid K; Markou, Athina

    2013-08-01

    This review article provides an overview of recent studies of nicotine dependence and withdrawal that used genetically engineered mice. Major progress has been made in recent years with mutant mice that have knockout and gain-of-function of specific neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes. Nicotine exerts its actions by binding to neuronal nAChRs that consist of five subunits. The different nAChR subunits that combine to compose a receptor determine the distinct pharmacological and kinetic properties of the specific nAChR. Recent findings in genetically engineered mice have indicated that while α4-containing and β2-containing nAChRs are involved in the acquisition of nicotine self-administration and initial stages of nicotine dependence, α7 homomeric nAChRs appear to be involved in the later stages of nicotine dependence. In the medial habenula, α5-containing, α3-containing, and β4-containing nAChRs were shown to be crucially important in the regulation of the aversive aspects of nicotine. Studies of the involvement of α6 nAChR subunits in nicotine dependence have only recently emerged. The use of genetically engineered mice continues to vastly improve our understanding of the neurobiology of nicotine dependence and withdrawal.

  5. 1st International Conference on Data Engineering and Communication Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Joshi, Amit

    2017-01-01

    This two-volume book contains research work presented at the First International Conference on Data Engineering and Communication Technology (ICDECT) held during March 10–11, 2016 at Lavasa, Pune, Maharashtra, India. The book discusses recent research technologies and applications in the field of Computer Science, Electrical and Electronics Engineering. The aim of the Proceedings is to provide cutting-edge developments taking place in the field data engineering and communication technologies which will assist the researchers and practitioners from both academia as well as industry to advance their field of study.

  6. Versatile RNA-sensing transcriptional regulators for engineering genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucks, Julius B; Qi, Lei; Mutalik, Vivek K; Wang, Denise; Arkin, Adam P

    2011-05-24

    The widespread natural ability of RNA to sense small molecules and regulate genes has become an important tool for synthetic biology in applications as diverse as environmental sensing and metabolic engineering. Previous work in RNA synthetic biology has engineered RNA mechanisms that independently regulate multiple targets and integrate regulatory signals. However, intracellular regulatory networks built with these systems have required proteins to propagate regulatory signals. In this work, we remove this requirement and expand the RNA synthetic biology toolkit by engineering three unique features of the plasmid pT181 antisense-RNA-mediated transcription attenuation mechanism. First, because the antisense RNA mechanism relies on RNA-RNA interactions, we show how the specificity of the natural system can be engineered to create variants that independently regulate multiple targets in the same cell. Second, because the pT181 mechanism controls transcription, we show how independently acting variants can be configured in tandem to integrate regulatory signals and perform genetic logic. Finally, because both the input and output of the attenuator is RNA, we show how these variants can be configured to directly propagate RNA regulatory signals by constructing an RNA-meditated transcriptional cascade. The combination of these three features within a single RNA-based regulatory mechanism has the potential to simplify the design and construction of genetic networks by directly propagating signals as RNA molecules.

  7. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering : Software Engineering & Digital Media Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Guoqiang; Liu, Weibin; Xing, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering presents selected articles from this major event, which was held in Beijing, December 8-10, 2012. This book presents the latest research trends, methods and experimental results in the fields of information technology and software engineering, covering various state-of-the-art research theories and approaches. The subjects range from intelligent computing to information processing, software engineering, Web, unified modeling language (UML), multimedia, communication technologies, system identification, graphics and visualizing, etc. The proceedings provide a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers and engineers to present the most innovative studies and advances, which can serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on information technology and software engineering. Prof. Wei Lu, Dr. Guoqiang Cai, Prof. Weibin Liu and Dr. Weiwei Xing all work at Beijing Jiaotong Uni...

  8. Computational molecular engineering as an emerging technology in process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Horsch, Martin; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The present level of development of molecular force field methods is assessed from the point of view of simulation-based engineering, outlining the immediate perspective for further development and highlighting the newly emerging discipline of Computational Molecular Engineering (CME) which makes basic research in soft matter physics fruitful for industrial applications. Within the coming decade, major breakthroughs can be reached if a research focus is placed on processes at interfaces, combining aspects where an increase in the accessible length and time scales due to massively parallel high-performance computing will lead to particularly significant improvements.

  9. Core Ideas of Engineering and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Cary

    2012-01-01

    Last month, Rodger Bybee's article, "Scientific and Engineering Practices in K-12 Classrooms," provided an overview of Chapter 3 in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" (NRC 2011). Chapter 3 describes the practices of science and engineering that students are expected to develop during 13 years…

  10. Technology Education to Engineering: A Good Move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. John

    2010-01-01

    Recent curriculum changes in the educational system of Australia have resulted in allowing optional Engineering course work to count for university entrance for students choosing to apply to a university. In other educational systems, Engineering is playing an increasingly important role, either as a stand-alone subject or as part of an integrated…

  11. Evolving technologies drive the new roles of Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P H; St Germain, J; Lui, W

    2008-01-01

    Rapidly changing technology coupled with the financial impact of organized health care, has required hospital Biomedical Engineering organizations to augment their traditional operational and business models to increase their role in developing enhanced clinical applications utilizing new and evolving technologies. The deployment of these technology based applications has required Biomedical Engineering organizations to re-organize to optimize the manner in which they provide and manage services. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has implemented a strategy to explore evolving technologies integrating them into enhanced clinical applications while optimally utilizing the expertise of the traditional Biomedical Engineering component (Clinical Engineering) to provide expanded support in technology / equipment management, device repair, preventive maintenance and integration with legacy clinical systems. Specifically, Biomedical Engineering is an integral component of the Medical Physics Department which provides comprehensive and integrated support to the Center in advanced physical, technical and engineering technology. This organizational structure emphasizes the integration and collaboration between a spectrum of technical expertise for clinical support and equipment management roles. The high cost of clinical equipment purchases coupled with the increasing cost of service has driven equipment management responsibilities to include significant business and financial aspects to provide a cost effective service model. This case study details the dynamics of these expanded roles, future initiatives and benefits for Biomedical Engineering and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

  12. CMC Technology Advancements for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    CMC research at NASA Glenn is focused on aircraft propulsion applications. The objective is to enable reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption for more environmentally friendly aircraft. Engine system studies show that incorporation of ceramic composites into turbine engines will enable significant reductions in emissions and fuel burn due to increased engine efficiency resulting from reduced cooling requirements for hot section components. This presentation will describe recent progress and challenges in developing fiber and matrix constituents for 2700 F CMC turbine applications. In addition, ongoing research in the development of durable environmental barrier coatings, ceramic joining integration technologies and life prediction methods for CMC engine components will be reviewed.

  13. Genetic engineering of flavonoid pigments to modify flower color in floricultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in genetic transformation techniques enable the production of desirable and novel flower colors in some important floricultural plants. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors is now a practical technology as typified by commercialization of a transgenic blue rose and blue carnation. Many researchers exploit knowledge of flavonoid biosynthesis effectively to obtain unique flower colors. So far, the main pigments targeted for flower color modification are anthocyanins that contribute to a variety of colors such as red, pink and blue, but recent studies have also utilized colorless or faint-colored compounds. For example, chalcones and aurones have been successfully engineered to produce yellow flowers, and flavones and flavonols used to change flower color hues. In this review, we summarize examples of successful flower color modification in floricultural plants focusing on recent advances in techniques.

  14. Application of genetically engineered microbial whole-cell biosensors for combined chemosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Yuan, Sheng; Zhong, Wen-Hui; Siddikee, Md Ashaduzzaman; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-02-01

    The progress of genetically engineered microbial whole-cell biosensors for chemosensing and monitoring has been developed in the last 20 years. Those biosensors respond to target chemicals and produce output signals, which offer a simple and alternative way of assessment approaches. As actual pollution caused by human activities usually contains a combination of different chemical substances, how to employ those biosensors to accurately detect real contaminant samples and evaluate biological effects of the combined chemicals has become a realistic object of environmental researches. In this review, we outlined different types of the recent method of genetically engineered microbial whole-cell biosensors for combined chemical evaluation, epitomized their detection performance, threshold, specificity, and application progress that have been achieved up to now. We also discussed the applicability and limitations of this biosensor technology and analyzed the optimum conditions for their environmental assessment in a combined way.

  15. Nuclear and plastid genetic engineering of plants: comparison of opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Benjamin; Zaltsman, Adi; Lacroix, Benoît; Kozlovsky, Stanislav V; Krichevsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering is one of the key technologies for crop improvement as well as an emerging approach for producing recombinant proteins in plants. Both plant nuclear and plastid genomes can be genetically modified, yet fundamental functional differences between the eukaryotic genome of the plant cell nucleus and the prokaryotic-like genome of the plastid will have an impact on key characteristics of the resulting transgenic organism. So, which genome, nuclear or plastid, to transform for the desired transgenic phenotype? In this review we compare the advantages and drawbacks of engineering plant nuclear and plastid genomes to generate transgenic plants with the traits of interest, and evaluate the pros and cons of their use for different biotechnology and basic research applications, ranging from generation of commercial crops with valuable new phenotypes to 'bioreactor' plants for large-scale production of recombinant proteins to research model plants expressing various reporter proteins.

  16. Ethical Analysis of Genetic Engineering%基因工程的伦理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青龙

    2013-01-01

    Since 1977, American scientists in the world since the first time genetically engineered to produce human growth hormone, genetic engineering continues to bear the fruit of fruitful gratifying. Now, genetic engineering has been widely applied in all aspects of society. However, the science and technology is a double-edged sword. With the rapid development of genetic engineering technology, it is also produced many negative effects, so that people have to produce all kinds of worries and anxieties. Genetic engineering without restriction left unchecked, will occur contrary to the laws of nature and ethical issues, it will bring disaster to human society, resulting in consequences? Genetic engineering services for the peace and progress of mankind, must step up to the norms, moral constraints, thereby establishing public international law, so that the great discovery and shocking change comes to the change of the legal system.%  自1977年美国科学家在世界上首次用基因工程生产人类生长激素以来,基因工程不断结出令人欣喜的丰硕之果。现如今,基因工程已广泛应用在社会的各个方面。然而,科学技术是把双刃剑。随着基因工程这一技术的迅猛发展,其也产生了许多负面影响,使人们不得不产生各种担心和忧虑。基因工程如不加限制地任其发展,会不会发生违背自然规律和伦理道德的问题,会不会给人类社会带来灾难,造成恶果?基因工程要为人类和平与进步服务,就必须加紧以规范,进行道德约束,进而建立国际公法,以便让伟大的发现、震撼的变革,走向更改化、法制化。

  17. MALDI-TOF MS: a platform technology for genetic discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, Dirk Van Den; Beaulieu, Martin; Oeth, Paul; Roth, Rich; Honisch, Christiane; Nelson, Matthew R.; Jurinke, Christian; Cantor, Charles

    2004-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been applied as a high-throughput platform technology for qualitative and quantitative nucleic acid analysis in the genetic discovery of target genes and their biological validation. Mass spectrometric methods for the elucidation of genetic variability and for subsequent large-scale genotyping of genetic markers are exemplified. The use of quantitative MALDI-TOF MS is described for large-scale validation of SNP markers and their analysis in DNA sample pools. Initial results of genome-wide association studies employing this technology are provided exemplifying a genetics-driven approach to drug discovery.

  18. A cross-disciplinary technology transfer for search-based evolutionary computing: from engineering design to software engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, C. L.; Parmee, I. C.

    2007-07-01

    Although object-oriented conceptual software design is difficult to learn and perform, computational tool support for the conceptual software designer is limited. In conceptual engineering design, however, computational tools exploiting interactive evolutionary computation (EC) have shown significant utility. This article investigates the cross-disciplinary technology transfer of search-based EC from engineering design to software engineering design in an attempt to provide support for the conceptual software designer. Firstly, genetic operators inspired by genetic algorithms (GAs) and evolutionary programming are evaluated for their effectiveness against a conceptual software design representation using structural cohesion as an objective fitness function. Building on this evaluation, a multi-objective GA inspired by a non-dominated Pareto sorting approach is investigated for an industrial-scale conceptual design problem. Results obtained reveal a mass of interesting and useful conceptual software design solution variants of equivalent optimality—a typical characteristic of successful multi-objective evolutionary search techniques employed in conceptual engineering design. The mass of software design solution variants produced suggests that transferring search-based technology across disciplines has significant potential to provide computationally intelligent tool support for the conceptual software designer.

  19. 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Yun; Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology, held on November 25-27, 2016 in Xi’an, China. The conference was jointly organized by China Academy of Printing Technology, Xi’an University of Technology and Stuttgart Media University of Germany. The proceedings cover the recent outcomes on color science and technology, image processing technology, digital media technology, digital process management technology in packaging and packaging etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, material science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  20. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what's wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to control

  1. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology - Vol 9, No 4 (2017) ... on MHD flow past a moving plate with Hall current · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology - Vol 4, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology - Vol 4, No 2 (2004) ... Energy consumption pattern in palm kernel oil processing operations ... An improved solar cabinet dryer with natural convective heat transfer · EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  3. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES – ONE ENGINE OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Popescul

    2009-01-01

    Technological changes are “the main engine of capitalism and evolution” (A. Toffler), “the fundamental driving force in transformation of an economy” (C. Freeman). The paper proposes a theoretical investigation of information and communication technologies evolution and their impact on the globalization of economy. It defines terms like globalization - with special attention focused on its economical dimension, technological change, and information and communication technologies.

  4. Teaching Mathematics to Electrical Engineering Students by Electrical Engineering Staff in College of Technology in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Fujimoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical engineering staff (reorganized to Electrical and Computer engineering in 2004 has taught electrical engineering students for mathematics classes in Wakayama National College of Technology (WNCT in Japan from 2007. Effects of the mathematics classes by the electrical engineering staff were evaluated by using the results of the mathematics placement tests. The results of the tests are compared with averages of other National Colleges of Technology in Japan and other divisions of WNCT. As a result, an ability of electrical engineering students for mathematics improved dramatically with increasing the ratio of mathematics classes by the electrical engineering staff. It should seem that these good results were achieved by eagerness and strong motivation of the staff with electrical specialty for improving the ability of their division's students. The reasons for the improvement are discussed and the unique class of mathematics for college of technology is also introduced.

  5. The hermeneutic challenge of genetic engineering: Habermas and the transhumanists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures (and thus upon the lifeworld), and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists, such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending human nature. In contrast, Habermas is a representative of those who are fearful of this technology, suggesting that it will compound the deleterious effects of the colonisation of the lifeworld, further constraining human autonomy and undermining the meaningfulness of the lifeworld by expanding the technological control and manipulation of humanity. It will be argued that these opposed positions are grounded in fundamentally different understandings of the consequences of scientific and technological advance. On one level, the transhumanists remain confident that the lifeworld has within it the resources necessary to find meaning and purpose in a society deeply infused by genetic technology. Habermas disagrees. On another level, the difference is articulated by Horkheimer and Adorno in Dialectic of Enlightenment, primarily by challenging what may be understood as a Baconian faith in science as a project for the domination of nature (where nature is an infinitely malleable material, to be dominated and shaped, without adverse consequences, purely for the purposes of human survival). While the transhumanists broadly embrace this faith, Habermas returns to something akin to Horkheimer and Adorno's pessimistic scepticism.

  6. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original theoretical work and application-based studies, which contributes to a ... This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that ... Associate Editor (Electrical Engineering): S.N. Singh, PhD, Department of ...

  7. Genetic correction using engineered nucleases for gene therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Nakano, Takao; Hotta, Akitsu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations in humans are associated with congenital disorders and phenotypic traits. Gene therapy holds the promise to cure such genetic disorders, although it has suffered from several technical limitations for decades. Recent progress in gene editing technology using tailor-made nucleases, such as meganucleases (MNs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) and, more recently, CRISPR/Cas9, has significantly broadened our ability to precisely modify target sites in the human genome. In this review, we summarize recent progress in gene correction approaches of the human genome, with a particular emphasis on the clinical applications of gene therapy.

  8. International Conference on Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Caroline, B; Jayanthi, J

    2012-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology 2012, held at Tiruchirapalli, India. The papers presented bridges the gap between science, engineering and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including mechanical, production, aeronautical, material science, energy, civil and environmental energy, scientific management, etc. The prime objective of the book is to fully integrate the scientific contributions from academicians, industrialists and research scholars.

  9. Engine technology at the turn of the millennium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.

    2001-01-01

    Since its birth, new technology has been introduced continuously to the internal combustion engine in response to constant demands for better performance, higher power density and lower fuel consumption. It is described how smaller, more flexible but also more complex engines, provided with enhanced

  10. Career Pathways of Science, Engineering and Technology Research Postgraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Marnie; Ski, Chantal; Vrdoljak, Davorin

    2009-01-01

    Suitably qualified scientists and engineers are essential for research and development, innovation and, in turn, the growth of the economy. Science, engineering and technology skills are therefore necessary for Australia to remain competitive in a global market. This article reports findings from a nationwide study investigating the career…

  11. College of Engineering receives $1 million computing technology grant

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    A $1 million grant of Fujitsu technology and services to Virginia Tech's College of Engineering will assist in the college's creation of "digital opportunities" for underserved students, as well as pre-college students interested in studying math, science or engineering at Virginia Tech.

  12. Engine technology at the turn of the millennium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.

    2001-01-01

    Since its birth, new technology has been introduced continuously to the internal combustion engine in response to constant demands for better performance, higher power density and lower fuel consumption. It is described how smaller, more flexible but also more complex engines, provided with enhanced

  13. Teacher Challenges to Implement Engineering Design in Secondary Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. This article is the third article in a three-part series presenting the results of this study. The first article in the series titled "Examination of Engineering Design Curriculum Content" highlighted the research…

  14. Discovery Camp Excites Students about Engineering and Technology Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiha, G. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States and elsewhere, there is a dramatic shortage of engineers and technologists. And, unfortunately, these professions often suffer from a lack of awareness among K-12 students. Clearly, educators need to show students the very exciting and lucrative aspects of these fields. Engineering and technology are consistently listed by…

  15. Engineering innovation in healthcare: technology, ethics and persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W Richard

    2011-01-01

    Engineering makes profound contributions to our health. Many of these contributions benefit whole populations, such as clean water and sewage treatment, buildings, dependable sources of energy, efficient harvesting and storage of food, and pharmaceutical manufacture. Thus, ethical assessment of these and other engineering activities has often emphasized benefits to communities. This is in contrast to medical ethics, which has tended to emphasize the individual patient affected by a doctor's actions. However technological innovation is leading to an entanglement of the activities, and hence ethical responsibilities, of healthcare professionals and engineering professionals. The article outlines three categories of innovation: assistive technologies, telehealthcare and quasi-autonomous systems. Approaches to engineering ethics are described and applied to these innovations. Such innovations raise a number of ethical opportunities and challenges, especially as the complexity of the technology increases. In particular the design and operation of the technologies require engineers to seek closer involvement with the persons benefiting from their work. Future innovation will require engineers to have a good knowledge of human biology and psychology. More particularly, healthcare engineers will need to prioritize each person's wellbeing, agency, human relationships and ecological self rather than technology, in the same way that doctors prioritize the treatment of persons rather than their diseases.

  16. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  17. The Discussions around Precision Genetic Engineering: Role of and Impact on Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic researchers are advancing in their abilities to extract precise genetic information from biological and human entities bringing genetic research steps closer to accurately modifying genes of biological entities, including that of humans. In this analytical essay, we focus on the discussions about precision genetic intervention that have taken place since March 2015 as they pertain to disabled people. We focus on two areas; one being the role of disabled people in the recent gene editing discussions and the second being the utility of existing legal instruments. Within our first focus we address the following questions: (a What is the visibility of disabled people in the gene-editing discussions that have taken place since March 2015? (b What has been the impact of those discussions on disabled people? (c Were social problems which disabled people face taken into account in those discussions; (d How does the reality of engagement with disabled people in these discussions fit with science, technology and innovation governance discourses that ask for more stakeholder, bottom up and anticipatory involvement? Within our second focus we address the following questions: (a What is the utility of the United Nations Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD; and (b What is the utility of existing legal instruments covering genetic interventions: for preventing negative social consequences of genetic engineering developments for disabled people. We argue that (a the genetic engineering debates since March 2015 have portrayed disabled people dominantly through a medical lens; (b that the governance of science, technology and innovation of genetic engineering including anticipatory governance and responsible innovation discourses has not yet engaged with the social impact of gene editing on disabled people; (c that few scholars that focus on the social situation of disabled people are visible in the governance discussions of gene

  18. 77 FR 56681 - Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee; Committee on Technology, National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Doc No: 2012-22676] OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee; Committee on Technology, National Science and Technology Council; Public Engagement Through Nano.gov Webinar AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and...

  19. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  20. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented.

  1. Information Technology Model for Product Lifecycle Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanumathi KS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An aircraft is a complex, multi-disciplinary, system-engineered product that requires real-time global technical collaboration through its life-cycle. Engineering data and processes which form the backbone of the aircraft should be under strict Configuration Control (CC. It should be model-based and allow for 3D visualization and manipulation. This requires accurate, realtime collaboration and concurrent engineering-based business processes operating in an Integrated Digital Environment (IDE. The IDE uses lightweight, neutral Computer Aided Design (CAD Digital Mock-Up (DMU. The DMU deals with complex structural assemblies and systems of more than a hundred thousand parts created by engineers across the globe, each using diverse CAD, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM, Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, Supply Chain Management(SCM,Customer Relationship Management(CRM and Computer Aided Maintenance Management System (CAMMS systems. In this paper, a comprehensive approach to making such an environment a reality is presented.

  2. Gene therapy in dentistry: tool of genetic engineering. Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Khushboo; Singh, Saurabh; Garg, Kavita Nitish

    2015-03-01

    Advances in biotechnology have brought gene therapy to the forefront of medical research. The concept of transferring genes to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed nearly half a century, but the ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology has brought this goal to reality. The feasibility of gene transfer was first demonstrated using tumour viruses. This led to development of viral and nonviral methods for the genetic modification of somatic cells. Applications of gene therapy to dental and oral problems illustrate the potential impact of this technology on dentistry. Preclinical trial results regarding the same have been very promising. In this review we will discuss methods, vectors involved, clinical implication in dentistry and scientific issues associated with gene therapy.

  3. Going forward with genetics: recent technological advances and forward genetics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Li, Xiaohong; Beutler, Bruce

    2013-05-01

    Forward genetic analysis is an unbiased approach for identifying genes essential to defined biological phenomena. When applied to mice, it is one of the most powerful methods to facilitate understanding of the genetic basis of human biology and disease. The speed at which disease-causing mutations can be identified in mutagenized mice has been markedly increased by recent advances in DNA sequencing technology. Creating and analyzing mutant phenotypes may therefore become rate-limiting in forward genetic experimentation. We review the forward genetic approach and its future in the context of recent technological advances, in particular massively parallel DNA sequencing, induced pluripotent stem cells, and haploid embryonic stem cells.

  4. Genetic engineering of fibrous proteins: spider dragline silk and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Po Foo, Cheryl; Kaplan, David L

    2002-10-18

    Various strategies have been employed to genetically engineer fibrous proteins. Two examples, the subject of this review, include spider dragline silk from Nephila clavipes and collagen. These proteins are highlighted because of their unique mechanical and biological properties related to controlled release, biomaterials and tissue engineering. Cloning and expression of native genes and synthetic artificial variants of the consensus sequence repeats from the native genes has been accomplished. Expression of recombinant silk and collagen proteins has been reported in a variety of host systems, including bacteria, yeast, insect cells, plants and mammalian cells. Future utility for these proteins for biomedical materials is expected to increase as needs expand for designer materials with tailored mechanical properties and biological interactions to elicit specific responses in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Cancer Regression in Patients After Transfer of Genetically Engineered Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Wunderlich, John R.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Yang, James C.; Sherry, Richard M.; Royal, Richard E.; Topalian, Suzanne L.; Kammula, Udai S.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Zheng, Zhili; Nahvi, Azam; de Vries, Christiaan R.; Rogers-Freezer, Linda J.; Mavroukakis, Sharon A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2006-10-01

    Through the adoptive transfer of lymphocytes after host immunodepletion, it is possible to mediate objective cancer regression in human patients with metastatic melanoma. However, the generation of tumor-specific T cells in this mode of immunotherapy is often limiting. Here we report the ability to specifically confer tumor recognition by autologous lymphocytes from peripheral blood by using a retrovirus that encodes a T cell receptor. Adoptive transfer of these transduced cells in 15 patients resulted in durable engraftment at levels exceeding 10% of peripheral blood lymphocytes for at least 2 months after the infusion. We observed high sustained levels of circulating, engineered cells at 1 year after infusion in two patients who both demonstrated objective regression of metastatic melanoma lesions. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of genetically engineered cells for the biologic therapy of cancer.

  6. Advances in Research on Genetically Engineered Plants for Metal Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Qing Zhang; Chun-Fang Tang; Shi-Zhi Wen; Yun-Guo Liu; Ke-Lin Li

    2006-01-01

    The engineering application of natural hyperaccumulators in removing or inactivating metal pollutants from soil and surface water in field trials mostly presents the insurmountable shortcoming of low efficiency owing to their little biomass and slow growth. Based on further understanding of the molecular mechanism of metal uptake, translocation, and also the separation, identification, and cloning of some related functional genes, this article highlights and summarizes in detail the advances in research on transgenic techniques, such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and particle bombardment, in breeding of plants for metal resistance and accumulation, and points out that deepening the development of transgenic plants is one of the efficient approaches to improving phytoremediation efficiency of metal-contaminated environments. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, governments should strengthen support to the development of genetic engineering for metal resistance and accumulation in plants.

  7. The influence of engine technology advancements on aircraft economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, J. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1973-01-01

    A technology advancement in a new powerplant has both favorable and unfavorable effects. Increased bypass ratio and compression ratio, coupled with high turbine temperatures, improve performance but also increase engine price and maintenance cost. The factors that should be evaluated in choosing an engine for airline use are discussed. These factors are compared for two engines that might be considered for future 150 to 200 passenger airplanes: an all-new turbofan and a quiet derivative of an existing first generation turbofan. The results of the performance and cost evaluations of the example engines are reduced to common units so they can be combined.

  8. The influence of engine technology advancements on aircraft economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, J. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1973-01-01

    A technology advancement in a new powerplant has both favorable and unfavorable effects. Increased bypass ratio and compression ratio, coupled with high turbine temperatures, improve performance but also increase engine price and maintenance cost. The factors that should be evaluated in choosing an engine for airline use are discussed. These factors are compared for two engines that might be considered for future 150 to 200 passenger airplanes: an all-new turbofan and a quiet derivative of an existing first generation turbofan. The results of the performance and cost evaluations of the example engines are reduced to common units so they can be combined.

  9. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  10. Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenes is characterized by a high growth rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven to be an efficient means of producing secondary metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants.Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes along with the Ri plasmid, especially with modified genes, into medicinal plant cells with A. rhizogenes vector systems.The cultures have turned out to be a valuable tool with which to study the biochemical properties and the gene expression profile of metabolic pathways. Moreover, the cultures can be used to elucidate the intermediates and key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The present article discusses various applications of hairy root cultures in plant genetic engineering and potential problems associated with them.

  11. Engineering Genetically-Encoded Mineralization and Magnetism via Directed Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueliang; Lopez, Paola A; Giessen, Tobias W; Giles, Michael; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2016-11-29

    Genetically encoding the synthesis of functional nanomaterials such as magnetic nanoparticles enables sensitive and non-invasive biological sensing and control. Via directed evolution of the natural iron-sequestering ferritin protein, we discovered key mutations that lead to significantly enhanced cellular magnetism, resulting in increased physical attraction of ferritin-expressing cells to magnets and increased contrast for cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic mutants further demonstrate increased iron biomineralization measured by a novel fluorescent genetic sensor for intracellular free iron. In addition, we engineered Escherichia coli cells with multiple genomic knockouts to increase cellular accumulation of various metals. Lastly to explore further protein candidates for biomagnetism, we characterized members of the DUF892 family using the iron sensor and magnetic columns, confirming their intracellular iron sequestration that results in increased cellular magnetization.

  12. Incorporating Disciplinary Literacy in Technology and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of how to relate reading to a content area, specifically technology education. The author notes that, with the new focus on Common Core English Language Arts State Standards and state-developed standards, technology and engineering teachers should include disciplinary literacy in their curriculum. Academic…

  13. 77 FR 34206 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Engine Technologies Turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Information We reviewed Hartzell Engine Technologies Alert Service Bulletin (ASB) No. 047, dated May 8, 2012... effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the... Technologies Turbochargers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  14. Technology-Enhanced Mathematics Education for Creative Engineering Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This project explores the opportunities and challenges of integrating digital technologies in mathematics education in creative engineering studies. Students in such studies lack motivation and do not perceive the mathematics the same way as mathematics students do. Digital technologies offer new...

  15. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  16. Biodegradation of azo dyes by genetically engineered azoreductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; YAN Bin; ZHOU Ji-ti; BAO Yong-ming; LU Hong; YUAN Xiao-dong

    2005-01-01

    A azoreductase gene with 537 bp was obtained by PGR amplification from Rhodobacter sphaeroides AS1.1737. The enzyme,with a molecular weight of 18.7 kD, was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and its biodegradation characteristics for azo dyes were investigated. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics and mechanism of azo dyes catalyzed by the genetically engineered azoreductase were studied in detail. The presence of a hydrazo-intermediate was identified, which provided a convincing evidence for the assumption that azo dyes were degraded via an incomplete reduction stage.

  17. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Engineering & Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-05

    Gromov; STANKI I INSTRUMENT, No 1, Jan 87) 76 Six-Axis Universal Robot Developed in Riga (0. Meshkov; PRAVDA, 23 Dec 86) 77 Robot Engineering...CONTROLS, AUTOMATION, ELECTRONICS SIX-AXES UNIVERSAL ROBOT DEVELOPED IN RIGA Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 23 Dec 86 p 1 [Article by 0. Meshkov, under the

  19. Active Engine Mount Technology for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Z.; Spanos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control using a variant of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [1,2,3] for supressing automobile engine/drive-train vibration disturbances. The algorithm presented here has a simple structure and may be implemented in a low cost micro controller.

  20. Meganucleases Revolutionize the Production of Genetically Engineered Pigs for the Study of Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Prather, Randall S

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of human diseases are critically necessary for developing an in-depth knowledge of disease development and progression. In addition, animal models are vital to the development of potential treatments or even cures for human diseases. Pigs are exceptional models as their size, physiology, and genetics are closer to that of humans than rodents. In this review, we discuss the use of pigs in human translational research and the evolving technology that has increased the efficiency of genetically engineering pigs. With the emergence of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system technology, the cost and time it takes to genetically engineer pigs has markedly decreased. We will also discuss the use of another meganuclease, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases , to produce pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency by developing targeted modifications of the recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2).RAG2mutant pigs may become excellent animals to facilitate the development of xenotransplantation, regenerative medicine, and tumor biology. The use of pig biomedical models is vital for furthering the knowledge of, and for treating human, diseases.

  1. Introduction to Plasma Technology Science, Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harry, John Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Written by a university lecturer with more than forty years experience in plasma technology, this book adopts a didactic approach in its coverage of the theory, engineering and applications of technological plasmas. The theory is developed in a unified way to enable brevity and clarity, providing readers with the necessary background to assess the factors that affect the behavior of plasmas under different operating conditions. The major part of the book is devoted to the applications of plasma technology and their accompanying engineering aspects, classified by the various pressure and densit

  2. Remote Engineering and Virtual Instrumentation Using Jini Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Pota

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Internet and web technology have transformed our society by providing access to unprecedented amount of information, supporting communication and collaboration, empowering e-business and e-commerce. Its role in advancing science is equally important. It has become possible to disseminate scientific information more effectively, access large databases, share computational resources, measurement devices, control experiments and collaborate at a global scale. The human user centered traditional world wide web technology, however, cannot provide the suitable technological platform necessary for the further development and improvement of online and remote engineering applications. New, service-oriented technologies are required, which support higher level of automation, enable seamless programmatic and interactive access to remote devices and systems, and have an adequate programming model suitable for creating large and complex distributed scientific applications. In this paper, we describe such a technology, Jini technology, and illustrate with case studies its various benefits for the remote engineering, virtual instrumentation community.

  3. 76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate based on APHIS... decision and determination on the petition regarding the regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered...

  4. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  5. Bioprocess-Engineering Education with Web Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessink, O.

    2006-01-01

    Development of learning material that is distributed through and accessible via the World Wide Web. Various options from web technology are exploited to improve the quality and efficiency of learning material.

  6. ISIS Technologies for Smart Civil Engineering Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aftab A. Mufti; Kenneth W. Neale

    2004-01-01

    For more than a century, important civil engineering structures such as bridges, high-rise buildings, dams and marine platforms have contained iron or steel as the reinforcement for concrete or wood (ISIS Canada Strategic Plan, 2000). The useful lives of such structures have often been severely limited by the corrosion of this ferrous component. Much thought has been given in recent years to constructing structures that are lighter, stronger and non-corrosive. These innovative structures are new and for these to be accepted by the engineering community monitoring is mandatory. ISIS Canada has been developing such structures and monitoring them. In this paper, innovative bridge decks that have been implemented is described.

  7. FY04 Engineering Technology Reports Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, R M

    2005-01-27

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2004, and exemplifies Engineering's more than 50-year history of developing the technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow''. Engineering's investment in technologies is carried out through two programs, the ''Tech Base'' program and the LDRD program. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge. These require a significant level of research or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply technologies to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice''. Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2004, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology and nanotechnology for national security applications. Engineering's five Centers, in partnership with the Division Leaders and Department Heads, are responsible for guiding the long-term science and technology investments for the Directorate. The Centers represent technologies that have been identified as

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Engineering & Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Nuclear Power Station safer and ecologically cleaner was discussed at this meeting, as was the question of whether construction of the station’s... ecological balance of a natural treasure—Lake Drushkyay. N. Ponomarev-Stepnoy, first deputy director of the Institute of Atomic Energy imeni Kurchatov...ples, including turbojet and jet engines, ground-effect machines, hydrofoils , mini- and super-computers, NC machine tools and machining centers

  9. Can genetic engineering of lignin deposition be accomplished without an unacceptable yield penalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Chapple, Clint

    2013-04-01

    The secondary cell wall polymer lignin impedes the extraction of fermentable sugars from biomass, and has been one of the major impediments in the development of cost-effective biofuel technologies. Unfortunately, attempts to genetically engineer lignin biosynthesis frequently result in dwarfing or developmental abnormalities of unknown cause, thus limiting the benefits of increased fermentable sugar yield. In this brief review, we explore some of the possible mechanisms that could underlie this poorly understood phenomenon, with the expectation that an understanding of the cause of dwarfing in lignin biosynthetic mutants and transgenic plants could lead to new strategies for the development of improved bioenergy feedstocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  11. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering : Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Guoqiang; Liu, Weibin; Xing, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering presents selected articles from this major event, which was held in Beijing, December 8-10, 2012. This book presents the latest research trends, methods and experimental results in the fields of information technology and software engineering, covering various state-of-the-art research theories and approaches. The subjects range from intelligent computing to information processing, software engineering, Web, unified modeling language (UML), multimedia, communication technologies, system identification, graphics and visualizing, etc. The proceedings provide a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers and engineers to present the most innovative studies and advances, which can serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on information technology and software engineering. Prof. Wei Lu, Dr. Guoqiang Cai, Prof. Weibin Liu and Dr. Weiwei Xing all work at Beijing Jiaotong Uni...

  12. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering : Information Technology & Computing Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Guoqiang; Liu, Weibin; Xing, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering presents selected articles from this major event, which was held in Beijing, December 8-10, 2012. This book presents the latest research trends, methods and experimental results in the fields of information technology and software engineering, covering various state-of-the-art research theories and approaches. The subjects range from intelligent computing to information processing, software engineering, Web, unified modeling language (UML), multimedia, communication technologies, system identification, graphics and visualizing, etc. The proceedings provide a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers and engineers to present the most innovative studies and advances, which can serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on information technology and software engineering. Prof. Wei Lu, Dr. Guoqiang Cai, Prof. Weibin Liu and Dr. Weiwei Xing all work at Beijing Jiaotong Uni...

  13. Study on biofortification of rice by targeted genetic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon M. Hossain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a major health problem in Bangladesh and also in many other developing countries, where a diversified diet is not affordable for the majority. In the present world- one, out of seven people suffers from hunger. Yet, there is a stealthier form of hunger than lack of food: micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger. While often providing enough calories, monotonous diets (of rural poor frequently fail to deliver sufficient quantities of essential minerals and vitamins. Due to micronutrient deficiencies different characteristic features have been observed to the victims. Various estimates indicate that over two-thirds of the world population, for the most part women and children specially, pre-school children are deficient in at least one micronutrient. This can have devastating consequences for the life, health and well being of the individuals concerned (like premature death, blindness, weakened immune systems etc. Genetic engineering approach is the upcoming strategy to solve this problem. Genetically engineered biofortified staple crops specially, rice that are high in essential micronutrients (Fe, Zn, vitamin A and adapted to local growing environments have the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies specially to the rural poor.

  14. Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karin L; Uhde-Holzem, Kerstin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X (PVX) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. Three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the PVX coat protein. When larger proteins or unfavorable peptide sequences are presented, a partial fusion via the FMDV 2A sequence is preferable. When these PVX chimeras retain the ability to assemble into viral particles and are thus able to infect plants systemically, they can be utilized to inoculate susceptible plants for isolation of sufficient amounts of virus particles for subsequent chemical modification. Chemical modification is required for the display of nonbiological ligands such as fluorophores, polymers, and small drug compounds. We present three methods of chemical bioconjugation. For direct conjugation of small chemical modifiers to solvent exposed lysines, N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry can be applied. Bio-orthogonal reactions such as copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or hydrazone ligation are alternatives to achieve more efficient conjugation (e.g., when working with high molecular weight or insoluble ligands). Furthermore, hydrazone ligation offers an attractive route for the introduction of pH-cleavable cargos (e.g., therapeutic molecules).

  15. Review of Microfluidic Photobioreactor Technology for Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria and Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Tang Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One goal of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and microalgae is to engineer strains that can optimally produce biofuels and commodity chemicals. However, the current workflow is slow and labor intensive with respect to assembly of genetic parts and characterization of production yields because of the slow growth rates of these organisms. Here, we review recent progress in the microfluidic photobioreactors and identify opportunities and unmet needs in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Because of the unprecedented experimental resolution down to the single cell level, long-term real-time monitoring capability, and high throughput with low cost, microfluidic photobioreactor technology will be an indispensible tool to speed up the development process, advance fundamental knowledge, and realize the full potential of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and microalgae.

  16. New developments of technology in rock engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Qihu

    2012-01-01

    In terms of rock engineering and technology in hydropower construction, the slope stability and monitoring techniques for high slopes of Three Gorges Project, the stability and support technology for high slopes of hydropower projects in deep river valley, the stabilization techniques for underground cavern group with large span and high side walls are introduced in this paper. As for rock engineering and technology in highway and railway construction, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway -- new construction techniques in permafrost, the support techniques for large squeezing deform- ation in Wuqiaoling Tunnel, the construction techniques for tunnels in alpine and high-altitude region, the geological prediction techniques for tunnels in karst region, the microseismic monitoring and early warning techniques for rock- bursts in deep and long tunnels are presented. For rock engineering and technology in mining engineering, the innova- tive techniques for roadway support in mines, the simultaneous extraction technique of pillarless coal and gas in coal seams with low permeability, the safe and efficient deep open mining technology, advances in monitoring, early warning and treatment of mine dynamic disasters are discussed. In addition, the new anchorage techniques and precision blasting technique in rock engineering are introduced.

  17. A Study on Semantic Searching, Semantic Search Engines and Technologies Used for Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rashid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Semantic search engines(SSE are more efficient than other web engines because in this era of busy life everyone wants an exact answer to his question which only semantic engines can provide. The immense increase in the volume of data, traditional search engines has increased the number of answers to satisfy the user. This creates the problem to search for the desired answer. To solve this problem, the trend of developing semantic search engines is increasing day by day. Semantic search engines work to extract the best answer of user queries which exactly fits with it. Traditional search engines are keyword based which means that they do not know the meaning of the words which we type in our queries. Due to this reason, the semantic search engines super pass the conventional search engines because they give us meaningful and well-defined information. In this paper, we will discuss the background of Semantic searching, about semantic search engines; the technology used for the semantic search engines and some of the existing semantic search engines on various factors are compared.

  18. Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gaol, Ford Lumban

    2013-01-01

    The latest inventions in internet technology influence most of business and daily activities. Internet security, internet data management, web search, data grids, cloud computing, and web-based applications play vital roles, especially in business and industry, as more transactions go online and mobile. Issues related to ubiquitous computing are becoming critical.   Internet technology and data engineering should reinforce efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. These technologies should help people make better and more accurate decisions by presenting necessary information and possible consequences for the decisions. Intelligent information systems should help us better understand and manage information with ubiquitous data repository and cloud computing.   This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in Internet Technology and Data Engineering. This book provides state-of-the-art accounts in computational algorithms/tools, database management and database technologies,  intelli...

  19. Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gaol, Ford Lumban

    2012-01-01

    The latest inventions in internet technology influence most of business and daily activities. Internet security, internet data management, web search, data grids, cloud computing, and web-based applications play vital roles, especially in business and industry, as more transactions go online and mobile. Issues related to ubiquitous computing are becoming critical.   Internet technology and data engineering should reinforce efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. These technologies should help people make better and more accurate decisions by presenting necessary information and possible consequences for the decisions. Intelligent information systems should help us better understand and manage information with ubiquitous data repository and cloud computing.   This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in Internet Technology and Data Engineering. This book provides state-of-the-art accounts in computational algorithms/tools, database management and database technologies,  intelli...

  20. FY03 Engineering Technology Reports Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C

    2004-03-05

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2003, and exemplifies Engineering's 50-year history of researching and developing the engineering technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow.'' Engineering's investment in technologies is carried out through two programs, the LDRD program and the ''Tech Base'' program. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge, or that require a significant level of research, or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice.'' Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2003, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology and nanotechnology for national security applications. Engineering's five Centers, in partnership with the Division Leaders and Department Heads, are responsible for guiding the science and technology investments for the Directorate. The Centers represent technology

  1. Low emissions compression ignited engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kilkenny, Jonathan P.; Fluga, Eric C.; Duffy, Kevin P.

    2007-04-03

    A method and apparatus for operating a compression ignition engine having a cylinder wall, a piston, and a head defining a combustion chamber. The method and apparatus includes delivering fuel substantially uniformly into the combustion chamber, the fuel being dispersed throughout the combustion chamber and spaced from the cylinder wall, delivering an oxidant into the combustion chamber sufficient to support combustion at a first predetermined combustion duration, and delivering a diluent into the combustion chamber sufficient to change the first predetermined combustion duration to a second predetermined combustion duration different from the first predetermined combustion duration.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Engineering & Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-10

    when our machine shop made a fixture from free-hand sketches by an innovative milling machine operator here. It was smaller than a stool , even...aesthetically or ergonomically . The main thing is that it perform its technological function. And if the primary Gidroavtomatika products were to reach the

  3. The preliminary research for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the solution to the production of bioactive substance using biotransformation process from core technology of biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology. And, this strategy will provide core technology for development of drugs as new concept and category. Research scopes and contents of project include 1) The development of mutant for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 2) The development of host for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 3) The preliminary study for biosynthetic engineering of isoflavone by radiation fusion technology. The results are as follows. Isoflavone compounds(daidzein, hydroxylated isoflavone) were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of radiation doses and p-NCA high-throughput screening for mutant development were elucidated. And, it was carried out the study of radiation doses for host development. Furthermore, the study of redox partner and construction of recombinant strain for region-specific hydroxylation(P450, redox partner). In addition, the biological effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone as an anti-obesity agent was elucidated in this study.

  4. 3D Nanoprinting Technologies for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering recovers an original function of tissue by replacing the damaged part with a new tissue or organ regenerated using various engineering technologies. This technology uses a scaffold to support three-dimensional (3D tissue formation. Conventional scaffold fabrication methods do not control the architecture, pore shape, porosity, or interconnectivity of the scaffold, so it has limited ability to stimulate cell growth and to generate new tissue. 3D printing technologies may overcome these disadvantages of traditional fabrication methods. These technologies use computers to assist in design and fabrication, so the 3D scaffolds can be fabricated as designed and standardized. Particularly, because nanofabrication technology based on two-photon absorption (2PA and on controlled electrospinning can generate structures with submicron resolution, these methods have been evaluated in various areas of tissue engineering. Recent combinations of 3D nanoprinting technologies with methods from molecular biology and cell dynamics have suggested new possibilities for improved tissue regeneration. If the interaction between cells and scaffold system with biomolecules can be understood and controlled and if an optimal 3D environment for tissue regeneration can be realized, 3D nanoprinting will become an important tool in tissue engineering.

  5. Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnér, Jesper; Yeung, M. K. Stephen; Hasty, Jeff; Collins, James J.

    2003-01-01

    While the fundamental building blocks of biology are being tabulated by the various genome projects, microarray technology is setting the stage for the task of deducing the connectivity of large-scale gene networks. We show how the perturbation of carefully chosen genes in a microarray experiment can be used in conjunction with a reverse engineering algorithm to reveal the architecture of an underlying gene regulatory network. Our iterative scheme identifies the network topology by analyzing the steady-state changes in gene expression resulting from the systematic perturbation of a particular node in the network. We highlight the validity of our reverse engineering approach through the successful deduction of the topology of a linear in numero gene network and a recently reported model for the segmentation polarity network in Drosophila melanogaster. Our method may prove useful in identifying and validating specific drug targets and in deconvolving the effects of chemical compounds. PMID:12730377

  6. Prediction of jet engine parameters for control design using genetic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Arellano, G; Cant, R; Nolle, L

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of a jet engine behavior is widely used in many different aspects of the engine development and maintenance. Achieving high quality jet engine control systems requires the iterative use of these simulations to virtually test the performance of the engine avoiding any possible damage on the real engine. Jet engine simulations involve the use of mathematical models which are complex and may not always be available. This paper introduces an approach based on Genetic Programming (G...

  7. Manufacturing technology for advanced jet engines; Jisedai jetto engine no seizo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-05

    A part of the latest production technologies for aircraft jet engines is introduced. Outline of the turbofan engine, turbo-prop engine, and turbo-shaft engine are given. Every one of them employs a gas turbine engine comprising a compressor, combustor, and a turbine as the output generator. Increase in the turbine inlet temperature is effective for making the gas turbine engine more efficient. The development tread of heat resisting materials for realizing higher temperature is shown. The current status and future aspect of the manufacturing technology is discussed for each main component of the engine. Technological development for decreasing weight is important because the weight of the fan member increases when the fan diameter is increased to increase the bypass ratio. FRP is adopted for the blades and casing to decrease the weight of the compressor, and studies have been made on fiber reinforced materials to reduce the weight of the disks. The outlines of the latest manufacturing technologies for the combustor and turbine are introduced. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Biosensing Vibrio cholerae with Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Maciej B; Wang, Huijuan; Jayaraman, Premkumar; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2016-11-18

    Cholera is a potentially mortal, infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Current treatment methods of cholera still have limitations. Beneficial microbes that could sense and kill the V. cholerae could offer potential alternative to preventing and treating cholera. However, such V. cholerae targeting microbe is still not available. This microbe requires a sensing system to be able to detect the presence of V. cholera bacterium. To this end, we designed and created a synthetic genetic sensing system using nonpathogenic Escherichia coli as the host. To achieve the system, we have moved proteins used by V. cholerae for quorum sensing into E. coli. These sensor proteins have been further layered with a genetic inverter based on CRISPRi technology. Our design process was aided by computer models simulating in vivo behavior of the system. Our sensor shows high sensitivity to presence of V. cholerae supernatant with tight control of expression of output GFP protein.

  9. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Thomas, Robert E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground/in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  10. A Tailored Systems Engineering Framework for Science and Technology Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    developments, and maybe even humanity’s grand challenges [ NAE , 2008]) and allows scientists, technologists, engineers, and project managers the opportunity...application (in which case the process is usually executed at the TD level), or cross- and multi-discipline technology solutions (executed at the enterprise...E. Director, United States Air Force Center for Systems Engineering, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. Personal Interview. 21 July 2008. [ NAE , 2008

  11. Get certified a guide to wireless communication engineering technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Communications Society designed the IEEE wireless communication engineering technologies (WCET) certification program to address the wireless industry's growing need for communications professionals with practical problem-solving skills in real-world situations. Individuals who achieve this prestigious certification are recognized as possessing the required knowledge, skill, and abilities to meet wireless challenges in various industry, business, corporate, and organizational settings. Presenting contributions from 50 wireless commun

  12. Biosynthetic Studies and Genetic Engineering of Pactamycin Analogs with Improved Selectivity toward Malarial Parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Wanli; Roongsawang, Niran; Mahmud, Taifo

    2011-01-01

    .... However, through extensive biosynthetic studies and genetic engineering, we were able to produce analogs of pactamycin that show potent antimalarial activity, but lack significant antibacterial...

  13. Technology development multidimensional review for engineering and technology managers

    CERN Document Server

    Neshati, Ramin; Watt, Russell; Eastham, James

    2014-01-01

    Developing new products, services, systems, and processes has become an imperative for any firm expecting to thrive in today’s fast-paced and hyper-competitive environment.  This volume integrates academic and practical insights to present fresh perspectives on new product development and innovation, showcasing lessons learned on the technological frontier.  The first part emphasizes decision making.  The second part focuses on technology evaluation, including cost-benefit analysis, material selection, and scenarios. The third part features in-depth case studies to present innovation management tools, such as customer needs identification, technology standardization, and risk management. The fourth part highlights important international trends, such as globalization and outsourcing. Finally the fifth part explores social and political aspects.

  14. Renewable energy technology handbook for military engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Renewable energy applications are introduced that are considered promising for military use in the 1980s. These are: solar hot water for buildings, active solar hot water and space heating for buildings, passive solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar industrial process heata, solar ponds, photovoltaic power for homes, photovoltaic power for remote applications, parabolic dish solar systems for remote applications, wind energy for buildings, wind energy for central power plants, wind energy for water pumping, biomass energy systems for buildings, biomass energy systems for central power plants, geothermal energy for process heat, and geothermal energy for central power plants. For each of these is given: a brief history of the technology and information on how the technology works; a detailed technical and economic profile of an operating system; and a summary listing of operating civilian and military systems that are open for public viewing.

  15. Sandia Technology engineering and science accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research being conducted at Sandia Laboratories: Advanced Manufacturing -- Sandia technology helps keep US industry in the lead; Microelectronics-Sandia`s unique facilities transform research advances into manufacturable products; Energy -- Sandia`s energy programs focus on strengthening industrial growth and political decisionmaking; Environment -- Sandia is a leader in environmentally conscious manufacturing and hazardous waste reduction; Health Care -- New biomedical technologies help reduce cost and improve quality of health care; Information & Computation -- Sandia aims to help make the information age a reality; Transportation -- This new initiative at the Labs will help improve transportation, safety,l efficiency, and economy; Nonproliferation -- Dismantlement and arms control are major areas of emphasis at Sandia; and Awards and Patents -- Talented, dedicated employees are the backbone of Sandia`s success.

  16. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  17. Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory (324 building)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammenzind, D.E.

    1997-05-27

    The 324 Facility Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is comprised of twenty functional areas. Two of the twenty functional areas (Decontamination and Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration) were determined as nonapplicable functional areas and one functional area (Research and Development and Experimental Activities) was determined applicable, however, requirements are found in other functional areas and will not be duplicated. Each functional area follows as a separate chapter, either containing the S/RID or a justification for nonapplicability. The twenty functional areas listed below follow as chapters: 1. Management Systems; 2. Quality Assurance; 3. Configuration Management; 4. Training and Qualification; 5. Emergency Management; 6. Safeguards and Security; 7. Engineering Program; 8. Construction; 9. Operations; 10. Maintenance; 11. Radiation Protection; 12. Fire Protection; 13. Packaging and Transportation; 14. Environmental Restoration; 15. Decontamination and Decommissioning; 16. Waste Management; 17. Research and Development and Experimental Activities; 18. Nuclear Safety; 19. Occupational Safety and Health; 20. Environmental Protection.

  18. Grid Technologies for Virtual Laboratories in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmid

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Grid technologies are introduced to build e-Learning environments for engineering education. Service-oriented Grids open new fields of applications, the Learning Grids. The learning services concept based on a learning model and their deployment through Grid technologies are excellent means to integrate virtual laboratories into e-Learning environments for engineering education. The paper goes into the most important technical details, introduces into the used learning model, and shows the au-thoring of Grid resources for virtual laboratories. Examples from a virtual laboratory demonstrate the advantages of a Grid.

  19. 77 FR 8284 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Irvine (formerly at Lake... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development...

  20. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest, California... workers and former workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development...

  1. Information and Communication Technologies in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldague Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging digital era it is difficult to train highly-skilled, competent specialists without the use of information and communication technology (ICT. The use of ICT in education increases the motivation to learn, stimulates cognitive activity and independent work, facilitates information exchange, enables interactive communication between teachers and students, and improves learning outcomes. This paper reviews the literature regarding the use of ICTs in education, explores their advantages and challenges, and surveys first-year students at the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University to determine their attitude toward ICT in foreign language learning.

  2. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  3. INTERACTIVE METHODS AND INFORMATIVE-COMMUNICATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AS THE PROCEDURE AND MEANS OF MODERN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Borisovich Gundyrev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structural and genetic analysis of the engineering education has been performed. It is shown that interactive methods are part of the educational activity procedure, while informative-communicative technologies are its means. Increasing of information flow accompanied by simultaneous reduction of a technology lifetime as compared to a specialist lifetime makes it important to investigate questions of increasing educational activity and making it more intensive. The problem of continuous education becomes of high importance, which requires changes in the educational process. It is shown that one of ways to solve this problem is switching to interactive methods of executing studies as well as applying informative-communicative technologies. Using the activity-related approach we have performed analysis of engineering education. Six key elements have been identified in its structure. They include the routine and the means of activity. Five stages have also been identified in the genesis of engineering education. It was shown that moving fom one stage to the next one happens when one or several structural elements experience qualitative changes. Examples of applying interactive methods and informative-communicative technologies in the high engineering education are provided.

  4. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  5. Genetic Engineering and Sustainable Crop Disease Management: Opportunities for Case-by-Case Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vincelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering (GE offers an expanding array of strategies for enhancing disease resistance of crop plants in sustainable ways, including the potential for reduced pesticide usage. Certain GE applications involve transgenesis, in some cases creating a metabolic pathway novel to the GE crop. In other cases, only cisgenessis is employed. In yet other cases, engineered genetic changes can be so minimal as to be indistinguishable from natural mutations. Thus, GE crops vary substantially and should be evaluated for risks, benefits, and social considerations on a case-by-case basis. Deployment of GE traits should be with an eye towards long-term sustainability; several options are discussed. Selected risks and concerns of GE are also considered, along with genome editing, a technology that greatly expands the capacity of molecular biologists to make more precise and targeted genetic edits. While GE is merely a suite of tools to supplement other breeding techniques, if wisely used, certain GE tools and applications can contribute to sustainability goals.

  6. Crop Resources Ethic in Plant Genetic Engineering and Fortune Transfer Between Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; LIANG Xueqing

    2006-01-01

    The relation between human and crop resources belongs to the ethic of resources exploitation. The purposes of discussing the ethic of crop resources are to protect the ecology and safety of crops, to gain sustainable development, furthermore, to choose and form the production structure that is favorable to saving crop resources and protecting the ecology of crops. Plant genetic engineering is the technology of molecule breeding of rearrangement of inheritance materials at the level of molecule directionally, of improving plant properties and of breeding high quality and yield varieties of crops. The prominent effects of the technology on the crop ecological system are human subjective factors increasing as well as violating the nature and intensifying the conflict between human being and nature.Therefore, in plant genetic engineering, crop resources exploitation should follow certain ethic principles. Under the theory of ethics of natural resources, by the means of biologioal statistics, the author systematically analyzed the possible model of crop resources transfer between generations as well as the transfer mode of magnitude of real materials and magnitude of value.

  7. Combination therapy with leflunomide and genetic engineering biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vladimirovna Chichasova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the use of a combination of genetic engineering biological agents (GEBAs and leflunomide in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In accordance with the international guidelines, the majority of GEBAs should be given in a combination with methotrexate (MTX, which increases the efficacy of a number of GEBAs (tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, rituximab and affects tolerability (remikeid, humira. However, MTX cannot be always used in real practice. The data given in the paper on the efficiency and safety of the coadministration of leflunomide and a GEBA in patients with active RA, which are based on the results of randomized studies and national registers, including the Russian one, point to the compatibility of the results of treatment with this and GEBA-MTX combinations.

  8. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  9. Surveys suck: Consumer preferences when purchasing genetically engineered foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to gauge consumers' acceptance of genetically engineered or modified (GM) foods. Surveys, asking people about attitudes and intentions, are easy-to-collect proxies of consumer behavior. However, participants tend to respond as citizens of society, not discrete individuals, thereby inaccurately portraying their potential behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior improved the accuracy of self-reported information, but its limited capacity to account for intention variance has been attributed to the hypothetical scenarios to which survey participants must respond. Valuation methods, asking how much consumers may be willing to pay or accept for GM foods, have revealed that consumers are usually willing to accept them at some price, or in some cases willing to pay a premium. Ultimately, it's consumers' actual--not intended--behavior that is of most interest to policy makers and business decision-makers. Real choice experiments offer the best avenue for revealing consumers' food choices in normal life.

  10. Laser Ignition Technology for Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matt; Bossard, John; Early, Jim; Trinh, Huu; Dennis, Jay; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of laser ignition technology for bipropellant rocket engines applications. The objectives of this project include: (1) the selection test chambers and flows; (2) definition of the laser ignition setup; (3) pulse format optimization; (4) fiber optic coupled laser ignition system analysis; and (5) chamber integration issues definition. The testing concludes that rocket combustion chamber laser ignition is imminent. Support technologies (multiplexing, window durability/cleaning, and fiber optic durability) are feasible.

  11. Technology-Enhanced Mathematics Education for Creative Engineering Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This project explores the opportunities and challenges of integrating digital technologies in mathematics education in creative engineering studies. Students in such studies lack motivation and do not perceive the mathematics the same way as mathematics students do. Digital technologies offer new possibilities for mathematics representation, for interacting with mathematical concepts, and for positioning mathematics in the context of their studies. First, we are going to investigate how mathe...

  12. FY2011 Engineering Innovations, Research, and Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Kip [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poyneer, Lisa A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shusteff, Maxim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spadaccini, Christopher M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hopkins, Jonathan B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernier, Joel V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); King, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puso, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weisgraber, Todd H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstein, Noah C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sales, Ana Paula De Oliveira [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dehlinger, Dietrich A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotovsky, Jack [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kuntz, Joshua D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Voss, Lars F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Elizabeth K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, John T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lehman, Sean K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vernon, Stephen P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tang, Vincent [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-04-24

    This report summarizes key research, development, and technology advancements in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Engineering Directorate for FY2011. These efforts exemplify Engineering’s nearly 60-year history of developing and applying the technology innovations needed for the Laboratory’s national security missions, and embody Engineering’s mission to “Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory’s vitality tomorrow.

  13. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    This book includes the original, peer reviewed research papers from the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems (ICITES2013), which took place on December 12-14, 2013 at Cheng Shiu University in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Topics covered include: laser technology, wireless and mobile networking, lean and agile manufacturing, speech processing, microwave dielectrics, intelligent circuits and systems, 3D graphics, communications, and structure dynamics and control.

  14. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Wang; Qiang Ao; Xiaohong Tian; Jun Fan; Yujun Wei; Weijian Hou; Hao Tong; Shuling Bai

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especial...

  15. Creating the integral engineer: Combining development education, sustainability, entrepreneurship and technology at Delft University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, J.W.; Blom, E.M.; Vastbinder, B.; Brezet, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A modern engineer is more than a technical specialist. Training an integral engineer requires education in non-technical skills, including social and ethical aspects. Therefore, Delft University of Technology (DUT) introduced sustainable development and entrepreneurship into its bachelor and master

  16. Creating the integral engineer: Combining development education, sustainability, entrepreneurship and technology at Delft University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, J.W.; Blom, E.M.; Vastbinder, B.; Brezet, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A modern engineer is more than a technical specialist. Training an integral engineer requires education in non-technical skills, including social and ethical aspects. Therefore, Delft University of Technology (DUT) introduced sustainable development and entrepreneurship into its bachelor and master

  17. Genetic engineering of stem cells for enhanced therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Andrzejewska, Anna; Janowski, Miroslaw; Walczak, Piotr; Lukomska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for overcoming the limitations of current treatment methods. The modification of stem cell properties may be necessary to fully exploit their potential. Genetic engineering, with an abundance of methodology to induce gene expression in a precise and well-controllable manner, is particularly attractive for this purpose. There are virus-based and non-viral methods of genetic manipulation. Genome-integrating viral vectors are usually characterized by highly efficient and long-term transgene expression, at a cost of safety. Non-integrating viruses are also highly efficient in transduction, and, while safer, offer only a limited duration of transgene expression. There is a great diversity of transfectable forms of nucleic acids; however, for efficient shuttling across cell membranes, additional manipulation is required. Both physical and chemical methods have been employed for this purpose. Stem cell engineering for clinical applications is still in its infancy and requires further research. There are two main strategies for inducing transgene expression in therapeutic cells: transient and permanent expression. In many cases, including stem cell trafficking and using cell therapy for the treatment of rapid-onset disease with a short healing process, transient transgene expression may be a sufficient and optimal approach. For that purpose, mRNA-based methods seem ideally suited, as they are characterized by a rapid, highly efficient transfection, with outstanding safety. Permanent transgene expression is primarily based on the application of viral vectors, and, due to safety concerns, these methods are more challenging. There is active, ongoing research toward the development of non-viral methods that would induce permanent expression, such as transposons and mammalian artificial chromosomes.

  18. Entomic Resistance Genes for Genetic Engineering in Agricultural Furtherance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering for insect pest’s management in crop plants offers the potential of a user-friendly, environmentfriendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture. Food and energy insecurities are currently two foremost problems being faced worldwide. Losses due to pests and diseases have been estimated to be around 37% of the agricultural production worldwide, with 13% due to insects. Engineering insect resistance in transgenic plants has been achieved through the use of insect control protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis. Till now, researchers have focused on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins. Successful results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been achieved in the laboratory and finally in the field and now commercialized Bt transgenic crops are used worldwide. Other alternative methods exploit plant-derived insect control genes with promising results. Today insect-resistance transgenes, whether of plant, bacterial or other origin, can be introduced in to plants to increase the level of insect resistance so as to contribute to sustainable agricultural practices.

  19. Genetic engineering of platelets to neutralize circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C; Wun, Brittany; Liesveld, Jane L; King, Michael R

    2016-04-28

    Mounting experimental evidence demonstrates that platelets support cancer metastasis. Within the circulatory system, platelets guard circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from immune elimination and promote their arrest at the endothelium, supporting CTC extravasation into secondary sites. Neutralization of CTCs in blood circulation can potentially attenuate metastases to distant organs. Therefore, extensive studies have explored the blockade of platelet-CTC interactions as an anti-metastatic strategy. Such an intervention approach, however, may cause bleeding disorders since the platelet-CTC interactions inherently rely on the blood coagulation cascade including platelet activation. On the other hand, platelets have been genetically engineered to correct inherited bleeding disorders in both animal models and human clinical trials. In this study, inspired by the physical association between platelets and CTCs, platelets were genetically modified to express surface-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a cytokine known to induce apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. The TRAIL-expressing platelets were demonstrated to kill cancer cells in vitro and significantly reduce metastases in a mouse model of prostate cancer metastasis. Our results suggest that using platelets to produce and deliver cancer-specific therapeutics can provide a Trojan-horse strategy of neutralizing CTCs to attenuate metastasis.

  20. Genetic engineering and therapy for inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sharlene; Davis, Jennifer; Westfall, Margaret; Metzger, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    The cardiac myofilaments consist of a highly ordered assembly of proteins that collectively generate force in a calcium-dependent manner. Defects in myofilament function and its regulation have been implicated in various forms of acquired and inherited human heart disease. For example, during cardiac ischemia, cardiac myocyte contractile performance is dramatically downregulated due in part to a reduced sensitivity of the myofilaments to calcium under acidic pH conditions. Over the last several years, the thin filament regulatory protein, troponin I, has been identified as an important mediator of this response. Mutations in troponin I and other sarcomere genes are also linked to several distinct inherited cardiomyopathic phenotypes, including hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive cardiomyopathies. With the cardiac sarcomere emerging as a central player for such a diverse array of human heart diseases, genetic-based strategies that target the myofilament will likely have broad therapeutic potential. The development of safe vector systems for efficient gene delivery will be a critical hurdle to overcome before these types of therapies can be successfully applied. Nonetheless, studies focusing on the principles of acute genetic engineering of the sarcomere hold value as they lay the essential foundation on which to build potential gene-based therapies for heart disease.

  1. From STEM to STEAM: Strategies for Enhancing Engineering & Technology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to challenge the common pedagogies found in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics education with a particular focus on engineering. The dominant engineering pedagogy remains “chalk and talk”; despite research evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. Such pedagogical approaches do not embrace the possibilities provided by more student-centric approaches and more active learning. The paper argues that there is a potential confusion in engineering education around the role of active learning approaches, and that the adoption of these approaches may be limited as a result of this confusion, combined with a degree of disciplinary egocentrism. The paper presents examples of design, engineering and technology projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting pedagogies and delivery methods more usually attributed to the liberal arts such as studio based learning. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how best to create a fertile environment from which inquiry based learning can emerge as well as a reflection on whether the only real limitation on cultivating such approaches is the disciplinary egocentrism of traditional engineering educators.

  2. Shaping Identity of Being Creative Information Technology (IT) Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Chunfang

    2015-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the increasing awareness and ability of developing creativity in Information Technology (IT) education, which is motivated by the need to be creative engineers as part of the social identity of young IT engineers. This suggests this paper to discuss three questions: 1) what ...... Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is one of the potential strategy of teaching creativity to young IT engineers. So this paper has both theoretical and practical significances of improvement for creativity in IT industry and education in the future.......This paper emphasizes the increasing awareness and ability of developing creativity in Information Technology (IT) education, which is motivated by the need to be creative engineers as part of the social identity of young IT engineers. This suggests this paper to discuss three questions: 1) what...... is creativity and engineering creativity? 2) why is IT understood as a creative domain? And 3) how to increase the awareness and ability of developing creativity in IT education? The above three questions will lead to a literature review in order to seeking for the answers. In addition, this paper points out...

  3. Development of Key Performance Indicators for the Engineering Technology Education Programs in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2004-01-01

    In comparison with engineering, engineering technology is more practical and purposeful. The engineering technology education programs in Taiwan have been mainly offered in 56 universities/colleges of technology (UTs/CTs) and are anticipated to continuously improve their performance to prepare quality engineering technologists. However, it is…

  4. Taiwanese Preservice Teachers' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Teaching Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuen-Yi; Williams, P. John

    2016-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior as a basis for exploring the impact of knowledge, values, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and attitudes on the behavioral intention toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education among Taiwanese preservice science teachers. Questionnaires (N = 139)…

  5. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. State-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) state-level analysis provides policymakers, educators, state government officials, and others with details on the projections of STEM jobs through 2018. This report delivers a state-by-state snapshot of the demand for STEM jobs, including: (1) The number of forecast net new and…

  6. Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM): Catalyzing Change Amid the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakos, Lynn; Lujan, Vanessa; Strang, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Over the past eight years or so, educators have struggled to make sense of the many views and definitions of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and what constitutes quality in STEM practices. The multitude of recent STEM funding opportunities has done little to create a common understanding about how to best engage…

  7. Information Technologies in Higher Education: Lessons Learned in Industrial Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Almonte, Milagros; Andreu, Hernando Bustos; Pedraja-Rejas, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a teaching experience in which information and communication technologies were applied in five industrial engineering courses at the Universidad de Tarapaca in Chile. The paper compares the performance and course pass rates of the e-learning platform and portable pocket PC platform with those of the same courses teaching in…

  8. Key Issue: Recruiting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraner, Kristin L.

    2009-01-01

    A STEM teacher is one who teaches in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In K-12 schooling, most STEM teachers instruct mathematics and science classes, which continue to be critical shortage areas. As part of a comprehensive human capital strategy, designing recruitment initiatives to attract qualified STEM teachers…

  9. Urban Composting in the Technology and Engineering Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelin-Biesecker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The average American produces around 1,600 pounds of garbage every year, and it is estimated that 50 percent of that waste is material that could be composted (Clean Air Council, 2012). Instead, most is sent to landfills and incinerators. In technology and engineering education, a great deal of time is spent in talking, teaching, and thinking…

  10. Women of Color in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn R.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have theorized and examined women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields for well over thirty years. However, much of this research has paid little attention to issues of racial and ethnic diversity among women, suggesting that all women have the same experiences in STEM. Women of color…

  11. Urban Composting in the Technology and Engineering Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelin-Biesecker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The average American produces around 1,600 pounds of garbage every year, and it is estimated that 50 percent of that waste is material that could be composted (Clean Air Council, 2012). Instead, most is sent to landfills and incinerators. In technology and engineering education, a great deal of time is spent in talking, teaching, and thinking…

  12. Rapid prototyping technology and its application in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zhou, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Xiong-Sheng

    Bone defects arising from a variety of reasons cannot be treated effectively without bone tissue reconstruction. Autografts and allografts have been used in clinical application for some time, but they have disadvantages. With the inherent drawback in the precision and reproducibility of conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, the results of bone surgery may not be ideal. This is despite the introduction of bone tissue engineering which provides a powerful approach for bone repair. Rapid prototyping technologies have emerged as an alternative and have been widely used in bone tissue engineering, enhancing bone tissue regeneration in terms of mechanical strength, pore geometry, and bioactive factors, and overcoming some of the disadvantages of conventional technologies. This review focuses on the basic principles and characteristics of various fabrication technologies, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and fused deposition modeling, and reviews the application of rapid prototyping techniques to scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In the near future, the use of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering prepared by rapid prototyping technology might be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone defects.

  13. Information Technologies in Higher Education: Lessons Learned in Industrial Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Almonte, Milagros; Andreu, Hernando Bustos; Pedraja-Rejas, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a teaching experience in which information and communication technologies were applied in five industrial engineering courses at the Universidad de Tarapaca in Chile. The paper compares the performance and course pass rates of the e-learning platform and portable pocket PC platform with those of the same courses teaching in…

  14. Nano-Science-Engineering-Technology Applications to Food and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Wang, Zheng; Chaudhry, Qasim; Park, Hyun Jin; Juneja, Lekh R

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology are applied to Food and Nutrition. Various delivery systems include nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes. The nanoscale systems have advantages, such as higher bioavailabitity, and other physicochemical properties. The symposium will provide an overview of the formulation, characterization, and utilization of nanotechnology-based food and nutrition.

  15. Innovative Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Equipment and Materials-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnaz Izailovich, Fayrushin; Nail Faikovich, Kashapov; Mahmut Mashutovich, Ganiev

    2014-12-01

    In the period from 25 to 27 September 2013 the city of Kazan hosted the International Scientific Conference "Innovative mechanical engineering technologies, equipment and materials - 2013" (IRTC "IMETEM - 2013"). The conference was held on the grounds of "Kazanskaya Yarmarka" (Kazan). The conference plenary meeting was held with the participation of the Republic of Tatarstan, breakout sessions, forum "Improving the competitiveness and efficiency of engineering enterprises in the WTO" and a number of round tables. Traditionally, the event was followed by the 13th International specialized exhibition "Engineering. Metalworking. Kazan ", in which were presented the development of innovative enterprises in the interests of the Russian Federation of Industry of Republic of Tatarstan, to support the "Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology" and the 8th specialized exhibition "TechnoWelding". Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  16. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.

  17. Renegotiating GM crop regulation: Targeted gene-modification technology raises new issues for the oversight of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic modification, which enables scientists to genetically engineer plants more efficiently and precisely, challenges current process-based regulatory frameworks for genetically modified crops.

  18. Flexible fuel engine based on multi-combustion control technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaolu; HUANG Zhen; QIAO Xinqi; SONG Jun; FANG Junhua; XIA Huimin

    2005-01-01

    A combustion control strategy is proposed for diesel engine to reduce PM and NOx emissions significantly, which adopts some technologies including internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), split spray, adjustable fuel delivery advance angle and the application of alternative fuels. Based on this strategy, a flexible fuel engine has been developed. The experimental results show that this engine can be fueled with diesel fuel, alcohol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC), etc. It works with extremely low levels of particulate matter (PM) and NOx, 2~3% higher effective thermal efficiency on moderate and high loads when alternative fuels are used. This engine not only has lower exhaust emissions, but also can be fueled with those alternative fuels, which are difficult to be ignited by compression.

  19. Stem Cells in Skeletal Tissue Engineering: Technologies and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Mark T.; Yu, Shuting; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2017-01-01

    This review surveys the use of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells in skeletal tissue engineering. Specific emphasis is focused on evaluating the function and activities of these cells in the context of development in vivo, and how technologies and methods of stem cell-based tissue engineering for stem cells must draw inspiration from developmental biology. Information on the embryonic origin and in vivo differentiation of skeletal tissues is first reviewed, to shed light on the persistence and activities of adult stem cells that remain in skeletal tissues after embryogenesis. Next, the development and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is discussed, and some of their advantages and disadvantages in the context of tissue engineering is presented. The final section highlights current use of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells, reviewing their origin, differentiation capacity, and potential applications to tissue engineering. PMID:26423296

  20. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  1. Genetic Engineering: A Matter that Requires Further Refinement in Spanish Secondary School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quylez, M. J.; Osada, J.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with…

  2. 78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to... movement, or release into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such...

  3. Novel technologies provide more engineering strategies for amino acid-producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Pengfei; Su, Tianyuan; Qi, Qingsheng

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, amino acid-producing strains were obtained by random mutagenesis and subsequent selection. With the development of genetic and metabolic engineering techniques, various microorganisms with high amino acid production yields are now constructed by rational design of targeted biosynthetic pathways. Recently, novel technologies derived from systems and synthetic biology have emerged and open a new promising avenue towards the engineering of amino acid production microorganisms. In this review, these approaches, including rational engineering of rate-limiting enzymes, real-time sensing of end-products, pathway optimization on the chromosome, transcription factor-mediated strain improvement, and metabolic modeling and flux analysis, were summarized with regard to their application in microbial amino acid production.

  4. Children of the new reproductive technologies: social and genetic parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Balen, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review empirical studies on families created by new reproductive technologies (NRT) in which only one parent has a genetic link to the child. Methodology: Literature search was conducted among computerized databases. Inclusion criteria were that studies should focus on childrearing or

  5. All-in-one construct for genome engineering using Cre-lox technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Ana M; González-González, Luis; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an appealing model of a minimal cell and synthetic biology study, and it was one of the first organisms whose genome was fully sequenced and chemically synthesized. Despite its usefulness as a model organism, many genetic tools well established for other microorganisms are not currently available in mycoplasmas. We have developed several vectors to adapt the Cre-lox technology for genome engineering in M. genitalium, providing an all-in-one construct that could be also useful to obtain unmarked genetic modifications in many other slow growing microorganisms. This construct contains a modified promoter sequence based in TetR system that exhibits an enhanced control on Cre recombinase expression, virtually abolishing the presence of this recombinase in the absence of inducer. This allows to introduce the Cre recombinase gene and the desired genetic modification in a single transformation step. In addition, this inducible promoter may be a very promising tool for a wide range of molecular applications.

  6. Information Technology in project-organized electronic and computer technology engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of IT in the education of electronic and computer technology engineers at Institute of Electronic Systems, Aalborg Uni-versity, Denmark. At the Institute Information Technology is an important tool in the aspects of the education as well as for communication...

  7. Engineering the next generation of clinical deep brain stimulation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cameron C; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Shamir, Reuben R; Lempka, Scott F

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has evolved into a powerful clinical therapy for a range of neurological disorders, but even with impressive clinical growth, DBS technology has been relatively stagnant over its history. However, enhanced collaborations between neural engineers, neuroscientists, physicists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons are beginning to address some of the limitations of current DBS technology. These interactions have helped to develop novel ideas for the next generation of clinical DBS systems. This review attempts collate some of that progress with two goals in mind. First, provide a general description of current clinical DBS practices, geared toward educating biomedical engineers and computer scientists on a field that needs their expertise and attention. Second, describe some of the technological developments that are currently underway in surgical targeting, stimulation parameter selection, stimulation protocols, and stimulation hardware that are being directly evaluated for near term clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. International Conference on Sustainable Vital Technologies in Engineering and Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Maguid

    2017-01-01

    This book reports on cutting-edge technologies that have been fostering sustainable development in a variety of fields, including built and natural environments, structures, energy, advanced mechanical technologies as well as electronics and communication technologies. It reports on the applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Internet-of-Things, predictive maintenance, as well as modeling and control techniques to reduce the environmental impacts of buildings, enhance their environmental contribution and positively impact the social equity. The different chapters, selected on the basis of their timeliness and relevance for an audience of engineers and professionals, describe the major trends in the field of sustainable engineering research, providing them with a snapshot of current issues together with important technical information for their daily work, as well as an interesting source of new ideas for their future research. The works included in this book were selected among the contributions...

  9. [Flexible print circuit technology application in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Cao, Yi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    Flexible print circuit (FPC) technology has been widely applied in variety of electric circuits with high precision due to its advantages, such as low-cost, high specific fabrication ability, and good flexibility, etc. Recently, this technology has also been used in biomedical engineering, especially in the development of microfluidic chip and microelectrode array. The high specific fabrication can help making microelectrode and other micro-structure equipment. And good flexibility allows the micro devices based on FPC technique to be easily packaged with other parts. In addition, it also reduces the damage of microelectrodes to the tissue. In this paper, the application of FPC technology in biomedical engineering is introduced. Moreover, the important parameters of FPC technique and the development trend of prosperous applications is also discussed.

  10. Consumer attitudes and decision-making with regard to genetically engineered food products: A review of the literature and a presentation of models for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Frewer, Lynn

    by standardis regression coefficients obtained by regressing attitudes, measured by global measures, on beliefs. 4. Consumer buying behaviour with regard to specific genetically engineered food products is explained in a behavioural intention model which uses Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as its point...... to the technology call for the development of a theoretical basis for research into these issues. 2. The aim of the paper is to present three models which we have developed to explain consumer attitudes, buying behaviour and attitude change with regard to genetically engineered food products. All three models build......Executive summary 1. Few studies have to date explained consumer attitudes and purchase decisions with regard to genetically engineered food products. However, the increased marketing of genetically engineered food products and the considerable concern that consumers seem to express with regard...

  11. Consumer attitudes and decision-making with regard to genetically engineered food products: A review of the literature and a presentation of models for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Frewer, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    by standardis regression coefficients obtained by regressing attitudes, measured by global measures, on beliefs. 4. Consumer buying behaviour with regard to specific genetically engineered food products is explained in a behavioural intention model which uses Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as its point...... to the technology call for the development of a theoretical basis for research into these issues. 2. The aim of the paper is to present three models which we have developed to explain consumer attitudes, buying behaviour and attitude change with regard to genetically engineered food products. All three models build......Executive summary 1. Few studies have to date explained consumer attitudes and purchase decisions with regard to genetically engineered food products. However, the increased marketing of genetically engineered food products and the considerable concern that consumers seem to express with regard...

  12. Consumer attitudes and decision-making with regard to genetically engineered food products: A review of the literature and a presentation of models for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Frewer, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Executive summary 1. Few studies have to date explained consumer attitudes and purchase decisions with regard to genetically engineered food products. However, the increased marketing of genetically engineered food products and the considerable concern that consumers seem to express with regard...... to the technology call for the development of a theoretical basis for research into these issues. 2. The aim of the paper is to present three models which we have developed to explain consumer attitudes, buying behaviour and attitude change with regard to genetically engineered food products. All three models build...... on established consumer behaviour theory and on existing and comparable research in the field. 3. Consumer attitudes toward genetic engineering in food products are explained in an attitude model that builds on Fishbein's multiattribute attitude model. The model deviates from Fishbein's model in a number of ways...

  13. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico.OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results.Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  14. ENGINEERING SUPPORT PARADIGM OF SUBJECT-ORIENTED CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharitonov V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic antilogy, which is attributed to forming an engineering support paradigm of new technologies related to the subject-oriented control in the noosphere, between the demand for an automatical creative thinking of a control subject and the vigilance of society to possible adverse effects of its subjective activities. It is stated that the noosphere, which showed miracles of automation and cybernation, covers all types of human activities, excluding above original positions, which they barely touched. Uppermost it is related to the central economics problem (economy management – the choice. The problem how to build an engineering support paradigm of subject-oriented control technologies is analyzed; it is based on the known subject-oriented control concept supplemented by concept-based models of the intuition mechanism, which assume its modeling based on formal systems with the purpose to automate control subjects mental activity. From the standpoint of Schopenhauer’s cognitive theory, a research method is developed to investigate evolution and becoming of a particular human category – engineers, which are responsible for the steady development of noosphere of Vernadsky. As a basis, a dynamic phylogenesis model of engineer’s figure was taken, including ready and effective vectors with parameters (education, intellect, skills and (prevision, choice, emergence, respectively. The results of ontogenesis modeling are given – regularities in future engineers’ preparation as a platform for quantization and convolution of its levels based on modern mathematical methods, including those for support engineers of subjectoriented control technologies

  15. Intercultural Communication in Management of Engineering and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    Companies want more business-minded industrial technology managers and engineers with entrepreneurial skills who also have an awareness of the challenges of global marketplace. Both the Master of Engineering and Management Degree (MEM) and the Master of Management of Technology Degree (MOT) aim to meet the needs of industry by offering managers and engineers the critical skills need to be successful in a professional career. The world today is characterized by an ever-growing number of contacts resulting in communication between people in industry with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This communication takes place because of contacts within the areas of business, engineering, technology, science, and education but also because of immigration brought about by labor shortage or political conflicts. In all these contacts, there is communication, which needs to be as constructive as possible, without misunderstandings and breakdowns. Knowledge on the nature of linguistic and cultural similarities and differences can play a positive and constructive role. The objective of this paper is to examine what makes the difference in communication between people with diverse cultural background. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of diversity management and diversity leadership in the diverse workplace.

  16. The biomedical engineer as a driver for Health Technology innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas Fustero, Javier; Guillen Arredondo, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Health Technology has played a mayor role on most of the fundamental advances in medicine, in the last 30 years. Right now, beginning the XXI Century, it is well accepted that the most important revolution expected in Health Care is the empowerment of the individuals on their own health management. Innovation in health care technologies will continue being paramount, not only in the advances of medicine and in the self health management of patients but also in allowing the sustainability of the public health care becomes more important, the role of the biomedical engineer will turn to be more crucial for the society. The paper targets the development of new curricula for the Biomedical Engineers, The needs of evolving on his different fields in which the contribution of the Biomedical Engineer is becoming fundamental to drive the innovation that Health Care Technology Industry must provide to continue improving human health through cross-disciplinary activities that integrate the engineering sciences with the biomedical sciences and clinical practice.

  17. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa' alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander, E-mail: luke.alphey@zoo.ox.ac.u [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  18. Non-genetic engineering of cells for drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Cheng, Hao; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Hao; Li, Peter Y; Langer, Robert

    2015-08-30

    Cell-based therapy is a promising modality to address many unmet medical needs. In addition to genetic engineering, material-based, biochemical, and physical science-based approaches have emerged as novel approaches to modify cells. Non-genetic engineering of cells has been applied in delivering therapeutics to tissues, homing of cells to the bone marrow or inflammatory tissues, cancer imaging, immunotherapy, and remotely controlling cellular functions. This new strategy has unique advantages in disease therapy and is complementary to existing gene-based cell engineering approaches. A better understanding of cellular systems and different engineering methods will allow us to better exploit engineered cells in biomedicine. Here, we review non-genetic cell engineering techniques and applications of engineered cells, discuss the pros and cons of different methods, and provide our perspectives on future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Armstrong Flight Research Center Research Technology and Engineering Report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, David F.

    2016-01-01

    I am honored to endorse the 2015 Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center’s Research, Technology, and Engineering Report. The talented researchers, engineers, and scientists at Armstrong are continuing a long, rich legacy of creating innovative approaches to solving some of the difficult problems and challenges facing NASA and the aerospace community.Projects at NASA Armstrong advance technologies that will improve aerodynamic efficiency, increase fuel economy, reduce emissions and aircraft noise, and enable the integration of unmanned aircraft into the national airspace. The work represented in this report highlights the Center’s agility to develop technologies supporting each of NASA’s core missions and, more importantly, technologies that are preparing us for the future of aviation and space exploration.We are excited about our role in NASA’s mission to develop transformative aviation capabilities and open new markets for industry. One of our key strengths is the ability to rapidly move emerging techniques and technologies into flight evaluation so that we can quickly identify their strengths, shortcomings, and potential applications.This report presents a brief summary of the technology work of the Center. It also contains contact information for the associated technologists responsible for the work. Don’t hesitate to contact them for more information or for collaboration ideas.

  20. Development of a Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Alexander; Gerger, Joachim; Hummel, Stefan; Reißig, Jannis; Pawelke, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Waste heat is a primary source of energy loss in many aerospace and terrestrial applications. FOTEC, an Austrian Research Company located in Wiener Neustadt, is presently developing a micro power converter, promising high efficiencies even for small- scale applications. The converter is based on an innovative thermoacoustic stirling engine concept without any moving parts. Such a maintenance-free engine system would be particularly suitable for advanced space power systems (radioisotope, waste heat) or even within the scope of terrestrial energy harvesting. This paper will summarizes the status of our ongoing efforts on this micro power converter technology.

  1. Space Shuttle OMS engine valve technology. [Orbital Maneuvering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    Valve technology program to determine shutoff valve concepts suitable for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine of the Space Shuttle. The tradeoff studies selected the electric torque motor operated dual poppet and ball valves as the most desirable valve concepts for the OMS Engine Shutoff Valve. A prototype of one of these concepts was built and subjected to a design verification program. A number of unique features were designed to include the required contamination insensitivity, operating fluid compatibility, decontamination capability, minimum maintenance requirement and long service life capability.

  2. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkaffly, Muhammed Zulfakar; Han, Ki-In

    2014-02-01

    The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology.

  3. A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

  4. A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

  5. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  6. Improvements of tolerance to stress conditions by genetic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Aytekin, Ali Özhan; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2014-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, industrial yeast isolate, has been of great interest in recent years for fuel ethanol production. The ethanol yield and productivity depend on many inhibitory factors during the fermentation process such as temperature, ethanol, compounds released as the result of pretreatment procedures, and osmotic stress. An ideal strain should be able to grow under different stress conditions occurred at different fermentation steps. Development of tolerant yeast strains can be achieved by reprogramming pathways supporting the ethanol metabolism by regulating the energy balance and detoxicification processes. Complex gene interactions should be solved for an in-depth comprehension of the yeast stress tolerance mechanism. Genetic engineering as a powerful biotechnological tool is required to design new strategies for increasing the ethanol fermentation performance. Upregulation of stress tolerance genes by recombinant DNA technology can be a useful approach to overcome inhibitory situations. This review presents the application of several genetic engineering strategies to increase ethanol yield under different stress conditions including inhibitor tolerance, ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, and osmotolerance.

  7. Molecular genetics of DNA viruses: recombinant virus technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhierl, Bernhard; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant viral genomes cloned onto BAC vectors can be subjected to extensive molecular genetic analysis in the context of E. coli. Thus, the recombinant virus technology exploits the power of prokaryotic genetics to introduce all kinds of mutations into the recombinant genome. All available techniques are based on homologous recombination between a targeting vector carrying the mutated version of the gene of interest and the recombinant virus. After modification, the mutant viral genome is stably introduced into eukaryotic cells permissive for viral lytic replication. In these cells, mutant viral genomes can be packaged into infectious particles to evaluate the effect of these mutations in the context of the complete genome.

  8. Genetic Algorithm Modeling with GPU Parallel Computing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cavuoti, Stefano; Brescia, Massimo; Pescapé, Antonio; Longo, Giuseppe; Ventre, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-purpose genetic algorithm, designed and implemented with GPGPU / CUDA parallel computing technology. The model was derived from a multi-core CPU serial implementation, named GAME, already scientifically successfully tested and validated on astrophysical massive data classification problems, through a web application resource (DAMEWARE), specialized in data mining based on Machine Learning paradigms. Since genetic algorithms are inherently parallel, the GPGPU computing paradigm has provided an exploit of the internal training features of the model, permitting a strong optimization in terms of processing performances and scalability.

  9. Semantic modeling and interoperability in product and process engineering a technology for engineering informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, feature-based design and manufacturing has gained some momentum in various engineering domains to represent and reuse semantic patterns with effective applicability. However, the actual scope of feature application is still very limited. Semantic Modeling and Interoperability in Product and Process Engineering provides a systematic solution for the challenging engineering informatics field aiming at the enhancement of sustainable knowledge representation, implementation and reuse in an open and yet practically manageable scale.   This semantic modeling technology supports uniform, multi-facet and multi-level collaborative system engineering with heterogeneous computer-aided tools, such as CADCAM, CAE, and ERP.  This presented unified feature model can be applied to product and process representation, development, implementation and management. Practical case studies and test samples are provided to illustrate applications which can be implemented by the readers in real-world scenarios. �...

  10. 5th International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovljevic, Zivana; NEWTECH2017

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings from the 5th NEWTECH conference (Belgrade, Serbia, 5–9 June 2017), the latest in a series of high-level conferences that bring together experts from academia and industry in order to exchange knowledge, ideas, experiences, research results, and information in the field of manufacturing. The range of topics addressed is wide, including, for example, machine tool research and in-machine measurements, progress in CAD/CAM technologies, rapid prototyping and reverse engineering, nanomanufacturing, advanced material processing, functional and protective surfaces, and cyber-physical and reconfigurable manufacturing systems. The book will benefit readers by providing updates on key issues and recent progress in manufacturing engineering and technologies and will aid the transfer of valuable knowledge to the next generation of academics and practitioners. It will appeal to all who work or conduct research in this rapidly evolving field.

  11. Graphics tablet technology in second year thermal engineering teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carrillo Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but they have not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable and efficient teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a traditional blackboard does. However, the tablet is more versatile, being able to integrate graphic material such as tables, graphs, colours, etc. In addition to that, lecture notes can be saved and posted on a course website. The objective of this paper is to show the usefulness of tablet technology in undergraduate engineering teaching by sharing experiences made using a graphics tablet for lecturing a second year Thermal Engineering course. Students’ feedback is definitely positive, though there are some caveats regarding technical and operative problems.

  12. Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology - A Practical Engineering Guide' deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring t

  13. Engineered Nanostructured MEA Technology for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yimin

    2009-07-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalyst support technology based on unique engineered nanostructures for low temperature fuel cells which: (1) Achieves high catalyst activity and performance; (2) Improves catalyst durability over current technologies; and (3) Reduces catalyst cost. This project is directed at the development of durable catalysts supported by novel support that improves the catalyst utilization and hence reduce the catalyst loading. This project will develop a solid fundamental knowledge base necessary for the synthetic effort while at the same time demonstrating the catalyst advantages in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs).

  14. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  15. Induction of Atherosclerosis in Mice and Hamsters Without Germline Genetic Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørklund, Martin Mæng; Hollensen, Anne K; Hagensen, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Atherosclerosis can be achieved in animals by germline genetic engineering, leading to hypercholesterolemia, but such models are constrained to few species and strains, and they are difficult to combine with other powerful techniques involving genetic manipulation or variation. OBJECTIVE......: To develop a method for induction of atherosclerosis without germline genetic engineering. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors were engineered to encode gain-of-function proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 mutants, and mice were given a single intravenous vector...... are a rapid and versatile method to induce atherosclerosis in animals. This method should prove useful for experiments that are high-throughput or involve genetic techniques, strains, or species that do not combine well with current genetically engineered models....

  16. Development of 3D in vitro platform technology to engineer mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinkhani H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hossein Hosseinkhani,1 Po-Da Hong,1 Dah-Shyong Yu,2 Yi-Ru Chen,3 Diana Ickowicz,4 Ira-Yudovin Farber,4 Abraham J Domb41Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (TAIWANTECH, 2Nanomedicine Research Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Institute of Drug Research, The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, IsraelAbstract: This study aims to develop a three-dimensional in vitro culture system to genetically engineer mesenchymal stem cells (MSC to express bone morphogenic protein-2. We employed nanofabrication technologies borrowed from the spinning industry, such as electrospinning, to mass-produce identical building blocks in a variety of shapes and sizes to fabricate electrospun nanofiber sheets comprised of composites of poly (glycolic acid and collagen. Homogenous nanoparticles of cationic biodegradable natural polymer were formed by simple mixing of an aqueous solution of plasmid DNA encoded bone morphogenic protein-2 with the same volume of cationic polysaccharide, dextran-spermine. Rat bone marrow MSC were cultured on electrospun nanofiber sheets comprised of composites of poly (glycolic acid and collagen prior to the incorporation of the nanoparticles into the nanofiber sheets. Bone morphogenic protein-2 was significantly detected in MSC cultured on nanofiber sheets incorporated with nanoparticles after 2 days compared with MSC cultured on nanofiber sheets incorporated with naked plasmid DNA. We conclude that the incorporation of nanoparticles into nanofiber sheets is a very promising strategy to genetically engineer MSC and can be used for further applications in regenerative medicine therapy.Keywords: 3D culture, nanoparticles, nanofibers, polycations, tissue engineering

  17. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  18. Process technology activities at the Software Engineering Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, A.M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides a brief overview of the rationale for, and direction of the software process technology work being pursued at the Software Engineering Institute. The paper then describes some of the activities that the SEI has recently been involved in. Finally, it relates in more detail an example of one specific effort; namely the development of a process modeling formalism and its use in process simulation.

  19. Developing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeffrey Engelman MD PhD CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE Developiing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and 5b...biomarkers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), Genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM), BH3 mimetic, TORC inhibitor, Apoptosis

  20. Enhancement of lipid production using biochemical, genetic and transcription factor engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Noémie Manuelle Dorval; Parisien, Albert; Wang, Bei; Lan, Christopher Q

    2009-04-20

    This paper compares three possible strategies for enhanced lipid overproduction in microalgae: the biochemical engineering (BE) approaches, the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, and the transcription factor engineering (TFE) approaches. The BE strategy relies on creating a physiological stress such as nutrient-starvation or high salinity to channel metabolic fluxes to lipid accumulation. The GE strategy exploits our understanding to the lipid metabolic pathway, especially the rate-limiting enzymes, to create a channelling of metabolites to lipid biosynthesis by overexpressing one or more key enzymes in recombinant microalgal strains. The TFE strategy is an emerging technology aiming at enhancing the production of a particular metabolite by means of overexpressing TFs regulating the metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of target metabolites. Currently, BE approaches are the most established in microalgal lipid production. The TFE is a very promising strategy because it may avoid the inhibitive effects of the BE approaches and the limitation of "secondary bottlenecks" as commonly observed in the GE approaches. However, it is still a novel concept to be investigated systematically.

  1. Genetic screens and functional genomics using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenian, Ella; Doench, John G

    2015-04-01

    Functional genomics attempts to understand the genome by perturbing the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein, in order to learn how gene dysfunction leads to disease. CRISPR/Cas9 technology is the newest tool in the geneticist's toolbox, allowing researchers to edit DNA with unprecedented ease, speed and accuracy, and representing a novel means to perform genome-wide genetic screens to discover gene function. In this review, we first summarize the discovery and characterization of CRISPR/Cas9, and then compare it to other genome engineering technologies. We discuss its initial use in screening applications, with a focus on optimizing on-target activity and minimizing off-target effects. Finally, we comment on future challenges and opportunities afforded by this technology.

  2. 78 FR 11129 - Office of Engineering and Technology Seeks Comment on Updated OET-69 Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 Office of Engineering and Technology Seeks Comment on Updated OET-69 Software... Engineering and Technology (OET) announced the release of new software to perform interference analyses using... Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) announced the release of new software to perform interference...

  3. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  4. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view.

  5. Biochemical and genetic engineering strategies to enhance hydrogen production in photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Kajan; Pyne, Michael E; Perry Chou, C

    2011-09-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen gas is a promising substitute to carbonaceous fuels owing to its superb conversion efficiency, non-polluting nature, and high energy content. At present, hydrogen is predominately synthesized via chemical reformation of fossil fuels. While various biological methods have been extensively explored, none of them is justified as economically feasible. A sustainable platform for biological production of hydrogen will certainly impact the biofuel market. Among a selection of biological systems, algae and cyanobacteria have garnered major interests as potential cell factories for hydrogen production. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms utilize inexpensive inorganic substrates and solar energy for simultaneous biosynthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, the hydrogen yield associated with these organisms remains far too low to compete with the existing chemical systems. This article reviews recent advances of biochemical, bioprocess, and genetic engineering strategies in circumventing technological limitations to hopefully improve the applicative potential of these photosynthetic hydrogen production systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of a genetically engineered bacteriophage on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Justine Monnerat; Buttaro, Bettina; Zhang, Hongming; Liss, Nadia; Sassone, Luciana; Stevens, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is associated with failed endodontic cases and nosocomial infections. E. faecalis can form biofilms, penetrate dentinal tubules and survive in root canals with scarce nutritional supplies. These properties can make E. faecalis resistant to conventional endodontic disinfection therapy. Furthermore, treatment may be complicated by the fact that many E. faecalis strains are resistant to antibiotics. A potential alternative to antibiotic therapy is phage therapy. ϕEf11 is a temperate phage that infects strains of E. faecalis. It was previously sequenced and genetically engineered to modify its properties in order to render it useful as a therapeutic agent in phage therapy. In the current study, we have further genetically modified the phage to create phage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bacteriophage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA), to disrupt biofilms of two Enterococcus faecalis strains: JH2-2 (vancomycin-sensitive) and V583 (vancomycin-resistant). 24h static biofilms of E. faecalis strains JH2-2(pMSP3535 nisR/K) and V583 (pMSP3535nisR/K), formed on cover slips, were inoculated with bacteriophage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA). After 24 and 48h incubation, the bacterial biomass was imaged by confocal microscopy and viable cells were quantified by colony forming unit measurement. The results showed a 10-100-fold decrease in viable cells (CFU/biofilm) after phage treatment, which was consistent with comparisons of treated and untreated biofilm images visualized as max projections of the Z-series. The biomass of both vancomycin-sensitive and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis biofilms is markedly reduced following infection by bacteriophage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of genetic algorithm to the technological operations scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujić, R.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic enterprise task is to satisfy customer requirements: due date, price and quality. Based on experiences from engineers practice of work in Croatian enterprises it could be concluded that enterprises are not able to fulfil obligations to the customer in a way of due dates. One of the basic reasons lies in inappropriate scheduling model that has not had possibility to make plan variants. The paper shows how genetic algorithm could be successfully applied in scheduling model to solve the problem of plan variant. As a basic selection in the paper 3-tournament steady-state selection has been applied.

  8. Seal Technology Development for Advanced Component for Airbreathing Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Key aspects of the design of sealing systems for On Rotor Combustion/Wave Rotor (ORC/WR) systems were addressed. ORC/WR systems generally fit within a broad class of pressure gain Constant Volume Combustors (CVCs) or Pulse Detonation Combustors (PDCs) which are currently being considered for use in many classes of turbine engines for dramatic efficiency improvement. Technology readiness level of this ORC/WR approaches are presently at 2.0. The results of detailed modeling of an ORC/WR system as applied to a regional jet engine application were shown to capture a high degree of pressure gain capabilities. The results of engine cycle analysis indicated the level of specific fuel consumption (SFC) benefits to be 17 percent. The potential losses in pressure gain due to leakage were found to be closely coupled to the wave processes at the rotor endpoints of the ORC/WR system. Extensive investigation into the sealing approaches is reported. Sensitivity studies show that SFC gains of 10 percent remain available even when pressure gain levels are highly penalized. This indicates ORC/WR systems to have a high degree of tolerance to rotor leakage effects but also emphasizes their importance. An engine demonstration of an ORC/WR system is seen as key to progressing the TRL of this technology. An industrial engine was judged to be a highly advantageous platform for demonstration of a first generation ORC/WR system. Prior to such a demonstration, the existing NASA pressure exchanger wave rotor rig was identified as an opportunity to apply both expanded analytical modeling capabilities developed within this program and to identify and fix identified leakage issues existing within this rig. Extensive leakage analysis of the rig was performed and a detailed design of additional sealing strategies for this rig was generated.

  9. Hydrogel microfabrication technology toward three dimensional tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiki Yanagawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D tissue constructs is essential for the alternative methods of organ transplantation in regenerative medicine, as well as the development of improved drug discovery assays. Recent technological advances in hydrogel microfabrication, such as micromolding, 3D bioprinting, photolithography, and stereolithography, have led to the production of 3D tissue constructs that exhibit biological functions with precise 3D microstructures. Furthermore, microfluidics technology has enabled the development of the perfusion culture of 3D tissue constructs with vascular networks. In this review, we present these hydrogel microfabrication technologies for the in vitro reconstruction and cultivation of 3D tissues. Additionally, we discuss current challenges and future perspectives of 3D tissue engineering.

  10. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  11. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants, international consensus was reached on the principles of food safety evaluation. The concept of substantial equivalence became...

  12. Gene flow in genetically engineered perennial grasses: Lessons for modification of dedicated bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential ecological consequences of the commercialization of genetically engineered (GD) crops have been the subject of intense debate, particularly when the GE crops are perennial and capable of outcrossing to wild relatives. The essential ecological impact issues for engi...

  13. IMPROVING PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING BY MANIPULATING THE HOST. (R829479C001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a major technique for the genetic engineering of plants. However, there are many economically important crop and tree species that remain highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium infection. Although attempts have been made to ...

  14. Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2013-12-04

    Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important

  15. Engineering Education through eLearning technology in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available eLearning kind of education is stirring up all the disciplines in the academic circles, especially since it provides an access to educational areas that are uneasy and traditionally in-person, such as Engineering. Even though it had an outbreak in some of the most prestigious American universities, eLearning has being a reality in Spain for some years now, changing educational and teaching habits. To ensure a proper education is not an easy task with it comes to engineering fields, therefore this article shows an update on the works developed on this issue and the technologies they used. In this report it is given a perspective of the intimate relationship between the eLearning method of learning and the studies of Engineering in Spain, through the TIC development and the current educational legislation. In this regard, teaching examples are given on several subjects of different engineering studies, emphasizing the good results obtained in the abovementioned experiences. Below here is a evaluation on the results obtained in the analyzed studies.

  16. Dictionary of electrical engineering. Power engineering, automation technology, measurement and control technology, mechatronics. English - German; Fachwoerterbuch Elektrotechnik. Energietechnik, Automatisierungstechnik, Mess-, Steuer- und Regelungstechnik, Mechatronik. Englisch - Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckler, H.

    2007-07-01

    The foreign-language vocabulary taught at school usually does not cover terms needed during professional life in electrical engineering. This comprehensive dictionary contains more than 60,000 electrotechnical and engineering terms - used in textbooks, manuals, data sheets, whitepapers and international standards. British English and American English spelling differences are identified. Terms used in IEC standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission are marked, allowing the reader to have easy access to the multilingual glossary of the IEC. This book contains the in-house dictionaries of the internationally operating companies Festo, KEB, Phoenix Contact, and Rittal. Topics: - Basic of electrical engineering, - Electrical power engineering, - Mechatronics, - Electrical drive engineering, - Electrical connection technology, - Automation technology, - Safety-related technology, - Information technology, - Measurement and control technology, - Explosion protection - Power plant technology, - Lightning and overvoltage protection. (orig.)

  17. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector.

  18. Genetic engineering of human ES and iPS cells using TALE nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S.; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P.; Cost, Gregory J.; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M.; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that T...

  19. The role of technology and engineering models in transforming healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly Brugge; Wactlar, Howard D; Hayes, Tamara L; Barkis, Will; Skapik, Julia; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The healthcare system is in crisis due to challenges including escalating costs, the inconsistent provision of care, an aging population, and high burden of chronic disease related to health behaviors. Mitigating this crisis will require a major transformation of healthcare to be proactive, preventive, patient-centered, and evidence-based with a focus on improving quality-of-life. Information technology, networking, and biomedical engineering are likely to be essential in making this transformation possible with the help of advances, such as sensor technology, mobile computing, machine learning, etc. This paper has three themes: 1) motivation for a transformation of healthcare; 2) description of how information technology and engineering can support this transformation with the help of computational models; and 3) a technical overview of several research areas that illustrate the need for mathematical modeling approaches, ranging from sparse sampling to behavioral phenotyping and early detection. A key tenet of this paper concerns complementing prior work on patient-specific modeling and simulation by modeling neuropsychological, behavioral, and social phenomena. The resulting models, in combination with frequent or continuous measurements, are likely to be key components of health interventions to enhance health and wellbeing and the provision of healthcare.

  20. Physics and information technology an interplay between science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hagstrom, S B

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade of this century and millennium, the computer and communication revolution has shown its power to transform the society. In this talk I will reflect on my personal experience of witnessing this revolution from an observation post in Silicon Valley. In particular, I will emphasize the role of physics and the interplay between science and engineering in this development. Information technology is often viewed as based on some physics discoveries and inventions such as the transistor and the semiconductor laser. Much of the subsequent development, the integrated circuit being a good example, has been an engineering feat. With shrinking dimensions of the circuits we are approaching the quantum limitations, requiring new types of computer architectures based on fundamental physics concepts. In this context we may ask if we should include the basic concepts of information and information handling as part of physics. Finally I will include some remarks on the views of physics as seen in the eyes of...

  1. Functional information technology in geometry-graphic training of engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina D. Stolbova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, information technology fundamentally changed the design activity and made significant adjustments to the development of design documentation. Electronic drawings and 3d-models appeared instead of paper drawings and the traditional form of the design documentation. Geometric modeling of 3d-technology has replaced the graphic design technology. Standards on the electronic models are introduced. Electronic prototypes and 3d-printing contribute to the spread of rapid prototyping technologies.In these conditions, the task to find the new learning technology, corresponding to the level of development of information technologies and meeting the requirements of modern design and manufacturing technologies, comes to the fore. The purpose of this paper — the analysis of the information technology capabilities in the formation of geometrical-graphic competences, happening in the base of graphic training of students of technical university. Traditionally, basic graphic training of students in the junior university courses consisted in consecutive studying of the descriptive geometry, engineering and computer graphics. Today, the use of integrative approach is relevant, but the role of computer graphics varies considerably. It is not only an object of study, but also a learning tool, the core base of graphic training of students. Computer graphics is an efficient mechanism for the development of students’ spatial thinking. The role of instrumental training of students to the wide use of CAD-systems increases in the solution of educational problems and in the implementation of project tasks, which corresponds to the modern requirements of the professional work of the designer-constructor.In this paper, the following methods are used: system analysis, synthesis, simulation.General geometric-graphic training model of students of innovation orientation, based on the use of a wide range of computer technology is developed. The

  2. Molecular genetics of Psoriasis (Principles, technology, gene location, genetic polymorphism and gene expression).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Robaee, Ahmad A

    2010-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with an etiology bases on both environmental and genetic factors. As is the case of many autoimmune diseases its real cause remains poorly defined. However, it is known that genetic factors contribute to disease susceptibility. The linkage analysis has been used to identify multiple loci and alleles that confer risk of the disease. Some other studies have focused upon single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for mapping of probable causal variants. Other studies, using genome-wide analytical techniques, tried to link the disease to copy number variants (CNVs) that are segments of DNA ranging in size from kilobases to megabases that vary in copy number. CNVs represent an important element of genomic polymorphism in humans and harboring dosage-sensitive genes may cause or predispose to a variety of human genetic diseases. The mechanisms giving rise to SNPs and CNVs can be considered as fundamental processes underlying gene duplications, deletions, insertions, inversions and complex combinations of rearrangements. The duplicated genes being the results of 'successful' copies are fixed and maintained in the population. Conversely, many 'unsuccessful' duplicates remain in the genome as pseudogenes. There is another form of genetic variations termed copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with less information about their potential impact on complex diseases. Additional studies would include associated gene expression variations with either SNPs or CNVs. Now many genetic techniques such as PCR, real time PCR, microarray and restriction fragment length analysis are available for detecting genetic polymorphisms, gene mapping and estimation of gene expression. Recently, the scientists have used these tools to define genetic signatures of disease, to understand genetic causes of disease and to characterize the effects of certain drugs on gene expression. This review highlights the principles, technology and applications on

  3. Frontiers of Offshore Oil Equipment and Engineering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From a worldwide perspective, offshore gas and oil fields account for about 60% of the total. At present, more than 100 countries are going in for offshore oil and gas exploration, among which over 50 countries are exploring ocean floor. With the continuous innovation of engineering technology, the exploration of submarine oil and gas will develop toward deep water area. The reserves are expected to continue to increase in the future. The discovery rate of oil and gas in China's sea area merely amounts to 18.5% and 9.2% respectively. Compared with land exploration,offshore exploration has a great potential.

  4. Engineering the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Richard H.; Moore, Chris L.

    1992-01-01

    The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) is being developed by NASA for flight on the Space Shuttle in early 1994. A discussion of the NASA four-phase design process is followed by a short history of the experiment heritage. The instrument is then described at the subsystem level from an engineering point of view, with special emphasis on the laser and the receiver. Some aspects of designing for the space environment are discussed, as well as the importance of contamination control, and product assurance. Finally, the instrument integration and test process is described and the current status of the instrument development is given.

  5. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  6. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  7. Ray Wu, Cornell's acclaimed pioneer of genetic engineering and developer of insect-resistant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ ITHACA, N.Y. - Ray J. Wu, Comell University professor of molecular biology and genetics, who was widely recognized as one of the fathers of genetic engineering and who developed and sought to feed the world with a higher yielding rice that resists insects and drought, died of cardiac arrest in Ithaca, Feb. 10.

  8. Genetic engineering of Ganoderma lucidum for the efficient production of ganoderic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that produces ganoderic acids with numerous interesting bioactivities. Genetic engineering is an efficient approach to improve ganoderic acid biosynthesis. However, reliable genetic transformation methods and appropriate genetic manipulation strategies remain underdeveloped and thus should be enhanced. We previously established a homologous genetic transformation method for G. lucidum; we also applied the established method to perform the deregulated overexpression of a homologous 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene in G. lucidum. Engineered strains accumulated more ganoderic acids than wild-type strains. In this report, the genetic transformation systems of G. lucidum are described; current trends are also presented to improve ganoderic acid production through the genetic manipulation of G. lucidum.

  9. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  10. Thermal engineering and micro-technology; Thermique et microtechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, S. [Rochester Inst. of Tech., NY (United States); Luo, L. [Institut National Polytechnique, 54 - Nancy (France); Gruss, A. [CEA Grenoble, GRETH, 38 (France); Wautelet, M. [Mons Univ. (Belgium); Gidon, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Gillot, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs Electriciens de Grenoble, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France)]|[CEA Grenoble, Lab. Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Therme, J.; Marvillet, Ch.; Vidil, R. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Dutartre, D. [ST Microelectronique, France (France); Lefebvre, Ph. [SNECMA, 75 - Paris (France); Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Colin, S. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Joulin, K. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Gad el Hak, M. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts and transparencies of 5 invited conferences of this congress of the SFT about heat transfers and micro-technologies: Flow boiling in microchannels: non-dimensional groups and heat transfer mechanisms (S. Kandlikar); Intensification and multi-scale process units (L. Luo and A. Gruss); Macro-, micro- and nano-systems: different physics? (M. Wautelet); micro-heat pipes (M. Lallemand); liquid and gas flows inside micro-ducts (S. Colin). The abstracts of the following presentations are also included: Electro-thermal writing of nano-scale memory points in a phase change material (S. Gidon); micro-technologies for cooling in micro-electronics (C. Gillot); the Minatec project (J. Therme); importance and trends of thermal engineering in micro-electronics (D. Dutartre); Radiant heat transfers at short length scales (K. Joulain); Momentum and heat transfer in micro-electromechanical systems (M. Gad-el-Hak). (J.S.)

  11. Application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in mining engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jian; Wang Lianguo; Hou Huaqiang

    2012-01-01

    Micro-seismic phenomena,occurring when rock masses are subjected to forces and failures,allow the determination of their unstable states and failure zones by analyzing micro-seismic signals.We first present the principles of micro-seismic monitoring and location,as well as an underground explosion-proof micro-seismic monitoring system.Given a practical engineering application,we describe the application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in determining the height of a "two-zone" overburden,i.e.,a caving zone and a fracture zone,the width of a coal-pillar section and the depth of failure of a floor.The workfaces monitored accomplished safe and highly efficient mining based on our micro-seismic monitoring results and provide direct proof of the reliability and validity of micro-seismic monitoring technology.

  12. Genetic engineering of novel flower colour by suppression of anthocyanin modification genes in gentian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Kubota, Akiko; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Saburo; Nakamura, Noriko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2010-02-15

    Ornamental gentian plants have vivid-blue flowers. The main factor contributing to the flower colour is the accumulation of a polyacylated delphinidin 'gentiodelphin' in their petals. Although in vitro studies proposed that acylation plays an important role in the stability and development of gentian blue colour, the in vivo stability of the polyacylated anthocyanin was not clearly demonstrated. Thus, to reveal the importance of anthocyanin modification, especially acylation, and to engineer new colours of gentian flowers, we used chimeric RNAi technology to produce transgenic gentian plants with downregulated anthocyanin 5,3'-aromatic acyltransferase (5/3'AT) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) activities, which are both essential enzymes for gentiodelphin biosynthesis. Two lines of flower colour-modified plants were obtained from fifteen transgenic gentian plants. Clone no. 1 exhibited a lilac flower colour and clone no. 15 exhibited pale-blue flowers. RNA gel blot analysis confirmed that both transgenic lines had markedly suppressed 5/3'AT transcripts, whereas clone no. 15 had fewer F3'5'H transcripts than clone no. 1 and untransformed control plants. HPLC analysis of anthocyanin compositions showed that downregulation of the 5/3'AT gene led to increased accumulation of non-acylated anthocyanins, as expected. These results demonstrated that genetic engineering to reduce the accumulation of polyacylated anthocyanins could cause modulations of flower colour.

  13. The Significance of Content Knowledge for Informal Reasoning regarding Socioscientific Issues: Applying Genetics Knowledge to Genetic Engineering Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a…

  14. Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Society. Monograph Series: III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    New techniques have expanded the field of biotechnology and awarded scientists an unprecedented degree of control over the genetic constitutions of living things. The knowledge of DNA science is the basis for this burgeoning industry which may be a major force in human existence. Just as it is possible to move genetic material from one organism to…

  15. PREFACE: Modern Technologies in Industrial Engineering (ModTech2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Comaneci, R.; Carausu, C.; Placzek, M.; Cohal, V.; Topala, P.; Nedelcu, D.

    2015-11-01

    attended by 140 participants from 17 countries. The authors and co-authors were from various countries worldwide, namely: Sweden, China, Switzerland, Romania, Serbia, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, France, South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, USA, Slovenia, Turkey, Republic of Moldova, Russia, Finland, Japan, Ukraine, Portugal, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Italy and India. The Keynote Speakers were as follows: Prof. Esteban Broitman - Linkoping University, Sweden; Prof. Ziyi Ge - NIMTE, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, China; Prof. Thomas Graule - EMPA, Switzerland; prof. Razvan Tamas - Constanta Maritime University, Romania; Prof. Rainer Gadow - University of Stuttgart, Germany; Prof. Marcel Van de Voorde - DELFT University of Technology, Netherlands; Prof. Chris Lacor - Vrije University, Brussels, Belgium; Prof. Fiqiri Hodaj - National Polytechnique Institute of Grenoble, France; Prof. Hong Seok Park - University of Ulsan, South Korea; Prof. Der-Jang Liaw - National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan; Prof. Petrica Vizureanu - Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania. The main publications of ModTech2015 International Conference are as follows: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, United Kingdom, Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences (IJEMS) and International Journal of Modern Manufacturing Technologies (IJMMT).

  16. Harnessing biodiesel-producing microbes: from genetic engineering of lipase to metabolic engineering of fatty acid biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Yan, Yunjun; Madzak, Catherine; Han, Bingnan

    2017-02-01

    Microbial production routes, notably whole-cell lipase-mediated biotransformation and fatty-acids-derived biosynthesis, offer new opportunities for synthesizing biodiesel. They compare favorably to immobilized lipase and chemically catalyzed processes. Genetically modified whole-cell lipase-mediated in vitro route, together with in vivo and ex vivo microbial biosynthesis routes, constitutes emerging and rapidly developing research areas for effective production of biodiesel. This review presents recent advances in customizing microorganisms for producing biodiesel, via genetic engineering of lipases and metabolic engineering (including system regulation) of fatty-acids-derived pathways. Microbial hosts used include Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus oryzae. These microbial cells can be genetically modified to produce lipases under different forms: intracellularly expressed, secreted or surface-displayed. They can be metabolically redesigned and systematically regulated to obtain balanced biodiesel-producing cells, as highlighted in this study. Such genetically or metabolically modified microbial cells can support not only in vitro biotransformation of various common oil feedstocks to biodiesel, but also de novo biosynthesis of biodiesel from glucose, glycerol or even cellulosic biomass. We believe that the genetically tractable oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica could be developed to an effective biodiesel-producing microbial cell factory. For this purpose, we propose several engineered pathways, based on lipase and wax ester synthase, in this promising oleaginous host.

  17. An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel J.; Jansen, Mark J.; Montague, Gerald T.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of the magnetic bearing and its use in exotic applications has been conceptualized for many years, over a century, in fact. Patented, passive systems using permanent magnets date back over 150 years. More recently, scientists of the 1930s began investigating active systems using electromagnets for high-speed ultracentrifuges. However, passive magnetic bearings are physically unstable and active systems only provide proper stiffness and damping through sophisticated controllers and algorithms. This is precisely why, until the last decade, magnetic bearings did not become a practical alternative to rolling element bearings. Today, magnetic bearing technology has become viable because of advances in micro-processing controllers that allow for confident and robust active control. Further advances in the following areas: rotor and stator materials and designs which maximize flux, minimize energy losses, and minimize stress limitations; wire materials and coatings for high temperature operation; high-speed micro processing for advanced controller designs and extremely robust capabilities; back-up bearing technology for providing a viable touchdown surface; and precision sensor technology; have put magnetic bearings on the forefront of advanced, lubrication free support systems. This paper will discuss a specific joint program for the advancement of gas turbine engines and how it implies the vitality of magnetic bearings, a brief comparison between magnetic bearings and other bearing technologies in both their advantages and limitations, and an examination of foreseeable solutions to historically perceived limitations to magnetic bearing.

  18. Genetic Networks of Complex Disorders: from a Novel Search Engine for PubMed Article Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Yoon; Wall, Dennis Paul

    2013-01-01

    Finding genetic risk factors of complex disorders may involve reviewing hundreds of genes or thousands of research articles iteratively, but few tools have been available to facilitate this procedure. In this work, we built a novel publication search engine that can identify target-disorder specific, genetics-oriented research articles and extract the genes with significant results. Preliminary test results showed that the output of this engine has better coverage in terms of genes or publications, than other existing applications. We consider it as an essential tool for understanding genetic networks of complex disorders.

  19. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  20. Renewable energy technology from underpinning physics to engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infield, D. G.

    2008-03-01

    The UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) in it's submission to the DTI's 2006 Energy Review reminded us that the ''UK has abundant wind, wave and tidal resources available; its mild climate lends itself to bio-energy production, and solar radiation levels are sufficient to sustain a viable solar industry''. These technologies are at different stages of development but they all draw on basic and applied Science and Engineering. The paper will briefly review the renewable energy technologies and their potential for contributing to a sustainable energy supply. Three research topics will be highlighted that bridge the gap between the physics underpinning the energy conversion, and the engineering aspects of development and deployment; all three are highly relevant to the Government's programme on micro-generation. Two are these are taken from field of thin film photovoltaics (PV), one related to novel device development and the other to a measurement technique for assessing the manufacturing quality of PV modules and their performance. The third topic concerns the development of small building integrated wind turbines and examines the complex flow associated with such applications. The paper will conclude by listing key research challenges that are central to the search for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy generation.