WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology europe latin

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-28

    temperatures, radiation and micro meteorites . Also life support func- tions have to be provided which are breathing, metabolic heat, water and waste...Sub- Sahara ), Latin America, and West Europe. Supple- ments to the DAILY REPORTS may also be available periodically and will be distributed to

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    companies, especially in Europe and the United States. Zirconia and composite materials will be the first prod- uct goals. JPRS-ELS-88-009 18 March...based on alumina-silica or zirconia -alu- mina-silicon, has a similar approach. Without underes- timating the stakes of ceramic engines, the company is...persuasive, Jacques Stern is the champion of Bull’s recovery. Still crowned with the laurels of his recent triumph, he managed to make his public

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-21

    technology, starting from waste’water purification, through waste air cleaning,, composting of garbage, up .to sanitation of contaminated soils . Long...chemicals, amino acids, peptides 13. proteins, lipides, vaccines, antibiotics 30 Table 1: Activities of 221 Companies in Biotechnology Tab~’le 1I...agents 5. biosynthesis , chemical industry 6. research, gene technology 7. environmental technology8C downstream processing 8613 CSO: 3698/M415 33 (3

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-06

    facilities: —Pulsed photothermal material characterization facility —Infrared thermography facility for thermophysical experiments —High density laser...employment, work —Mechanics - optics —Computer-integrated manufactur- ing - robotics —Creation of products - design — Ergonomics and...community; Man and technological mutations Mechanics, optics; computer-integrated manufactur- ing, robotics; product design; ergonomics and produc

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-08

    technology involved and of its products," Lopez con- cluded. Economic Growth and Investment In the opinion of engineer Vittorio Orsi, president of SADE ...zilian ambassador in Washington, Marcilio Marques Moreira. Libya Not To Releive Offensive Weapons From Brazil 14281548 Madrid EFE in Spanish...Concerning a note the U.S. State Department sent yes- terday to the Brazilian ambassador to Washington, Mar- cilio Marques Moreira, describing as

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-22

    Activity [D.M.S.S. Vitti, et ai; ENERG1A NUCLEAR & AGRICULTURA , Vol VII No 1/2, 1986] 59 Gamma-Ray Sensitivity of Sorghum [Tuhnann Neto, et ai...ENERGIA NUCLEAR & AGRICULTURA , Vol VII No 1/2, 1986] .... 61 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY POLICY New Loans From Brazil’s BNDES to Aid Electronics Industry... familiarized themselves with their subject-matter, it is planned that in a second phase the structural questions will be detached from this committee and

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-23

    position will be strengthened when Farmos products eventually will be transferred to it. Orion had to pay for its procrastination . A year ago one Farmos...Article by Gitta Takacs: "Computer Engineers--In a Matrix Organization"] [Text] How does the introduction of computer technology begin at our...You might say that they were built in as " matrix elements" into the institutional organization which operates at nine sites with 18 self-accounting

  8. JPRS Report, Science and Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-06

    31 ’Desy’ Synchrotrom Used for Protein Study in FRG (Walter Frese; BIOTECHNOLOGIE , May 87) .................. 32 Briefs Netherlands Protein...the risks. 25041 CSO: 3698/A222 31 BIOTECHNOLOGY WEST EUROPE ’DESY’ SYNCHROTRON USED FOR PROTEIN STUDY IN FRG Braunschweig BIOTECHNOLOGIE in German

  9. Technology transfer in the hydropower industry: An analysis of Chinese dam developers’ undertakings in Europe and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial

    2018-01-01

    Technology transfer is essential for transitioning to a low carbon economy which can include hydropower. Chinese dam developers allegedly dominate the global hydropower industry. Studies have been carried out on technology transfer in their undertakings in Africa and Asia. However, such work is

  10. Comparing 'Popular' and 'State' education in Latin Americaand Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Kane

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, a radical adult education movement in Latin America, operating outside the state and engaging in what it called 'popular education', sparked world-wide interest in its educational theory and practice. More recently, with a change in state formations in Latin America, the movement has reconsidered its potential relationship with the state. Though Europe has its own history of popular education, some have argued that advanced economies and welfare states co-opted any strong independent educational movement: today popular education is more likely to take place 'within and against' the state, rather than outside it. Based on literature review, personal interviews and site visits, this article (a discusses what is understood by popular education (b outlines the development of popular education in Latin America, examining its relationship with different types of state (c considers differences between Latin America and Europe and what, if anything, popular educators in the two regions might learn from each other.

  11. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  12. Global crisis and the Europe-Latin America migration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Sassone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the changes in the connections of the European-Latin American migration system over the past decades. First, we analyse the changing trends and re-routing of the flows between the two ends of the system. Then, we address the complex rearrangements of immigration policies, which in both spaces are again beginning to turn inwards. Lastly, we briefly review the partnerships that are being established between Europe and Latin America via Spain. Within this framework, we wonder whether we are entering a new phase of the globalisation of migration, the dynamic of which is a pendulum with global and regional effects.

  13. Declining suburbs in Europe and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audirac, Ivonne; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle; Fol, Sylvie; Moraes, Sergio Torres

    2012-01-01

    Suburban shrinkage, understood as a degenerative urban process stemming from the demise of the Fordist mode of urbanism, is generally manifested in a decline in population, industry and employment. It is also intimately linked to the global restructuring of industrial organization associated with the rise of the post-Fordist mode of urbanism and, more recently, the thrust of Asian industrialization. Framed in the discourse of industrial urbanism, this article examines the first ring of industrial suburbs that developed around large cities in their most rapid Fordist urbanization phase. These industrial suburbs, although they were formed at different times, are today experiencing specific mutations and undergoing profound restructuring on account of their particular spatial position between the central area and the expanding peripheries of the post-Fordist metropolis. This article describes and compares suburban decline in two European cities (Glasgow and Paris) and two Latin American Cities (São Paulo, Brazil and Guadalajara, Mexico), as different instances of places asymmetrically and fragmentarily integrated into the geography of globalization.

  14. EPLANET: the Europe-Latin America alliance for physics research and education

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-nine partner institutions participate in EPLANET – the EU-funded project aimed at strengthening the links between the physics communities in Europe and Latin America. The project will help the Latin-American scientific community to reach and consolidate the critical scientific mass, and profit from the educational, technological and industrial impact of high-energy physics.   Officially launched in February 2011, EPLANET has now reached its “cruising-speed” with the first ten scientists arriving at CERN in June and July from Argentina, Brazil and Chile. The first ten EPLANET participants will stay at CERN for 39 months; they are involved in the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In the four-year lifetime of the project, CERN will welcome around 256 scientists for a total of 956 months from Chile, Mexico, Argentina and Brazil. In total, EPLANET will provide 379 grants (equivalent to 1203 months) to junior and senior scientists from Latin American countries to be detac...

  15. Medication overuse headache in Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Ninett Louise; Terlizzi, Rossana; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a very disabling and costly disorder due to indirect costs, medication and healthcare utilization. The aim of the study was to describe general demographic and clinical characteristics of MOH, along with the national referral pathways and national...... painkillers distribution in several European and Latin American (LA) Countries. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional observational study included 669 patients with MOH referred to headache-centers in Europe and LA as a part of the COMOESTAS project. Information about acute medication and healthcare...... specialists (p medication overuse regarding patients with MOH. This should be considered when planning prevention campaigns...

  16. Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

  17. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2017-01-01

    in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS: One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study. Factors associated with death were analysed using Cox...... Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America respectively, whereas receipt of antiretroviral therapy at baseline and after 12 months was lower in Eastern Europe (17, 39, 39%, and 69, 94, 89%). The 1-year probability of death was 16% (95% confidence interval 11-24%) in Eastern Europe, vs. 4% (2......-9%) in Western Europe and 9% (3-21%) in Latin America; P death compared with those in Western Europe/Latin America (aHR 2.79 (1.15-6.76); P = 0...

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-21

    research. One group studies the chemistry of proteins and also provides a service with the synthesizing of peptides and the analysis of aminoacids ...genes at the molecular level. (Only 86 had been described at the end of 1984.) These govern important properties such as the nutritional

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-26

    1268.3 eletronica Tesis Digitel 198.1 n/a 50.1 n/a 108.6 18.4 n/a n/a 25.3 n/a 54.8 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n...Informa- 259.5 518.4 140.6 423.1 tica Tesis 81.4 116.7 29.0 79.6 Labo — Labo Eletronica was another company that had large losses during the

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-14

    kept as low as possible. This is achieved, for example, by applying vacuum, plasma, or ion beam processes (for example evaporation , sputtering...characterization of thermo-mechanical and thermo- physical properties, in particular the elasticity module, thermic expansion, thermal conductivity, thermal shock...percent volume of SiC whiskers) and 7.2 MNm°/2 (at 50 percent volume of SiC whiskers). An investigation of the thermic and chemical stability of

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-23

    a view to maximizing the results from the standpoint of the plane’s performance, stability and control characteristics. The most striking...Skyshark’s flight characteristics: separa- tion, efficiency, navigational stability and accuracy. During the Show, on 16 June, a contract beween SNIA-BPD...currently being discussed at a general level for increases in production, such as: --Expansion of multimachine utilization through supervision with

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-12

    Bulgarian research center. The strong points of this research are: - A patent for the production of glucose isomerase using a Streptomyces culture...in 1964, which—based on agricultural, forest, chemical, and food wastes—produced a small quantity of proteins using Candida and Trichosporon...technical assistence of the United Nations FAO [ Food and Agricultural Organization] in Sadovo. In vitro cell culture is being used to obtain virus

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-22

    laboratory’s total budget comes to 80 million francs. If we deduct salaries, which are almost entirely taken care of by the CiCRS, the» operation and...to 35 replace the preset meervirical svsto. Ih;:s is, io- rassle, leading tn r^ aef^; cc ;-1 7-^ösvire sensor r;*ae entireiV or s,]:c:;s so f* vat it...trade position. The profits of major Japanese firms fell during the 1986 tax year, and employment forecasts for the years to come are not good

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-17

    projects. Manufactur- 20 242.4 34.2ing & robot- ics 12. A logotype was presented to the Ministers and the Transport 3 52.7 7.4 Members of the Commission and...they took note that the Total 58 709.0 100.0 incoming chairmanship and the Secretariat adopted it as their EUREKA logotype . Note: Subject areas do

  5. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America.

    OpenAIRE

    Podlekareva, D.N.; Schultze, A; Panteleev, A; Skrahina, A.M.; Miro, J.M.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Rakhmanova, A; Miller, R.F.; Efsen, A.M.W.; Losso, M.H.; Toibaro, J; Vassilenko, A; Girardi, E; Lundgren, J.D.; Mocroft, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analys...

  6. AFTER BREXIT: THE CHALLENGES OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Galván

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of the main issues involved in the Brexit decision and negotiations for Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation both for the EU and the UK. It analyses the challenges posed by the results of the British referendum in 2016, providing current data and figures about students, faculty, research and funding and how it might affect the future relations between the EU countries and the UK after 2019. In view of the new avenues opened after Brexit for higher education, research and innovation in the UK and the EU, it also addresses the current conditions and challenges of cooperation between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. The author, who is President of a birregional academic initiative, the Academic Permanent Forum for Latin America, Caribbean and the European Union (FAP ALC-UE, offers a summary of the main steps taken by this organization since 2012, which have led to the presentation of proposals to the political summits of Heads of State and Government of CELAC and the EU in Santiago de Chile (2013 and Brussels (2015. This is a grass-root movement constituted by members of universities and research centres in both regions whose main purpose is to put forward proposals for the establishment of a Common Birregional Area for Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation.

  7. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-28

    The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study. Factors associated with death were analysed using Cox regression modelsRESULTS:: Three hundred and forty-one patients were included (Eastern Europe 127, Western Europe 165, Latin America 49). Proportions of patients with disseminated TB (50, 58, 59%) and initiating rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide-based treatment (93, 94, 94%) were similar in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America respectively, whereas receipt of antiretroviral therapy at baseline and after 12 months was lower in Eastern Europe (17, 39, 39%, and 69, 94, 89%). The 1-year probability of death was 16% (95% confidence interval 11-24%) in Eastern Europe, vs. 4% (2-9%) in Western Europe and 9% (3-21%) in Latin America; P death compared with those in Western Europe/Latin America (aHR 2.79 (1.15-6.76); P = 0.023). Despite comparable use of recommended anti-TB treatment, mortality of patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB remained higher in Eastern Europe when compared with Western Europe/Latin America. The high mortality in Eastern Europe was only partially explained by IDU, use of ART and CD4 cell count. These results call for improvement of care for TB/HIV patients in Eastern Europe.

  8. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  9. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  10. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2012-01-01

    This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....

  11. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J

    2012-01-01

    This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....

  12. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American governments, academics and nongovernmental organizations are paying increasing attention to poverty, inequality and social inclusion, and the role that technological change plays in these phenomenon. Rather than solving specific deficits, they are interested in how social technologies can generate ...

  13. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; Kupka, M

    2013-01-01

    The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?......The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?...

  14. Challenges in the management of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Maillo, B; López-Vélez, R

    2017-05-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America. Due to migration the infection has crossed borders and it is estimated that 68,000-120,000 people with Chagas disease are currently living in Europe and 30% of them may develop visceral involvement. However, up to 90% of Chagas disease cases in Europe remain undiagnosed. The challenges which have to be overcome in Chagas disease in non-endemic countries are focused on related downing barriers to health care access, and related to screening, diagnostic tools and therapeutic management. The aim of this review is to highlight how healthcare management for Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe may be improved. Medical literature was searched using PubMed. No limits were placed with respect to the language or date of publication although most of the articles selected were articles published in the last five years. Chosen search terms were "Chagas disease" AND ("migrants" OR "screening" OR "transmission" OR "treatment"; OR "knowledge" OR "non-endemic countries"); migrants AND ("Public health" OR "Health Service Accessibility" OR "Delivery of Health care"); and "Congenital Chagas disease". Healthcare management of migrant populations with Chagas disease in Europe has to be improved: -Surveillance programmes are needed to measure the burden of the disease; -screening programmes are needed; -administrative and cultural barriers in the access to health care for migrants should be reduced; -education programmes on Chagas disease should be performed -research on new diagnostic tools and therapeutic options are required. This review highlights the needs of profound changes in the health care of Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-30

    and AMT, five of the seven East bloc exhibitors represented at the Europe Software Fair. The software houses and busi- nesses are strongly...Sparkling Research into sparkling and and foaming beverages in order to foaming improve the quality of existing beverages products and to develop

  16. JPRS Report: Science & Technology - Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-21

    fantastic margin for maneuvering. With the sums collected at the time of the telethon, the French Association Against Myopathies (AFM) had a choice...see things very differently. With some variations, their arguments rest on a simple premise: Europe is ahead; it must not switch horses in midstream

  17. A patient and physician survey of fibromyalgia across Latin America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia; Paiva, Eduardo S; Ginovker, Anna; Salomón, Patricia Arline

    2013-06-14

    Patients and physicians from three Latin American (LA) and six European countries were surveyed in order to describe differences in journey to diagnosis, impact, and management of fibromyalgia (FM). 900 patients (300 LA; 600 Europe) and 1824 physicians (604 LA; 1220 Europe) were surveyed between October-December 2010 (LA) and February-April 2008 (Europe). Patients and physicians (GP or specialists) completed separate questionnaires, on symptoms, impact, and FM management. Interviews were conducted in local languages. Appropriate rating scales were used throughout. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulations and descriptive statistics. Significance was determined at Pperspective concerning FM impact and disruption were often misaligned within the same region. Our observations may be representative of cultural differences in stoicism, expression, beliefs, and attitudes to pain perception and management. Better understanding of these complexities could help targeted educational/training programs incorporating cultural differences, to improve chronic care.

  18. Jan Bloemendal and Howard B. Norland (eds., Neo-Latin Drama and Theatre in Early Modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Meeus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book notice of: Jan Bloemendal and Howard B. Norland (eds., Neo-Latin Drama and Theatre in Early Modern Europe (Drama and Theatre in Early Modern Europe, vol. 3. Leiden/Boston, Brill, 2013. 794 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-25342-1. € 164,00.

  19. Omnibus Report: Europe, Middle East, Africa, East Asia and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F; Nolte, R H; Liebenow, J G; Ravenholt, A; Handelman, H

    1979-01-01

    5 papers deal respectively with economic development in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, East Asia, and Latin America. In Europe, basic problems include increasing political and military weakness; the high costs of social democracy; problems of the welfare state; the trend toward low or no-growth population rates; declining fertility combined with increasing longevity; increasing demand for social services and health care; industrial decline; continuing decline in economic indices; integration of the Left in European politics; and a pervasive trend toward neoconservatism. The paper on the Middle East focuses on Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the recent Egypt-Israel Treaty, in terms of assessment of the present situation followed by a prognosis for the future. The paper on Africa discusses 4 crises of development: 1) the crisis of national identity; 2) the crisis of poverty; 3) the crisis of colonialism and neocolonialism; and 4) the crisis of popular control over government. The paper on east Asia discusses the "economic miracles" and whether or not they are replicable elsewhere in the Pacific and Asia. Finally, the paper on Latin America focuses on the fact that despite expansion of the urban middle class through economic development and modernization, little economic improvement has resulted. The challenge of the 1980s will be to see whether Latin America can put its economies back on track while managing to channel more of the economic benefits to the "have-nots" and to allow more open, participatory systems.

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-06

    Internationalization ADEBIO’s international breakthrough was underlined by the presence of a Walloon [French-speaking region of Belgium] and a Brazilian ...because industry must be internationally competitive. WEST EUROPE However, in this country international competitiveness does not come into play...centers with which ES2 has franchising agreements. Such an agreement was concluded in Belgium with SdM and led to the creaton of a dedicated design

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-07

    cultivation and com- bustion of renewable raw materials such as napier grass still requires much research work. In Denmark and Norway, fairly large...92-014 CONTENTS 7 May 1992 WEST EUROPE ADVANCED MATERIALS German Institute Presents Metal-Glass Composites [Bonn WISSENSCHAFT WIRTSCHAFT POLITIK...NOUVELLE, 19 Mar 92] 33 Eureka Launches MAINE Program [Paris COMPOSITES ETNOUVEAUXMATERIAUX, 5 Apr 92] 33 LASERS, SENSORS, OPTICS Italy

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Industrial R&D Project Funds [GAZZETTA UFFICIALE DELIA REPUBLICA ITALIANA, 13 Apr 88] 34 Trieste ’Scientific Pole’ Activities, Organization Reviewed...Italian Industrial R&D Project Funds 3698M355 Rome GAZZETTA UFFICIALE DELLA REPUBLICA ITALIANA in Italian No 86, 13 Apr 88 pp 11-19 [Under the...cur- rent news and information and is published Monday through Friday in 8 volumes: China , East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South

  3. Tuberculosis-related mortality in people living with HIV in Europe and Latin America: an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlekareva, Daria N; Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A; Skrahina, Alena M; Panteleev, Alexander; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miller, Robert F; Losso, Marcelo H; Toibaro, Javier; Miro, Jose M; Vassilenko, Anna; Girardi, Enrico; Bruyand, Mathias; Obel, Niels; Lundgren, Jens D; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2016-03-01

    Management of tuberculosis in patients with HIV in eastern Europe is complicated by the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, low rates of drug susceptibility testing, and poor access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report 1 year mortality estimates from a multiregional (eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America) prospective cohort study: the TB:HIV study. Consecutive HIV-positive patients aged 16 years or older with a diagnosis of tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013, were enrolled from 62 HIV and tuberculosis clinics in 19 countries in eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America. The primary endpoint was death within 12 months after starting tuberculosis treatment; all deaths were classified according to whether or not they were tuberculosis related. Follow-up was either until death, the final visit, or 12 months after baseline, whichever occurred first. Risk factors for all-cause and tuberculosis-related deaths were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. Of 1406 patients (834 in eastern Europe, 317 in western Europe, and 255 in Latin America), 264 (19%) died within 12 months. 188 (71%) of these deaths were tuberculosis related. The probability of all-cause death was 29% (95% CI 26-32) in eastern Europe, 4% (3-7) in western Europe, and 11% (8-16) in Latin America (pdeath were 23% (20-26), 1% (0-3), and 4% (2-8), respectively (pdeath: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0·23 (95% CI 0·16-0·31). In eastern Europe, compared with patients who started a regimen with at least three active antituberculosis drugs, those who started fewer than three active antituberculosis drugs were at a higher risk of tuberculosis-related death (aHR 3·17; 95% CI 1·83-5·49) as were those who did not have baseline drug-susceptibility tests (2·24; 1·31-3·83). Other prognostic factors for increased tuberculosis-related mortality were disseminated tuberculosis and a low CD4 cell count. 18% of patients were receiving ART at

  4. Tuberculosis-related mortality in people living with HIV in Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Efsen, Anne Marie Werlinrud; Schultze, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management of tuberculosis in patients with HIV in eastern Europe is complicated by the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, low rates of drug susceptibility testing, and poor access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report 1 year mortality estimates from a multiregi...... treatment in settings with a high prevalence of drug resistance. Urgent action is needed to improve tuberculosis care for patients living with HIV in eastern Europe. FUNDING: EU Seventh Framework Programme.......BACKGROUND: Management of tuberculosis in patients with HIV in eastern Europe is complicated by the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, low rates of drug susceptibility testing, and poor access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report 1 year mortality estimates from...... with HIV and tuberculosis in eastern Europe have a risk of death nearly four-times higher than that in patients from western Europe and Latin America. This increased mortality rate is associated with modifiable risk factors such as lack of drug susceptibility testing and suboptimal initial antituberculosis...

  5. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-21

    the sodium-sulfur battery is favored by large- scale users like BMW or Volkswagen AG, which, in co- production with Swiss watch king Nicolas Hayek ...spokesman Friedrich -Karl Reichardt to the HAN- DELSBLATT. The programmers may be interested in high-definition television technology. However, up

  7. The impacts of technological revolution upon Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, U.

    1987-04-01

    The impacts of global technological development upon society are discussed. Special emphasis is given to high-tech research and development in Europe. The points stressed are the globalization of market strategies, the increasing complexity and interrelationships of problems and the need for a systematic approach to information dissemination, characterized by an ultra-rapid feed and feedback.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-08

    research of the ൔ" on 11 April in Luxemburg . Italy was represented by Minister Antonio Ruberti. Karl-Heinz Narjes, vice president of the European...necessary to include a second phase of argon gas purification using lower gas flow rates in the technological process; during this phase, a light stirring...of the steel by the argon gas takes place (nitrogen can also be used) and this facilitates the floating out of nonme- tallic inclusions from the

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-17

    Construction of First Technological Park Begins [Barcelona REVISTA DE ROBOTICA , Mar 89] .... 8 European Firms Strive To Increase Competitiveness 8...Madrid University, Siemens Cooperation on AI Project Reported [Barcelona REVISTA DE ROBOTICA , Mar 89] .....: 21 ENERGY FRG’s Kohl Outlines...Park Begins 36980224b Barcelona REVISTA DE ROBOTICA in Spanish Mär 89 p 24 [Text] Telescincro, Inc., laid the cornerstone of its new factory and

  10. Assisted reproductive technologies in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Musri, Carolina; do Carmo Borges de Souza, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction technologies were collected from 155 institutions in 14 Latin American countries during 2012. Case-by-case data included 47,326 assisted reproduction technology cycles covering over 80% of cycles carried out in Latin America. Treatments included IVF, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo transfers, oocyte donations and fertility preservation. Embryo transfer and IVF-ICSI was carried out in 39% of women aged 35-39 years and 31% of women aged 40 years or over. Delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 20.9% for ICSI and 26.5% for IVF. Multiple births comprised 20.6% twins and 1.2% triplets and over. In oocyte donations, twins reached 27.8% and triplets and over 2.4%. Pre-term births in singletons were 14%. The relative risk of prematurity increased by 4.30 (95% CI 4.1 to 4.6) in twins and 43.8 (95% CI 28.5 to 67.4) in triplets and higher. Perinatal mortality increased from 25.2 per thousand in singletons to 44.4 in twins and 80.7 in triplets and over. Elective single embryo transfer was carried out in only 1.4%, of cycles, with a delivery rate of 30% in women 34 years or younger, and should be considered the way forward provided access is facilitated with public funding. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Communication of Science and Technology in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cazaux

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops the current problems involved in communicating science to the public in Latin America. Emphasizes the social and economic characteristics of the region and stops to analyze the origins of public science communication, its characteristics and challenges. Also interested in placing scientific journalism as a specialty communication if science and technology, the challenges fou face and the importance of form to function as a science journalist. Rank the role of scientists as communicators and recognizes the important rol that the universities will compete in communicating science to the public.

  12. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    which is based on CNR [National Research Council] statistics, is accompanied by a somewhat discouraging picture on R&D invest- ments in Italy: Among...third parties, IBM head Henkel sees a black picture for Europe’s microelec- tronics. "If we miss a technological step now, the pro- duction of storage... Saxony —which gives high priority to saving industrial locations, but does not wish to take on the role of stockholder—is securing their risk with

  13. Technological Unemployment: an approximation to the Latin American Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS AGUILERA

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI, robotics, control systems, software and related technologies have revived the debate on the influence that technology has on labor markets. So far, the focus of the literature has been on advanced economies. This document aims to analyze the following variables: domestic spending in science and technology, GDP per capita, nominal minimum wage, domestic spending in education and their impact on unemployment rate in seven Latin American countries from 1996 to 2011. Panel data was used to measure the relation of these variables with unemployment rates in the region. The results allowed us to conclude that investment in Science and Technology in the region has not reached levels that potentially reduce employment; on the contrary, innovation is regarded as a source of labor productivity gains. The broader implications of technology and automation are yet to be seen, however, both firms and the public sector in the region must prepare for massive technological unemployement, as predicted by recent models.

  14. CONTEMPORARY NATIONAL IDENTITIES COMPARED: THE CASES OF LATIN AMERICA AND EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escudé

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuando cayó Roma, su imperio se segmentó en muchos sentidos, incluido el lingüístico. En las regiones romanizadas el latín vulgar evolucionó de manera diferente en cada poblado. En las regiones menos romanizadas renacieron las lenguas indígenas. Esto cambió con la introducción de la imprenta de caracteres móviles. Comenzó entonces un proceso inverso de amalgama de dialectos, que hizo posible el surgimiento de proto-nacionalidades lingüísticas. En cambio, cuando cayeron los imperios ibéricos la imprenta ya estaba establecida, de modo que en Iberoamérica no se generó una segmentación lingüística. Esta diferencia engendró una importante distancia cultural entre ambas regiones.Palabras clave: Identidad nacional, América latina, Europa, Argentina, Inmigración._________________________When Rome fell, its empire was segmented in many ways. In the Romanized regions, Vulgar Latin evolved differently in every town. In less Romanized regions, indigenous tongues were reborn. This process was reverted with the introduction of the printing press, which paved the way to an amalgam of dialects, leading to the emergence of linguistic proto nationalities. Contrariwise, when the Iberian empires fell, the printing press was already established. Consequently, in Iberian America there was no linguistic segmentation. This fundamental difference engendered a crucial civilizational distance.Keywords: National identity, Latin America, Europe, Argentina, Immigration.

  15. Dissemination of public health information: key tools utilised by the NECOBELAC network in Europe and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Paola; Marsili, Daniela; Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Calderón, Carlos Agudelo

    2012-06-01

     Open Access (OA) to scientific information is an important step forward in communication patterns, yet we still need to reinforce OA principles to promote a cultural change of traditional publishing practices. The advantages of free access to scientific information are even more evident in public health where knowledge is directly associated with human wellbeing.  An OA 'consolidation' initiative in public health is presented to show how the involvement of people and institutions is fundamental to create awareness on OA and promote a cultural change. This initiative is developed within the project NEtwork of COllaboration Between Europe and Latin American Caribbean countries (NECOBELAC), financed by the European Commission.  Three actions are envisaged: Capacity building through a flexible and sustainable training programme on scientific writing and OA publishing; creation of training tools based on semantic web technologies; development of a network of supporting institutions.  In 2010-2011, 23 training initiatives were performed involving 856 participants from 15 countries; topic maps on scientific publication and OA were produced; 195 institutions are included in the network.  Cultural change in scientific dissemination practices is a long process requiring a flexible approach and strong commitment by all stakeholders. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group Health Information and Libraries Journal.

  16. Europe/Latin America Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-30

    declared. Compugraf Sistemas e Tecnologia of Sao Paulo (SP) is showing the Euclid CAD/CAM system at EXPOCON. The system was developed by Matra...MXT 1001 programable mincontroller. Jaime Trinidade Nunes Calado, manager of the Proceda Tecnologia S.A. branch in Sao Paulo, pointed out the activity...Companhia Brasileira de Cristal in Jacarei, Sao Paulo, for a production of sheet glass via the "float" process. This system was based on the MIC 1000

  17. Europe/Latin America Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-16

    to transform E. coli. Another source of genese for the fermentation of cellulose is the bacterium of the rumen Bacteriodes succinogenes: from a... symbiosis between industrial research and pure research, between "protein engineering" and molecular biology. In this context, Rappuoli (Scavo...beginning guided by the consideration that community programs and the resulting projects—if they are carried out coherently and in symbiosis —and the

  18. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients...... in EE, Western Europe (WE) and Latin America (LA). DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE), and LA) were enrolled. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844), WE (N = 152......% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (pmanagement of TB/HIV patients in EE requires...

  19. Wood-energy in Europe: resources, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaye, S.

    1999-01-01

    A voluntaristic policy for the development of wood fuel would contribute to save energy and to protect the environment. Different strategies of development exist at the European scale as demonstrated by a recent report ordered by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME). This paper gives a synthesis of this report. It deals successively with: the European wood resources (the northern and continental forests, the mountain and bocage regions, the Mediterranean forests); the 3 main resources: forest exploitation, wood transformation, recycling of waste wood; the different economical status of wood resources; the place of wood-fuel in the economy: estimation, complementarity of industrial and energy uses; technological files and perspectives of development: collection, transport, conditioning, fuel production and supply, technologies of energy production from wood (domestic heating, collective heating, cogeneration and mixed wood-coal combustion); future markets; strategy of development: forestry and agriculture, management, producers, environmental aspects, afforestation of abandoned lands, employment...; policies of European, national and regional authorities: political and financial help, regulations and standardizations, financial helps and fiscal policy, inter-region cooperation and R and D, advice and communication; contribution of wood-fuel to the energy supply of Europe. (J.S.)

  20. Migration and the new technological borders of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijstelbloem, H.; Meijer, A.

    2011-01-01

    European borders that aim to control migration and mobility increasingly rely on technology to distinguish between citizens and aliens. This book explores new tensions in Europe between states and citizens, and between politics, technology and human rights.

  1. Latin@s in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) at the Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Blanca E.; Lane, Tonisha B.

    2017-01-01

    As the United States population approaches a minority majority, the need to address educational inequities is intensified, especially for Latin@ students who are among the fastest growing ethnic minority group across the United States and at four-year colleges and universities. Concerns for educational equity also demand broadening participation…

  2. Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA......) and LA from January 2011 to December 2013. Among patients who completed DST within the first month of TB therapy, we linked initial TB treatment regimens to the DST results and calculated the distribution of patients receiving 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 active drugs in each region. Risk factors for MDR-TB were...... identified in logistic regression models. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844), WE (n=152), SE (n=164) and LA (n=253) for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe, Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-27

    Venture [Joost Melten; Rijswijk BIOTECHNOLOGIE IN NEDERLAND, Apr 91] 43 Thomson-CSF, British Aerospace End Joint Missile Project [Paris LE MONDE, 16...1991 WEST EUROPE 43 Five Biotech Companies Form Joint Venture 91AN0380 Rijswijk BIOTECHNOLOGIE IN NEDERLAND in Dutch Apr 91 p 37 [Article by Joost

  4. Criptopunks and Latin America: from technological sovereignty to the era of the leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Gutiérrez González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Wikileaks in the world strengthened the historical geopolitical link between Latin American governments and global hackers. In addition, it was a turning point in the imaginary and the method of historical Latin American struggles: leaks and cryptography renewed the wheel of technological sovereignty. Edward Snowden's revelations, occurred in June 2013, led to an acceleration of the idyll of criptopunks and global hackers with Latin American governments and were deeply influential in the aproval of Brazilian Marco Civil. This study attempts to review the relationship between criptopunks and global hackers and Latin America, especially with the progressive governments. We performed a study of data to see the impact of conversations that linked Snowden and Brazil Civil Marco during 2013 and 2014.

  5. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However,

  6. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calhaz-Jorge, C.; De Geyter, C.; Kupka, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any changes in the treatments involving ART and IUI initiated in Europe during 2013 compared with previous years? SUMMARY ANSWER: An increase in the overall number of ART cycles resulting from a higher number of countries reporting data was evident, the pregnancy rates...... (PRs) in 2013 remained stable compared with those reported in 2012, the number of transfers with multiple embryos (3+) was lower than ever before yet the multiple delivery rates (DRs) remained unchanged, and IUI activity and success rates were similar to those of last years. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY......: Since 1997, ART data in Europe have been collected and reported in 16 manuscripts, published in Human Reproduction. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Retrospective data collection of European ART data by the European IVF-monitoring Consortium for ESHRE. Data for cycles between 1 January and 31 December 2013...

  7. Solar thermal technology and market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabba, S.

    2000-01-01

    The solar heating industry in Europe has reached maturity after more than two decades of technical development. High quality systems are now available with reliability and durability of the products being assured. The European solar market, now the world's largest, has been growing since the late 1980s, despite the fact that conventional energy sources are usually available and inexpensive. This is a new phenomenon and marks the beginning of changes in energy supply and consumption that will be experienced throughout the world in this new century. Almost 10 million square metres of solar thermal collectors now exist in Europe saving more than 1.5 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions and about 500,000 tonnes of oil. The solar heating industry has created some 10,000 jobs. (author)

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-11

    to a flying base station as an extension of a digital cellular system. In Europe that would be GSM-based; in the U.S. it could be digital AMPS or...Spain: Space Cooperation has been in existence between MATRA and Spanish industry for the past 15 years. CASA , for example, supplies MATRA with...airborne electronic equipment carried by satellites, satellite soft- ware and test facilities for most major ESA programs. With CASA and SENER, CRISA is

  9. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardito, L.; Procaccianti, G.; Menga, G.; Morisio, M.

    2013-01-01

    The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability

  10. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  11. Development of an Educational Network to Strengthen Education, Training and Outreach in Latin America: LANENT-Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In the current century, networks have played an important role in the dissemination of experiences, information exchange and training of human resources for different area of expertise. The IAEA has encouraged in regions, through its member states, the creation of educational networks to meet rapidly and efficiently the dissemination and exchange of knowledge between professionals and students in the nuclear area. With this vision, the Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (LANENT) was established to contribute to preserving, promoting and sharing nuclear knowledge as well as fostering nuclear knowledge transfer in the Latin American region. LANENT seeks to increase technical and scientific cooperation among its members in so far as to promote the benefits of nuclear technology and foster the progress and development of nuclear technology in areas such as education, health, the industry, the government, the environment, the mining industry, among others. By means of LANENT, the participating institutions of this network, devoted to education and training of professionals and technicians in the Latin American region, may have access to major information on nuclear technology so as to make their human resources broaden their nuclear knowledge. Moreover, this network seeks to communicate the benefits of nuclear technology to the public with the aim of arousing interest in nuclear technology of the younger generations. This paper will present and analyze results and initiatives developed by LANENT in Latin America. (author

  12. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Gasparotto, M.

    2002-01-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy

  13. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, R. E-mail: roberto.andreani@tech.efda.org; Gasparotto, M. E-mail: maurizio.gasparotto@tech.efda.org

    2002-11-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy.

  14. Health care technology transfer in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coe, G.A.; Banta, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    The greatest problem concerning health care technology for developing countries is that they are dependent upon the industrialized world for technology. The only short-term solution to this problem is to improve the choices that are available to them. This goal will require changes in the structure

  15. Current status of the radiation technology and quality control for radiation processing in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Enrique Francisco Prietro

    2013-01-01

    The use of the radiation technology has gained acceptance in various regions of the world, where studies estimated that the installed capacity increases at a rate of 6 % per year and Latin America is part of this increase, due the advantages of this process when it is employed for the food preservation, sterilization of medical pharmaceutical material and to control the insect pests. This paper shows the art state of the application of Radiation Technology in Latin America, as well as the technological characteristics of the most gamma irradiation facilities and minor number the electron beam accelerator facilities, the types of irradiated products, state of the Quality Management System and the Dosimetric Systems used in the Radiation Processing Control in the Region. (author)

  16. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low...... to the debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation.......-carbon energy technologies. While many electricity markets in Latin America were liberalized during the 1990s and 2000s, such market-driven reform policies were far from uniform and in reality there exist a diversity of governance frameworks for national electricity markets, exemplified here by Argentina, Cuba...

  17. The Latin Monetary Union: Some evidence on Europe's failed common currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Hong Bae

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latin Monetary Union was initiated in 1865 by France, Belgium, Italy, and Switzerland. We find that LMU membership or adoption of a gold standard is frequently associated with lower volatility of private bill yields, bond yields, inflation, and deviations from Purchasing Power Parity. However, neither standard induces convergence with LMU leader France or gold standard leader Great Britain. Bond yield spreads indicate that adoption of the gold standard is more credible than membership of the LMU. Italy is an outlier, perhaps due to errant fiscal and monetary policies. A comparison to data from the modern EMS/EMU confirms that the LMU was a weaker and less credible currency arrangement.

  18. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ardito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability and flexibility in order to support a new concept of electricity network — the smart grid. In this work, we will analyse the state-of-the-art of smart grids, in their technical, management, security, and optimization aspects. We will also provide a brief overview of the regulatory aspects involved in the development of a smart grid, mainly from the viewpoint of the European Union.

  19. A questionnaire survey on the management of Graves' orbitopathy in China: A comparison with Europe and Latin-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hang Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Management of Graves' orbitopathy (GO continues to be a challenge to clinical endocrinologists. In the last few years, surveys on GO management have succeeded in elucidating trends in Europe and Latin America. To determine how endocrinologists in China assess and treat patients with GO and gain insight into how to make the management of this disease more uniform and standardized. Methods: Based on the questionnaire used in the European survey on GO, a questionnaire in China was drafted and circulated to the members of Chinese Society of Endocrinology (CSE during the annual meeting. Results: A total of 124 valid responses were analysed. Almost all respondents (94.4% claimed that a multidisciplinary approach for GO management was valuable. Over 80% of the participants advocated the assessment of exophthalmometry, vision, visual fields by perimetry, eye movements, and fundoscopy. Glucocorticoids were preferred as the first-line therapy by 92.7% of respondents, among them, 59.7% choose the intravenous route. The treatment strategy for GO with intravenous glucocorticoids therapy still remains debatable. Anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs were the most common choice (72.6% for first-line therapy of coexisting hyperthyroidism. Treatment options for GO were very similar among Chinese, Latin-American and European respondents, whereas radioactive iodine and surgical treatment were more often indicated for co-existing hyperthyroidism in China. Conclusion: The appropriate treatment for patients with GO is controversial even among thyroid specialists. Further training of thyroid specialists, easier access of patients to multidisciplinary centres and establishment of practice guidelines are required for the management of this condition in China. Keywords: Graves' orbitopathy, Thyrotoxicosis, Questionnaire survey

  20. Improving patient access to novel medical technologies in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Peter

    2012-02-03

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) organized a one-day workshop with clinicians, health economic experts, and health technology appraisal experts to discuss the equity of patient access to novel medical technologies in Europe. Two index technologies were considered: implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and drug-eluting stents (DES). The use of ICDs range from 35 implants\\/million population in Portugal to 166 implants\\/million population in Germany, whereas for implants of DES (as percentage of total stents) it is lowest in Germany at 14% and high in Portugal at 65%. These differences can in part be explained by a lack of structured implementation of guidelines, the direct cost in relation to the overall healthcare budget, and to differences in procedures and models applied by Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies in Europe. The workshop participants concluded that physicians need to be involved in a more structured way in HTA and need to become better acquainted with its methods and terminology. Clinical guidelines should be systematically translated, explained, disseminated, updated, and adopted by cardiologists in Europe. Clinically appropriate, consistent and transparent health economic models need to be developed and high-quality international outcome and cost data should be used. A process for funding of a technology should be developed after a positive recommendation from HTA agencies. Both the ESC and the national cardiac societies should build-up health economic expertise and engage more actively in discussions with stakeholders involved in the provision of healthcare.

  1. The Technological Dimension of Educational Technology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    This article describes some of the main technological trends and issues of the European landscape of research and innovation in educational technology. Although several innovative technologies (tools, architectures, platforms, or approaches) emerge, such as intelligent support to personalization, collaboration or adaptation in mobile, game-based,…

  2. University and Transitions to Democracy in Mediterranean Europe and Latin America (1970-1980. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara González Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Universities and periods of transition to democracy form the tandem analyzed in the monograph the journal Espacio, Tiempo y Educación presented in this issue. A total of eight studies –from Spain, Greece, Portugal, Brazil and Chile– makes up a volume approaching different question (student mobilization, models of university, claims of teachers, regulatory framework... and exploring changes, evolution or inertia experienced in some European and Latin American universities during what Huntington (1990 called the «third wave» of transition to democracy. This outline of studies aims at expanding the information available on the binomial formed by University and democratic transition, a topic rather limited investigated at present, and, above all, encouraging to develop new lines of research focused on a suggestive and critical issue to understand the history of our universities. How to reference this article González Gómez, S. (2015. Universidad y Transiciones a la Democracia en la Europa mediterránea e Iberoamérica (1970-1980. Presentación. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 25-32. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.002.002

  3. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  4. A renewed sense for the purposes of schooling: the challenges of education and social cohesion in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    P. Heyneman, Stephen; Todoric-Bebic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience in meeting the challenges of social cohesion — and hence economic development — in countries such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and Central Asia. The relations between education and social cohesion in the different regions above mentioned are also analized. The authors discuss mainly ethnic and public corruption problems linked to social cohesion: and consider that the social cohesion is at the heart of each nation's education system, as much...

  5. [Economic evaluations of health technologies: a global perspective for their implementation in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Zarate, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena as the progressive increase of health expenditure and the population aging have lead many countries to consider economic methodologies in order to obtain bigger sanitary benefits in contexts of limited resources. This article describes the basic components to consider in a health technology assessment , it analyses the process of decision making with cost-effectiveness analysis and reports how this methodology has been widely implemented in Latin America and the rest of the world.

  6. Sharing knowledge, shaping Europe US technological collaboration and nonproliferation

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s and the 1960s, U.S. administrations were determined to prevent Western European countries from developing independent national nuclear weapons programs. To do so, the United States attempted to use its technological pre-eminence as a tool of “soft power” to steer Western European technological choices toward the peaceful uses of the atom and of space, encouraging options that fostered collaboration, promoted nonproliferation, and defused challenges to U.S. technological superiority. In Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe, John Krige describes these efforts and the varying degrees of success they achieved. Krige explains that the pursuit of scientific and technological leadership, galvanized by America’s Cold War competition with the Soviet Union, was also used for techno-political collaboration with major allies. He examines a series of multinational arrangements involving shared technological platforms and aimed at curbing nuclear proliferation, and he describes the roles of the Department ...

  7. [Health technology assessment for decision-making in Latin America: good practice principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Soto, Natalie C; Augustovski, Federico Ariel; García Martí, Sebastián; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2018-02-19

    Identify the most relevant, applicable, and priority good practice principles in health technology assessment (HTA) in Latin America, and potential barriers to implementing them in the region. HTA good practice principles postulated worldwide were identified and then explored through a deliberative process in a forum of evaluators, funders, and technology producers. Forty-two representatives from ten Latin American countries participated in the forum. The good practice principles postulated at the international level were considered valid and potentially applicable in Latin America. Five principles were identified as priorities and as having greater potential to be expanded at this time: transparency in carrying out HTA; involvement of stakeholders in the HTA process; existence of mechanisms to appeal decisions; existence of clear mechanisms for HTA priority-setting; and existence of a clear link between assessment and decision-making. The main challenge identified was to find a balance between application of these principles and available resources, to prevent the planned improvements from jeopardizing report production times and failing to meet decision-makers' needs. The main recommendation was to gradually advance in improving HTA and its link to decision-making by developing appropriate processes for each country, without attempting to impose, in the short term, standards taken from examples at the international level without adequate adaptation to the local context.

  8. Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, Eu

  9. Comparing Coronary Atheroma Progression Rates and Coronary Events in the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nicholls, Stephen J; St John, Julie; Tuzcu, E Murat; Kapadia, Samir R; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Wolski, Kathy; Nissen, Steven E

    2016-12-01

    We explored for geographic variations in coronary atheroma progression rates in the United States compared to other world regions (Canada, Latin America, Western Europe, and Central-Eastern Europe) and sought to ascertain if this associated with regional differences in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization). Across 7 randomized trials with a global recruitment pattern, 5,451 participants with angiographic coronary disease underwent serial coronary intravascular ultrasonography during 18 or 24 months, with adjudicated MACE. Change in coronary percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and MACE in the United States versus other world regions were assessed. Despite similar baseline angiographic and plaque characteristics across participants and regions, following propensity-weighted and multivariate analysis, US (n = 3,706) versus non-US (n = 1,745) participants demonstrated marginal but significantly greater annualized ΔPAV (least-square means ± SE: 0.27 ± 0.14% vs 0.062 ± 0.14%, p = 0.005). However, MACE rates were disproportionately higher in US compared to non-US participants (23.5% vs 10.9%, p <0.001), driven by a doubling in crude rates of coronary revascularization procedures (16.1% vs 7.8%, p <0.001). The US participants hospitalized with unstable angina demonstrated more significant disease progression than their non-US counterparts (ΔPAV: 0.57 ± 0.19% vs -0.30 ± 0.36%, p = 0.033) and greater MACE (9.1% vs 4.8%, p <0.001). A US geographic disposition independently associated with MACE (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.92, p <0.001). In conclusion, in participants with stable coronary disease, coronary atheroma progression rates are modestly higher in US-based compared to non-US-based participants. Elective coronary revascularization rates however are disproportionately greater in US-based participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and implementation of technologies for physical telerehabilitation in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Narváez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Telerehabilitation has arised by the inclusion of emerging technologies for capturing, transmitting, analyzing and visualizing movement patterns associated to musculoskeletal disorders. This therapeutic strategy enables to carry out diagnosis processes and provide rehabilitation treatments. This paper presents a systematic review of the current development and implementation of telerehabilitation technologies in Latin America. The main goal is to explore the scientific literature and dissemination sources to establish if such technologies have been introduced in this region. Likewise, this work highlights existing prototypes or systems that are to being used or that are still under development. A systematic search strategy was conducted by two different searches: the first one involves a rigorous literature search from the most relevant scientific digital repositories; the second one included telerehabilitation projects and programs retrieved by an advanced Google search. A total of 53 documents from six countries (Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina were found. Most of them were focused on academic and research initiatives to develop in-home telerehabilitation technologies for pediatric and elderly populations affected by motor and functional impairment, cerebral palsy, neurocognitive disorders and stroke. The analysis of the findings revealed the need for a comprehensive approach that integrates health care and the social system to increase the current availability of telerehabilitation initiatives in Latin America.

  11. Celebrating 25 years of technical cooperation for promotion of nuclear science, technology in Latin America, Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA celebrates the 25th Anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy as well as its applications for development during the 53rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, taking place this week. The Board of Country Representatives of ARCAL (BAR) is celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) from 14-18 September, during the 53rd General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna, Austria. Through sustainable horizontal technical and economic cooperation over the past 25 years, the IAEA Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean have expressed their solidarity and commitment to the establishment and improvement of technical capabilities in nuclear science and technology within the region, with the goal of promoting the use of diverse nuclear techniques and their applications for peaceful use in the region. Thanks to the ARCAL agreement, a mechanism for regular meetings and discussions has been established between professionals working in the nuclear field in Latin America and the Caribbean. ARCAL was established in 1984, thanks to the initiative of the Andean Group countries. At the moment, ARCAL has 19 Member States: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The main thematic areas covered by the technical cooperation projects sponsored by the IAEA through the ARCAL agreement are human health, agriculture and food security, physics and chemistry sciences, engineering and technology, hydrology, industrial applications, environment and nuclear security. During its 25 years, the ARCAL regional agreement has

  12. Celebrating 25 years of technical cooperation for promotion of nuclear science, technology in Latin America, Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA celebrates the 25th Anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy as well as its applications for development during the 53rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, taking place this week. The Board of Country Representatives of ARCAL (BAR) is celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) from 14-18 September, during the 53rd General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna, Austria. Through sustainable horizontal technical and economic cooperation over the past 25 years, the IAEA Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean have expressed their solidarity and commitment to the establishment and improvement of technical capabilities in nuclear science and technology within the region, with the goal of promoting the use of diverse nuclear techniques and their applications for peaceful use in the region. Thanks to the ARCAL agreement, a mechanism for regular meetings and discussions has been established between professionals working in the nuclear field in Latin America and the Caribbean. ARCAL was established in 1984, thanks to the initiative of the Andean Group countries. At the moment, ARCAL has 19 Member States: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The main thematic areas covered by the technical cooperation projects sponsored by the IAEA through the ARCAL agreement are human health, agriculture and food security, physics and chemistry sciences, engineering and technology, hydrology, industrial applications, environment and nuclear security. During its 25 years, the ARCAL regional agreement has

  13. The Role of Venezuelan Space Technology in Promoting Development in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J. A.; Yumin, T.

    2017-09-01

    Space technology and resources are used around the world to address societal challenges. Space provides valuable satellite services, unique scientific discoveries, surprising technology applications and new economic opportunities. Venezuela formally recognizes the advantages of space resources and pursues national level activity to harness them. Venezuela space cooperation has grown in the past several years, contributing to debates over Venezuela's rising influence in the Latin America. This paper summarizes the establishment and current development of space activities in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, these activities are focused on the areas of telecommunications, Earth observation, research and development space and has as a primary goal the satisfaction of social needs. This analysis offers the elements most important of the Venezuelan space policy: technological transfer, capacity building and human training and international cooperation including the new participation of Venezuela in the international charter on space and major disasters. Our analysis shows that Venezuela has the potential to become a space leadership country, promoting the social welfare, integration, and sustainable development of Latin American countries.

  14. Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Lillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC, linear Fresnel collector (LFC and parabolic trough collector (PTC—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year. CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.

  15. Energy Technology Roll-Out for Climate Change Mitigation: A Multi-Model Study for Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaan, B.; Kober, T.; Calderon, S.; Clarke, L.; Daenzer, K.; Kitous, A.; Labriet, M.; Lucena, A.F.P.; Octaviano, C.; Di Sbroiavacca, N.

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be

  16. Science, technology and innovation policies for development the Latin American experience

    CERN Document Server

    Dutrénit, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in eight Latin American countries and the different paths these policies have taken. It provides empirical evidence to examine the extent to which STI policies are contributing to the development of the region, as well as to the solution of market failures and the stimulus of the region’s innovation systems. Since the pioneering work of Solow (1957), it has been recognized that innovation is critical for economic growth both in developed and in less-developed countries. Unfortunately Latin America lags behind world trends, and although over the last 20 years the region has established a more stable and certain macroeconomic regime, it is also clear that these changes have not been enough to trigger a process of innovation and productivity to catch-up. Against this rather grim scenario there is some optimism emerging throughout the region. After many years of inaction the region has begun to invest in science, technology...

  17. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  18. The Regulation of Food Science and Technology Professions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of a profession is justified when it improves consumer protection and public health. Higher education food science and technology (FST degrees, widely offered in many universities in Europe open to a wide range of jobs in the food sectors where the employees could cover different positions, roles and carry out diverse activities dealing with the food production and the quality and safety of the food products. This work reviews the state of the art of the FST regulated professions requiring higher education qualifications in the European countries. The research was carried out by collecting specific information on regulated professions by contacting unions, professional associations, public servant categories/professions, and by visiting national and EU websites.  The data collected for each regulated profession were: country, training/education required, date of implementation of regulation, professional training (if required, capability test (if required and acts required by law to be signed by a regulated professional. Only professions that required a higher education diploma were included in this search. Few countries were found to have a regulated profession in FST, in particular: Food Engineering (Turkey, Food Technologist (Greece, Iceland, Italy and Slovenia, and Oenologist (Italy, Portugal and Spain. FST regulated professions in Europe are thus scarce and have a rather limited history. The Food Technologist in Italy and the Food Engineer in Turkey were found to be the only completely regulated professions found in Europe. Food and professional regulation have been evolved over the years and raised the debate on the regulation of FST professions. Academia as well as other policymakers has to further contribute to this discussion to keep high the standards for quality of education and training of the qualified workforce and professionals in the food sector.

  19. Study and analysis of information technology in dentistry in Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Jordi, María Del C; Figueiredo, Marcia Ç; Barone, Dante; Pereira, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    Dentistry increasingly uses Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which has impact on teaching, research, the profession and dental care in general. However, there is a lack of valid information on ICT resources and use in Latin America. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multi-center, interdisciplinary study, the aim of which was to conduct a survey on how extensively ICT is used in Dentistry in Latin American countries by enquiring into two primary components: 1) use of ICT in student training and 2) use of ICT by professionals in consulting rooms and services. Two questionnaires on ICT were prepared: one for teachers/researchers and another for students/professionals. We received 94 answers from teachers/researchers at universities in the region providing information on ICT resources for teaching (type and implementation) and 221 answers from professionals (personal use and use in healthcare). Data are presented as absolute relative frequencies and analyzed quantitatively as percentages. 1) Teachers highlight ICT as an instrument for development, democratization and fairness in access to knowledge for higher education. 2) ICT supports collaborative learning and generates other innovative resources (e.g. simulators). 3) Innovations in telemedicine and experiences with electronic clinical history were identified in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia. These results are a basis upon which to reach a consensus regarding a set of ICT indicators which are comparable at regional level and serve as input to unify the design and implementation of ICTs experiences in both teaching and dental care in Latin America. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  20. Using phytoremediation technologies to upgrade waste water treatment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Navarro-Aviñó, Juan; Azaizeh, Hassan; Goldhirsh, Avi Golan; DiGregorio, Simona; Komives, Tamas; Langergraber, Günter; Lenz, Anton; Maestri, Elena; Memon, Abdul R; Ranalli, Alfonso; Sebastiani, Luca; Smrcek, Stanislav; Vanek, Tomas; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Wissing, Frieder

    2007-11-01

    One of the burning problems of our industrial society is the high consumption of water and the high demand for clean drinking water. Numerous approaches have been taken to reduce water consumption, but in the long run it seems only possible to recycle waste water into high quality water. It seems timely to discuss alternative water remediation technologies that are fit for industrial as well as less developed countries to ensure a high quality of drinking water throughout Europe. The present paper discusses a range of phytoremediation technologies to be applied in a modular approach to integrate and improve the performance of existing wastewater treatment, especially towards the emerging micro pollutants, i.e. organic chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This topic is of global relevance for the EU. Existing technologies for waste water treatment do not sufficiently address increasing pollution situation, especially with the growing use of organic pollutants in the private household and health sector. Although some crude chemical approaches exist, such as advanced oxidation steps, most waste water treatment plants will not be able to adopt them. The same is true for membrane technologies. Incredible progress has been made during recent years, thus providing us with membranes of longevity and stability and, at the same time, high filtration capacity. However, these systems are expensive and delicate in operation, so that the majority of communities will not be able to afford them. Combinations of different phytoremediation technologies seem to be most promising to solve this burning problem. To quantify the occurrence and the distribution of micropollutants, to evaluate their effects, and to prevent them from passing through wastewater collection and treatment systems into rivers, lakes and ground water bodies represents an urgent task for applied environmental sciences in the coming years. Public acceptance of green technologies is generally higher than that of

  1. Latin Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo, Miguel G.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a previous generalization by the author of Latin squares to Latin boards, this paper generalizes partial Latin squares and related objects like partial Latin squares, completable partial Latin squares and Latin square puzzles. The latter challenge players to complete partial Latin squares, Sudoku being the most popular variant nowadays. The present generalization results in partial Latin boards, completable partial Latin boards and Latin puzzles. Provided examples of Latin puzzles il...

  2. Haematopoietic Cell Transplants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter; Seber, Adriana; Bonfim, Carmem; Pasquini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly-distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done in predominately Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplants activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of more than 600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. The data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  3. Status and prospects of fuel cell technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijkum

    1998-01-01

    Fuel Cells attract a lot of press attention today and an some example of a recent press heading is: ''Orders for Onsi's fuel cells hit $111 million''. The principle of fuel cell technology is explained and examples of realized applications given. In short: fuel cells can be used everywhere where power (and heat) is needed. Regarding the status of fuel cells, Europe is way behind Japan and the US. The 15 PAFC-200 kWe units in operation in Europe (worldwide > 90 units) produced 46,796 MWhe during 296,704 cumulative operating hours with an availability % over 70.00. The world record on continuous operation is held by Japan with 9,478 hours reached at 14th September 1996 and two PAFC-units passed their 40,000 hours of cumulative operation (US and Japan). In Japan, market enabling support is continued with subsidies of one third of the costs for 7 PAFC-units. In the Netherlands, Energy Distribution Companies test their tubular 100 kWe SOFC-unit. During 1,335 hours of continuous operation, the unit produced 165 MWhe in total at 3rd March. EnergieNed, CLC/Ansaldo and Gastec evaluated changes for co-generation and small power production with packaged fuel cell power plants in EU and EFTA countries. In general the authors concluded that implementation of fuel cell power plants in all EU and EFTA countries will be probably possible with today' s technical regulations. On might wonder: What has fuel cell technology to offer in one of the most efficient and low-priced gas economies in Europe, the Netherlands. An example of efficient energy use are greenhouses with artificial lighting and CO 2 -fertilization and energy (heat) storage device. Applying relatively favorable depreciation periods and (utility) interest rate, a PAFC 200 kWe generates just a positive return (IRR = 1.7 % after taxes and subsidies) when part of a gas-engine capacity is replaced

  4. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangles, Olivier; Loirat, Jean; Freour, Claire; Serre, Sandrine; Vacher, Jean; Le Roux, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from

  5. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-26

    ASIA yellow NEAR EAST Q SOUTH ASIA ...blue LATIN AMERICA P*nk WEST EUROPE lvory AFRICA (SUB-SAHARA) tan SCIENCE P, TECHNOLOGY gray WORLUWIDES...in industry and the payment of benefits in a very lucid manner. But there is a much greater problem, a much more sensitive problem, for the CDA as...it a mere desire to gain power that had escaped him? Without question, Gomez had long dreamed of imposing his authority in this sector of weapons

  6. Technology and democracy. Vol. 2. The use and impact of technology assessment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    A major theme of the Third European Congress on Technology assessment, ``Technology and Democracy`` was related to the question of how technology assessment may assist in the creation of a better foundation for decision-making when new technologies are introduced. The discussion, which involved politicians, researchers and representatives from industry, trade unions and various interest groups, focussed on how technology assessment can facilitate the creation of a dialogue between the parties involved in the decision-making processes. The Congress concluded in general, that as a result of the increasing complexity of our societies, the need for technology assessment to create the necessary multidimensional foundation for decision-making becomes more and more urgent. Such decisions will choose technologies with built-in opportunities and reduced risk factors. It was stated that ordinary people, if adequately informed, are able to form opinions on this. The involvement of citizens and the opening of a democratic debate put limits on the use of technology and heightens its acceptability, which results in an improvement of its quality and productivity. Technology assessment cases from all over Europe were presented. The workshop conclusions are included in Volume I. Volume II includes the papers form the Post-Congress workshop, ``Methods in Technology Assessment and Decision-making`` and the conclusions from the Post-Congress Workshop. (AB)

  7. Technology and democracy. Vol. 1. The use and impact of technology assessment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    A major theme of the Third European Congress on Technology Assessment, ``Technology and Democracy`` was related to the question of how technology assessment may assist in the creation of a better foundation for decision-making when new technologies are introduced. The discussion, which involved politicians, researchers and representatives from industry, trade unions and various interest groups, focussed on how technology assessment can facilitate the creation of a dialogue between the parties involved in the decision-making processes. The Congress concluded in general, that as a result of the increasing complexity of our societies, the need for technology assessment to create the necessary multidimensional foundation for decision-making becomes more and more urgent. Such decisions will chose technologies with built-in opportunities and reduced risk factors. It was stated, that ordinary people, if adequately informed, are able to form opinions on this. The involvement of citizens and the opening of a democratic debate put limits on the use of technology and heightens its acceptability, which result, in an improvement of its quality and productivity. Technology assessment cases from all over Europe were presented. The workshop conclusions are included in Volume I. Volume II includes the papers from the Post-Congress workshop, ``Methods in Technology Assessment and Decision-Making`` and the conclusions from the Post-Congress workshop. (AB)

  8. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Calderón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%. The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS (69.9%. SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating (i.e. receiving and seeking information with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5% and Facebook (32.0% were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient.

  9. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan; Cherrez, Annia; Ramón, Germán Darío; Lopez Jove, Orlando; Baptist, Alan; Matos, Edgar; Morfín Maciel, Blanca; Calero, Erick; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Cherrez Ojeda, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%). The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS) (69.9%). SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating ( i.e. receiving and seeking information) with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5%) and Facebook (32.0%) were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient.

  10. The so-called "Spanish model" - tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nick K; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Fernández, Esteve

    2011-12-07

    To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers' protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011. Tobacco industry documents research triangulated against news and media reports. As an alternative to the successful implementation of 100% smoke-free policies, several European and Latin American countries introduced partial smoking bans based on the so-called "Spanish model", a legal framework widely advocated by parts of the hospitality industry with striking similarities to "accommodation programmes" promoted by the tobacco industry in the late 1990s. These developments started with the implementation of the Spanish tobacco control law (Ley 28/2005) in 2006 and have increased since then. The Spanish experience demonstrates that partial smoking bans often resemble tobacco industry strategies and are used to spread a failed approach on international level. Researchers, advocates and policy makers should be aware of this ineffective policy.

  11. Comparison of tobacco and alcohol use in films produced in Europe, Latin America, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Mej?a, Raul; Arillo-Santill?n, Edna; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Thrasher, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies that have evaluated tobacco and alcohol portrayals in films have mainly focused on US films. Our aim is to describe tobacco and alcohol portrayals in nationally produced films from six European and two Latin American countries, and compare them with US produced films. Methods A sample of 337 nationally produced and 502 US produced films, consisting of top grossing films from 2004 to 2009?in each country, was content coded for presence of tobacco or alcohol and seconds of to...

  12. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; Benotsch, E G; Amirkhanian, Y A; Fernandez, M I; Stevenson, L Y; Sitzler, C A; McAuliffe, T L; Brown, K D; Opgenorth, K M

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention.

  13. Effect of etanercept therapy on psoriasis symptoms in patients from Latin America, Central Europe, and Asia: a subset analysis of the PRISTINE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, L; Amaya, M; Cetkovska, P; Rajatanavin, N; Lee, W-R; Szumski, A; Marshall, L; Mahgoub, E Y; Aldinç, E

    2015-05-21

    Psoriasis prevalence and characteristics in Asia, Central Europe, and Latin America have not been thoroughly investigated and there are no large trials for biologic treatments for patients from these regions. The goal of this analysis was to report clinical response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment in these patients. Patients from Argentina, Czech Republic, Hungary, Mexico, Taiwan, and Thailand (N=171) were included in this subset analysis of the PRISTINE trial. Patients with stable moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were blinded and randomized to receive etanercept 50 mg once weekly (QW) or biweekly (BIW) for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of open-label QW treatment with etanercept 50 mg through week 24 (QW/QW vs. BIW/QW). Concomitant methotrexate (≤20 mg/week) and mild topical corticosteroids or other agents were permitted at the physician's discretion, in accordance with therapeutic practice. As early as week 8, 26.7 % in the etanercept QW group and 44.0 % in the BIW group achieved Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75. At weeks 12 and 24, respectively, PASI 75 increased to 39.5 % and 62.8 % in the QW/QW group and 66.7 % and 83.3 % in the BIW/QW group. PASI 75 was significantly different between treatment groups from week 8 through the end of study (pAsia, Central Europe, and Latin America. A more rapid response was observed in patients who received BIW treatment for the first 12 weeks which was sustained after reducing to QW dosing for the subsequent 12 weeks. Response rates were similar to those observed in the overall PRISTINE population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00663052 .

  14. Evaluation of the Elecsys® Chagas Assay for the Detection ofTrypanosoma cruzi-Specific Antibodies in a Multicenter Study in Europe and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Chavez, Maria Delmans; Sambri, Vittorio; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Higuera-Escalante, Fernando Aparicio; Roessler, Dieter; Chaves, Monica; Laengin, Tina; Martinez, Alfredo; Fleischer, Bernhard

    2018-02-14

    Serology is the preferred method to confirm Chagas disease diagnosis and to screen blood donors. A battery of assays is often required due to the limited accuracy of single assays. The Elecsys® Chagas assay is a newly developed, double-antigen sandwich assay for use on the Elecsys® and cobas® e immunoassay analyzers, intended to identify individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, for diagnosis and screening. The performance of the Elecsys® Chagas assay was evaluated in comparison with other widely used T. cruzi antibody assays, at multiple sites (Europe/Latin America). Relative sensitivity and specificity were assessed in samples from blood donors, pregnant women, and hospitalized patients, from endemic and non-endemic regions. The Elecsys® Chagas assay had an overall relative sensitivity of 100% ( n = 674). Overall relative specificity was 99.90% ( n = 14,681), 100% ( n = 313) and 100% ( n = 517) in samples from blood donors, pregnant women and hospitalized patients respectively. Analytical specificity was 99.83% ( n = 594). The Elecsys® Chagas assay detected T. cruzi antibodies in two World Health Organization (WHO)-standard T. cruzi reference panels (09/188 and 09/186) at a 1:512 dilution, corresponding to a cut-off sensitivity of approximately 1 mIU/ml. The Elecsys® Chagas assay demonstrated a robust performance under routine conditions at multiple sites in Europe and Latin America. In contrast to other available Chagas assays, the Elecsys® assay uses a reduced number of recombinant T. cruzi antigens resulting in a significantly smaller number of cross-reactions having improved analytical specificity, while being highly sensitive. Copyright © 2018 Flores-Chavez et al.

  15. Potential Opportunities for Investment in Space Technologies in Latin-America: a Case for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Student, Master of Space Studies. International Space University. Strasbourg Central The objective of this paper is to analyze the possible commercial benefits that the global manufacturing space industry could obtain by investing in Latin-American countries. Spacecraft manufacturers have recently been complaining about small margins. They claim that customers demand technological advancement at the same time as they push for quick delivery and competitive prices. They also argue that operators (their main customers) do have great profits. Thus, manufacturers would like to raise the prices of their spacecraft (SpaceNews. January 7, 2002. P.17). This may sound logical, but it would be interesting to analyze if the industry could find alternative ways of saving money while remaining competitive. Mexico is a good example of a Latin-American country that has received foreign investment for establishing manufacturing and assembly plants for different industries. This has been mainly due to two special characteristics of the Mexican manufacturing workforce: low labor costs and qualified, reliable human resources. As a result, Mexican manufacturing industry has acquired a solid reputation worldwide. A similar story can be told about other industries such as electronics, computer assembly, clothes, etc. It is probably worth to make an analogy with a labor-demanding industry that already has experience in the Mexican market: the car industry has found a formula to keep manufacturing costs low while maintaining production and quality levels. Mexico currently manufactures and assembles cars for European, Japanese and American companies for the international market. If the same success story could be repeated for the spacecraft manufacturing industry, the benefits would be enormous. Manufacturers could consider relocating their plants to Mexico to manufacture and test parts or entire spacecraft. This would help reduce the cost of human labor, especially because of the long

  16. Bio-energy in Europe: changing technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-energy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. This is certainly evident in Europe, where a kaleidoscope of activities and programs was and is executed for developing and stimulating bio-energy. Over the past 10-15 years in the European Union, heat and electricity production from biomass increased with some 2% and 9% per year, respectively, between 1990 and 2000 and biofuel production increased about eight-fold in the same period. Biomass contributed some two-thirds of the total renewable energy production in the European Union (EU) (2000 PJ) or 4% of the total energy supply in 1999. Given the targets for heat, power and biofuels, this contribution may rise to some 10% (6000 PJ) in 2010. Over time, the scale at which bio-energy is being used has increased considerably. This is true for electricity and combined heat and power plants, and how biomass markets are developing from purely regional to international markets, with increasing cross-border trade-flows. So far, national policy programs proved to be of vital importance for the success of the development of bio-energy, which led to very specific technological choices in various countries. For the future, a supra-national approach is desired: comprehensive research development, demonstration and deployment trajectories for key options as biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle and advanced biofuel concepts, develop an international biomass market allowing for international trade and an integral policy approach for bio-energy incorporating energy, agricultural, forestry, waste and industrial policies. The Common Agricultural Policy of the (extended) EU should fully incorporate bio-energy and perennial crops in particular

  17. Latin Polytopes

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo, Miguel G.

    2014-01-01

    Latin squares are well studied combinatorial objects. In this paper we generalize the concept and propose new objects like Latin triangles, free Latin squares, Latin tetrahedra, free Latin cubes, etc. We start with a classic definition of Latin squares followed by one based on the concept of latinized board. A Latin square appears then as a combinatorial design whose points are geometric and whose lines (the rows and columns) are invariant under the symmetries of the square. The generalizatio...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Chagas disease screening in Latin American migrants at primary health-care centres in Europe: a Markov model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; Bussion, Sheila; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Jackson, Yves; Angheben, Andrea; Moore, David; Pinazo, Maria-Jesús; Gascón, Joaquim; Muñoz, Jose; Sicuri, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is currently prevalent in European countries hosting large communities from Latin America. Whether asymptomatic individuals at risk of Chagas disease living in Europe should be screened and treated accordingly is unclear. We performed an economic evaluation of systematic Chagas disease screening of the Latin American population attending primary care centres in Europe. We constructed a decision tree model that compared the test option (screening of asymptomatic individuals, treatment, and follow-up of positive cases) with the no-test option (screening, treating, and follow-up of symptomatic individuals). The decision tree included a Markov model with five states, related to the chronic stage of the disease: indeterminate, cardiomyopathy, gastrointestinal, response to treatment, and death. The model started with a target population of 100 000 individuals, of which 4·2% (95% CI 2·2-6·8) were estimated to be infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between test and no-test options. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses (Monte Carlo simulations) were performed. In the deterministic analysis, total costs referred to 100 000 individuals in the test and no-test option were €30 903 406 and €6 597 403 respectively, with a difference of €24 306 003. The respective number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained in the test and no-test option were 61 820·82 and 57 354·42. The ICER was €5442. In the probabilistic analysis, total costs for the test and no-test option were €32 163 649 (95% CI 31 263 705-33 063 593) and €6 904 764 (6 703 258-7 106 270), respectively. The respective number of QALYs gained was 64 634·35 (95% CI 62 809·6-66 459·1) and 59 875·73 (58 191·18-61 560·28). The difference in QALYs gained between the test and no test options was 4758·62 (95% CI 4618·42-4898·82). The incremental cost

  19. The trade interchange between Latin America and South Korea: The impact of technological development in the trade integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Merritt Tapia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade relations between Latin America and the Republic of Korea started in the early sixties, but only after the beginning of the new century have become more dynamic, especially for the Asian nation. Behind the Korean export boom is the governmental thrust to science and technology, which has resulted in the production of goods with higher added value. The pattern of trade specialization followed by South Korea has allowed it to become one of the leading exporting nations of high technology goods in the world. On the other hand, Latin American nations have also enjoyed a remarkable growth in exports in the last decade, although their exporting profile contrast with that of Korea because their exports tend to be mainly primary products with low added value and some semi-finished goods . The pattern of specialization in Latin America is explained by its provision of vast natural resources, giving it a comparative advantage in world commodity markets. Unfortunately these advantages have not translated into sustained industrial developments throughout the region. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the trade trends between South Korea and Latin America in the last ten years in an attempt to understand the reasons behind the asymmetries in trade flows that have been set in this period. The underlying assumption is that the commercial relationship between both parties depends on the pattern of specialization emerged in recent times and responds to the institutional policies implemented by both South Korea and by Latin American nations. The case of Mexico is highlighted because it is getting historic deficits with the Asian nation.

  20. The so-called "Spanish model" - Tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers' protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011. Methods Tobacco industry documents research triangulated against news and media reports. Results As an alternative to the successful implementation of 100% smoke-free policies, several European and Latin American countries introduced partial smoking bans based on the so-called "Spanish model", a legal framework widely advocated by parts of the hospitality industry with striking similarities to "accommodation programmes" promoted by the tobacco industry in the late 1990s. These developments started with the implementation of the Spanish tobacco control law (Ley 28/2005) in 2006 and have increased since then. Conclusion The Spanish experience demonstrates that partial smoking bans often resemble tobacco industry strategies and are used to spread a failed approach on international level. Researchers, advocates and policy makers should be aware of this ineffective policy. PMID:22151884

  1. The so-called "Spanish model" - Tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Nick K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers' protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011. Methods Tobacco industry documents research triangulated against news and media reports. Results As an alternative to the successful implementation of 100% smoke-free policies, several European and Latin American countries introduced partial smoking bans based on the so-called "Spanish model", a legal framework widely advocated by parts of the hospitality industry with striking similarities to "accommodation programmes" promoted by the tobacco industry in the late 1990s. These developments started with the implementation of the Spanish tobacco control law (Ley 28/2005 in 2006 and have increased since then. Conclusion The Spanish experience demonstrates that partial smoking bans often resemble tobacco industry strategies and are used to spread a failed approach on international level. Researchers, advocates and policy makers should be aware of this ineffective policy.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Argentina: Specifications of ARGOS 380 MW Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    para el Licenciamiento de Instalaciones Nucleares. " Sistema de protec- ciön e instrumentaeiön relacionada con la seguridad " CNEA; Buenos Aires...adelantos en el campo de la seguridad nuclear. ABSTRACT This paper introduces the design of a nuclear power plant of 380 MWe, equipped with a pressure... de Energia Atömica; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Aso- sor para el Licenciamiento do Instalaciones Nucleares. "Criterios generales de seguridad en

  3. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Do you speak latin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2008-01-01

    En kronik om hvordan det faktisk var det forhold at Latin stivnede og dermed blev et "dødt" sprog, som gjorde det muligt at anvende det som et internationalt kommunikationsmedie, et middel til globalisering op gennem Europæisk historie. Udgivelsesdato: 4/4 2008......En kronik om hvordan det faktisk var det forhold at Latin stivnede og dermed blev et "dødt" sprog, som gjorde det muligt at anvende det som et internationalt kommunikationsmedie, et middel til globalisering op gennem Europæisk historie. Udgivelsesdato: 4/4 2008...

  5. Analysis of the BEV Technology Progress of America, Europe, Japan and Korea Based on Patent Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Huang; Yuanyuan, Hou; Jingyan, Zhou; Ru, Liu

    2018-02-01

    The paper analyzed the Battery Electric Vehicle patent application trend, major country distribution, main technology layout and patentee of America, Europe, Japan and Korea based on patent information from 2006 to 2016 by using patent map method, and visualized the Battery Electric Vehicle technology progress conditions of the four countries and regions in the last decade.

  6. Co-operation Agreement for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) which was opened for signature on 25 September 1998 and shall come into force after deposit of the instrument of ratification by ten Member States. It shall remain in force for ten years, and may be extended by periods of five years if the Member States so agree. By 15 september 1999, there were 14 Signatories to the above Agreement

  7. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  8. Energy technology roll-out for climate change mitigation: A multi-model study for Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Kober, Tom; Calderon, Silvia; Clarke, Leon; Daenzer, Katie; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Lucena, André F. P.; Octaviano, Claudia; Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be cost-optimal in the energy sector to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in the region. By way of sensitivity test we perform a cross-model comparison study and inspect whether robust conclusions can be drawn across results from different models as well as different types of models (general versus partial equilibrium). Given the abundance of biomass resources in Latin America, they play a large role in energy supply in all scenarios we inspect. This is especially true for stringent climate policy scenarios, for instance because the use of biomass in power plants in combination with CCS can yield negative CO2 emissions. We find that hydropower, which today contributes about 800 TWh to overall power production in Latin America, could be significantly expanded to meet the climate policies we investigate, typically by about 50%, but potentially by as much as 75%. According to all models, electricity generation increases exponentially with a two- to three-fold expansion between 2010 and 2050.Wefind that in our climate policy scenarios renewable energy overall expands typically at double-digit growth rates annually, but there is substantial spread in model results for specific options such as wind and solar power: the climate policies that we simulate raise wind power in 2050 on average to half the production level that hydropower provides today, while they raise solar power to either a substantially higher or a much lower level than hydropower supplies at present, depending on which model is used. Also for CCS we observe large diversity in model outcomes, which reflects the uncertainties with regard to its future implementation potential as a result of

  9. Do you speak latin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2008-01-01

    En kronik om hvordan det faktisk var det forhold at Latin stivnede og dermed blev et "dødt" sprog, som gjorde det muligt at anvende det som et internationalt kommunikationsmedie, et middel til globalisering op gennem Europæisk historie. Udgivelsesdato: 4/4 2008...

  10. Characterization of microflora in Latin-style cheeses by next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Tina S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cheese contamination can occur at numerous stages in the manufacturing process including the use of improperly pasteurized or raw milk. Of concern is the potential contamination by Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria that find the high moisture levels and moderate pH of popular Latin-style cheeses like queso fresco a hospitable environment. In the investigation of a foodborne outbreak, samples typically undergo enrichment in broth for 24 hours followed by selective agar plating to isolate bacterial colonies for confirmatory testing. The broth enrichment step may also enable background microflora to proliferate, which can confound subsequent analysis if not inhibited by effective broth or agar additives. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to provide a preliminary survey of bacterial species associated with three brands of Latin-style cheeses after 24-hour broth enrichment. Results Brand A showed a greater diversity than the other two cheese brands (Brands B and C at nearly every taxonomic level except phylum. Brand B showed the least diversity and was dominated by a single bacterial taxon, Exiguobacterium, not previously reported in cheese. This genus was also found in Brand C, although Lactococcus was prominent, an expected finding since this bacteria belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB commonly found in fermented foods. Conclusions The contrasting diversity observed in Latin-style cheese was surprising, demonstrating that despite similarity of cheese type, raw materials and cheese making conditions appear to play a critical role in the microflora composition of the final product. The high bacterial diversity associated with Brand A suggests it may have been prepared with raw materials of high bacterial diversity or influenced by the ecology of the processing environment. Additionally, the presence of Exiguobacterium in high proportions (96% in Brand B and, to a lesser extent, Brand C (46%, may

  11. The (European) HTR Technology Network (HTR-TN) and the development of HTR technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittner, D.; Bogusch, E.; Besson, D.; Verrier, D.; Buckthorpe, D.; Chauvet, V.; Futterer, M.; Van Heek, A.; Lansiart, S.; Phelip, M.; Von Lensa, W.; Pirson, J.

    2007-01-01

    HTR-TN (high temperature reactor - technology network) has been created in 2000 for building a coherent partnership for the development of HTR technology in Europe. For that purpose, HTR-TN elaborated a road-map for the emergence of a new generation of industrial HTRs. Through the fifth EURATOM Framework Programme (FP5), HTR-TN recovered the basis of past European HTR experience, addressed key feasibility issues for Generation IV high temperature systems and made significant advances in the fields of reactor physics (improved calculation methods), fuel (high quality fabrication and very high burn-up behaviour), waste management, qualification of materials for higher performance, component development and definition of safety approach for modular HTRs. In the sixth Framework Programme (FP6), a new integrated project, RAPHAEL, continues the technology developments addressed in FP5 and explores solutions for improving HTR performances towards higher temperatures (above 900 C degrees) and burn-up (up to 200 GWd/tHM): the VHTR objective. Moreover HTR-TN initiated other complementary actions in FP6. The RAPHAEL project has launched key experiments for HTR development: continuation of the graphite irradiation programme started in FP5 in HFR to higher fluences and temperature, test of a heat exchanger element in a helium loop (HE-FUS3, ENEA), irradiation of representative fuel coating material samples for modelling the evolution of their properties, fuel accident heat-up tests in the KUFA facility, integral air ingress tests (NACOK, FZJ), isotopic analysis of fuel irradiated to very high burn-up (170 GWd/tHM). The main motivation for developing a new generation of HTRs is their potential for providing high temperature heat for industrial processes. But coupling a nuclear reactor with an industrial process is very challenging. Therefore after developing base technologies for modular HTRs in FP5 and FP6, the future objective should be the demonstration of such a coupling by

  12. International water and sanitation technology transfers, experiences from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of transferring cost-effective, innovative water and wastewater technologies on public water markets are discussed based on experiences of the Dutch water business cluster in the Central and Eastern European Countries. These transfers evolved under suitable conditions, among others

  13. San Bernardino Cave (Italy and the appearance of Levallois technology in Europe: results of a radiometric and technological reassessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Picin

    Full Text Available The introduction of Levallois technology in Europe marked the transition from the Lower to the early Middle Paleolithic. This new method of flake production was accompanied by significant behavioral changes in hominin populations. The emergence of this technological advance is considered homogeneous in the European archaeological record at the Marine isotopic stage (MIS 9/MIS 8 boundary. In this paper we report a series of combined electron spin resonance/U-series dates on mammal bones and teeth recovered from the lower units of San Bernardino Cave (Italy and the technological analyses of the lithic assemblages. The San Bernardino Cave has yielded the earliest evidence of Levallois production on the Italian Peninsula recovered to date. In addition to our results and the review of the archaeological record, we describe the chronological and geographical differences between European territories and diversities in terms of technological developments. The belated emergence of Levallois technology in Italy compared to western Europe corresponds to the late Italian Neanderthal speciation event. The new radiometric dates and the technological analyses of San Bernardino Cave raise the issue of the different roles of glacial refugia in the peopling and the spread of innovative flaking strategies in Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene.

  14. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe : State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources

  15. Nuclear in Europe: waning appetites hinder new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear industry's failure to produce new types of fission reactors which prove reliable and cost-effective within timescales acceptable to governments and public utilities is, it is argued, behind the current waning interest in new technology research programs. Public funds are less readily available to finance new reactor design development programs and this trend is likely to continue. Examples are given of these trends in the United States of America, the United Kingdom, France and Germany. (UK)

  16. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  17. EuCARD 2010 Accelerator Technology in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    Accelerators are basic tools of the experimental physics of elementary particles, nuclear physics, light sources of the fourth generation. They are also used in myriad other applications in research, industry and medicine. For example, there are intensely developed transmutation techniques for nuclear waste from nuclear power and atomic industries. The European Union invests in the development of accelerator infrastructures inside the framework programs to build the European Research Area. The aim is to build new infrastructure, develop the existing, and generally make the infrastructure available to competent users. The paper summarizes the first year of activities of the EU FP7 Project Capacities EuCARD –European Coordination of Accelerator R&D. Several teams from this country participate actively in this project. The contribution from Polish research teams concerns: photonic and electronic measurement – control systems, RF-gun co-design, thin-film superconducting technology, superconducting transpo...

  18. ARCAL. Regional co-operative arrangements for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America, Phase I (1985-1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1990-09-01

    The Regional Co-operative Arrangement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America, ARCAL, has completed its first five-year phase (1985-1989). This booklet summarizes the first phase of the ARCAL programme and contains descriptions of projects in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry and energy

  19. Sustainable transport practices in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)

  20. Legal aspects of nuclear technology transfer in connection with Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldivar, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns technology and technology transfers which are becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially those in South America. The author also points out that developed countries have not implemented the United Nations resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge on advanced technologies. He stresses that if South American States wish to obtain assistance with nuclear technology from developed countries they should sign and ratify the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty. (NEA) [fr

  1. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe: State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources concerned groundwater, surface water, surface water with artificial recharge and river bank filtration. Treatment schemes concerned no treatment, conventional treatment, advanced treatment and convent...

  2. Assessment of clinical efficacy and safety in a randomized double-blind study of etanercept and sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from Eastern/Central Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Nemanja; Shehhi, Waleed Al; Huang, Feng; Kotak, Sameer; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Shirazy, Khalid; Bananis, Eustratios; Szumski, Annette; Llamado, Lyndon J Q; Mahgoub, Ehab

    2016-05-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of etanercept for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), sulfasalazine is often prescribed, especially in countries with limited access to biologic agents. The objective of this subset analysis of the ASCEND trial was to compare the efficacy of etanercept and sulfasalazine in treating patients with AS from Asia, Eastern/Central Europe, and Latin America. A total of 287 patients, 190 receiving etanercept 50 mg once weekly and 97 receiving sulfasalazine 3 g daily, from eight countries were included in this subset analysis. Differences in disease activity and patient-reported outcomes assessing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters in response to treatment were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical efficacy endpoints and analysis of covariance model for continuous variables. At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving etanercept achieved ASAS20 (79.0 %) compared with patients receiving sulfasalazine (61.9 %; p = 0.002). At week 16, treatment with etanercept also resulted in significantly better responses than sulfasalazine for ASAS40 (64.7 vs. 35.1 %; p Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Latin America.

  3. Factors Influencing the Use of Mobile Technologies in a University Environment: A Case from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Peter; Delgado, Carlos; Díaz, Esperanza; Garayar, Erik; Laguna, Hedda

    2013-01-01

    The use of mobile technologies in higher education seem to be lagging those in other service sectors, which have been quick to utilize the advantages that mobile communications have to offer. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), this study analyzes the range factors and the level of influence on undergraduate intention to use a proposed…

  4. ANALYSIS OF DUPLICATION AND TIMING OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS ON MEDICAL DEVICES IN EUROPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlik, Katharina; Rummel, Patrick; Wild, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Strengthening efforts toward better collaboration plays a pivotal role in the assessment of medical devices to reduce overlap and save resources. This study explored the level of duplication in health technology assessments (HTA) of medical devices in Europe and their respective timing in order to identify areas for better collaboration. An analysis of European HTA reports of medical devices regarding overlaps in topics and timing in relation to market authorization was performed. We conducted a systematic search in the ADVANCE, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Syngerus, and POP databases, complemented by hand searching, to identify HTA reports published between 01/2003 and 07/2016 for a preselected cohort group of ten technologies. We analyzed the number of annual assessments per technology and evaluated activity patterns and timing in undertaking the HTA of the different institutes in Europe. The results revealed the amount of duplication in the European HTA production: the number of reports per technology ranged from minimum seven to maximum twenty-two over a time-span of 13.5 years. HTA institutes perform assessments at a similar time range within 5 to 10 years following market authorization. The timing of the initial assessment in relation to the granting of the CE-mark varies according to the particular technology. The findings suggest that efficient collaboration may help to save scarce resources and time of HTA institutes in Europe. Efficient collaboration as such needs to shift the focus beyond the time span of 1 year, and build on each's others work from previous assessments.

  5. Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Serrhini, Mohammed; Felgueiras, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This book contains a selection of articles from The Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016 (EMENA-TSSL'16), held between the 3th and 5th of October at Saidia, Oujda, Morocco. EMENA-TSSL'16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent results and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges in Information & Communication Technologies, and Security to support Learning. The main topics covered are: A) Online Education; B) Emerging Technologies in Education; C) Artificial Intelligence in Education; D) Gamification and Serious games; E) Network & Web Technologies Applications; F) Online experimentation and Virtual Laboratories; G) Multimedia Systems and Applications; H) Security and Privacy; I) Multimedia, Computer Vision and Image Processing; J) Cloud, Big Data Analytics and Applications; K) Human-Computer Interaction; L) Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; M) Onli...

  6. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2012: results generated from European registers by ESHREaEuro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calhaz-Jorge, C.; De Geyter, C.; Kupka, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    1997, ART data in Europe have been collected and re-ported in 15 manuscripts, published in Human Reproduction. Retrospective data collection of European ART data by the EIM Consortium for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Data for cycles between 1 January and 31......The 16th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the data of the treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) initiated in Europe during 2012: are there any changes compared with previous years? Despite some fluctuations in the number...... of countries reporting data, the overall number of ART cycles has continued to increase year by year, the pregnancy rates (PRs) in 2012 remained stable compared with those reported in 2011, and the number of transfers with multiple embryos (3+) and the multiple delivery rates were lower than ever before. Since...

  7. How may CCS technology affect the electricity market in North-Western Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Groenenberg, H.

    2008-11-01

    The EU electricity market is changing. Electricity demand in Europe is on the rise, the power plant fleet is aging, and a large share of the capacity will need to be replaced in the coming decades. An ambitious target has been formulated for the share of renewable energy, and CO2 prices are anticipated to increase. On top of this, CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) has appeared as an important technology in the transition to a long term sustainable energy supply. This paper discusses the implications of all the fore-mentioned developments for the EU electricity market, with an emphasis on the Northwest European market. On the whole, electricity prices in the Northwestern part of Europe are anticipated to increase until 2020, but this may only partly be ascribed to the pending introduction of CCS

  8. The Deployment of Low Carbon Technologies in Energy Intensive Industries: A Macroeconomic Analysis for Europe, China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nabernegg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes currently contribute 40% to global CO2 emissions and therefore substantial increases in industrial energy efficiency are required for reaching the 2 °C target. We assess the macroeconomic effects of deploying low carbon technologies in six energy intensive industrial sectors (Petroleum, Iron and Steel, Non-metallic Minerals, Paper and Pulp, Chemicals, and Electricity in Europe, China and India in 2030. By combining the GAINS technology model with a macroeconomic computable general equilibrium model, we find that output in energy intensive industries declines in Europe by 6% in total, while output increases in China by 11% and in India by 13%. The opposite output effects emerge because low carbon technologies lead to cost savings in China and India but not in Europe. Consequently, the competitiveness of energy intensive industries is improved in China and India relative to Europe, leading to higher exports to Europe. In all regions, the decarbonization of electricity plays the dominant role for mitigation. We find a rebound effect in China and India, in the size of 42% and 34% CO2 reduction, respectively, but not in Europe. Our results indicate that the range of considered low-carbon technology options is not competitive in the European industrial sectors. To foster breakthrough low carbon technologies and maintain industrial competitiveness, targeted technology policy is therefore needed to supplement carbon pricing.

  9. Technology assessment and technology policy in Europe : New concepts, new goals, new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Leyten, J.; Hertog, P. den

    1995-01-01

    Starting from the observation that the technological potentials are underutilized in economic and in social tems, this article raises the question of what role technology assessment (TA) can play in technology policy to address this problem. The causes of the problem of underutilization are analyzed

  10. Broadband Optical Access Technologies to Converge towards a Broadband Society in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudreuse, Jean-Pierre; Pautonnier, Sophie; Lavillonnière, Eric; Didierjean, Sylvain; Hilt, Benoît; Kida, Toshimichi; Oshima, Kazuyoshi

    This paper provides insights on the status of broadband optical access market and technologies in Europe and on the expected trends for the next generation optical access networks. The final target for most operators, cities or any other player is of course FTTH (Fibre To The Home) deployment although we can expect intermediate steps with copper or wireless technologies. Among the two candidate architectures for FTTH, PON (Passive Optical Network) is by far the most attractive and cost effective solution. We also demonstrate that Ethernet based optical access network is very adequate to all-IP networks without any incidence on the level of quality of service. Finally, we provide feedback from a FTTH pilot network in Colmar (France) based on Gigabit Ethernet PON technology. The interest of this pilot lies on the level of functionality required for broadband optical access networks but also on the development of new home network configurations.

  11. Search engine imaginary: Visions and values in the co-production of search technology and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the co-production of search technology and a European identity in the context of the EU data protection reform. The negotiations of the EU data protection legislation ran from 2012 until 2015 and resulted in a unified data protection legislation directly binding for all European member states. I employ a discourse analysis to examine EU policy documents and Austrian media materials related to the reform process. Using the concept 'sociotechnical imaginary', I show how a European imaginary of search engines is forming in the EU policy domain, how a European identity is constructed in the envisioned politics of control, and how national specificities contribute to the making and unmaking of a European identity. I discuss the roles that national technopolitical identities play in shaping both search technology and Europe, taking as an example Austria, a small country with a long history in data protection and a tradition of restrained technology politics.

  12. Transformation towards a Renewable Energy System in Brazil and Mexico—Technological and Structural Options for Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Simon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Newly industrialized countries face major challenges to comply with the Paris Treaty targets as economic growth and prosperity lead to increasing energy demand. Our paper analyses technological and structural options in terms of energy efficiency and renewable energies for a massive reduction of energy-related CO2 emissions in Latin America. Brazil and Mexico share similar growth prospects but differ significantly with respect to renewable energy potentials. We identify, how this leads to different transformation pathways. By applying an energy system balancing model we develop normative energy system transformation scenarios across the heating, power, and mobility sectors, including their potential interactions. The normative scenarios rely on three basic strategies for both countries: (1 strong exploitation of efficiency potentials; (2 tapping the renewable energy potentials; and (3 sector coupling and electrification of heat supply and transport. Despite economic growth, significant CO2 emission reductions could be achieved in Brazil from 440 Gt/a (2.2 t/cap in 2012 to 0.4 Gt (2 kg/cap in 2050 and in Mexico from 400 Gt/a (3.3 t/cap to 80 Gt (0.5 t/cap. Our study shows the gap between existing policy and scenarios and our strategies, which provide an economically feasible way to comply with the Paris treaty targets.

  13. Electron beam accelerators—trends in radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parejo Calvo, Wilson A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Kodama, Yasko; Silva, Leonardo Gondim A.; Pino, Eddy S.; Somessari, Elizabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean and particularly in Brazil there are 24 and 16 industrial electron beam accelerators (EBA) respectively with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1500 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major needs and end-use markets for these electron beam (EB) units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, PE foams, tires, components, semiconductors and multilayer packaging films. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean are paints, adhesives and coatings cure in order to eliminate VOCs and for less energy use than thermal process; disinfestations of seeds; and films and multilayer packaging irradiation. For low-energy EBA (from 150 keV to 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (from 300 keV to 5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO 2 and NO X removal); composite and nanocomposite materials; biodegradable composites based on biorenewable resources; human tissue sterilization; carbon and silicon carbide fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; electrocatalysts nanoparticles production; and natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (from 5 MeV to 10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; soil disinfestations; lignocellulosic material irradiation as a pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; solid residues remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; and

  14. Electron beam accelerators—trends in radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Calvo, Wilson A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Kodama, Yasko; Silva, Leonardo Gondim A.; Pino, Eddy S.; Somessari, Elizabeth S. R.; Silveira, Carlos G.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2012-08-01

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean and particularly in Brazil there are 24 and 16 industrial electron beam accelerators (EBA) respectively with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1500 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major needs and end-use markets for these electron beam (EB) units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, PE foams, tires, components, semiconductors and multilayer packaging films. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean are paints, adhesives and coatings cure in order to eliminate VOCs and for less energy use than thermal process; disinfestations of seeds; and films and multilayer packaging irradiation. For low-energy EBA (from 150 keV to 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (from 300 keV to 5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO2 and NOX removal); composite and nanocomposite materials; biodegradable composites based on biorenewable resources; human tissue sterilization; carbon and silicon carbide fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; electrocatalysts nanoparticles production; and natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (from 5 MeV to 10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; soil disinfestations; lignocellulosic material irradiation as a pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; solid residues remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; and

  15. Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  16. Latin Squares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    2012-09-07

    Sep 7, 2012 ... sheets of transparency and place the second transparency on top of the first. Keep the top one a little to the right of the bottom transparency, so that the Greek letters are not covered by their Latin counterparts. Then we see an array as shown in Figure 4 (obtained by `superposing' the two Latin squares).

  17. At the occasion of 10th anniversary of the 3-week CERN High School Teacher Programme, the Director General and two guests of honour - Maria and Giuseppe Fidecaro - joined the 37 teachers from Europe, US, Latin America and Asia for a group photo.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    At the occasion of 10th anniversary of the 3-week CERN High School Teacher Programme, the Director General and two guests of honour - Maria and Giuseppe Fidecaro - joined the 37 teachers from Europe, US, Latin America and Asia for a group photo.

  18. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  19. Central Bank autonomy in Europe and Latin America: analysis of differences and applications Autonomía de la banca central en Europa y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollinat Robert

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a comparative analysis of the experiences of the independent central bank in Latin America and Europe. After reviewing the problems and theories of central bank autonomy, it studies the recent evolution of the Latin American central bank in comparison with the European central bank, high lights the perverse effects of the reforms, and shows that their objective is more the stability of the financial system than the stability of prices. Finally, it describes the tests to which the new Latin American central banks have been subjected and the effects on their credibility. It concludes that these entities have had to correct and pay for the incoherences and errors of the market, and that their independence or autonomy depends on their continuing to ful fill this role, not only for economíc or monetary reasons but for the needs of political and social democracy.Este artículo hace un análisis comparativo de las experiencias de la banca central independiente en América Latina y Europa. Después de revisar los problemas y las teorías de la autonompia de los bancos centrales, estudia la reciente evolución de la banca central latinoamericana en comparación con la europea, destaca los efectos perversos de estas reformas u muestra que sus objetivo es más la estabilidad del sistema financiero que la de los precios. Finalmente, describe las pruebas a que han sido sometidos los nuevos bancos centrales latinomaericanos y los efectos de sus credibilidad. Concluye que estas entidades han tenido que corregir y pagar las incoherencias y los errrores del mercado, y que su 'independencia' o autonomía depende de que sigan cumpliendo con ese papel no sólo por razones económicas o monetarias sino por las necesidades de la democracia política y social.

  20. Latin and Cross Latin Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanouilidis, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of…

  1. Implications of technological learning on the prospects for renewable energy technologies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, Martine A.; Junginger, Martin; Vries, Hage J. de; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Turkenburg, Wim C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the consequences of technological developments on the market diffusion of different renewable electricity technologies in the EU-25 until 2020, using a market simulation model (ADMIRE REBUS). It is assumed that from 2012 a harmonized trading system will be implemented, and a target of 24% renewable electricity (RES-E) in 2020 is set and met. By comparing optimistic and pessimistic endogenous technological learning scenarios, it is found that diffusion of onshore wind energy is relatively robust, regardless of technological development, but diffusion rates of offshore wind energy and biomass gasification greatly depend on their technological development. Competition between these two options and (existing) biomass combustion options largely determines the overall costs of electricity from renewables and the choice of technologies for the individual member countries. In the optimistic scenario, in 2020 the market price for RES-E is 1 Euro ct/kWh lower than in the pessimistic scenario (about 7 vs. 8 Euro ct/kWh). As a result, total RES-E production costs are 19% lower, and total governmental expenditures for RES-market stimulation are 30% lower in the optimistic scenario

  2. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-15

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982.

  3. The implications of technological learning on the prospects of specific renewable energy technologies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Vries, H.J.; Junginger, H.M.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this chapter is to examine the impact of technological learning on the diffusion of specific renewable energy technologies into the electricity market of the EU-25 until 2020, using a market simulation model (ADMIRE REBUS). It is assumed that from 2012 a harmonized trading system for renewable energy certificates will be implemented. Also it is assumed that a target of 24% renewable electricity (RES-E) in 2020 is set and met. By comparing optimistic and pessimistic endogenous technological learning scenarios, it is found that the diffusion of onshore wind energy into the market is relatively robust, regardless of technological development. However the diffusion rates of offshore wind energy and biomass gasification greatly depend on their technological development. Competition between these two options and already existing biomass combustion options largely determines the overall costs of electricity from renewables and the choice of technologies for the individual member countries. In the optimistic learning scenario, in 2020 the market price for RES-E is 1 euroct/kWh lower than in the pessimistic scenario (about 7 vs. 8 euroct/kWh). As a result, the total expenditures for RES-E market stimulation are 30% lower in the optimistic scenario. For comparison, instead of introducing a harmonized trading system, also continuation of present policies to support renewables was evaluated, assuming that the member states of the EU can fulfil their ambition levels only by exploiting their domestic renewable energy potentials (i.e. exclusion of international trade). This would require many member states to use their offshore wind potential, making the diffusion of offshore wind much less dependent on both the rate of technological learning and competition from biomass options, compared to the harmonization policy scenario

  4. A Firm Level Study of Information Technology Productivity in Europe Using Financial and Market Based Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Peslak

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years, business has invested significant resources in information technology, hardware, software, and manpower. The Productivity Paradox is the seeming lack of productivity gains despite the increased investment in IT. For many years the existence of a Productivity Paradox has been the subject of research interest. Conflicting results have been obtained from a variety of data sets. Until this time however there has been no study that has investigated European companies’ use of information technology and its impact on productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate information technology productivity with a new data set from a European published source, and measuring productivity using both market and financial based measures. Results of the study indicated that information technology did have a consistent positive impact on firm level productivity in Europe for the years 1996, 1997, and 1998. Both market and financial based productivity measures provided consistent positive significant returns with regard to IT productivity. The major contribution of the study is that it provides an analysis of the impact of European information technology on firm and economic productivity.

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Brazil: Selections from the 1987 Federal S&T Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-24

    Rondonia 81 . University Foundation of Rio de Janeiro 81 . University Foundation of Amazonas 82 (*) Supervised entity of the Presidency of the...cooperation 494 Social security for public servants 040 Planning and budgeting 078 Agricultural mechanization 292 Geological surveys 562 River and lake... River and lake ports and terminals 1.647 Studies and projects on internal routes 563 Maritime ports and terminals 1.670 Studies and projects for

  6. What kind of information and communication technologies do patients with COPD prefer to use? A cross-sectional study in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrez Ojeda, Ivan; Calderon, J C; Jove, O López; Guerreros, A; Plaza, Karin J; Cano, Jose A; Vanegas, E; Felix, M; Mata, V; Calero, E; Cherrez, A; Simancas-Racines, D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of uses and preferences of information and communication technologies (ICTs) among Latin American chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey study on Latin American COPD patients. The adapted version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in eligible outpatients in different cities of Latin America. We categorized age and educational levels into three groups. The time passed since COPD diagnosis was categorized as ≤5 years and >5 years. χ 2 and crude and adjusted logistic regressions were performed. A total of 256 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 68.7 years old. The most recurrently used ICTs were short message service (SMS; 47.1%) and WhatsApp (30.7%) for receiving COPD information. Moreover, SMS (85.8%) and Facebook (36.1%) were rated as useful for asking physicians information about COPD. Regression analysis showed that the best predictor for patients using ICTs, for any purpose, was higher education (undergraduate or graduate school). Understanding the preferences of ICTs among COPD patients could help improve patient's outcomes through developing applications in response to specific requirements of each patient.

  7. Europe; Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-15

    Three articles are gathered in this data sheet whose titles are 1)the key issues for the LPG industry in Brussels 2)Lisbon welcomes the LPG industry 3)Lisbon: overview of the exhibition. Today, 75% of national laws have their origin in the European Union's laws. Thus, the LPG industry has to intervene at the institutional triangle - the Commission, the Council and the Parliament - to protect its interests. This must be done through a modern, efficient and balanced lobbying strategy. This was underlined at the Lisbon AEGPL Conference by Vicky Marissen (Clan Public Affairs, Brussels) and by Patrick Segarra (Managing Director of AEGPL). Here are published some excerpts of their presentation. The 2005 AEGPL Congress, held in Lisbon from 25 to 27 May, was a great moment for the LPG industry in Europe in terms of the level of interest of the talks, the diversity of the products on view at the Exhibition and the number of participants. (authors)

  8. Learning Environments with Technological Resources: A Look at Their Contribution to Student Performance in Latin American Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marcela Roman; Torrecilla, F. Javier Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that computer access and use has a positive effect on the performance reached by Latin American schoolchildren in sixth grade. This is supported by Multilevel models of 4 and 3 levels with data from the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study, developed by UNESCO (2008) in 16 countries and analyzing around 3,000 schools,…

  9. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes", "no", or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited.Conclusion: Centralized reimbursement systems have become an important policy tool in many European countries. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of transparency around critical elements, such as how multiple factors or criteria are weighed during committee deliberations.Keywords: reimbursement, centralized review, health technologies, Europe

  11. Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…

  12. Current status of nucleonic gauge applications in Brazil and the needs for the technology in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Brazil is actually the only country in Latin America that design and manufacture nucleonic gauges in industrial scale for internal market and export. There are some local companies that manufacture or assemble simple first generation nucleonic gauges for density, level and thickness gauges for pulp and paper industry, metallurgy and mineral ore processing and beverage packaging. There is apparently a market saturation due to economic crisis, public concern and licence procedures. (author)

  13. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  14. Oil investment in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1990s Latin America became a favoured target for foreign investors as one of the side-effects of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The reason is linked to macroeconomic reforms in Latin America and the failure of equivalent reforms in the former communist countries. Latin American state-owned-oil companies have been welcomed as borrowers on the international financial markets. Simultaneously private sector investment in the oil industry has increased. This chapter examines nationalisation and the state oil companies, the financing of the state sector, privatisation, the boosting of oil exploration and security issues. The sustainability of the economic reforms in the region is discussed. (UK)

  15. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labry Lima, Antonio Olry; Mochon, Leticia García; Martínez, Araceli Caro; Ruiz, Eva Martín; Balbino, Jaime Espin

    2016-02-01

    To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance.

  16. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  17. La Coopération Scientifique et Technologique en Europe occidentale. 1ère Partie Scientific and Technological Cooperation in Western Europe. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exemple de la puissance américaine pendant et après le dernier conflit mondial a montré aux nations de l'Europe occidentale que leur développement économique dépendait étroitement de leur aptitude à la recherche scientifique et à l'innovation technologique. Devant la nécessité vitale d'élaborer une politique de la science et l'impossibilité de concurrencer individuellement les États-Unis sur l'ensemble du front, elles se sont progressivement engagées vers une collaboration de plus en plus réfléchie dans le domaine scientifique et technologique. Dans le même temps les grands organismes internationaux à vocation politique, économique ou militaire (ONU, OCDE, OTAN... créés après la guerre ont été aussi amenés à se préoccuper des problèmes de la science avant que ceux ci ne fassent l'objet d'une politique délibérée de coopération sous l'égide des Communautés européennes.Nous allons essayer. de faire le point sur toutes ces questions en exposant dans les différents chapitres I. La notion de politique de la science et son évolution dans le monde occidental. II. Les organismes internationaux impliqués dans une coopération scientifique et technologique en Europe occidentale. III et IV. Les résultats (scientifiques puis technologiques de cette coopération en dehors des grands organismes internationaux. V. Les actions menées dans le cadre de ces organismes. VI. La politique de coopération entreprise au sein des Communautés européennes. VII. La coopération européenne en matière d'énergie. The exemple of U.S. power during and after the last World War showed the countries in Western Europe that their economic development was closely linked to their capocity for scientific research and technological innovation. Faced with the vital need to draw up a science policy and the impossibilty of individually rivaling the United States in all areas, they gradually moved toward more and more deliberate coopération in

  18. ‘Towards a Latin Europe’: Vers une Europe Latine: Acteurs et enjeux des échanges culturels entre la France et l’Italie fasciste, Catherine Fraixe, Lucia Piccioni and Christophe Poupault, eds., Brussels: P.I.E. Lang, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Golan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years between the wars, Republican France and Fascist Italy vied for international regard as the foremost “Latin” nation. The fourteen essays in this book examine a network of people whose activities were characterized by the various declensions of a few key terms: Latinité/Latinità, Romanité/Romanità, and Méditerranéanisme/Mediterraneità —concepts that combined a European transnationalism with enhanced nationalism. As different as their political regimes might have been, France and Italy were nations were culture was first and foremost an affair of State. For those French diplomats and cultural officials on the Right who mistrusted the messiness of the democratic parliamentary system and were haunted by a fear of their nation’s cultural decadence and its alleged subjugation to the North, “Latin” fascism became a beacon. Roughly half of the essays in the book retrace however the fortunes of individual Francophile Italians living in Paris whose activities contributed to promoting and thus legitimizing the art and literature produced under the Fascist regime. Vers une Europe Latine offer a model of interdisciplinary research in rewriting the historiography of a particularly troubled period.

  19. Parlamentos supranacionais na Europa e na América Latina: entre o fortalecimento e a irrelevância Regional parliaments in Europe and Latin America: between empowerment and irrelevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Malamud

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nenhum processo de integração regional está isento de críticas sobre o seu alegado déficit democrático e/ou institucional. A razão destes déficits é, freqüentemente, apontada como uma conseqüência da escassa accountability e da falta de transparência dos sistemas de decisão em nível regional. Os diferentes blocos regionais têm tentado responder a um ou ambos dos déficits em causa, mediante uma variedade de métodos e opções institucionais. A mais visível das fórmulas aplicadas é a criação e fortalecimento de um Parlamento regional - ou seja, supranacional. Este artigo pretende analisar, comparativamente, cinco Parlamentos regionais na Europa e na América Latina - o Parlamento Europeu, o Parlamento Latino-Americano, o Parlamento Centro-Americano, o Parlamento Andino e a Comissão Parlamentar Conjunta do Mercosul - com o objetivo de compreender o impacto que estas instituições têm tido no âmbito da representação regional, dos processos de decisão e do fortalecimento da accountability. As conclusões sugerem cinco fatores que os autores consideram pertinentes para a explicação das diferenças verificadas entre as duas regiões transatlânticas.Virtually no process of regional integration has been safe from the criticism of allegedly suffering from either democratic deficit, institutional deficit or both. These deficits, the argument goes, are the consequence of scarce accountability and the lack of transparency in regional decision-making. Different regional blocs have attempted in a variety of ways to confront one or both of these deficits, the most visible of which is the creation and empowerment of a regional parliament. This paper presents a comparative analysis of five of these institutions in Europe and Latin America - i.e. the European Parliament, the Latin American Parliament, the Central American Parliament, the Andean Parliament, and the Joint Parliamentary Commission of Mercosur - with the aim of

  20. The recent situation of technology exchange in Europe: On-the spot study on movement toward integration of EC market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Jun'ichi; Hyoki, Yasuyoshi

    The political and economic environment of EC has been changing drastically aiming at the EC market integration in 1992. Economy in EC has been stagnant among free economy world covering U.S., Japan and Europe, which is due to lag in the structural adjustment as well as decline in international competitive ability. EC recognizes that development of science and technology of which core is highly advanced technology is driving force for activating economy within the Community. This is the first motivation for EC to take one step forward toward the market integration. Such EC's determination is reflected in pushing forward conception of European technological community represented by EUREKA Project. Products Exhibitions, Science and Technology Trade Fairs and so on, which are held in EC countries, emphasize "Europe characterized by Technology" being conscious of the market integration three and a half years ahead. EC is also eager to construct database networks both inside and outside the Community to catch up with the progress in technology.

  1. Network support for e-Science in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, M.; Macahdo, I.; Faerman, M.; Moura, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Computer networks in Latin America have connected scientists in the region to their peers in other parts of the world since 1986. Starting with the creation of Internet2 in 1996, a new global research network has been extended throughout the world, providing communications infrastructure for large-scale international scientific collaboration. With the creation of the RedCLARA network and its links to Europe and the US between 2004 and 2005, this global network reached the majority of Latin America countries, setting the stage for much closer collaboration between scientists in Latin America and their counterparts in other countries. In this article we describe the development of the research networking infrastructure currently available within the region together with its inter-regional connections, and how this infrastructure is being used for support of e-science. Particular attention is given to the role of the national research and education networks (NRENs) in the region, and of their association, CLARA, in providing networking support for e-science projects. CLARA and Latin American NRENs are active partners in the EU-supported EELA and RINGrid projects, and also are making significant supporting contributions to the success of other international projects with Latin American partners, in fields such as High-Energy Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Geodesy, to single out the early adopters of advanced networking technologies. These contributions are described in the article. The article concludes describing future trends in networking infrastructure in the region, in order to meet foreseeable demands for e-science support. These include the widespread adoption of optical networking and support for grid-based applications, as well as the provisioning of significantly higher international bandwidth to meet the declared needs for international collaboration in a number of fields including those mentioned above. (Author)

  2. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2006: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2010-01-01

    In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers.......In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers....

  3. The emergence of clean coal technologies: will Europe recognize when to give the necessary momentum in time?; Emergence des technologies de charbon propre: l'Europe saura-t-elle donner a temps l'impulsion necessaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, N.; Thais; Tese, I. [CEA Saclay, Institut de Technico-Economie des Systemes Energetiques, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-15

    Well placed from the economical and strategic point of view, coal is called upon to develop considerably in the 21. century in Asia of course, but also in North America and Europe. And yet coal burning is responsible for the emission of a significant amount of greenhouse gases. So, what can we do to take into account the climatic constraints that impose lowering our greenhouse gas emissions? Is a technological outcome conceivable in taking up this challenge? The member states and industrialists have combined their efforts n order to try to provide solutions, which would occur through the development of clean coal technologies. Among the main directions, one idea includes increasing the productivity of power stations. Another, much more recent idea deals with the capturing and storing of CO{sub 2} produce (CCS). It's a very ambitious route, lined with numerous obstacles of different natures, which will not be able to be overcome without the appropriate political impetus, particularly on a European level. One condition necessary for this implementation by clean coal technology industrialists is their competitiveness. Europe is trying to promote a European market for CO{sub 2} which is an incentive or investment in clean energy sources. Regarding CCS, competitiveness also depends on technological advances, as at present, besides the additional investment in the retention unit, this technology has lead to a heavily punishing loss of efficiency. A further condition is the existence of an appropriate legal framework with a set of rules that are favourable to its deployment. Europe is working on it: a directive on the subject has just been adopted in the Climate Change package. Finally, it is necessary to count on social acceptability in order to be able to create the necessary storage sites. Due to all these elements, experts are counting on an industrial development of CCS technologies by at least 2020. Before this, with the recently voted implementation of the

  4. Taking Aim at Asthma Around the World: Global Results of the Asthma Insight and Management Survey in the Asia-Pacific Region, Latin America, Europe, Canada, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A; Thompson, Philip J; Price, David; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Salvi, Sundeep; González-Díaz, Sandra; Maspero, Jorge F; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E; Murphy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a worldwide health problem, can be controlled if properly diagnosed and managed. Multinational surveys conducted in patients with asthma from 1998 to 2003 indicated that asthma was inadequately controlled. The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) study represents the largest survey conducted on patients with asthma since 2003. The objective of this study was to assess findings from the United States (US), Europe and Canada (EUCAN), Latin America (LA), and the Asia-Pacific (AP) region surveys to identify differences and similarities with earlier surveys on patients with asthma. The US, EUCAN, LA, and AP AIM surveys conducted from 2009 to 2011 all used a common set of questions. Responses to these are reported as proportions of patients with asthma for each country individually, and as totals for all regions. Results are presented as mean/median proportions for US, EUCAN, LA, and AP survey populations individually. Global medians and the range of regional response values are also described. A total of 10,302 patients or parents of adolescents with asthma were interviewed. Approximately one-quarter reported daytime symptoms daily or on most days over the previous 4 weeks. Globally, a median of 67% (range, 27%-88%) of patients perceived their asthma as completely and/or well controlled, but a median of only 9% (range, 0%-29%) of patients had well-controlled asthma using criteria from asthma guidelines. A majority (≥60%) of patients felt that quick-relief medication could be used daily if needed, contrary to guideline recommendations. Patients exhibited a lack of knowledge and conviction for treatment recommendations and guidelines that was relatively uniform across the regions, similar to earlier survey findings. These results reveal an ongoing need for improvement in asthma care and education in most populations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantesso-Neto, V.; Mansur, K.; López, R.; Schilling, M.; Ramos, V.

    2010-01-01

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  6. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  7. Stories From the Field: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies to Address the Health Needs of Underserved Populations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba, Gladys; Julian, Soroya; Mejía, Felipe; Cabieses, Báltica; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Cortinois, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Background As their availability grew exponentially in the last 20 years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health has been widely espoused, with many emphasizing their potential to decrease health inequities. Nonetheless, there is scarce availability of information regarding ICT as tools to further equity in health, specifically in Latin American and Caribbean settings. Objective Our aim was to identify initiatives that used ICT to address the health needs of underserved populations in Latin America and Caribbean. Among these projects, explore the rationale behind the selection of ICT as a key component, probe perceptions regarding contributions to health equity, and describe the challenges faced during implementation. Methods We conducted an exploratory qualitative study. Interviews were completed via Skype or face-to-face meetings using a semistructured interview guide. Following participant consent, interviews were audio recorded and verbatim transcriptions were developed. All transcriptions were coded using ATLASti7 software. The text was analyzed for patterns, shared themes, and diverging opinions. Emerging findings were reviewed by all interviewers and shared with participants for feedback. Results We interviewed representatives from eight organizations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries that prominently employed ICT in health communication, advocacy, or surveillance projects. ICT expanded project's geographic coverage, increased their reach into marginalized or hard-to-reach groups, and allowed real-time data collection. Perceptions of contributions to health equity resided mainly in the provision of health information and linkage to health services to members of groups experiencing greater morbidity because of poverty, remote place of residence, lack of relevant public programs, and/or stigma and discrimination, and in more timely responses by authorities to the health needs of these groups as a result of the

  8. Organ donation in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I; Palacios, R I; Fajardo, C; Berrios, C; Morales, F; Luna, E; Milanés, C; Andrade, M; Duque, E; Giron, F; Alfonso, J; Herra, S; Soratti, C; Ibar, R; Garcia, V D

    2007-03-01

    Recently in Latin America, there has been a strong influence of the "Spanish model" of organ procurement. In 2001, The "Punta Cana Group" was created by Latin American transplantation coordinators with the objective of registering and improving the system of donation and procurement. In many countries there is no universal financial support from the government for medical treatment, including dialysis and transplantation. In other countries there is complete financial support for all of the population, including immunosuppressive drugs. Practically all countries have transplantation laws that follow ethical concepts, such as brain death diagnosis criteria, forms of consent, criteria of allocation, and inhibition of commerce. The rate of potential donors notified in countries that perform transplantations with deceased donors varied from 6 to 47 per million population yearly (pmp/y); The rate of effective donors varied from 1 to 20 pmp. In 2004, the mean rate of effective donors in Latin America was 5.4 pmp. The family refusal rate for the donation of organs varied from 28% in Uruguay to 70% in Peru. In some countries, such as Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Cuba, it was more than 15 pmp, whereas in others countries deceased donors were practically not used. The number of patients on the waiting list for solid organ transplants in 12 Latin American countries is 55,000. Although the donation rate has increased by 100% during the last 10 years, it is lower than that in Europe (15 pmm/y) or the United States (20 pmp/y).

  9. Where can cone penetrometer technology be applied? Development of a map of Europe regarding the soil penetrability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Matthias; van Ree, Derk; Leven, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant efforts have been invested in the development of push-in technology for site characterization and monitoring for geotechnical and environmental purposes and have especially been undertaken in the Netherlands and Germany. These technologies provide the opportunity for faster, cheaper, and collection of more reliable subsurface data. However, to maximize the technology both from a development and implementation point of view, it is necessary to have an overview of the areas suitable for the application of this type of technology. Such an overview is missing and cannot simply be read from existing maps and material. This paper describes the development of a map showing the feasibility or applicability of Direct Push/Cone Penetrometer Technology (DPT/CPT) in Europe which depends on the subsurface and its extremely varying properties throughout Europe. Subsurface penetrability is dependent on a range of factors that have not been mapped directly or can easily be inferred from existing databases, especially the maximum depth reachable would be of interest. Among others, it mainly depends on the geology, the soil mechanical properties, the type of equipment used as well as soil-forming processes. This study starts by looking at different geological databases available at the European scale. Next, a scheme has been developed linking geological properties mapped to geotechnical properties to determine basic penetrability categories. From this, a map of soil penetrability is developed and presented. Validating the output by performing field tests was beyond the scope of this study, but for the country of the Netherlands, this map has been compared against a database containing actual cone penetrometer depth data to look for possible contradictory results that would negate the approach. The map for the largest part of Europe clearly shows that there is a much wider potential for the application of Direct Push Technology than is currently

  10. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goossens, V.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated during 2004 are presented in this eighth report. METHODS: Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. From 29 countries, 785 clinics reported 367,066 treatment cycles including: IVF (114......: Compared with earlier years, the reported number of ART cycles in Europe increased and the pregnancy rates increased marginally, even though fewer embryos were transferred and the multiple delivery rates were reduced Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AS AN STRATEGY OF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LATIN AMERICAN CONTEXT: AN APROACHMENT To The VENEZUELAN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Piñeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The new world order demands transdiscipline in the technological scientist advances and the development of countries framed in a holistic vision and strategic approach, able to generate a process with multidirectional character which considers varied participation and from important actors of the communities in the design on strategies for the local development. Is all about assuming new rolls of local public politics. The Municipal Public Power Organic Law (2005, on its 112 article, establishes that inside the functions of the Local Advice of Local Publish Planning, including parochial and communal advices, they are constituted in the main center for the participation and protagonism of the people in the formulation, execution, control and evaluation in the public politics. This it is a new state of local government where scientist, technological, productive and community predominate. In this investigation a descriptive-documentary methodological approach is being followed, referring to the technological management topics and local development specifically Latinoamerica and Venezuela. This work has the objective to give systematized information and some teorical reflections on the local development by the technological management. Finally, we can see it is very low the importance that the technological scientific issue has been taken by the government for the local development, as like the perception on local management like lender of services, adding to this situation the strong inertia of the old styles of local politics, associated to the clientelism, that are limitants as well factors of the own development of the localities.

  12. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar: best practice in climate technology and energy efficiency in central and eastern Europe. Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, P. [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The Capacity Building Seminar on 'Best Practice in Climate Technology and Energy Efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe', held 6-10 December 1999 in Marienthal/Ostritz in Germany, was a very successful event in the framework of the CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (CTI). One reason for that is that the seminar allowed delegates from 22 nations, from Kazakhstan to Estonia, come together for an exchange of opinions about 'Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection' and all related issues. A reason is that this seminar provided an excellent starting point for future networking in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia. The colleagues who got to know each other at the seminar will meet again in future workshops and seminars. They can now contact a colleague from abroad to get information about special questions of Energy Efficiency when they need it. A third reason - and the most important one for the entire co-operation within the CTI organisation - is the special character of the seminar as a starting point for multitude of activities on Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection. At the end of the Ostritz seminar eleven delegations stated that they would organise follow up workshops in their own countries to go deeper into the details and to co-operate on a higher level. It may be that these workshops will be followed by others in other European regions. (orig./GL)

  13. The application of containment technologies on landfills and contaminated sites in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, S.

    1997-01-01

    Remedial action on contaminated sites may include ex-situ or in-situ treatment of contaminants (extraction of solids, liquids and gases or in-situ decontamination) as well as the application of containment technologies. Rumer ampersand Ryan (1995) define containment technology as open-quotes the construction of low-permeability barriers around the source zone [of contaminated sites] to contain contaminants combined with manipulation of hydraulic gradientsclose quotes. The technical focus areas of the 1997 International Containment Technology Conference and Exhibition include vertical, bottom and surface barriers as well as technologies like permeable barriers and stabilization ampersand solidification. Contaminant transport modeling, the test and choice of materials, quality assurance and control, cost and performance criteria, and long-term performance monitoring are integral and essential parts of the technologies and their application. The extent of their use depends on the technology applied as well as on the hazard of the site. This paper will focus on a description of the systems used to construct walls, floors, and caps on European landfills and contaminated sites. The application of walls, floors, and caps, however, is not only a question of the best available technology but also is strongly governed by the priority of the problem to be solved. Therefore this paper will give a short overview on some environmental, socio-economical and political factors, which influence the application of containment technologies, before short profiles of the currently applied technologies will be presented

  14. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  15. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, Hella; Horn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  16. Peritonitis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretti, Pasqual; Bastos, Kleyton A; Dominguez, Jorge; Caramori, Jacqueline C T

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis has a high acceptance rate in Latin America, thus the knowledge concerning complication patterns is of great relevance. This work reviews Latin American data on peritonitis, the most serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. The incidence of peritonitis has been reduced over time, concomitantly with the incorporation of safer exchange systems and the use of prophylactic measurements. Today, rates lower than 1 episode per 24 patient-months are commonly reported. Furthermore, changes in causative organisms have been observed, with predominance of Staphylococcus aureus up through the mid-1990s, as well as increases in coagulase-negative staphylococcus and participation of gram negatives. However, the prevalence of S. aureus is still high, due possibly to climatic conditions and the elevated prevalence of carriers. Resolution rate varies from 55% to 78%, transfer to hemodialysis from 10.9% to 15.4%, and death in 3% to 9.9% of cases. Outcome is worse in S. aureus episodes compared to those with coagulase-negative staphylococcus, despite the higher percentage of oxacillin-resistant strains among the former. In general, despite socioeconomic or climatic conditions, our results are similar to those in developed countries, perhaps as a consequence of technological improvements and/or center expertise.

  17. The innovations in science and technology as a demand for bio-better medicines in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the role of the scientific excellence of innovative medicines as the key element in the development process in Greece. The collected statistical information and data on the absorbability of funds for research of innovative medicines, diagnostics, and advanced drug delivery systems pointed out that the Greek scientists could take advantage of the "Horizon 2020" on the continuity of their investigation, whilst how the accumulation of knowledge at Greek universities and research foundations could be translated into industrial products with added value, safe and effective for the European consumers. In conclusion, this review also is considered to provide the potential benefits in order to adapt the signaling of the "Horizon 2020" for the development of a bio-better Europe based on scientific inspirations. This approach could be considered as an interplay between countries and even between the north and west located countries in the European landscape.

  18. Determinants of international technology transfer: an empirical analysis of the Enterprise Europe Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carina Araújo; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Given that science and technology are inductors of economic development, the emergence of a knowledge-based economy creates an overlay of communications and expectations that have led to institutional restructuring based on innovative capacities. While the literature tends to concentrate on university-industry relations, this paper intends go a step further, by exploring the university-industry-government relations established in a technology transfer context. Particular attention is paid to ...

  19. Latin American foot and ankle surgery today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abello, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Latin American medical orthopedic sub specialties have evolved a lot during the past decade. Foot and ankle surgery for instance, has gained high level of proficiency and competence throughout the international scientific communities. This may be due to the availability of new technology in osteosyntheses, orthopedic devices and surgical instruments used to optimize results, regardless of the low economic resources Latin American countries possess. Also, foot and ankle surgery training is being promoted by several International Medical associations that pursuit scientific knowledge and strengthen the practice. Day to day, more Latin American universities offer Fellowships for on-going training.

  20. Uma análise crítica do acordo de associação estratégica entre a União Européia e a América Latina e o Caribe: a Cúpula de Viena A critical analysis of the "strategic association" between the European Union and the Latin America and the Caribbean: The Europe - LAC Vienna Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Trein

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No artigo se realiza um exame crítico das relações entre a União Européia, América Latina e Caribe. O objetivo é explicitar a "associação estratégica" entre aqueles parceiros, proposta no Rio de Janeiro em 1999 e reiterada pela Cúpula de Viena em 2006. O texto pretende mostrar ainda por que estas reuniões não conseguiram uma aproximação efetiva.A critical analysis of the relations between the European Union, Latin America and Caribbean. This article aims to explicit the "strategic association" between those partners, proposed in Rio de Janeiro, in 1999, and reiterated by the Vienna Summit in 2006. The text also intends to demonstrate why these meetings failed to foster an effective approximation.

  1. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  2. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goossens, V.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2008-01-01

    data on intrauterine insemination using husband/partner's semen (IUI-H) and donor semen (IUI-D) were reported from 20 countries. A total of 115,980 cycles (IUI-H, 98,388; IUI-D, 17,592) were included. RESULTS: In 14 countries where all clinics reported to the IVF register, a total of 248,937 ART cycles......, twin and triplet deliveries after IVF and ICSI combined was 77.2%, 21.7% and 1.0%, respectively. This gives a total multiple delivery rate of 22.7% compared with 23.1% in 2003 and 24.5% in 2002. After IUI-H in women below 40 years of age, 11.9% were twin and 1.3% triplet gestations. CONCLUSIONS......: Compared with earlier years, the reported number of ART cycles in Europe increased and the pregnancy rates increased marginally, even though fewer embryos were transferred and the multiple delivery rates were reduced Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  3. Governance: A view from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zurbriggen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance is becoming an increasingly important concept in European theoretical debates and in political practice as a new way to manage public policies, since the public sector reforms in the 80s. However, the debate in Latin America has different characteristics than in Europe, so it is necessary to provide a critical review of the proposed agenda for the transformation of the state in the region, and of the transfer of the concept of governance by multilateral agencies. To understand these changes the paper examines three key areas of reforms in Latin America and the privatization of public services, new social policies proposals and the decentralization process. This will help us understand the tension between normative models and specific patterns of governance that prevail in Latin America.

  4. JPRS Report, Science and Technology: Europe Twenty-Fourth ISATA International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    Traffic Research Centre VSC, The Netherlands 910061 " Adaptability in Driver Support" M J Kuiken, PGM Miltenburg, 733 Traffic Research Centre, The...Local C Control C Centre R Road S Side S Station /tag*/ Traffic Lights Variable Message Signs Beacons P’R a On-Board IHt Celular Rade...are not suitable for automatic debiting, nevertheless the same technological approach can be adapted to the stated requirements . 1*3 The DACAR

  5. Patient and public involvement in scope development for a palliative care health technology assessment in europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brereton, L.; Goyder, E.; Ingleton, C.; Gardiner, C.; Chilcott, J.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Oortwijn, W.; Mozygemba, K.; Lysdahl, K.B.; Sacchini, D.; Lepper, W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) helps to ensure that study findings are useful to end users but is under-developed in Health Technology Assessment (HTA). "INTEGRATE-HTA, (a co-funded European Union project -grant agreement 30614) is developing new methods to assess complex health

  6. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process. A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes," "no," or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited. Centralized reimbursement systems have become an

  7. Emerging new technologies for the defense of Central Europe and geostrategic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the structure of the post-World War II European security system has been transformed by the remarkable events of 1989 and 1990. These changes included the collapse of the communist parties in Eastern Europe, which has led to the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact. Simultaneously, the prospect of German reunification accelerated during the winter of 1990 and was sanctioned in the dramatic Kohl-Gorbachev July 1990 summit in the Soviet Union. During that meeting, the Soviet government made a series of politically contentious concessions and accepted that a united Germany could remain in NATO, albeit with some unilateral restrictions on the size of the new German armed forces and the disposition of non-German NATO forces in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). The acceptance by Mikhail Gorbachev and his regime of an end to the cold war on terms very favorable to the West followed two important meetings. The first was the London NATO summit; the Atlantic Alliance announced a major change of its flexible response strategy in which nuclear weapons would be used as a last resort. Further, the alliance called for a series of bilateral nonaggression agreements with the former members of the Warsaw Pact including the Soviet Union. The second meeting, the 28th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), concluded with a major political victory by Gorbachev over his hard line opponents both in the civilian apparatus and the military. The final barrier to German unification, on October 3, 1990, fell when the new German government formally acknowledged the Oder-Neisse boundary as unalterable in a treaty signed by the members of the 2 + 4 Talks on September 12, 1990, in Moscow. Most important from the perspective of NATO is the commitment by the Soviet Union to totally withdraw all of its air and ground units from the former GDR by 1994

  8. Relative Abundance of Renewable Resources in Asia and Europe and the Future Demand for Renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, Peter [European Renewable Energies Federation (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    In Europe and in many other parts of the world, energy consumption has reached unsustainable levels. As such, efforts must be made both to expand the use of renewable energy and to reduce the total level of energy consumption. If there are any pertinent driving forces for this, they would be the need to reduce harmful emissions; to increase sustainable energy supply, security, poverty, eradication and access to dignity for billions of people - the ending of a vicious circle of exploitation of scarce natural resources for inefficient energy use. Most European nations belong to the relatively small group of wealthy countries enjoying a comparatively high standard of living. They comprise of approximately 20% of the world's population, producing 80% of the world's GNP, while at the same time, consuming 60% of the world's energy, Ironically, more than half of the world's population, or close to 3 billion people, have almost no access to energy services - 1.2 billion live in Asia. There is, however, enough renewable energy flow worldwide to meet all demands. Renewable energies in general now provide some 14% of the world's primary energy and is mostly covered by traditional biomass. In the field of electricity, where renewables account for 20% worldwide, it is mostly hydropower which is used as source. We need a rapid and courageous worldwide change towards an energy-efficient, Renewable Energy Systems powered energy. Asia already offers a set of successful initiatives and examples of how renewables can be promoted. Some countries have set national targets for the future share of renewable energy. Targets are an excellent strategy to demonstrate political willingness and create a stimulating investment climate for the private sector. Financing schemes, adapted to regional situations, in particular microfinance systems, demonstrate how small-scale installations of renewables could become affordable to the population.

  9. Coping with Financial Crises: Latin American Answers to European Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.Cavallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe faces challenges reminiscent of Latin American financial crises, namely unsustainable sovereign spreads, banking system distress, sudden stops in capital flows and growth rate collapse. The failure of recent liquidity support to normalize the situation suggests the need to refocus the policy debate on fundamentals: structural reform for growth and, where needed, restructuring to resolve banking crises and the debt overhang.  Latin America’s experience yields relevant policy lessons for Europe on all these fronts, tempered only by the slight exception that sharp real devaluation, which was key to spearheading recovery in Latin America, is unfeasible in the eurozone. Struggling eurozone countries are caught between a rock and a hard place, as the currency union imposes strict policy constraints while the reintroduction of national currencies under conditions of crisis would be catastrophic. Nevertheless, contemporary Europe stands a better chance of recovery because, in contrast with the Latin America experience, the European Union possesses greater avenues for international cooperation. With respect to financial support, a resourceful European Central Bank able to avoid chaotic adjustment by brute force is a decisive advantage of Europe relative to Latin America, which only had access to the weaker and less reliable IMF. Arguably, the limited nature of external support strongly contributed to the depth of Latin America’s great collapses. European cooperation can explore and exhaust alternatives to a euro exit to the benefit of all union members and, if dissolution becomes unavoidable, ensure amicable support to ease the transition. The path to success remains uncharted, however, and implementation of the necessary regional mechanisms will require innovation and political will. If the available means of cooperation are not used effectively, crisis countries in Europe may fare worse than those in Latin America.

  10. Fermilab-Latin America collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fermilab's program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory's particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country's development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab's program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as open-quotes big scienceclose quotes, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab's approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab's funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this

  11. Las nuevas tecnologías: necesidades y retos en radioterapia en América Latina New technologies: needs and challenges in radiotherapy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza Castellanos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia acumulada en más de un siglo de práctica de radioterapia ha puesto de manifiesto su importancia no solamente para la atención paliativa de una parte de los casos de cáncer, sino principalmente para la curación de una proporción aun mayor de esos pacientes. Teniendo en cuenta la evolución tecnológica, el acceso cada vez mayor que tienen los países en desarrollo a estos métodos y la cobertura actual en América Latina, los esfuerzos en esta área se deben dirigir a mejorar la calidad de los servicios y de los centros de radioterapia ya instalados. Para ello se debe completar su parque tecnológico, ampliar los servicios que prestan y cumplir los requerimientos mínimos de calidad establecidos para instalaciones del nivel 2. Cada centro debe estar en condiciones de realizar todas las etapas del proceso de radioterapia -desde la simulación hasta la verificación del tratamiento y el seguimiento de los pacientes- con una calidad adecuada (nivel 2. Para ello deben contar con la tecnología necesaria y con el personal debidamente capacitado. Los esfuerzos cooperativos en la Región deben tener también como prioridad contribuir a que los países adopten guías nacionales de tratamiento que contemplen todas las etapas del proceso de radioterapia y fomentar la puesta en marcha de programas validados de garantía de la calidad.The cumulative experience gathered over more than a century of practice of radiotherapy has demonstrated the latter's importance not only for the palliative treatment of a fraction of cancer cases, but mainly for the curative treatment of an even greater proportion of such cases. In light of the changes in technology, the ever-increasing access developing countries to such technology, and its current coverage in Latin America, any efforts in this area should be aimed at improving the quality of the radiotherapy services and centers that are already in place. This involves developing their technological

  12. Differences in hospital- and ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant) between Europe and Latin America: a comparison of the EUVAP and LATINVAP study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rello, J; Molano, D; Villabon, M; Reina, R; Rita-Quispe, R; Previgliano, I; Afonso, E; Restrepo, M I

    2013-05-01

    A comparison is made of epidemiological variables (demographic and clinical characteristics) and outcomes in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in the Latin American VAP (LATINVAP) vs. the European Union VAP (EUVAP) cohorts of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). The EUVAP project was a prospective, multicenter observational study reporting 827 patients with HAP/VAP in 27 ICUs from 9 European countries. The LATINVAP project was a multicenter prospective observational study, with an identical design, performed in 17 ICUs from 4 Latin American countries involving 99 patients who developed HAP/VAP. Episodes of VAP/HAP caused by S. aureus, MSSA, and MRSA were compared in both cohorts. Forty-five patients had S. aureus HAP/VAP in the EUVAP cohort vs. 11 patients in the LATINVAP cohort. More patients had MRSA in the LATINVAP study than in the EUVAP (45% vs. 33%). ICU mortality among patients with MSSA HAP/VAP in EUVAP was 10% vs. 50% for LATINVAP (OR=9.75, p=0.01). Fifteen patients in the EUVAP cohort developed MRSA HAP/VAP as opposed to 5 in LATINVAP. In the EUVAP study there was an ICU mortality rate of 33.3%. In the LATINVAP cohort, the ICU mortality rate was 60% (OR for death=3.0; 95%CI 0.24-44.7). MRSA pneumonia was associated with poorer outcomes in comparison with MSSA. Our study suggests significant variability among European and Latin American ICU practices that may influence clinical outcomes. Furthermore, patients with pneumonia in Latin America have different outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards better monitoring of technology critical elements in Europe: Coupling of natural and anthropogenic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Blengini, Gian Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere'). However, to date both biogeochemical cycles and MFA studies suffer from narrow system boundaries, failing to fully illustrate relative anthropogenic and natural flow magnitude and the degree to which human activity has perturbed the natural cycling of elements. We discuss important interconnections between natural and anthropogenic cycles and relevant EU raw material dossiers. Increased integration of both cycles could help to better capture the transport and fate of elements in nature including their environmental/human health impacts, highlight potential future material stocks in the anthroposphere (in-use stocks) and in nature (e.g., in soils, tailings, or mining wastes), and estimate anticipated emissions of TCEs to nature in the future (based on dynamic stock modeling). A preliminary assessment of natural versus anthropogenic element fluxes indicates that anthropogenic fluxes induced by the EU-28 of palladium, platinum, and antimony (as a result of materials uses) might be greater than the respective global natural fluxes. Increased combination of MFA and natural cycle data at EU level could help to derive more complete material cycles and initiate a discussion between the research communities of biogeochemists and material flow analysts to more holistically address the issues of sustainable resource management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Strengthening vaccination policies in Latin America: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Motta-Murguía, Lourdes; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor

    2013-08-20

    Despite many successes in the region, Latin American vaccination policies have significant shortcomings, and further work is needed to maintain progress and prepare for the introduction of newly available vaccines. In order to address the challenges facing Latin America, the Commission for the Future of Vaccines in Latin America (COFVAL) has made recommendations for strengthening evidence-based policy-making and reducing regional inequalities in immunisation. We have conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the feasibility of these recommendations. Standardisation of performance indicators for disease burden, vaccine coverage, epidemiological surveillance and national health resourcing can ensure comparability of the data used to assess vaccination programmes, allowing deeper analysis of how best to provide services. Regional vaccination reference schemes, as used in Europe, can be used to develop best practice models for vaccine introduction and scheduling. Successful models exist for the continuous training of vaccination providers and decision-makers, with a new Latin American diploma aiming to contribute to the successful implementation of vaccination programmes. Permanent, independent vaccine advisory committees, based on the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), could facilitate the uptake of new vaccines and support evidence-based decision-making in the administration of national immunisation programmes. Innovative financing mechanisms for the purchase of new vaccines, such as advance market commitments and cost front-loading, have shown potential for improving vaccine coverage. A common regulatory framework for vaccine approval is needed to accelerate delivery and pool human, technological and scientific resources in the region. Finally, public-private partnerships between industry, government, academia and non-profit sectors could provide new investment to stimulate vaccine development in the region, reducing prices in the

  15. Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). Status list as of 30 September 2002. Signature and ratification. Declarations/reservations made upon signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) which was opened for signature on 25 September 1998 and shall come into force after deposit of the instrument of ratification by ten Member States. It shall remain in force for ten years, and may be extended by periods of five years if the Member States so agree. By 30 September 2002, there were 18 Signatories to the above Agreement

  16. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF MEDICAL DEVICES IN EUROPE: PROCESSES, PRACTICES, AND METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sabine; Olberg, Britta; Panteli, Dimitra; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    To review and compare current Health Technology Assessment (HTA) activities for medical devices (MDs) across European HTA institutions. A comprehensive approach was adopted to identify institutions involved in HTA in European countries. We systematically searched institutional Web sites and other online sources by using a structured tool to extract information on the role and link to decision making, structure, scope, process, methodological approach, and available HTA reports for each included institution. Information was obtained from eighty-four institutions, forty-seven of which were analyzed. Fifty-four methodological documents from twenty-three agencies in eighteen countries were identified. Only five agencies had separate documents for the assessment of MDs. A few agencies made separate provisions for the assessment of MDs in their general methods. The amount of publicly available HTA reports on MDs varied by device category and agency remit. Despite growing consensus on their importance and international initiatives, such as the EUnetHTA Core Model®, specific tools for the assessment of MDs are rarely developed and implemented at the national level. Separate additional signposts incorporated in existing general methods guides may be sufficient for the evaluation of MDs.

  17. Comparing vowel perception and production in Spanish and Portuguese: European versus Latin American dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chládková, K.; Escudero, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent acoustic descriptions have shown that Spanish and Portuguese vowels are produced differently in Europe and Latin America. The present study investigates whether comparable between-variety differences exist in vowel perception. Spanish, Peruvian, Portuguese, and Brazilian listeners were tested

  18. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  19. The Benefits of Latin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  20. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  1. The importance of quantitative measurement methods for uveitis: laser flare photometry endorsed in Europe while neglected in Japan where the technology measuring quantitatively intraocular inflammation was developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Carl P; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2017-06-01

    Laser flare photometry (LFP) is an objective and quantitative method to measure intraocular inflammation. The LFP technology was developed in Japan and has been commercially available since 1990. The aim of this work was to review the application of LFP in uveitis practice in Europe compared to Japan where the technology was born. We reviewed PubMed articles published on LFP and uveitis. Although LFP has been largely integrated in routine uveitis practice in Europe, it has been comparatively neglected in Japan and still has not received FDA approval in the USA. As LFP is the only method that provides a precise measure of intraocular inflammation, it should be used as a gold standard in uveitis centres worldwide.

  2. Latin America: the next region for haematopoietic transplant progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimovich, G; Martinez Rolon, J; Baldomero, H; Rivas, M; Hanesman, I; Bouzas, L; Bonfim, C; Palma, J; Kardus-Urueta, A; Ubidia, D; Bujan-Boza, W; Gonzalez-Ramella, O; Ruiz-Argüelles, G; Gomez-Almaguer, D; Espino, G; Fanilla, E; Gonzalez, D; Carrasco, A; Galeano, S; Borelli, G; Hernandez-Gimenez, M; Pasquini, M; Kodera, Y; Gratwohl, A; Gratwohl, M; Nuñez, J; Szer, J; Gale, R P; Niederwieser, D; Seber, A

    2017-05-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplant activity in the 28 countries comprising Latin America is poorly defined. We conducted a voluntary survey of members of the Latin American Bone Marrow Transplantation Group regarding transplant activity 2009-2012. Collated responses were compared with data of transplant rates from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation for other geographic regions. Several socio-economic variables were analysed to determine correlations with transplant rates. In total, 94 teams from 12 countries reported 11 519 transplants including 7033 autotransplants and 4486 allotransplants. Annual activity increased from 2517 transplants in 2009 to 3263 in 2012, a 30% increase. Median transplants rate (transplant per million inhabitants) in 2012 was 64 (autotransplants, median 40; allotransplants, median 24). This rate is substantially lower than that in North America and European regions (482 and 378) but higher than that in the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Pacific regions (30 and 45). However, the Latin America transplant rate is 5-8-fold lower than that in America and Europe, suggesting a need to increase transplant availability. Transplant team density in Latin America (teams per million population; 1.8) is 3-4-fold lower than that in North America (6.2) or Europe (7.6). Within Latin America, there is substantial diversity in transplant rates by country partially explained by diverse socio-economic variables including per capita gross national income, health expenditure and physician density. These data should help inform future health-care policy in Latin America.

  3. [Environmental pollution and population growth in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, B

    1983-01-01

    3 factors are always involved in causation of infectious disease: the causal organism, an adverse environment, and nutritional status. As knowledge of degenerative and mental illnesses advances, their relationship to environmental problems becomes clearer. Health in the human being as in all living things is the product of ecological equilibrium. In countries with high mortality rates, the majority of deaths occur in the early years of life. Countries enjoying low mortality rates are those that have protected themselves against environmental deterioration. The Roman civilization, the 1st to have large cities, built aqueducts to protect the water supply from contamination. With the disappearance of the Roman Empire the concern for purity of the water supply also disappeared, and the cities of the Middle Ages became breeding grounds for epidemics. In the early 19th century John Snow demonstrated the role of water in the transmission of cholera and thereafter the concern with potable water and sewage disposal was reborn. The Industrial Revolution eventually allowed sufficient accumulation of wealth to permit improved nutrition. Environmental sanitation and improved food supply produced a new ecological equilibrium, and Western Europe began to have lower and lower mortality rates. Paralleling the decline in deaths a new spirit of responsible parenthood and delayed marriage was lowering birth rates. Population growth, which never exceeded 1%, had the additional escape valve of emigration to America and Australia. The true cause of environmental degradation is man. When human beings were few their contaminants were readily obsorbed by the environment, but as they proliferate the environment is increasingly unable to absorb their pollution by natural processes. Industrial fumes, deforestation, and polluted rivers are only the symptoms of contamination. In the developed countries, technological innovations minimizing industrial pollution and lower population growth are

  4. Sanskrit og Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2008-01-01

    Denne kronik præsenterer ligheder påpeget af ny forskning mellem den måde latin og sanskrit fungerede på som kosmopolitiske elitesprog. Udgivelsesdato: 1-7. Aug.......Denne kronik præsenterer ligheder påpeget af ny forskning mellem den måde latin og sanskrit fungerede på som kosmopolitiske elitesprog. Udgivelsesdato: 1-7. Aug....

  5. The lithic industry of Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) in the context of Early and Middle Pleistocene technology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lombera-Hermida, Arturo; Bargalló, Amèlia; Terradillos-Bernal, Marcos; Huguet, Rosa; Vallverdú, Josep; García-Antón, Maria-Dolores; Mosquera, Marina; Ollé, Andreu; Sala, Robert; Carbonell, Eudald; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Xosé-Pedro

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the lithic assemblages documented at Sima del Elefante (TE) and their importance in the context of the Early and Middle Pleistocene human occupation of Europe. We also study changes in human behaviour within the context of the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Sierra de Atapuerca. This site has characteristics that are of great value for the study of human evolution. The lower levels of TE (Units TE7-TE14) are an essential reference for understanding the early stages of the colonization of Europe. The TE9c level has provided stone tools (Mode 1), faunal remains, and human fossils dated to 1.22 Ma (millions of years ago). Moreover, this is one of the few European sites with a stratigraphic sequence that includes remains of human occupations predating the Jaramillo subchron (Early Pleistocene) and from the Late Middle Pleistocene (Units TE18-TE19). Despite this, the presence of archaeologically sterile units (TE15-17) prevents us from establishing a continuous relationship between the Early and Middle Pleistocene human settlements and, consequently, between their technological and behavioural differences. We can, however compare the technological and palaeoeconomic strategies adopted by different species of hominins during two key phases of the occupation of Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of biomethane technologies in Europe – Technical concepts under the scope of a Delphi-Survey embedded in a multi-criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billig, Eric; Thrän, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Methane from biomass is a well suited renewable energy carrier with a wide range of applications. The main technologies for its production out of biomass are biochemical conversion from the upgrading of biogas and thermochemical conversion by gasification and methanation. Presently there exists no methodology to compare the process alternatives for methane production from biomass. This paper investigates a comprehensive evaluation method based on a multi-criteria analysis. Due to the comparable well developed biomethane market in Europe, compared to other regions in the world, the study area was restricted to Europe. The weighting of the different criteria is carried out in two rounds as a pair-to-pair comparison of the criteria by experts from different technology fields in a Delphi-Survey. As a result, the prioritisation can be used to classify the biomass conversion technologies to convert biomass to biomethane. According to the weightings given by experts, the two criteria energy efficiency and production costs are of great importance compared to the other criteria. - Highlights: • Overview of technologies for renewable methane (biochemical and thermochemical). • Overview of multi-criteria analysis. • Novel methodology for comparison of biochemical and thermochemical conversion. • Delphi-Survey (approach and evaluation) in the field of biomethane resp. bio-SNG.

  7. Innovative Activity by Gender: a Latin American patent study

    OpenAIRE

    Sifontes Fernandez, Domingo Alberto; Unidad de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales y Escuela de Economía,Universidad de Carabobo.; Morales Valera, Rosa María; INFACES y Escuela de Economía Universidad de Carabobo

    2013-01-01

    The Red Iberoamericana de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación shows that there is relatively few information about science and technology activities by gender in most Latin American countries. This research aims to contribute on the issue of gender and technology through the study of gender participation in patenting activity in Latin America. Patents from 1990 to 2006 are analyzed. The sampled countries are Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Cuba, Peru, Chile and Venezuela. The source of info...

  8. Transnational citizenship: Latin Americans in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Padilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection upon the exercising of transnational citizenship as a consequence of international migration, applied to Latin Americans resident in Portugal. In order to do this we have adopted the concept of transnational citizenship, as its malleability allows us to consider the whole concept of countries of origin and destination and the influence of bilateral and international relations. We ask how transnational citizenship is exercised in the European Union, Ibero-American and, particularly, Portuguese spaces, and whether it is affected by the economic crisis in Europe and, in particular, Portugal, by analysing the cases of Argentines, Brazilians and Uruguayans living in Portugal.

  9. 18 May 2010 - Costa Rica Minister of Science and Technology C. Fonseca discussing with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez and visiting the ATLAS visitor centre at LHC Point 1 with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    CERN-HI-1005079 16: from left to right: UNOSAT Member O. Van Damme, Deputy Permanent Representative C. Guillermet, Ambassador and Permenant Representative of Costa Rica to the UN M. B. Dengo, Minister of Science and Technology C. Fonseca, Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss, ATLAS Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez.

  10. Some existence problems regarding partial Latin squares

    OpenAIRE

    Aryapoor, Masood

    2014-01-01

    Latin squares are interesting combinatorial objects with many applications. When working with Latin squares, one is sometimes led to deal with partial Latin squares, a generalization of Latin squares. One of the problems regarding partial Latin square and with applications to Latin squares is whether a partial Latin square with a given set of conditions exists. The goal of this article is to introduce some problems of this kind and answer some existence questions regarding partial Latin squares

  11. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  12. Training centres in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  13. Latin Hagiography in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensson, Gottskálk

    2017-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION A. Latin literacy in Iceland and the cult of saints B. Icelandic quasi-hagiography and the Christian monarchs of Norway II. THE ICELANDIC SAINTS AND THEIR LATIN TEXTS A. S. Thorlacus Scalotensis episcopus. – 1. The texts: the Latin hagiography about St Þorlákur. – 2. The historical...

  14. Postcolonial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How has European identity been shaped through its colonial empires? Does this history of imperialism influence the conceptualisation of Europe in the contemporary globalised world? How has coloniality shaped geopolitical differences within Europe? What does this mean for the future of Europe......? Postcolonial Europe: Comparative Reflections after the Empires brings together scholars from across disciplines to rethink European colonialism in the light of its vanishing empires and the rise of new global power structures. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to the postcolonial European legacy the book...... argues that the commonly used nation-centric approach does not effectively capture the overlap between different colonial and postcolonial experiences across Europe....

  15. The role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and quality criteria for improving assistive technology service delivery in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emily J; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P

    2012-02-01

    People with disabilities are entitled to access assistive technology (AT) to facilitate their full and effective participation in society and may reasonably expect to be central to the decision-making processes of services that provide these technologies. European projects have improved the knowledge and resources available for AT service delivery in many countries, but the outputs are not consistently implemented or published in scientific literature. This article examines European developments in AT service delivery and the barriers to its effective provision. Specifically, it analyzes the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in service delivery improvement. Published scientific papers, as well as reports from and descriptions of European projects related to AT service delivery, were reviewed. The publications were analyzed in relation to six criteria for AT service delivery described in an earlier, major European project. The findings and recommendations from the publications are synthesized in this article to identify advances and gaps in AT service delivery and to assess the current status and direction of AT service delivery improvement in Europe. Multicountry projects have brought together AT researchers from across Europe to work together and produced promising results that are contextually relevant. Access to AT information and training of practitioners has improved, and efforts are being made to facilitate user involvement. More effort should be put into integrating research and resources from European projects into practice. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model and terminology may support coordination of service delivery systems. The AT research and practice communities in Europe may be able to learn from developments in North America, while continuing to work together, sharing resources and strategies, and communicating results internationally.

  16. Towards sustainable production of protein-rich foods: appraisal of eight crops for Western Europe. PART II: Analysis of the technological aspects of the production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Dolf Swaving; Linnemann, Anita R; van Boekel, Tiny A J S

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), triticale (x Triticosecale), lucerne (Medicago sativa), grasses (Lolium and Festuca spp.), rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) for protein production in Western Europe was studied on the basis of a chain-approach. The technological aspects, which are considered in this paper, are the processing methods, and the functional and nutritional properties of the derived protein products. The overall evaluation of the technological prospects of the eight crops as a protein source for Western Europe leads to the conclusion that this part of the production chain is not decisive for that choice. Pea and lupin have a slight advantage over the other crops, because their concentrates and isolates are already commercially available.

  17. Making the market right for environmentally sound energy-efficient technologies: US buildings sector successes that might work in developing countries and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-12-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, when energy prices were high, all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries improved their E/GNP by about 2.5% annually. Increased energy efficiency accounted for 2/3rds of this improvement; the remaining portion was due to structural changes in the economy. In the US, analytic and policy tools that have successfully promoted energy efficiency include integrated resource planning, energy use labels, energy use standards, ``Golden Carrot`` incentive programs, and revenue-neutral ``feebates.`` In addition, a number of low cost, environmentally sound, energy-efficient technologies, such as electronic ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows, have recently been developed. We discuss how many of these policies and technologies are probably exportable to developing countries and Eastern Europe, giving examples of successful starts in India, the ASEAN countries, and Brazil.

  18. The "East" Becomes the "South"? The "Autumn of the People" and the Future of Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Adam

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the fall of communism in eastern Europe. Applies Latin America models to eastern Europe. Suggests that revolutions are shaped by the systems against which they are directed. Concludes that the problems of eastern Europe are not caused by the system so much as by geography. Argues that poor capitalism may lie in the future for eastern…

  19. JPRS Report, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-28

    implementation of the agreements signed. At this meeting, the government of Peru was represented by Engs Walter Mercado Zedano and Isidro Velasco...to the Gallup company; 18 percent according to a poll conducted by Investigaciones de Chile; 30 percent according to a FLACSO [Latin Amer- ican

  20. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter...

  1. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  2. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  3. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in excess of 80% are possible in the electricity sector. Hence, this approach is one potential solution that will enable the European energy system to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. In this study, the Smart Energy System approach is applied to Europe, which achieves two key objectives: firstly......, it demonstrates the type of technical changes required in the EU energy system by presenting the technologies and their synergies in the Smart Energy System approach and secondly, this study quantifies the scale of each technology required to achieve a 100% renewable energy system in Europe. The results indicate...... that a 100% renewable energy system is technically feasible in Europe using the Smart Energy System approach, assuming technologies develop according to industry’s current expectations. Furthermore, the results show that the 100% renewable Smart Energy System will have similar costs as a fossil fuel...

  4. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

  5. Technical assistance in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteiza-Quirno, A.

    1976-01-01

    As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable

  6. Expanding Pertussis Epidemiology in 6 Latin America Countries through the Latin American Pertussis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinell-McNamara, Veronica A; Acosta, Anna M; Pedreira, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Ana F; Pawloski, Lucia; Tondella, Maria Lucia; Briere, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Pertussis Project (LAPP), established in 2009, is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pan American Health Organization, Sabin Vaccine Institute, and the ministries of health of 6 countries in Latin America. The project goal is to expand understanding of pertussis epidemiology in Latin America to inform strategies for control and prevention. Here we describe LAPP structure and activities. After an initial surveillance evaluation, LAPP activities are tailored to individual country needs. LAPP activities align with Global Health Security Agenda priorities and have focused on expanding laboratory diagnostic capacity, implementing a laboratory quality control and quality assurance program, and providing epidemiologic support to strengthen reporting of pertussis surveillance data. Lessons learned include that ongoing mentoring is key to the successful adoption of new technologies and that sustainability of laboratory diagnostics requires a regional commitment to procure reagents and related supplies.

  7. The Latin Matura exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Dolenc

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In students' opinion the tasks of this year's Pre-Matura exam are neither too easy nor too difficult. 51 % of  the students claim that the translation from Slovene to Latin is the most difficult task, which is not surprising. The students have to recognise the appropriate grammatical constructions without the help of any comments. In this way they can show their autonomy in the use of  the language. Very high quality of the Latin Matura exam tasks can be clearly seen from graph 3. Namely, the students have quite different opinions on which task is the most difficult and which one the easiest. This means that each student can find the type of a task that suits them most and so they can excel in that particular area. At the oral part of the exam 46 % of the students would like to eliminate the grammar question, as they find it difficult to define grammar rules precisely, while they do not have any problems using them in a sentence. Quite surprisingly there are 20 % who dislike the question from culture and civilisation. Their main argument is that in this way they would be able to save a lot of time and so concentrate on other areas. According to the students, the good points of the Latin Matura exam are: a better insight into Latin language and Roman culture, and a good foundation for further study at the university. As far as the bad points of the exam are concerned, they mostly complain about the translation from Latin to Slovene, as they believe they do not have a lot of freedom in translating. They also wish there were more books with different types of  Matura exercises. Teachers mainly agree with their students, but they also pointed out a certain problem: it can be quite tempting to deal only with the topics appearing at the Latin Matura exam and eliminate all others. Namely, every teacher wants to prepare their students for the exam in the best possible way, as they feel their pedagogical and  professional skills are tested too.

  8. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  9. Investigation of the feasibility of an international integrated demonstration: Joint demonstration of environmental cleanup technologies in Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe (EE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) republics have areas that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The Westinghouse Hanford Company is exploring the feasibility of establishing a collaborative effort with various US agencies to establish an International Integrated Demonstration (IID). Westinghouse manages the waste management and cleanup programs at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the IID would be to (1) facilitate assistance to EE/FSU cleanup efforts, (2) provide hands-on management and operational assistance to EE/FSU countries, (3) provide a basis for evaluating opportunities for and establishing future collaborations, and (4) evaluate the applicability of US technologies to both US and EE/FSU cleanup efforts. The DOE's Integrated Demonstration Programs are currently providing the conduit for development and demonstration and transfer and deployment of innovative technologies to meet DOE's cleanup need for hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Integrated Demonstrations are focused on all facets of environmental restoration including characterization, remediation, monitoring, site closure, regulatory compliance, and regulatory and public acceptance. Innovative technologies are being tested and demonstrated at host sites across the country to provide the necessary performance data needed to deploy these technologies. The IID concept would be to conduct an Integrated Demonstration at one or more EE/FSU host sites

  10. HIV testing for key populations in Europe: A decade of technological innovation and patient empowerment complement the role of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, T; van Lankveld, J; Apers, L; Fransen, K; Rockstroh, J; Florence, E

    2018-02-01

    With persisting high numbers of new HIV diagnoses in Europe, HIV testing remains an important aspect of HIV prevention. The traditional centralized and medicalized HIV testing approach has been complemented with newly developed and evaluated non-traditional approaches. Two important factors guided this process: technological innovation and empowerment of the patient. We present a matrix to develop an HIV testing approach, and elaborate on three commonly used ones: community based testing, self-testing, and self-sampling. Despite non-traditional HIV testing approaches, barriers for testing remain. A potential disadvantage for users is the risk for false-reactive test results. As users receive an orientation test result, a reactive result should be confirmed. Another issue is the window phase, which is longer for some orientation tests compared to a traditional, laboratory-based test. Future implementation of non-traditional HIV testing approaches will depend on legal frameworks throughout Europe. Community testing centers may additionally improve empowerment of key populations by expanding their portfolio to testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections. Community engagement and ownership may imply a shrinking role for health care providers, but they remain crucial actors for personalized information, counselling and referral to specialized HIV-care for many people. A highly effective HIV testing strategy to reduce undiagnosed people living with HIV in Europe is needed. Any approach, chosen according to the principles outlined in this paper, should reach the right people, diagnose them in the most accurate way, and optimize linkage to care. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  11. Data protection’s future without democratic bright line rules : Co-existing with technologies in Europe after Breyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Careful to avoid uninformed positioning, I limited myself in my previous contribution to a Science & Technology Studies (STS)-flavoured stance about the need for closer scrutiny of existing or novel technologies when considering the role of law and regulation. Detailed accounts of individual

  12. Where can cone penetrometer technology be applied? Development of a map of Europe regarding the soil penetrability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischer, M; van Ree, C.C.D.F.; Leven, C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant efforts have been invested in the development of push-in technology for site characterization and monitoring for geotechnical and environmental purposes and have especially been undertaken in the Netherlands and Germany. These technologies provide the opportunity

  13. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  14. Fra arabisk til latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    I løbet af det 12. århundrede fik Vesteuropa øjnene op for antikkens videnskab og filosofi gennem oversættelser til latin af arabiske oversættelser at de græske værker. Arabernes egne bidrag, som byggede på antikkens værker, blev også oversat, og dermed blev grunden lagt til renæssancens humanisme....

  15. Latin American intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos MONSIVÁIS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article carefully reviews the intellectual history of Latin America since the 19th Century, when the process of cultural secularization took place, until current times when the literary city has been replaced by its cybernetic version. Employing analyses of the multiple definitions, polemics, conducts, masks and pretenses of the intellectual class, the article draws a reliable portrait that serves as a conceptual frame that looks deeply into the most significant names and schools of the period.

  16. Latin American intellectuals

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos MONSIVÁIS

    2009-01-01

    The article carefully reviews the intellectual history of Latin America since the 19th Century, when the process of cultural secularization took place, until current times when the literary city has been replaced by its cybernetic version. Employing analyses of the multiple definitions, polemics, conducts, masks and pretenses of the intellectual class, the article draws a reliable portrait that serves as a conceptual frame that looks deeply into the most significant names and schools of the p...

  17. Bioeconomy in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Albert; Malpica, Carlos

    2018-01-25

    This article provides the authors' view on how Latin America has embraced bioeconomy principles in the last two decades with different levels of socio-economic impact. Examples of biodiversity resource valorization in medicine, eco-intensification of agriculture, biotechnology applications in mature sectors such as mining, food and beverage production, bio-refineries and ecosystem services are provided. The importance of participatory and social innovation initiatives is highlighted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Latin American Network of students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Ramirez, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Network of Students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology (RedLAtM) is a civil nonprofit organization, organized by students from Mexico and some Latin- American countries. As a growing organization, providing human resources in the field of meteorology at regional level, the RedLAtM seeks to be a Latin American organization who helps the development of education and research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology in order to engage and promote the integration of young people towards a common and imminent future: Facing the still unstudied various weather and climate events occurring in Latin America. The RedLAtM emerges from the analysis and observation/realization of a limited connection between Latin American countries around research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. The importance of its creation is based in cooperation, linking, research and development in Latin America and Mexico, in other words, to join efforts and stablish a regional scientific integration who leads to technological progress in the area of Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. As ultimate goal the RedLAtM pursuit to develop climatic and meteorological services for those countries unable to have their own programs, as well as projects linked with the governments of Latin American countries and private companies for the improvement of prevention strategies, research and decision making. All this conducing to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants facing problems such as poverty and inequality.

  19. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2007-04-01

    Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry

  20. The market of smart grids in France and Europe. A technological breakthrough... a risk of overturning the energy value chain with the arrival of newcomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at giving a picture of the development of smart grids in France and in Europe and at assessing their growth potential, at assessing the challenges of this technological breakthrough for consumers and at identifying business opportunities for the actors of the sector, at imagining tomorrow's offer in energy efficiency, at comparing the position and strategies of the different actors (energy providers, equipment manufacturers, pure players, NTIC, etc.), and at anticipating the evolutions of the competition structure with the presence of newcomers possessing huge financial means such as Apple, Google or Microsoft. The report outlines the opportunities of development for smart grids and remaining obstacles, presents the European regulatory context, describes the current status of development of smart grids, presents several pan-European projects, proposes a focus on initiatives in France, gives an overview of the competition, and discusses the perspectives for the market by 2020

  1. Latin America Report No. 2702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    added. Langoni spent almost all of yesterday in his office in Rio where he has been since the end of last week. Finance Ministry spokesman Pedro ...to the International Monetery Fund. In an interview, Pablo Gomez Alvarez, secretary general of PSUM, remarked that what was introduced by the...future museum of Latin American art, and the Ruben Dario Latin American Writers Contest, in which 200 Latin American writers took part. Pursuing its

  2. Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase I | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase I. The Centro de Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS - Center for Technology and Society) is part of the Fundação Getulio Vargas Law School in Rio de Janeiro and is the only institution in Brazil that specifically deals with the interplay of law, technology and society. The CTS is ...

  3. Population genetic analysis of cat populations from Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, and the Dominican Republic: identification of different gene pools in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Alvarez, Diana; Shostell, Joseph M

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we identify new genetic profiles of eight Latin American cat populations. In addition, we combine data from the present study and previously published data on 70 other American and European populations to discuss (1) the points of introduction of mutant alleles for cat coat phenotypes from Europe into Latin America, (2) the heterozygosity levels at these loci in the current Latin American cat populations, (3) the level of genetic heterogeneity among Latin American cat populations, and how this compares with levels found in North American and European cat populations, and (4) how many different cat gene pools are currently present in Latin America. We also include in our purview historical records of human migrations from Europe to and within the Americas. Our analyses clearly support the view that the current genetic profiles and structuring of cat populations in Latin America can be largely explained by the historical migration patterns of humans.

  4. Evaluaciones económicas de tecnologías sanitarias: una perspectiva global para su aplicación en América Latina Economic evaluations of health technologies: a global perspective for their implementation in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Espinoza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fenómenos como el aumento progresivo del gasto en salud y el envejecimiento poblacional han obligado a los distintos países a considerar metodologías económicas que permitan obtener un mayor beneficio sanitario dentro de un contexto de recursos limitados. El presente artículo describe los componentes básicos a considerar en una evaluación de tecnología sanitaria, analiza el proceso de toma de decisión en un análisis de costo efectividad y reporta como dicha metodología ha sido implementada en América Latina y en el resto de mundo.Phenomena as the progressive increase of health expenditure and the population aging have lead many countries to consider economic methodologies in order to obtain bigger sanitary benefits in contexts of limited resources. This article describes the basic components to consider in a health technology assessment , it analyses the process of decision making with cost-effectiveness analysis and reports how this methodology has been widely implemented in Latin America and the rest of the world.

  5. Activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    HTGR Activities in Europe: • Stimulated and coordinated by Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC21) • a part of Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) • SNETP has 68 members: industry, research, TSO, ... Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative: Contribute to clean and competitive energy beyond electricity by facilitating deployment of nuclear cogeneration plants

  6. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS nereus.bruxelles@euroinbox.com) NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: www.nereus-regions.eu. Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  7. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Parra-Vidales, Esther; de Leo, Diego; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Background This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Methods Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Results Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ

  8. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  9. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  10. The Trombe Wall during the 1970s: technological device or architectural space? Critical inquiry on the Trombe Wall in Europe and the role of architectural magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Medici

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1970s, before and after the international oil crisis of 1973, some European architectural periodicals were critical of standard construction methods and the architecture of the time. They described how architects and engineers reacted to the crisis, proposing new techniques and projects in order to intervene innovatively in the built environment, using energy and natural resources more efficiently. This article will provide a critical analysis of the role of architectural magazines of the time, describing the technological innovation of the Trombe Wall in Europe. It will treat when, how, and what specific aspects were described. It will also carry out a critical analysis of the Trombe Wall itself: about its performances, its evolution throughout the 1970s, its integration in different houses, and its influence on inhabitants’ behaviour. Using three houses as case studies, an analysis of the architects’ efforts to integrate the technology of the Trombe Wall with architectural elements such as shape, aesthetic, materiality, and natural light will be carried out. Though this article is historical in character, it aims to inform the contemporary debate, especially concerning issues of the built environment meeting the Paris agreement on climate change (AA, 2015.

  11. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  12. China-Latin America Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  13. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  14. Renewable energies for power generation in Latin America: market, technologies and perspectives; Energias renovables para generacion de electricidad en America Latina: mercado, tecnologias y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP e International Energy Initiative (Brazil); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Gorenstein Dedecca, Joao [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Goncalves Nogueira, Larissa [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Maia Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Navarro, Judith [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Latin America has a wealth of renewable energy resources, although the utilization of these resources has historically been carried out in the region by large hydroelectric energy plants. Nevertheless, according to the present report, there is an immense potential for wider use of new sources of renewable energy, including Small-Scale Hydroelectric (SSH), wind, solar and geothermal. Considering only the renewable sources used for power generation in the countries studied, they are observed to account for between 2.5 and 5% of the current installed capacity of these countries. Brazil and Peru use roughly 5%, Argentina and Colombia 4% and Mexico and Chile 2.5% of current capacity. Among the alternative sources used, biomass is observed to be predominant, corresponding to 50% of the installed capacity of those countries, collectively, followed by SSH (37%) and wind energy (13%). The installed capacity of photovoltaic energy (PV) continues to be insignificant. In this work, large hydroelectric plants are not included as renewable sources, only CHP is included. Among the countries studied, Brazil is currently responsible for more than 70% of the installed capacity of the renewable sources used for power generation, followed by Mexico (9%) and Argentina (7%). Colombia and Central American countries represent 5% of current installed capacity, each, and the remaining countries are responsible for 2%, with the exception of Venezuela. The high contribution of biomass as an alternative source in Brazil and Argentina explains its predominance in this area. With respect to total hydroelectric potential, Mexico has already exploited a large part portion of its economically viable resources, as much as 87.4%, much higher than the average for the region. While Brazil stands out for the large participation of hydroelectric energy, 58.4% of the economically exploitable capacity still remains. Nevertheless, those resources are concentrated in the northern region of the country and

  15. SafeLand guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe - Design and required technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide monitoring means the comparison of landslide characteristics like areal extent, speed of movement, surface topography and soil humidity from different periods in order to assess landslide activity. An ultimate "universal" methodology for this purpose does not exist; every technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. End-users should carefully consider each one to select the methodologies that represent the best compromise between pros and cons, and are best suited for their needs. Besides monitoring technology, there are many factors governing the choice of an Early Warning System (EWS). A people-centred EWS necessarily comprises five key elements: (1) knowledge of the risks; (2) identification, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; (3) operational centre; (4) communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and (5) local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to-end warning system" is also used to emphasize that EWSs need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response. The aim of the present work is to provide guidelines for establishing the different components for landslide EWSs. One of the main deliverables of the EC-FP7 SafeLand project addresses the technical and practical issues related to monitoring and early warning for landslides, and identifies the best technologies available in the context of both hazard assessment and design of EWSs. This deliverable targets the end-users and aims to facilitate the decision process by providing guidelines. For the purpose of sharing the globally accumulated expertise, a screening study was done on 14 EWSs from 8 different countries. On these bases, the report presents a synoptic view of existing monitoring methodologies and early-warning strategies and their applicability for different landslide types, scales and risk management steps. Several comprehensive checklists and toolboxes are also included to support informed

  16. Family disintegration in Latin America: the consequences for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L

    1982-12-01

    A federal study on children conducted by Brazil's Chamber of Deputies in 1975 concluded that some 25 million children, 40% of the total population below the age of 18 years, could be classified as disadvantaged. By 1980 this figure was estimated to have grown by an additional 3 million. An estimated 11 million of the disadvantaged children were literally destitute and homeless. They have been abandoned by their impoverished parents to a precarious life on the streets of the major cities of Brazil. The parents of many such abandoned children are recent migrants from rural areas. Unable to find adequate work and too poor to partake of health and other services, such families slip slowly into a state of destitution and disarray. The children end up on the streets where they are abused, exploited, and drawn into lives of crime and violence. Abandoned children are not the only young victims of the imbalances in Brazilian society. As many as 80% of Brazil's children suffer from some degree of malnutrition. Infant mortality is 84 deaths/1000 compared to an average of 12/1000 for Western Europe. In the Western hemisphere, several nations with lower per capita incomes have made greater progress in reducing infant and child mortality. These facts point up the fallacy of confusing economic growth with development. Economic growth is quantitative, mechanical, and materialistic. Development is organic and includes social dimensions, such as the educational, nutritional, and health status of the population. The problem of the disadvantaged children in Brazil is a problem of families and of the stresses placed on them by rapid, disorienting changes in social, economic, political, and cultural systems. The loss of the traditional functions of the family in the process of technological evolution has throughout modern history placed great strains on the family. This historical tendency toward family disintegration is greatly aggravated throughout the countries of the 3rd and 4th

  17. Performed and preferred participation in science and technology across Europe: Exploring an alternative idea of "democratic deficit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Stares, Sally

    2013-08-01

    Republican ideals of active scientific citizenship and extensive use of deliberative, democratic decision making have come to dominate the public participation agenda, and academic analyses have focused on the deficit of public involvement vis-à-vis these normative ideals. In this paper we use latent class models to explore what Eurobarometer survey data can tell us about the ways in which people participate in tacit or in policy-active ways with developments in science and technology, but instead of focusing on the distance between observed participation and the dominant, normative ideal of participation, we examine the distance between what people do, and what they themselves think is appropriate in terms of involvement. The typology of citizens emerging from the analyses entails an entirely different diagnosis of democratic deficit, one that stresses imbalance between performed and preferred participation.

  18. Fermilab and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-01-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet

  19. Latin manuscript missal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Smolik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the origins and content of the latin manuscript missal marked Bergendal MS 40, which is part of the Bergendal Collection of manuscripts and incunables in Toronto. This manuscript had once been used as a missal by the priests in the Church of St. Daniel in Zalog. The author points to the fact that the analysed missal lacks the texts which are otherwise included in complete missals. On these grounds, he assumes that the buyers of the missal for the Slavina (today Postojna parsonage did not buy the missal, which had been available, but had had only parts of it copied, the parts they presumed to be used and of use in the local church.

  20. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.

  1. Dissolving Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    When the performance Living Dead premiered in Denmark in 2016, its reception was characterized by an equal amount of praise and unease. Written and directed by Christian Lollike, Living Dead dealt with the increasing number of refugees coming to Europe from Africa and the Middle East. Controversi......When the performance Living Dead premiered in Denmark in 2016, its reception was characterized by an equal amount of praise and unease. Written and directed by Christian Lollike, Living Dead dealt with the increasing number of refugees coming to Europe from Africa and the Middle East....... Controversially, it was a “horror performance” focusing on the fear, anxiety, and potential dissolution of Europe. The article examines the agency of the performance. How does it engage our senses and sensibilities? How does the affective and intensive elements of horror relate to the representation...

  2. Neo-Latin in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neo-Latin poetry and prose from North America have already been well surveyed. Drawing on recent historical work, I propose instead to study the place of Neo-Latin writing in the broader history of attitudes toward Latin and the classics in North America (excluding Mexico, which follows the pattern of Spanish cultural assimilation best treated alongside Latin America).

  3. Jorge Oteiza's Modernity and His Latin American Travels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pérez de Mendiola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with Eduardo Chillida, Jorge Oteiza is one of the best-known Basque sculptors of his generation. Although many scholars have written on Oteiza's significant contribution to the field of sculpture, and have analyzed his theories on the meaning of art, very few take into consideration Oteiza's 13 years in Latin America, much less acknowledge that these years had a decisive impact on his art and particularly on his critical essays and poetry. In this essay, I explore how Oteiza's stay in Latin America contributed to his reevaluation of the avant-garde movements in Europe and Latin America, and how it led him to redefine his relationship to progress, science, reason and nature, space and time, ethics, and national art. During the course of his interaction with Latin American artistic movements, Oteiza's thoughts on artistic singularity and universality matured, and he confirmed his strong sense of spirituality in order to liberate traditionally defined conceptual opposites such as the intellectual and the sacred from their teleological confinement.

  4. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Ayrton R.; Lippp, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin) and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs) represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region. PMID:28558081

  5. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  6. On medieval manuscript production in the Latin West, explorations with a global database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buringh, E.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to present detailed information on the production and uses of manuscripts in eleven geographical areas, together comprising the Latin West. We estimated the absolute production (in numbers of manuscripts copied per century) in Europe between 500 and 1500. In total some eleven

  7. Contemporary rates of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (N) deposition to Latin American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent efforts to develop and evaluate regional and global chemical transport models reveal major gaps in atmospheric deposition monitoring. First, in contrast to northern North America, western Europe, and Asia, vast land areas in Latin America, Africa, and Australia remain unde...

  8. JPRS Report, Latin America, Reference Aid, Glossary of Spanish and Portuguese Narcotics Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-04

    shoe-tear, shutear shora sicarios sindrome de abstinencia sinsemilla slämer, el sobre de marijuana sobredosado commercial name for a flammable...Near East & South Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa, Latin America, and West Europe. Supplements to the DAILY REPORTS may also be available periodically and

  9. Transnational Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2016-01-01

    -productions has increased the distribution of original and often local stories in Europe. The article analyses examples of some successful European drama series, their audiences and reception. The analysis is discussed in the context of national and transnational media policy and the impact of globalisation...... in this development. The article concludes that encounters of the kind we find in different forms of TV drama will make Europe more diverse and richer for a much broader audience. The interaction between the particular and universal in “narratives” on our past and contemporary social and cultural order contribute...

  10. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  11. Radiation therapy technology (radiation therapists) manpower needs 1992 comparison of radiation therapeutic technology education in Europe and the United States 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rominger, C. Jules; Owen, Jean; Thompson, Phyllis; Giordano, Patricia; Buck, Beverly; Hanks, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    The shortage of radiation therapists (radiation therapy technologists) has existed in the United States for many years. It now appears the supply may be matching the demand. This report analyzes the data from the most recent manpower study from ACR/ASTRO carried out in 1990 using the Patterns of Care Master Facility list. The report is a comparison of these figures with similar figures published in IJROBP in December, 1983. Between 1980 and 1990 the number of radiation therapists rose from 3096 to 5353, an increase of 72%. During this period of time, the number of radiation therapy machines increased 47%, and the number of patients being treated increased 30%. The total number of educational programs in radiation therapy technology increased from 101 in 1989 to 123 in 1993. The total enrollment in these programs grew from 806 in 1989 to 1591 in 1993. The number of first time examinees in radiation therapy technology by ARRT in 1983 was 387 and increased to 943 in 1994. It is apparent that as a result of the increase in the number of radiation therapy educational programs and the more effective recruitment into these program, the supply of graduating radiation therapists has reached the demand. The future needs for entry level radiation therapists should be based on current data as well as new Blue Book standards that are being developed

  12. [Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

    2014-01-01

    Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America.

  13. Technological Structure of Industrial Exports in Latin America (1990-2010 Estructura tecnológica de las exportaciones industriales en América Latina (1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of industrial exports from a representative sample of Latin American countries in the period 1990-2010, taking into account its technological content and contrasting it with the performance of the United States, the European Union and South Korea equivalent exports. At this time most countries of the region undertook a series of reforms in international trade, which in some cases were further deepened, while in others stagnated or were reversed. The main hypothesis of the paper is that the region presented, at the beginning of the new millennium, a process of exports diversification towards products with greater technology intensity. This process has been overshadowed, with some exceptions (Brazil, Mexico, by the expansion of trade in primary products, which recomposed the export basket in detriment of industrial products, and placed some of these countries in a precarious path of integration into the world economy. The information analyzed supports the validity of this conjecture.Se analiza el comportamiento de las exportaciones industriales de una muestra representativa de países latinoamericanos en el periodo 1990-2010, teniendo en cuenta el contenido tecnológico de las mismas y contrastándola con el desempeño de Estados Unidos, la Unión Europea y Corea del Sur. En este tiempo la mayoría de países de la región se comprometió con una serie de reformas al comercio internacional que en algunos casos se profundizaron y en otros se estancaron o se reversaron. La hipótesis del trabajo es que, en términos generales y relativos, la región presentaba en la entrada del nuevo milenio un incipiente proceso de diversificación exportadora basada en productos con mayor incorporación de tecnología. Este proceso se ha venido opacando, con algunas excepciones (Brasil, México, por la expansión del comercio de productos básicos y mineros, reprimarizando la oferta exportable y colocando a la mayoría de países de la regi

  14. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, N.

    1980-01-01

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Rewilding Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellis, A.; Jong, de R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Rewilding is discussed here as a relatively new but contested discourse and practice in Europe. Rewilding represents an additional, entrepreneurial and somewhat bold strategy in biodiversity conservation, which aims for a return to more natural processes in places that have predominantly become

  16. Social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Sjef Ederveen; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Ruud de Mooij

    2003-01-01

    There is broad support for the European Union (EU) in the Netherlands: 73% of Dutch believe that EU membership is a 'good thing'. The figure in Germany is 59%, in France it is 50% and in the United Kingdom 30%. By contrast, engagement with Europe is very low in the Netherlands. In late 2002 fewer

  17. Europe phrasebook

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This book replaces "Western Europe Phrasbook". It includes Basque, Catalan, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish and Welsh. This fully updated edition includes special sections on going out, sports and festivals, as well as local dishes, shopping and sightseeing.

  18. OSILAC : Observatory for the Information Society in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has provided two phases of support to OSILAC, the Observatory for the Information Society in Latin America and the Caribbean (101849 and 102830). OSILAC promotes the importance of keeping statistics on information and communication technology (ICT) and provides technical assistance to official statistics ...

  19. Digital Poverty: Latin American and Caribbean Perspectives | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... This book examines the problem of inadequate access to information and communication technology (ICT) and the need to develop appropriate pro-poor ICT policies within the Latin American and Caribbean context. The authors show how market reforms have failed to ensure that the benefits of the ...

  20. North-South Knowledge Partnerships : Promoting the Canada-Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Phase I (104033) sought to foster learning partnerships between Canadian and Latin American research and training institutions by testing, analyzing and documenting different modes of collaboration based on information and communications technology (ICT). In Phase II, the research team will create a supporting ...

  1. AVANT-GARDISM AND LATINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects the Avant-garde had on the way of thinking of people belonging to various cultures and professions were bigger than expected. The fact that there were Dada promoters who belonged to nations of Latin origin, such as Tr. Tzara and G. M. Teles, led future theoreticians to advocate the idea of a Latin union which - through joint cultural actions - could change the entire political, economic, and spiritual life.

  2. Latin America: emerging nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for nuclear power in Latin American countries is surveyed. It is concluded that Latin America offers the greatest external market for all exporters of nuclear reactors and associated services in the near future. Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia are the only countries with fossil-fuel reserves adequate to meet their requirements in the next 20 to 30 years. Nuclear power is a necessity to maintain or improve the standard of living in the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru

  3. Latin America’s Subtle Racism: Salient Managerial Implications For Non-Latin American Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Rutilio Martinez; Cris de la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid nineteen nineties most Latin American nations have implemented free market policies. The ensuing economic stability has attracted investment from non-Latin corporations, thereby causing the transfer of non-Latin executives to Latin nations. For many of these executives, their Latin assignments include an unexpected challenge: Dealing with Latin America’s subtle but pervasive racism. Such racism contributes to the mistreatment of labor and influences the promotion and hiring of e...

  4. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  5. Dementia in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A.; Baez, Sandra; Allegri, Ricardo; Nitrini, Ricardo; Lopera, Francisco; Slachevsky, Andrea; Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Piguet, Olivier; Kumfor, Fiona; Huepe, David; Cogram, Patricia; Bak, Thomas; Manes, Facundo

    2018-01-01

    The demographic structure of Latin American countries (LAC) is fast approaching that of developing countries, and the predicted prevalence of dementia in the former already exceeds the latter. Dementia has been declared a global challenge, yet regions around the world show differences in both the nature and magnitude of such a challenge. This article provides evidence and insights on barriers which, if overcome, would enable the harmonization of strategies to tackle the dementia challenge in LAC. First, we analyze the lack of available epidemiologic data, the need for standardizing clinical practice and improving physician training, and the existing barriers regarding resources, culture, and stigmas. We discuss how these are preventing timely care and research. Regarding specific health actions, most LAC have minimal mental health facilities and do not have specific mental health policies or budgets specific to dementia. In addition, local regulations may need to consider the regional context when developing treatment and prevention strategies. The support needed nationally and internationally to enable a smooth and timely transition of LAC to a position that integrates global strategies is highlighted. We focus on shared issues of poverty, cultural barriers, and socioeconomic vulnerability. We identify avenues for collaboration aimed to study unique populations, improve valid assessment methods, and generate opportunities for translational research, thus establishing a regional network. The issues identified here point to future specific actions aimed at tackling the dementia challenge in LAC. PMID:29305437

  6. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...

  7. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Andrei; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Averfalk, Helge

    2017-01-01

    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that suc......The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document......, refrigerants, efficiency and types of operation of 149 units with 1580 MW of thermal output, the study further uses this data to analyze if the deployment of this technology on a large-scale is possible in other locations in Europe. It finally demonstrates that the technical level of the existing heat pumps...... is mature enough to make them suitable for replication in other locations in Europe....

  8. [Latin American perspectives on person-centered medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Alberto; Mendoza, Juan; Armas, Rodolfo; Cluzet, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Person-centered medicine (PCM) is a programmatic global initiative led by the International College of Person-Centered Medicine. It has recently emerged in Latin America. It requires the use of scientific research as an instrument to generate the best clinical evidence, and humanism as the essence of medicine to help mankind. It is focused on not only combatting disease but also promoting the display of healthy human being potentials towards achieving well-being and comprehensive growth. Although the humanism of medicine in Latin America has been a distinctive characteristic of its practice, now, there is a worrying decline in its impact on healthcare. This article summarizes the Latin American perspective from four countries. Needs and experiences are compared and responses that arise in view of the dehumanizing influence of technology and health management as a consumption good are described.

  9. Fortress Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    lookouts, as they are on the front line of the migration route between Europe and Africa. In effect, one of the most relevant contributions that this book aims to bring is to connect the study of the border in Ceuta and Melilla with the European dimension, that is, with the European policies that affect...... these enclaves interesting visual manifestations of the ‘Fortress Europe’ metaphor. This book comprehensively explores the economic, historical, European and Moroccan dimensions of these unique European Fortresses....

  10. Europe Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-08

    eradication of bovine brucellosis —50,000 bacteriological investigations during the year for safeguarding the health of the general population...epidemics. The successful control of bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis proves what a closer relationship exists between animal health and performance. In...1976, li 41 percent of the cattle stock was infected with brucellosis and tuberculosis (milk output 3245 kg/cow). In the current year, all stocks

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-13

    genetic engineering of brewing yeast Clinical testing services, renal and hepatic pharmacology, cellular pharmacology, psy- chopharmacology, and immune...and kits (e.g., ANA, protein A, cancer markers) Veterinary and human diagnostic kits ( hepatitis delta antigen) Diagnostic kits for clinical...developing monoclonal, and DNA probe, based tests for Chlamydia and for other infectious diseases. In University College, Dublin, an assay for Fasciola

  12. Europe Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    derivatives with fewer side effects. The main task in the production of edible mushroom pilei will be to increase their yield per unit of substrate and...products from fer- mented biomass, organic acids, ergotamines, antibiotics for human and veteri- nary medicines, edible mushrooms , and phytomass...cultivation of strains of appropriate microorganisms and, in the case of mushrooms , the capability for cultivating appropriate spores. 59 The utilization

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-18

    Three-dimensional [3D] textile structures have existed for some time. Generally speaking, they consist of layers of textiles (woven, nonwoven , or knit...versus 0°C and 220°C for adsorption based on zeolite, and less than 150°C for liquid gas absorption systems. The STELF system is also cheaper and...standard, D2 MAC, already offers viewers appreciably better picture and sound quality. German Telecommunications Developments Reported Videophone

  14. Europe Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-29

    consequences of this are easy to surmise. The change in OTRAG management indicates a basic change in this respect also, eliminating any fears of...for example, research is being conducted on the synthesis of antibiotics from slime bacteria (myxobacteria), the formation of pigments with...because of the extensive size of its territory. Fears that Beijing may be having a customized aircraft developed at German expense are countered by

  15. Europe Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    deliberate, and act according to their common interests. Among the tasks already accomplished ORGANIBIO’s active role in the publica - tion this summer of...automaty obra - chunkowe .... ....... 4189 3304 3072 3083 2645 85,8 63,1 atrmilujh danycliUrko.qcbwki inteligentne . . 59 70 77 104 131 126,0 222,0

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-27

    compression ratios. The JUMO 205 from the year 1945 already attained operating altitudes of up to 15 km. As a self-igniter, the diesel engine needs no...even be possible without it." By now, the Inmos system has found acceptance even among the big shots of the international electronics circle

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    to all advance reports, the German genetics law has not yet worked as a catalyst. Microorganisms produce beer, wine, and yogurt , sub- stances...between 1 MW and approximately 40 MW. The aim of this funding is to demonstrate the economic viability of these instal- lations in terms of specific...provide information relating particularly to the economic viability of operating such installations. Funding will be scheduled as follows: 1. Up to 20

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-12

    MANAGEMENT-INFORMATIONEN, 17 Jan 92] 68 French Researchers Use Laser Isotope Separation Technique for Uranium Enrichment [Jean-Francois Augereau...this, Citroen Industrie converted its flexible workshop into a flexible cell (two machining centers, automated tool and pallet magazines, and a...form. Virus A is transmitted by fecal -oral contact, water and food being the principal vehicles of contamination. There are no efficacious

  19. Europe Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-17

    Hollow Cathode Discharges Used for Gas, Metal Vapor Lasers (Karoly Rozsa ; MAGYAR FIZIKAI FOLYOIRAT, No 1, 1986) 85 /9987 - c - JPRS-EST-86-035... Rozsa , Solid Body Physics Research Institute, Central Physics Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences: "Hollow Cathode Discharges Used for Gas

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-07

    Recommendations on BRIDGE Program [R. R. van der Meer; CHIMICA OGGI, No 6, Apr 88] 16 Flanders Hosts Applied Biotech Forum [ BIOTECHNOLOGIE TRANSFER...relevant external par- ties and organizations. 08800 Flanders Hosts Applied Biotech Forum 3698A186 Bruges BIOTECHNOLOGIE TRANSFER in Dutch Jan-Mar 88

  1. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-22

    experiments with alert animals. Institute Director Professor Wolf Singer tersely admits: "It was purely accidental." He smiles: "We were inves...dependent on the cost of energy. Dr. Wolf Rasch, Secretary of the Forum for Energy of the Future, is not afraid that an additional energy tax would...deficient, antiquated, trying—that the Iberian highway system did in the sixties. The national carrier Telefonica is anxious to shake off this image

  2. JPRS Report Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-22

    research that at present is enjoying much popularity is the measurement and anal- ysis of other components of urban air polluion , including not only the...Established [Rome AIR PRESS, 10 Jul 91] 1 AEROSPACE German, French Contributions to Ariane 5 Described [W. Engelhardt; Düsseldorf HANDELSBLATT...14-15 Jun 91] 1 Italy’s Telespazio To Control Italsat Satellite Orbit [Rome AIR PRESS, 17 Apr 91] 2 BIOTECHNOLOGY German Law on Genetic

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-10

    of. A significant reduction of sludge is only possible with so-called anaer- obic procedures ( biogas processes). While in the aerobic process up to...half of the carbon from the sewage components can reappear in the sludge , 10 times less sludge is formed with the anaerobic pro- cess. Instead, up...front housing is the mobile part of the IOC. It transmits/receives at 20/30 GHz and also converts the frequency to 2 GHz. This frequency conversion had

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-27

    the future. Under the direction of the assembly leader, Dipl.-Ing. Helmut Pohley, impressive preparations have already been made in the past months...charge. In the following, AIK business manager Edgar Kohlhaas supplies an over- view of the present recycling possibilities. Almost all the major... Helmut Stein, first indicated that Mr. Schepers was the head of a Nokia Research and Development center near Stuttgart and had "nothing to do with

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-18

    possible by controlling the ruminant’s digestive system and eliminating bacteria in the animal’s rumen which have the undesirable habit of transforming...and the Free State of Bavaria are sponsoring the grants portion of the work together with 50 percent. The symbiosis of the sun and hydrogen 82 WEST

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-30

    unperturbed by the prospect of fierce competition. "The first application should be out by the end of the year, in cosmetology . After that comes oncol- ogy...These studies are being carried out jointly by the Chem- ical Engineering Plant Construction company in Leipzig- Grimma, the Institute of Chemical...in Italian Feb91p5 [Text] An advanced programming system for batch pro- duction is about to be installed in numerous Pirelli tire plants across

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-22

    Reinhold Boehmer; Duesseldorf WIRTSCHAFTSWOCHE, 24 Mar 89] .... 29 MICROELECTRONICS FRG Laender Compete for JESSI Projects [Roland Tichy ...sized by the SFB spokesman, political science professor Franz Lehner. To him, "thinned-out factories with only a few unskilled workers are out of the...by Roland Tichy : "Research Subsidies: Every- one Wants JESSI" first paragraph is introduction] [Text] No one really knows what it is, but everyone

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-20

    microorganisms ; 7—animal production and health; 8— biotransformation processes; 9—pharmacology and toxicology in vitro. JPRS-EST-88-011 20 October...risk assessment; 2—bioreactors; 3—protein engineering; 4—bioinformatics; 5— microorganisms for industrial use; 6—cultivable plants and related...No 479, 13 May 88 pp 13-14 [Text] Proteins, such as hormones , interleukins or Inter- ferons, do not always possess the required properties

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-10

    durability/CND J Electric current under high field/Tensile test at 4 degrees K I Synthetic hydroxyapatite /behavior under friction and wear GB NaCl, s...a novice either in the field of compos- ite materials. Actually, it was in Basel that epoxy resins (araldite), which have many industrial...accurate, as an example, we’ll consider a composite made of epoxy resin [reinforced] with carbon fiber with F = 0.6, made from preimpregnated F550

  10. JPRS Report Science & Technology, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-09

    at HERA Facility in Hamburg [Ulrich Straumann , Ralph Eichler, et al; Zurich NEUE ZUERCHER ZEITUNG (INTERNATIONAL EDITION), 22...Article by Ulrich Straumann , Ralph Eichler, and Peter Truoel (Physics Institute of Zurich University, Institute of Medium-Energy Physics of the Swiss

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-13

    ascertain to what extent chlorophenols from old sedi- ment ( sewage sludge , for instance) can lead to ground water contamination. Here, there are many...the field of fermentation and bioconversion , generally defined the "traditional" biotechnologies. In the field of "new" biotechnologies, these...metabolites 60 11,000 Farmitalia Carlo Erba, Milan 9 Enzymes with new properties 60 13,000 Tecnofarmaci, Pomezia 10 Bioconversion and enzymatic catalysis for

  12. JPRS Report Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-25

    of certain fishes to sap from plant stems and seeds. The use of the crushed seeds of the horseradish plant, Moringa oleifera, used by the people...indicative of the application of this prodigiously blossoming plant. Even two or three moringa seeds in a small cloth sack, placed into a vesel for water...seed of the moringa plant, responsible for the flocculation. It is a small protein molecule con- sisting of a chain of 60 amino acids. The good

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-30

    exchange, it has received a broad share of the ESA industrial con- tracts and virtually total control of ESA activities. This has enabled French...charge. A Virtual Wardrobe To conclude regarding the chassis, the Chela’s 2.10- meter front wheelbase provides a high-performance turning circle...future, was ear- marked a whole showroom at the world chemistry meeting, Achema, in Frankfurt. This was an opportunity to learn about the present

  14. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-29

    38 France: High-Speed Open Network Developed [Le Chesnay INRIA INFORMATION, Dec 90] 40 Deutsche Bundespost Telekom Initiates Pilot Videotext... Telekom Initiates Pilot Videotext Program 91WS0108A Leinfelden-Echterdingen EEE in German 13Nov90pp4-8 [Article by Elke H. Zobel: "ISDN Teaches...Bundespost Telekom , which offers access to information and data communication at favorable prices to a broad range of users. Through far-reaching standard

  15. End of life, death and dying in neonatal intensive care units in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, C A; González, S; Zambosco, G; Cancela, M J; Forero, L V; Venegas, M; Baquero, H; Lemus-Varela, L; Kattan, J; Wormald, F; Sola, A; Lantos, J

    2012-06-01

    Most analyses of end of life decisions in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) have come from Europe/English-speaking countries. Would decisions be different in Latin American NICUs? Therefore, we aim to evaluate the approach to dying infants/families in NICUs in Latin America. Multinational descriptive study of all deaths in babies born at >22 weeks in eight NICUs in five Latin American countries. Deaths were categorized as: (i) no Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) or life support offered; (ii) life support initiated but do not resuscitate (DNR) orders written or no CPR provided; (iii) full life support and CPR; and (iv) unclassifiable. There were 100 deaths, 81% in >27 weeks. Seventeen infants received no CPR/life support at birth, 10 died in DR and seven in NICU. There were 27 infants in group 2, 54 in group three and two in group 4. No baby had care withdrawn or care withdrawn/CPR withheld. Thirty-two infants had 'do not resuscitate' order. Decisions without parents' involvement in 15%, both parents present at death 24% and sedatives/narcotics documented 14%. Latin American NICUs differ from those in Northern Europe/English-speaking countries. More deaths are accompanied by full life support and CPR. DNR orders are rare. Withdrawal of life support is virtually non-existent. Latin American's doctors are more likely to make decisions without the objections of family about withholding life-sustaining treatment. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  17. Unhomely Europes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Eleftheriotis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of PORTAL constitutes an indirect, sideways reflection on the EU’s move toward (re-discovering, establishing, and promoting shared cultural values. It seeks to unveil not the official historical contexts and traditions in which contemporary inventions of cultural identity occur. Rather, its aim is to discover and listen to competing voices and alternative visions—be they cultural, social, political, literary or cinematic—that give different shape to trans-European identities and model union, commonality, and belonging, according to transregional or translocal values. The special issue, then, is an exploration of possible forms of frictions occurring across the European cultural and historical landscape. It questions the pre-eminence of formal EU discourses on values, and the branding of Europe in the global marketplace, by listening to marginalised, unheard or discordant Euro-voices. The issue demonstrates the need for more rigorous theorisations of notions such as ‘value,’ whether ‘shared’ or ‘cultural,’ in the European region, and posits alternative mappings and visions of European belonging and identity. The essays included in this special issue consider Europe as a locus of frictions, consensus, tension, contestation and reconciliation. This locus is capable of co-locating Scotland with the Costa Brava, crossing Swedish views of Russia with their converse, recognising a Europe of borders that continuously unfold, acknowledging the interference of historical memories, and inflecting the Houellebecquian Euro-futurescape with Greco-Australian undertones; to cite a few examples of vibrant transvaluation occurring in the issue.

  18. Latin American scientific contribution to ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Juliana; Ceschin, Fernanda; Pereto, Suelen C A S; Ribas, Luiz G S; Bezerra, Luis A V; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Siqueira, Tadeu; Padial, André A

    2017-01-01

    Latin America embodies countries of special interest for ecological studies, given that areas with great value for biodiversity are located within their territories. This highlights the importance of an evaluation of ecological research in the Latin America region. We assessed the scientific participation of Latin American researchers in ecological journals, patterns of international collaboration, and defined the main characteristics of the articles. Although Latin American publications have increased in fourteen years, they accounted up to 9% of publications in Ecology. Brazil leaded the scientific production in Latin America, followed by Argentina and Mexico. In general, Latin American articles represented a low percentage of most journals total publication, with particularly low expression in high impact-factor journals. A half of the Latin American publications had international collaboration. Articles with more than five authors and with international collaboration were the most cited. Descriptive studies, mainly based in old theories, are still majority, suggesting that Ecology is in a developing stage in Latin America.

  19. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. The executioner's shadow: Coerced sterilization and the creation of "Latin" eugenics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    Scholars such as Nancy Leys Stepan, Alexandra Minna Stern, Marius Turda and Aaron Gillette have all argued that the rejection of coerced sterilization was a defining feature of "Latin" eugenic theory and practice. These studies highlight the influence of neo-Lamarckism in this development not only in Latin America but also in parts of Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. This article builds upon this historiographical framework to examine an often-neglected site of Latin American eugenic knowledge production: Chile. By focusing on Chilean eugenicists' understandings of environment and coerced sterilization, this article argues that there was no uniquely Latin objection to the practice initially. In fact, Chilean eugenicists echoed concerns of eugenicists from a variety of locations, both "mainstream" and Latin, who felt that sterilization was not the most effective way to ensure the eugenic improvement of national populations. Instead, the article contends that it was not until the implementation of the 1933 German racial purity laws, which included coerced sterilization legislation, that Chilean eugenicists began to define their objections to the practice as explicitly Latin. Using a variety of medical texts which appeared in popular periodicals as well as professional journals, this article reveals the complexity of eugenic thought and practice in Chile in the early twentieth century.

  1. A call to arms: Time to do cognitive science in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous theoretical reviews about the development of Psychology in Latin America suggest that Latin American psychology has a promising future. This paper empirically checks whether that status remains justified. In so doing, the frequency of programs/research domains in three salient psychological areas is assessed in Latin America and in two other regions of the world. A chi-square statistic is used to analyse the collected data. Programs/research domains and regions of the world are the independent variables and frequency of programs/research domains per world region is the dependent variable. Results suggest that whereas in Latin America the work onSocial/Organizational Psychology is moving within expected parameters, there is a rather strong focus on Clinical/Psychoanalytical Psychology. Results also show that Experimental/Cognitive Psychology is much underestimated. In Asia, however, the focus on all areas of psychology seems to be distributed within expected parameters, whereas Europe outperforms regarding Experimental/Cognitive Psychology research. Potentialreasons that contribute to Latin America's situation are discussed and specific solutions are proposed. It is concluded that the scope of Experimental/Cognitive Psychology in Latin America should be broadened into a Cognitive Science research program.

  2. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  3. Trends of bio-hydrogen research and development in Europe. Report for the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesing, B.

    1997-03-01

    Research into applied aspects of biological hydrogen production is carried out on a much lower level in Europe than basic hydrogenase research. However, the screening for good H{sub 2} producers, their cultivation, and the development of optimised culture and bioreactor systems has never been a strength in Europe. Although there are a few good groups in Europe major contributions in this field traditionally come from countries outside Europe. However, in the nineties a special application-oriented research subfield has begun to evolve in Europe: the use of genetic enginering to rationally optimise H{sub 2} producing organisms. The most important players who focus on green algae, cyanobacteria, and purple bacteria can be found in Germany, France, and Sweden. In European biohydrogen research, a large and diverse variety of organisms is investigated. Among the organisms most thoroughly studied are Alcaligenes eutrophus, Escherichia coli, Rhodobacter capsulatus, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria. Moreover, a leading position has been obtained with respect to molecular genetics of green algae and cyanobacteria, albeit on a low level. The fact that such a broad range of diverse organisms is studied has advantages and disadvantages. A positive aspect is that the multitude of different approaches had led to several unexpected results which had otherwise been overlooked. On the other hand, an obvious link to biohydrogen production is often lacking. Moreover, there are many 'me-too' approaches and results in which previous findings are only reproduced for another organism as well. (orig.)

  4. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1975 List

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Thomas G.

    1975-01-01

    List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)

  5. Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program Phase III. A grant to improve a new generation of Latin American leaders' understanding of how to better manage natural resources will contribute to the region's economic and social development. Earlier IDRC grants helped the Latin American and ...

  6. JPRS Report, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-20

    social, economic and military forces will seek their own outlet in chaos, just as the river seeks the sea, if necessary by overflowing its banks and...INTEVEP [Institute of Venezuelan^etroleum Technology] " llnZnrt am°T ltS, a"omPlishments is the steady progress of the Orinoco loi^thVT...drel°Ping the technological bases that will make it possible to use the hydrocarbons in the Orinoco Oil Belt. "As a result of this research, they

  7. Spent fuel management options for research reactors in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have been operated in Latin America since the late 1950s, and a total of 23 RRs have been built in the region. At the time of writing (November 2005), 18 RRs are in operation, 4 have been shut down and 1 has been decommissioned. The number of operating RRs in Latin America represents around 6% of the existing operational RRs worldwide and around 21% of the RRs operating in developing countries. Common to all RRs in the region is a consistent record of safe and successful operation. With the purpose of carrying out a collaborative study of different aspects of the management of spent fuel from RRs, some countries from the region proposed to the IAEA in 2000 the organization of a Regional Project. The project (IAEA TC Regional Project RLA/4/018) that was approved for the biennium 2001-2002 and extended for 2003-2004 included the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. The main objectives of this project were: (a) to define the basic conditions for a regional strategy for managing spent fuel that will provide solutions compatible with the economic and technological realities of the countries involved; and (b) to determine what is needed for the temporary wet and dry storage of spent fuel from the research reactors in the countries of the Latin American region that participated in the project. This TECDOC is based on the results of TC Regional Project RLA/4/018. This project was successful in identifying and assessing a number of viable alternatives for RRSF management in the Latin American region. Options for operational and interim storage, spent fuel conditioning and final disposal have been carefully considered. This report presents the views of Latin American experts on RR spent fuel management and will be useful as reference material for the Latin American RR community, decision making authorities in the region and the public in general

  8. Rural Labour in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Janvry, Alain; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the status of rural labor and the performance of labor markets in Latin American agriculture. Points out the rapidly declining share of agriculture in the total labor force, weak capacity for creating nonagricultural employment, and rapidly increasing migration to towns. (JOW)

  9. Tuning History in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Albo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-Latin America Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal…

  10. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  11. Language Politics in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  12. Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litter, Marta I.; Morgada, Maria E.; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 μg L -1 of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions. - Low-cost techniques should be urgently investigated to remove arsenic in drinking water in poor disperse rural and urban Latin American populations.

  13. Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litter, Marta I., E-mail: litter@cnea.gov.a [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, CP 1650, San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CP 1033, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, Peatonal Belgrano 3563, 1o piso, CP 1650, San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Morgada, Maria E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CP 1033, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bundschuh, Jochen [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Applied Research, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 mug L{sup -1} of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions. - Low-cost techniques should be urgently investigated to remove arsenic in drinking water in poor disperse rural and urban Latin American populations.

  14. II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance

    CERN Document Server

    Bertemes-Filho, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of CLABIO 2015 - II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance, held in Montevideo, Uruguay - September 30 - October 02, 2015. The works cover a broad range in Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. The topics are: ·Bioimpedance Applications ·Bioimpedance Instrumentation ·Body and Tissue Composition ·Cell Culture and Cell Suspension ·Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Electrode Modelling ·Magnetic Induction - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Magnetic Resonance - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Nonlinear Phenomena ·Organ and Tissue Impedance ·Plant Tissue Impedance ·Skin Impedance Modelling ·Technological Advances in Bioimpedance ·Theory and Modelling.

  15. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  16. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  17. Planning, Re-Bordering and Setting Times: A Comparative Analysis of European and Latin American "Education Spaces"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…

  18. Innovation strategies in Latin American firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, F.

    2016-07-01

    During the last fifteen years, several Latin American countries have launched new policies to spur the structural transformation of their economies. In parallel, the availability of R&D and innovation statistics is greater than ever before. However, most of the new policies have been backed by the use of simple aggregated R&D and innovation indicators. This work will use a unique dataset of IS from several LA economies to produce a detailed analysis of innovation strategies of LA firms. These results will facilitate a more comprehensive comparison of innovation performance between LA countries and a richer benchmark analysis with economies from the EU. Furthermore, it will allow to measure the explanatory power of industry and country conditions in the heterogeneity of innovation strategies and to test the pertinence of the OECD sector-based technological classifications in the LA context. During the last fifteen years, several Latin American countries have launched new policies to spur the structural transformation of their economies. In parallel, the availability of R&D and innovation statistics is greater than ever before. However, most of the new policies have been backed by the use of simple aggregated R&D and innovation indicators. This work will use a unique dataset of IS from several LA economies to produce a detailed analysis of innovation strategies of LA firms. These results will facilitate a more comprehensive comparison of innovation performance between LA countries and a richer benchmark analysis with economies from the EU. Furthermore, it will allow to measure the explanatory power of industry and country conditions in the heterogeneity of innovation strategies and to test the pertinence of the OECD sector-based technological classifications in the LA context. (Author)

  19. The reality of scientific research in Latin America; an insider's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Daniel R; Delgado, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    There is tremendous disparity in scientific productivity among nations, particularly in Latin America. At first sight, this could be linked to the relative economic health of the different countries of the region, but even large and relatively rich Latin American countries do not produce a good level of science. Although Latin America has increased the number of its scientists and research institutions in recent years, the gap between developed countries and Latin American countries is startling. The prime importance of science and technology to the development of a nation remains unacknowledged. The major factors contributing to low scientific productivity are the limited access to grant opportunities, inadequate budgets, substandard levels of laboratory infrastructure and equipment, the high cost and limited supply of reagents, and inadequate salaries and personal insecurity of scientists. The political and economic instability in several Latin America countries results in a lack of long-term goals that are essential to the development of science. In Latin America, science is not an engine of the economy. Most equipment and supplies are imported, and national industries are not given the incentives to produce these goods at home. It is a pity that Latin American society has become accustomed to expect new science and technological developments to come from developed countries rather than from their own scientists. In this article, we present a critical view of the Latin American investigator's daily life, particularly in the area of biomedicine. Too many bright young minds continue to leave Latin America for developed countries, where they are very successful. However, we still have many enthusiastic young graduates who want to make a career in science and contribute to society. Governments need to improve the status of science for the sake of these young graduates who represent the intellectual and economic future of their countries.

  20. A Historical Perspective on Administrative Jurisdiction in Latin America: Continental European Tradition versus U.S. Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlingeiro Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of U.S. influence, this text analyses the history of administrative jurisdiction, starting from the 19th Century, in the 19 Latin American countries of Iberian origin (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The analysis includes the U.S. unified judicial system (generalized courts and procedural due process of law to decisions by the administrative authorities, the fertile field of primary jurisdiction, which is in conflict with the Continental European tradition firmly established in Latin American administrative law. While setting out the contradictions of administrative jurisdiction in Latin American countries that result from importing rules without putting them in the proper context, the text seeks to identify trends and create perspective to build a model of administrative justice specific to Latin America, drawing on the accumulated experience of the United States and Continental Europe.

  1. Comparative assessment of the European and Latin American scenarios for NORM/TENORM exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The geological formation of the areas of high natural radioactivity are usually associated with mineral ores commercially important. As a consequence, extracting industries are installed in or near those areas. Several industrial products and byproducts can be obtained from thorium, uranium and potassium rich mineral ores, for example: niobium concentrate from pyrochlore; monazite, ilmenite, rutile and zirconite concentrates from monazite sands; phosphate fertilizers from apatite; tin and lead from cassiterite; gold and copper form a variety of thorium and uranium rich mineral matrices. Other industries like oil- and natural gas production and processing, production of thoriated tungsten lamps, welding, gas mantles and pigments produce non-negligible amounts of wastes containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). In addition, quite frequently unknown amounts of natural radionuclides end up embedded in a variety of consumer products. Thus, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) as well as TENORM in consumer products and/or industrial wastes may be of importance as far as human exposures are concerned. This work will present a comparative assessment of the radiological significance of different NORM/TENORM exposure scenarios in Europe and Latin America. (author)

  2. Fourth Latin-American workshop on plasma physics. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of this series of Workshops is to provide a periodic meeting place for Latin-American researchers in plasma physics together with colleagues from other countries around the world. This volume includes the contributed papers presented at the Workshop on Plasma Physics held in Buenos Aires in 1990. The scope of the Workshop can be synthesized in the following main subjects: Tokamak experiments and theory; alternative confinement systems and basic experiments; technology and applications; general theory; astrophysical and space plasmas

  3. Assistance Focus: Latin America and the Caribbean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean.

  4. Chapter 10. Professional migration from Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    From NGO to multilateral organisation and government involvement: three case studiesFernando Lema Executive summary In this chapter we present three case studies of the Latin American diaspora: one on the experience of non-profit organisations (NGO) in France (AFUDEST and ALAS), one on work in an international organisation (UNESCO) and one about field work with a government agency, Argentina's Secretariat for Science, Technology and Productive Innovation (SETCIP). The three experiences took p...

  5. Evolutions et perspectives de la strategie de Zara: en Amerique Latine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanny Fernando Benavides

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMÉÉ L’objectif de cet article est double: analyser les stratégies mise en place par le groupe INDITEX lui ayant permis d’atteindre une position privilégiée en Europe et étudier son processus d’expansion et les stratégies d’internationalisation employées en Amérique latine. Nous commencerons pour cela à évaluer le positionnement global de la marque Zara (concurrence, développement, ventes, etc., les perspectives des marchés européens et d’Amérique latine pour ensuite mettre en évidence les observations réalisées lors de cette étude renforçant le potentiel de la mise en place d’une stratégie similaire pour le marché asiatique.

  6. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL; Cooperacao tecnica para os usos pacificos da tecnologia nuclear na America Latina e no Caribe: a experiencia do acordo regional ARCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  7. Latin American production - premium Barrels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, P.D.

    1993-12-31

    The rapid increase in acceptability of various potential exploration and production venture opportunities throughout most of Latin America has created yet another watershed in our ever changing industry. Who would have believed a very short while ago that ventures in Latin America would compete successfully for risk funds against well established opportunities in such areas as the North Sea or Asia Pacific and even with the heady prospects continuing to appear in the CIS? Is this competition real, or is it another industry myth which sets sights too high and where we chase each others pot of gold before reality sets in? Let us try and examine some of the reasons why the current enthusiasms may be justified, particularly so in the case of North American investment.

  8. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...... characteristics, and external shocks in the region. I study three important phases, following Thorp (1998): from 1900 to 1930, the exporting phase, from 1931 to 1974, the industrialization phase, and from 1975 to 2007, the globalization phase. During the last two phases, I find strong evidence of convergence...

  9. The Emergence of Latin Multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Santiso, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The corporate world has changed remarkably in the past 10 years. New multinationals are appearing in countries with emerging markets such as Brazil, India, China, South Africa and Mexico, which are not only top recipients of foreign capital, but have fast become major investors themselves. An important part of the remarkable story of emerging multinationals has been the eruption of world-class Latin multinationals (or multilatinas) from Mexico and Brazil, in particular, foll...

  10. The impact in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program represented a radical departure from the policy of secrecy and denial that existed during the immediate postwar period, after the rejection of the Baruch Plan for international control of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. Although the genesis and philosophy of the program are well known, the author emphasizes certain general aspects and considers specific situations in Latin America about the purposes and premises of Atoms for Peace

  11. Biomass in Latin America -- overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the interest of the Organization of American States as a participant in this hemispheric conference on biomass, provides an introduction to the Latin American experience in biomass energy through open-quotes snapshotsclose quotes of various country activities, and concludes with a discussion of four conditions that form strong incentives for new north/south and south/north ventures in the biomass energy and chemical arena in this hemisphere

  12. MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Ibáñez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.

  13. Credit Stagnation in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Barajas; Roberto Steiner

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the recent marked slowdown in bank credit to the private sector in Latin America. Based on the study of eight countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela), the magnitude of the slowdown is documented, comparing it to historical behavior and to slowdown episodes in other regions of the world. Second, changes in bank balance sheets are examined to determine whether the credit slowdown is merely a reflection of a slowdown in bank deposi...

  14. Why study in Latin America? International student mobility to Colombia and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nitz, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The number of international students enrolled at universities in study destinations outside Europe and the main English-speaking countries has been continuously increasing during the past few years. However, previous studies that explain why international students choose a specific target country for their studies abroad have rarely concentrated on these “nontraditional” study destinations. The number of international students has, in particular, multiplied in Latin America, making this regio...

  15. International trends in health science librarianship. Part 5 Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Beverley; Rodrííguez-Jiménez, Teresa M

    2013-03-01

    This is the 5th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in Latin America and the Caribbean in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Argentina, Bermuda and Mexico. Future issues will track trends in Central Europe and the Middle East. JM. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Potential benefits of the increase in nuclear cooperation between Latin and North American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Wilson J.; Soto-Urbina, Ligia M.; Cabral, Arnoldo S.

    1997-01-01

    Economic problems of Latin American countries are increasing the pressure on the world's environmental health. Therefore, it is necessary to create efficient means to support fast and environmentally safe development efforts in the region. The objective of this work is to stress the importance of nuclear technology cooperation between American countries as an important means to foster economic and social growth. Scientific production in Brazil and other Latin American countries has not increased significantly in the last decades, and modern technology is only available to a small fraction of the population. To ameliorate this problem it is necessary to improve technological cooperation throughout the american continent, which will be facilitated by the existing scientific capacity available in some Latin American universities and laboratories. Small and big countries alike need to establish their share in the cooperative effort to reduce present day technology hazards. (author)

  17. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  18. Epidemiology of osteoporosis in Latin America 2008 Epidemiología de la osteoporosis en Latino América

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Riera-Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing disease in Latin America, rates of fractures actually in LA are quite similar to the ones in Southern Europe and slightly lower than USA and Northern Europe. According to the population projection of the WHO subjects over 65 of age will increase significantly in the next 50 years in LA and the number of hip fractures in this area will equal the numbers in Europe and USA. Unfortunately, in LA there are not adequate resources in terms of medical facilities for osteopor...

  19. The role of the state oil company in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the Latin American state oil companies (LASOCs) in establishing national industries to fuel economic development is discussed. LASOCs are represented internationally in an organization called ARPEL (Asistencia Reciproca Petrolera Estatal Latinoamericana) which is aimed to foster interchange, cooperation, and mutual assistance among its 20 member companies, as well as to promote economic integration of Latin America through its petroleum sector. State oil companies in Latin America date from 1922, when the oldest LASOC was created in Argentina. LASOCs are responsible for ca 80% of petroleum activities in Latin America. As of 1990, Latin American oil reserves, including gas liquids, amounted to ca 122 billion bbl or 12.2% of the world total. Regional oil production averaged 7.4 million bbl/d in 1990. Refining capacity is ca 7.7 million bbl/d, of which 80% is operated directly by LASOCs. Natural gas reserves are 7.3 trillion m 3 , ca 6% of the world total, and production averaged 360 million m 3 in 1990. LASOCs were generally created and developed under strong nationalistic climates and worked in regulated markets. They grew strongly during the 1960s and 1970s and also organized to work both in upstream and downstream operations. LASOC strategies varied according to the needs of the individual countries, but generally included promotion of long range plans to develop the local manufacturing and service industries. The larger LASOCs have developed important new technologies. In the 1980s, economic crises and financial manipulation by governments brought LASOCs into a serious crisis, and the latest trend is toward deregulation and an opening to foreign investment to encourage economic recovery. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. The future of nuclear power in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future prospects of nuclear power in Latin America. As part of the developing world, Latin America has a great potential for energy growth. Although there are substantial differences among the different countries of the area, one common denominator is the relatively low per-capita energy consumption. As in many other regions of the world, nuclear power makes sense to complement hydro and fossil-fueled power generation. One of the main restrictions to the growth of nuclear power has been the relatively small size of some electric system. As in most developing countries, the damage to the environment due to the energy-producing systems is very important. In countries like Cuba, nuclear power is clearly the most economical source, since the country lacks indigenous energy resources and the need to import primary energy sources favors nuclear power. The problem of the Latin American region is a severe shortage of financial resources. Standardization has been recognized as one of the better mechanisms to lower nuclear power costs. Argentina has been proposing the construction of CANDU-type reactors as the basis for their standard program, and some years ago Mexico took steps to launch a program for the installation of ∼20 identical units. As in the whole world, the general public is reluctant to accept nuclear power. So far, nuclear power plants have been important to Latin America, with varying levels of local participation, but with imported technology. Unless a major scientific breakthrough takes place, nuclear power will constitute an important component of the energy system in Latin America

  1. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  2. An energy policy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document takes stock on the future energy policy of Europe. It discusses successively the challenges, the sustainability, the security of supply, the competitiveness, a strategic objective to guide europe energy policy, the action plan, the internal energy market, the solidarity between member states and security of supply for oil gas and electricity, a long term commitment to greenhouse gases reduction and the EU emissions trading System, the ambitious program of energy efficiency measures at Community national local and international level, a longer term target for renewable energy, a european strategic energy technology plan, a turn towards a low CO 2 fossil fuel future, the future of Nuclear, an international energy policy that actively pursues europe interests, the effective monitoring and reporting and how taking work forwards. (A.L.B.)

  3. Politics and Development: Lessons from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Boschi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the conditions for the adoption of development strategies in Latin America in the aftermath of the neoliberal reforms, focusing specifically on the role of political institutions as a component of the productive regimes in selected countries. Development is treated as an endogenous process, which is shaped over time in terms of trajectories that are continuously redefined according to specific political conjunctures. Having moved from restricted democracies or authoritarian regimes and autarchic economies to mass democracies operating in the context of open economies after the market-oriented reforms, persistent structural inequalities presently constitute the major axis framing the definition of development policies. More so than in advanced countries where the State is treated as epiphenomenon of their respective productive regimes, in the case of the Latin American semi-periphery the State is the crucial actor for the reversal of vicious circles and negative complementarities stemming from the extreme structural and social inequalities within and between countries in the region. Following a brief discussion on development and economic growth in the definition of the post-neoliberal agenda, the article examines institutional indicators for economic performance of contemporary governmental coalitions in selected countries, focusing on State policies favouring development such as financing, technological innovation, training of labour and social policies. Next, we concentrate on the analysis of political institutions and the role of political elites capable of generating national projects for sustainable development strategies, showing some of the differences between these countries. We conclude with a brief discussion on the adequacy of contemporary political economy approaches to understand processes of capitalist transformation in the periphery, calling attention to the need for a redefined regional perspective

  4. Cohabitation in Latin America: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sussai Soares, Maira Covre

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries’ socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...

  5. Sets of Mutually Orthogonal Sudoku Latin Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Timothy; Petersen, Ryan M.

    2009-01-01

    A Latin square of order "n" is an "n" x "n" array using n symbols, such that each symbol appears exactly once in each row and column. A set of Latin squares is c ordered pairs of symbols appearing in the cells of the array are distinct. The popular puzzle Sudoku involves Latin squares with n = 9, along with the added condition that each of the 9…

  6. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  7. [Norwegian physicians' knowledge of Latin medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2005-12-15

    It is well established that medical terminology is firmly based in Latin and Greek. However, teaching in Latin and medical terminology is not adequate in the medical education in Norway. A questionnaire on medical practitioners' knowledge of medical Latin was handed out among doctors participating in further education at the University of Tromsø, spring 2005. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: knowledge of Latin medical words, Latin names on diseases, and grammar (Latin word endings). The response rate was 102/121 (84 %).; 102 doctors participated, including 51 general practitioners. The understanding of Latin medical words was generally good. 70 % (71/102) of the doctors had less than three errors. The knowledge of Latin names for diseases was also quite good, with 73 % (74/102) having less than three errors. However, there were many grave mistakes. The ability to give correct word endings in plural nominative and singular genitive was almost absent; 85 % (87/102) made four or more errors. Although Norwegian medical practitioners have a certain degree of skills in medical Latin, their knowledge is not sufficient. Marginal knowledge of important medical terms may complicate communication between doctors. A compulsory minimum of training in medical nomenclature should be a part of the curriculum in medical schools.

  8. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 2--Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfuss, Helmut; Bauer, Bruno; Declève, Ghislaine; Verhaaren, Henri; Utard-Wlerick, Guillemette; Bakker, Suzanne; Leclerq, Edith; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-06-01

    This is the third in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors were asked to reflect on developments in their country--viz. Austria, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Future issues will track trends in the Nordic countries, Southern Europe and Latin America. JM. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  9. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  10. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  11. Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients.

  12. Latin squares and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Keedwell, A Donald

    2015-01-01

    Latin Squares and Their Applications Second edition offers a long-awaited update and reissue of this seminal account of the subject. The revision retains foundational, original material from the frequently-cited 1974 volume but is completely updated throughout. As with the earlier version, the author hopes to take the reader 'from the beginnings of the subject to the frontiers of research'. By omitting a few topics which are no longer of current interest, the book expands upon active and emerging areas. Also, the present state of knowledge regarding the 73 then-unsolved problems given at the

  13. Energy problems in latin america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, J

    1984-03-30

    Present energy consumption patterns, known reserves of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectricity), and the impact of the oil crisis on the oil-importing countries of Latin America are discussed. New approaches to energy use, including improvements on end-use efficiency, fuel substitutions, nonconventional energy sources, and changes in consumption patterns, are important. Of particular significance are the alcohol program in Brazil and the possibilities for increased use of hydroelectricity. Investments needed to sustain a reasonable increase in production from conventional energy sources up to 1990 are presented.

  14. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    There are a broad range of nuclear techniques applicable to a variety of hydrological problems and these techniques are becoming recognized as an additional and, in some cases, indispensable tool available to the hydrologist in his quest to meet the increasing demands for water by agriculture, industry and community water supply. In Latin America we find examples of almost all the nuclear hydrological techniques. This article endeavours to give a summary account of the status of isotope hydrology in the region and the types of problems to which these techniques have been applied

  15. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The cost of heat savings in buildings increase as more heat savings are achieved due to the state of the building stock and hence, alternatives other than savings typically become more economically feasible at a certain level of heat reductions. It is important to identify when the cost of heat...... savings become more expensive than the cost of sustainable heat supply, so society does not overinvest in heat saving measures. This study first investigates the heat saving potentials for different countries in Europe, along with their associated costs, followed by a comparison with alternative ways...... of supplying sustainable heating. Different heat production options are included in terms of individual and community heating systems. Furthermore, the levelised cost of supplying sustainable heat is estimated for both a single technology and from an energy system perspective. The results are analysed...

  16. Barriers to the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations for climate-smart agriculture in Europe: evidence from the Netherlands, France, Switzerland and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, T.B.; Blok, V.; Coninx, I.

    2016-01-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is one response to the challenges faced by agriculture due to climate change. As with other sustainability transitions, technological innovation is highlighted as playing a critical role, however, the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations in OECD

  17. Chagas Heart Failure in Patients from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B

    2016-11-01

    Physicians working in Europe and the United States should suspect Chagas heart failure in every patient coming from Latin America with chronic heart failure. Diagnosis should be confirmed by positive serology. Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block on 12-lead electrocardiogram, enlarged cardiac silhouette with no pulmonary congestion on chest X-ray and left ventricular apical aneurysm on echocardiography are the distinctive features of this condition. The clinical course is poorer than that of non-Chagas heart failure; however, medical treatment is similar. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are useful in the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy can be given to patients on optimal medical therapy and with lengthened QRS complex. Heart transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage Chagas heart failure.

  18. Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive…

  19. Unpacking youth unemployment in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    High youth unemployment rates may be a signal of difficult labor market entry for youth or may reflect high churning. The European and United States literature finds the latter conclusion while the Latin American literature suggests the former. This paper uses panel data to examine whether Latin American youth follow OECD patterns or are, indeed, unique. By decomposing transition matrices...

  20. Doctors' Latin - A Miscellany of Latin and Greek Phrases Souter Keith Doctors' Latin - A Miscellany of Latin and Greek Phrases 196 Robert Hale Publishers 9780709079507 0709079508.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-26

    At 13, a GCSE in a dead language seemed such a chore. But thankfully Keith Souter's Latin and Greek are a far cry from my schoolgirl Latin text. This is an education for the reader bent on a little learning and some fun.

  1. Two-Dimensional Minimax Latin Hypercube Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate minimax Latin hypercube designs in two dimensions for several distance measures.For the l-distance we are able to construct minimax Latin hypercube designs of n points, and to determine the minimal covering radius, for all n.For the l1-distance we have a lower bound for the covering

  2. Maximin Latin Hypercube Designs in Two Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E.R.; Husslage, B.G.M.; den Hertog, D.; Melissen, H.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of finding a maximin Latin hypercube design in two dimensions can be described as positioning n non-attacking rooks on an n x n chessboard such that the minimal distance between pairs of rooks is maximized.Maximin Latin hypercube designs are important for the approximation and

  3. Developing a Latin Curriculum for High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Alan M.

    A guide for teachers developing a high school Latin curriculum provides a rationale, structure, and method for course planning at four difficulty levels. The approach is based on seven subject matter goals and specific instructional objectives for each, which are appended. The goals are: to help students (1) understand simple Latin syntax; (2)…

  4. Can Latin America tap the globalization upside ?

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, Augusto; Didier, Tatiana; Pinat, Magali

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical arguments in favor of and against economic globalization and, with a view to ascertaining whether Latin America may be able to capture the globalization upside, examines the trends and salient features of Latin America's globalization as compared with that of Southeast Asia. The paper focuses on trade and financial integration as well as the aggregate d...

  5. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehead, Benedicte Nielsen

    , is that these compounds cannot be considered univerbated imperative clauses. (2) is likewise assessed preliminarily in chapter 2, offering an outline of the history of the Greek and Indo–Aryan material. Taking the history of the Latin/Romance material up for revision, chapters 3–5 conclude that Latin offers no evidence...

  6. Hispanophone culture. Meeting point between Latin America and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Solange Okome Beka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabon since its independence in 1960, adopted the teaching of Spanish as second foreign language. Since then, three major objectives were pursued: the linguistic, communicative and cultural, being the later the most prominent one. The (IPN National Pedagogical Institute recommends in its 1996 Guidance Letter, the cultural grounding of the Gabonese student, in order to contribute to their balanced development and their social and cultural integration, making them thoughtful citizens. For this aim, the teacher has the role of transmitting and developing students intercultural values. However, in Gabon, teaching of Spanish as second foreign language is done through manuals conceived in Spain or France. The contents are based on the European cultural view of the world, hiding other realities like Latin American or African ones. Even, when these are shown they are in a  very stereotypical way: drugs, misery, poverty, illegal immigration to the United States or Europe. Very few media offer further background on Afromerican or latinamerican indigenous contexts, even if there are quite noticeable similarities between Africa and America, as regards their cultures and beliefs. Students must know both the history and daily present of Latin America and Africa. Therefore, the latest gabonese educational reforms advocate towards introducing the intercultural perspective in teaching. Nevertheless, without promoting real contact and knowledge between the peoples of these areas, it will be totally unrealistic. Therefore, we favor a pedagogy in which the teaching of Spanish could be a meeting point between America and Africa.

  7. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  8. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  9. Nuclear Education, Training and Outreach in Latin America and the Caribbean Region - LANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; François, J.L.; Sbaffoni, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (LANENT) was set up to contribute to preserving, promoting and sharing nuclear knowledge as well as fostering the transfer of nuclear knowledge in the Latin American region. LANENT has been actively pursuing joint activities for networking educational institutions at a regional level, the creation of distance learning initiatives and the use of shared facilities. Let us hope that these initial endeavors in nuclear education and training would ultimately contribute to the common and cooperative development of a technology so essential for the present and the future of our region

  10. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  11. Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvander, Bertil; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, agriculture in Europe has undergone profound technological change, associated with and to an extent supporting the long post-war economic boom. This process has not gone unchallenged, however; some resistance to the process has come from a growing perception of environmental (and to an extent social) degradation, and some farms and businesses, particularly in Less Favoured Areas, have been simply unable to keep up. For both groups, organic farming has m...

  12. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  13. In situ bioremediation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-06-01

    Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

  14. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  15. New drug developments in the Latin Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, T A; Galvan, L; Udabe, R U; Vergara, L; Zoch, C

    1974-07-01

    New drug developments in four Latin American countries, i.e. Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama and the United States were compared. In contradistinction to the United States, clinical investigations with newly developed drugs in the four countries are based on contracts between individual investigators and the pharmaceutical industry without governmental interference. There are no adequate facilities to develop new psychoactive preparation in the four Latin American countries. Nevertheless, psychopharmacological practices are essentially the same as in the United States or Canada and all important psychoactive preparations used in the United States are available in the Latin Americas. Some of the newer-thioxanthene, butyrophenone and diphenylbutylpiperidine preparations which are still under clinical investigation in the United States are already available for clinical use in Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. While there is less governmental control than in the United States or Canada, with regard to clinical investigations of drugs or with regard to marketing newly developed preparations, there is no evidence of abuse. Finally, it should be noted that the introduction of psychotropic drugs brought about a new era in psychiatry in the Latin Americas. It becomes increasingly obvious that psychiatry today is practiced on the basis of knowledge derived from clinical impressions and on the basis of findings verified in clinical testings, i.e. on the basis of two different standards. Accordingly, as in Europe and North America, a re-examination of traditional concepts has begun in the Latin Americas. There are indications that biological psychiatry in general, and psychopharmacology in particular, are gaining increasing importance in the Latin Americas. This has led to the creation of a training program in biological psychiatry by the World Health Organization in Montreal, in cooperation with the Division of Psychopharmacology of the Department of

  16. [Understanding snake venoms: 50 years of research in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-06-01

    As a tribute to Revista de Biología Tropical in its 50th anniversary, this review describes some of the main research efforts carried out in the study of the chemical composition and the mechanism of action of toxins present in the venoms of snakes distributed in Latin America. Venom proteins involved in neurotoxicity, coagulopathies, hemorrhage and muscle necrosis are discussed, together with a description of the inflammatory reactions elicited by these venoms and toxins. In addition, the search for inhibitory substances present in plants and animals that may be utilized in the neutralization of venoms is analyzed. Some of the clinical studies performed on snakebite envenomations in Latin America are also reviewed, together with the development of technologies aimed at improving the quality of antivenoms produced in the region. Toxinology has become a fruitful and stimulating research field in Latin America which has contributed to a better understanding of snake venoms as well as to an improved management of snake bitten patients.

  17. PLACE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LATINISMS IN THE SLOVAK VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Karabová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary of any language undergoes a natural evolution. In many cases this centuries-long process is related to several factors, including the penetration of new words into the language lexis. Similarly, the historical development of the Slovak language and its enhancement can be observed by examining the adoption of words from other languages. At a time when Latin was the only official language as well as the language of scholars and religious institutions in the Hungarian Kingdom, the penetration of Latinisms into the lexis of the old Slovak was significant. This trend was still evident in the 18th and 19th centuries marked by the beginning revivalist efforts. Domestication of adopted words - that initially stood at the edge of the language standard - was significantly influenced by innovative trends and technologies. The study does not primarily examine penetration of foreign words from modern languages, but it aims to analyse the process of naturalisation of Latinisms in Slovak and their use at different language levels.

  18. O atraso tecnológico da América Latina como decorrência de aspectos geográficos e de fatores microeconômicos interligados The technological backwardness of Latin America as a consequence of geographical and microeconomics related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Feldmann

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da relação entre as condições geográficas de uma determinada região e o surgimento de inovações, com o objetivo de analisar as causas para o atraso da América Latina nas questões referentes ao desenvolvimento tecnológico. O texto aborda o problema olhando para as maiores empresas da região, discutindo qual a explicação para o fato de estas raramente estarem nos setores classificados como de alta tecnologia. Para buscar essa explicação, o artigo percorre vários autores que se debruçaram sobre o tema detendo-se, principalmente, naqueles que fizeram comparações com outras regiões do globo, mormente os países asiáticos, tendo em vista caracterizar os aspectos geográficos decisivos para a ocorrência de inovações. O resultado é altamente preocupante, pois são raras as empresas da América Latina que conseguem projeção mundial e as mesmas, quase sempre, fazem parte de setores da economia de conteúdo tecnológico muito baixo.The present paper deals with the relation between geographical conditions in a specific region and the occurrence of innovations. The objective is to analyze the reasons for the backwardness of Latin America in matters related to technology development. The article's approach is to observe the largest companies of the region, trying to understand why they almost never are part of the high technology industries. In order to get these explanations, the article mentions many authors that have dedicated themselves to this subject, paying more attention to those who had made comparisons with other regions in the world, specially Asia. The aim here was to characterize the geographic circumstances that were decisive to the occurrence of innovations. The results are deeply alarming not only because of the low number of Latin American companies that have reached worldwide recognition, but also because, almost always, these few companies came from where the technology content is very low.

  19. History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

    2010-03-01

    A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.

  20. Latin American Role in International Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pavlovich Yakovlev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that over the past decade and a half there have been significant changes in the international situation in Latin America, which affected all the main areas of external relations in the region. The interaction between the Latin American countries moved forward, which was reflected in the formation and development of new structures, such as UNASUR, ALBA, SELAC, and the Pacific Alliance. China has dramatically expanded its presence in the region, which was manifested in the growth of trade and Chinese investment, and the transition from the level of bilateral cooperation to multilateral format. The cooperation between Latin America and Russia has risen on a higher level, which was manifested in the expansion of trade and economic ties and collaboration of certain Latin American integration groupings with the EAEC. The new moments characterize relations with the US, which is clearly evident in US-Cuban relations. Latin American countries have stepped up dialogue with the European Union. All these factors combine to expand the range of external relations of Latin American and Caribbean countries and prove the changing role of Latin America in the system of global relations.

  1. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier M; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Agudelo, Maria; Zuluaga, Andres F; Vesga, Omar

    The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R and D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  3. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins is discussed.

  4. Nuclear energy and sustainability in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The concept of sustainability has been given numerous interpretations, some overlapping or complementary, some contradictory. Thus it is difficult to judge whether the nuclear industry does, or does not, meet sustainability criteria; particularly as the present nuclear technologies are not renewable. Uranium resources appear to be of the same order of magnitude as oil and gas resources. This implies that they are a transitional source of energy. There are also other potential arguments against the sustainability of nuclear power: its pollution, risks and costs. Environmental damage may come from various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Two types of risk will be discussed: first the risk of major accidents and thereby exceptional environmental damage, and second the risks associated with the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Each of these factors, as well as the pure economic cost of nuclear electricity, ought to be compared to the environmental damage, risks and costs of the available alternatives. Only the Latin American experience will be considered. For example, the need for Mexico to use nuclear power when it has large oil and gas supplies, is considered. (author)

  5. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allende, R; Morales, D; Avendano, G; Chabert, S

    2007-01-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the 'state-of-the-art' of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones

  6. The Latin American treatment and innovation network in mental health h (LATINMH): rationale and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezess, Paulo R; Araya, Ricardo; Miranda, Jaime; Mohr, David C; Price, Le Shanundra N

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 60 years Latin American countries have been experiencing noticeable demographic and socioeconomic changes, with marked impact on the population health in the region. There is growing recognition of the co-morbidity among mental and physical health problems impacting heavily on health care systems. These challenges open many opportunities for transformational change in the expanding field of global mental health. Given the growing evidence for the wide applicability and efficacy of specific components included in mental health treatment packages, research should focus more on improving the organization and efficiency with which we deliver these specific treatment components already proven to be efficacious. The Latin American Treatment and Innovation Network in Mental Health (LATIN-MH) is a research and training Hub based in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Lima, Peru. It aims to address the co-morbidity between physical and mental chronic diseases, exploring the opportunity to use technology to support the treatment of these conditions. LATIN-MH strives to move beyond specific single-disease approaches and research silos, whilst maximizing the opportunities to work collaboratively with various groups in the Latin American region, thus contributing to fostering research and building capacity in mental health research. Mental Health, Chronic Disease, mHealth, Capacity Building (MeSH) Key concepts: Chronic diseases have now become the major determinants of the disease burden in Latin America, whereas psychiatric disorders accounted for almost one-third of years lived with disability worldwide in 2005. LATIN-MH is a research and training hub that aims to address the co-morbidity between physical and mental chronic diseases using technology to support their treatments. LATIN-MH strives to move beyond specific single-disease approaches and research siloes, whilst maximizing the opportunities to work collaboratively with various groups in the Latin American region

  7. Population pressures in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, T W; Kent, M M; Van Der Tak, J; Von Cube, A

    1986-07-01

    In 1950 Latin America's population of 165 million was on a par with the 166 million of North America. 2 decades of growth at nearly 3% a year pushed the total to 405 million in 1985, vs. 264 million in North America. Despite substantial fertility declines since the 1960s, continued growth is ensured by the demographic momentum built into the region's large and youthful population bases. UN medium projections put the 2025 total at 779 million, compared to 345 million in North America. This Bulletin examines the main demographic changes in Latin America since World War II and their links to economic and social changes in the region as well as their implications for international and social relations. The post World War II population surge was accompanied by massive rural-ruban and international migration, rapid urbanization, large labor shifts out of agriculture into industry and services, increased education for both men and women, and higher labor force participation for females. The rural exodus was spurred by extreme land tenure inequalities and the urban bias of postwar industrialization. The labor-saving bias of this industrialization forced exploding city populations to turn to the informal sector for jobs. Population pressures on city services and housing as well as jobs have been further exacerbated by overconcentration in a few large cities and economic downturns of the 1980s. Recent fertility declines seem to be the result of both increased access to family planning and the economic and social pressures posed by the gap between young adults' aspirations and their ability to realize them. Population and economic pressures could induce faster fertility declines than now projected but in the short run are likely to mean more employment problems, continued rapid urban growth, and even larger international immigration flows within the hemisphere, particularly to the US.

  8. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This document is a summary of the key technical inputs for the modelling of the heat strategy for Europe outlined in the latest Heat Roadmap Europe studies [1, 2]. These studies quantify the impact of alternative heating strategies for Europe in 2030 and 2050. The study is based on geographical...... information systems (GIS) and energy system analyses. In this report, the inputs for other modelling tools such as PRIMES are presented, in order to enable other researches to generate similar heating scenarios for Europe. Although Heat Roadmap Europe presents a complete heat strategy for Europe, which...... to model increased penetrations of district heating in the EU energy system in other energy planning tools, such as the PRIMES and JRC-EU-TIMES tools. The key results from the Heat Roadmap Europe studies are that:  Heat savings have a key role to play, but there is a socio-economic limit: after reducing...

  9. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    ller, Laura Beiras, Juan Contreras, Gabriel Torrente, Aimée Guerrero, Francisco Jose Blanco Tovar, and last but not least, my son Johann Puerta. Without their generous help and great effort, it would have been impossible for me to organize, reach all the goals and finally, successfully realize the workshop. We are also grateful for the financial support of CLAF (Centro Latino American de Fisica), Fonacit (Fondo Nacional de Ciencia Investigacion y Tecnología), IVIC (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificos), Fundacion Banco Mercantil, whose sponsorship and finnacial support were vital to the realization of the event. We would like to thank La Universidad del Zulia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Instituto Universitario de Tecnología, IDEA (Instituto de Estudios Avanzados), and Asociación de Amigos de la Universidad Simón Bolivar for their help and support in different ways for the good results we achieved in most of the meetings and the participation of their students who attend the Workshops. Finally we appreciate very much the Ministry for Science and Technology (Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Ciencia y la Tecnología) for their contribution to the workshops and to the publication process. We are under the impression that our meeting was successful, as we expected, and we are thankful for the collaboration of our Institution, and the close relation we had with all the physics researchers of Latin America and abroad (Europe, USA, Australia and Russia). Lastly, many thanks to the invited speakers for their lectures presented which have given a whole overview of the state of the art in different areas of the Physics of Plasma.

  10. CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in Peru

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, Organising Committee

    2013-01-01

    The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics.   Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...

  11. Social medicine and international expert networks in Latin America, 1930-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eric D

    2018-01-03

    This paper examines the international networks that influenced ideas and policy in social medicine in the 1930s and 1940s in Latin America, focusing on institutional networks organised by the League of Nations Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau. After examining the architecture of these networks, this paper traces their influence on social and health policy in two policy domains: social security and nutrition. Closer scrutiny of a series of international conferences and local media accounts of them reveals that international networks were not just 'conveyor belts' for policy ideas from the industrialised countries of the US and Europe into Latin America; rather, there was often contentious debate over the relevance and appropriateness of health and social policy models in the Latin American context. Recognition of difference between Latin America and the global economic core regions was a key impetus for seeking 'national solutions to national problems' in countries like Argentina and Chile, even as integration into these networks provided progressive doctors, scientists, and other intellectuals important international support for local political reforms.

  12. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  13. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  14. Enabling Openness : The future of the information society in Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 nov. 2013 ... Depuis quelques années, Internet et les autres technologies de réseau se sont hissés parmi les importants facteurs de développement en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes. Ils ont démontré qu'ils pouvaient accroître la productivité et la compétitivité économique, procurer de nouvelles façons de ...

  15. 24 May 2013 - Rector of the Polish Stanislaw Staszic AGH University of Science and Technology T. Slomka in the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Senior Polish Staff Member A. Siemko, in LHCb experimental cavern with LHCb Collaboration Spokesperson P. Campana and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Adviser for Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    24 May 2013 - Rector of the Polish Stanislaw Staszic AGH University of Science and Technology T. Slomka in the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Senior Polish Staff Member A. Siemko, in LHCb experimental cavern with LHCb Collaboration Spokesperson P. Campana and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Adviser for Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka present.

  16. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  17. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Pre-survey in Europe; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Oshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey in Europe surveyed the current status of the coal industry, supporting directions and policies of governments on the coal industry, and summarized the information thereof. The survey included movements in policies and activities in transfer of technologies to overseas countries by governments and corporations of different countries, and the current status of the coal technology training project. The survey covered Britain and Germany. The British coal industry is facing a serious difficulty because the electric power industry being the major coal purchaser has changes its sourcing to natural gas. In addition, the open-cut mining which has been considered high in productivity has no further hope of big progress due to regulations in the environmental aspects. However, as a result of having performed positively research and development on production cost reduction, the production efficiency has grown excellently. Using this situation as the base, positive advancement into overseas countries is being carried out. The German coal industry has, in spite of having reduced the production size and the number of coal mines, shifted coal purchasers to electric power generation and steel making areas, and its quality and supply capability stand equivalent to those of imported coals. (NEDO)

  18. [Body dissatisfaction in Latin and Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Susana; Cruz, Soledad

    2008-02-01

    The present paper has two aims: firstly to analyse and compare body dissatisfaction of Spanish and Latin adolescents, and secondly to determine the impact of sociocultural factors and Body Mass Index (BMI) on dissatisfaction. The sample is made up of 403 adolescents, 191 Spaniards and 212 Latin-Americans, all of them students in Basque Country high schools. They were assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the CIMEC-26 (a questionnaire designed to assess the influence of the aesthetic body model), and the BMI. The results show that the Latin adolescents have a higher level of body dissatisfaction than the Spanish. This is due to the greater influence in the Latin adolescents of sociocultural factors.

  19. Preserving Greek and Latin in the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, G. Karl

    1978-01-01

    The instructional context and some formats for the teaching of Greek and Latin are described. Internal policies of an area studies or microhumanities program in classics are outlined. The teaching of languages, literature in translation, and culture is discussed. (SW)

  20. Latin - Culture and Language in Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meris Antonio Mascarello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to share an experience concerning the teaching of Latin for Specific Purposes in thematic workshops. One objective of the workshops was to demonstrate that Latin is still present in Portuguese-speaking countries in scientific and legal texts, in botanical and zoological terminology, in heraldry, in terms that are practically untranslatable and are part of oral and written everyday language. This leads to a recognition of the presence of Latin as a universal language in modern times, and suggests the importance of including Latin in the syllabus of elementary and high school programs as an auxiliary to Portuguese learning. The pedagogical feasibility of the project lies on the construction of pleasurable, playing activities, using figurative characters representative of Roman History, such as the French comic book characters Asterix and Obelix, who continuously interact in the development of the historical-cultural and linguistic approach as detectives who are in constant trouble.

  1. The Digital Divide: The View from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Adolfo

    This paper discusses the digital divide from the perspective of Latin America and the Caribbean. Highlights include: new issues that make access to electronic resources difficult for users; differences in technological infrastructure among countries; how Internet users are distributed worldwide; Internet access in Africa; the number of students…

  2. An Intersectional Analysis of Latin@ College Women's Counter-Stories in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the intersectionality of mathematics experiences for two Latin@ college women pursuing mathematics-intensive STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors at a large, predominantly White university. The author employs intersectionality and poststructural theories to explore and make meaning…

  3. Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively

  4. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Latin America and its relationship with European migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Edgar; Paredes, Víctor; Martínez, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, degenerative autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The prevalence is different in every continent, changing according to geographical and environmental characteristics. The areas with the highest prevalence in the world are Europe and North America. In Latin America, the prevalence is higher in areas where there was greater European migration, as in the case of Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, and there have been no identified cases amongst native Indian populations. It should be considered that environmental factors may influence the prevalence of MS in Latin America, and it seems as if there are protective factors such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the presence of parasitosis.

  5. Body mass index and waist circumference of Latin American adult athletes with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Foley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine both body mass index (BMI status and waist circunference (WC in a large international sample of adult Special Olympics participants from Latin America. It also explored the association of age and sex with obesity in this population. Materials and methods. BMI and WC records from a total of 4 174 (2 683 male and 1 491 female participant records from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database were examined. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was quite high (i.e. >40%, but generally lower than studies involving adults with intellectual disabilities from Europe and the USA. Chi-square analyses revealed that both increasing age and being female significantly predicted levels of overweight, obesity, and WC. Conclusions. These results suggest that efforts need to be made to prevent and reduce rates of overweight and obesity among Latin American Special Olympics participants,particularly women.

  6. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  7. Farm Animal Welfare Influences on Markets and Consumer Attitudes in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C.; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, animal welfare has become an important element of sustainable production that has evolved along with the transformation of animal production systems. Consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare are changing around the world, especially at emerging markets of Asia, Africa...... and Latin America. Survey-based research on consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare has increased. However, the geographical coverage of studies on consumer attitudes and perceptions about farm animal welfare has mostly been limited to Europe, and North America. Until now, Latin American consumers......’ attitudes towards animal welfare have not been well studied. Despite the fact that Mexico, Chile and Brazil belong to the same region (according to international organizations), there are marked differences between these countries in terms of their economical and geographical characteristics among other...

  8. Current status of brucellosis in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Szyfres, Boris; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina; Blood, Benjamín D.; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina; Moya, Víctor; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina

    2014-01-01

    The authors have summarized the information available to them regarding the problem of human and animal brucellosis in Latin America. Animal brucellosis in Latin American countries is a widespread infection. In cattle attacked in preference to animal milk which reaches its highest prevalence. The suina and caprine brucellosis is second in magnitude. In beef cattle, the infection is lower than in the previous groups, and in sheep there is a small percentage of reactants significant title, ther...

  9. China and Latin America: The Other Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the potential future impact of Chinese diplomatic and economic action in Latin America? This thesis explores, if given the current global...but also represent a challenge to U.S. regional influence. With the events of the past 15 years, has U.S. leadership underestimated the potential ...future impact of Chinese diplomatic and economic action in Latin America? This thesis explores, if given the current global environment, should the U.S

  10. THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS AND LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Coggiola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fastly, the world economic crisis show its effects in Latin America. The text arises some of its main economic consequences. It is not a "regional contagion", but the conclusion of an unprecedent world integration of world capitalist economy. It´s a world crisis, in a real sense. It makes evident the historical and structural problems of Latin American economic framework.

  11. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  12. Latin American Role in International Geopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Pavlovich Yakovlev

    2015-01-01

    The article shows that over the past decade and a half there have been significant changes in the international situation in Latin America, which affected all the main areas of external relations in the region. The interaction between the Latin American countries moved forward, which was reflected in the formation and development of new structures, such as UNASUR, ALBA, SELAC, and the Pacific Alliance. China has dramatically expanded its presence in the region, which was manifested in the gro...

  13. Barriers to Clinical Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Chomsky-Higgins, Kathryn; Miclau, Theodore A.; Mackechnie, Madeline C.; Aguilar, Dino; Avila, Jorge Rubio; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Balmaseda, Roberto; Barquet, Antonio; Ceballos, Alfredo; Contreras, Fernando; Escalante, Igor; Elias, Nelson; Vincenti, Sergio Iriarte; Lozano, Christian; Medina, Fryda

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing health research capacity in developing countries is a global health priority. Understanding the orthopedic burden of disease in Latin America will require close partnership between more-developed and less-developed countries. To this end, the Osteosynthesis and Trauma Care Foundation assembled a research consortium of Latin-American orthopedic leaders. Prior to the meeting, we surveyed attendees on perceived barriers to conducting research at their institutions. During the event, wo...

  14. The Latin American Moessbauer research community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Interest in Moessbauer spectroscopy among the Latin American countries has increased in the last five years. Two-thirds of the published research is coming from the Moessbauer research groups in Brazil. Other Latin American countries with active Moessbauer research include Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. In recent years, the area having the most interest has been the investigation of minerals and high temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  15. Seismotectonic model of Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazkova, D.; Roth, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes belong to natural disasters which are associated with tectonic processes in the interior of the Earth. They are extremely devastating in populated areas; they cause human losses and damage personal estates and the environment. To mitigate the potential effects of earthquakes it is necessary that relief and mitigation structures operate following an earthquake, but it is also essential to stimulate and enhance preparedness and prevention. Prevention includes the development of scenarios of potential earthquakes, hazard mapping, formulation of regulations, etc. Preparedness includes the installation and operation of warning systems, establishing communication networks to operate before, during, and after earthquakes. As nuclear technology belongs to high-risk technologies with regard to human health and the environment and its hazard substantially increases in consequence of earthquakes, in the siting of a nuclear plant engineering solutions are generally available to mitigate the potential vibratory effects through design. For the choice of a suitable engineering solution, reliable data must be processed by reliable techniques. The IAEA safety guide of the safety series No. 50-SG-S1(Rev. 1) specifies the demands on data and on their processing and also on the regional seismotectonic model. With a view of this the regional seismotectonic model of Central Europe was created. The paper presents regional geological characteristics of Central Europe and a chronological model of neotectonic movements in Central Europe with specification of neotectonic regional units and their present movements. Moreover, it contains earthquake characteristics for Central Europe and the specification of seismogenic movements. It was found that the genesis of local regions with occurrence of the strongest earthquakes is connected with several movement trends in the last 5 Ma. Six more or less tectonically separate regional units were revealed. The earthquake epicenters often

  16. The history of Latin teeth names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, František

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give an account of the Latin naming of the different types of teeth by reviewing relevant historical and contemporary literature. The paper presents etymologies of Latin or Greek teeth names, their development, variants and synonyms, and sometimes the names of their authors. The Greek names did not have the status of official terms, but the Latin terms for particular types of teeth gradually established themselves. Names for the incisors, canines and molars are Latin calques for the Greek ones (tomeis, kynodontes, mylai), dens serotinus is an indirect calque of the Greek name (odús) opsigonos, and the term pre-molar is created in the way which is now common in modern anatomical terminology, using the prefix prae- = pre and the adjective molaris. The Latin terms dentes canini and dentes molares occur in the Classical Latin literature, the term (dentes) incisivi is found first time in medieval literature, and the terms dentes premolares and dens serotinus are modern-age ones.

  17. [Challenges to Latin-American health systems: what can be learned from the European experience?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, J; Musgrove, P; Carrin, G; Durán, A

    2002-01-01

    This article compares the challenges of health systems in Latin America and the experience in Europe. The framework is the analysis of four functions: a) to generate resources; b) to produce activities; c) to finance, and d) to exercise stewardship. It is at this level where actors can influence health system responsiveness. Five challenges are identified in Latin America: a) to extend (prepayment and solidarity) financial protection; b) to stabilise that protection for crisis times; c) to equilibrate resources in accordance to capacity for financing services; d) to increase efficiency (technical and of placement) to produce services, and e) to improve the stewardship function in public and private sectors (the most important and difficult challenge Latin-American systems have nowadays). The experience of reform in Europe is analysed, showing: a) experiences about financial protection in Beveridge and Bismarck systems; b) stability in crisis times, recently confirm (West) and with important obstacles (East); c) efforts to equilibrate hospital beds and health care professionals, combining regulation and incentives; d) increase of efficiency in services production, with more express prioritisation, empowering patients, decentralising management and with market incentives, and e) improvement of stewardship with better (not less, sometimes even more) regulation. Three areas of European experience stand out: a) to combine solidarity with financial sustainability; b) to introduce market incentives in a measured way, but maintaining a clear stewardship role for the state, and c) to adopt innovations in organising and producing services. In spite of methodological difficulties, convergence of challenges and adopted solutions justify this analysis, but learning must be seen in each national context. A future article will analyse lessons offered by reform in Latin-American systems for European reforms.

  18. Acquisition and Utilization of Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce in Europe and USA : Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information at the University of Warwick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Takayasu; Miwa, Makiko; Kanda, Toshihiko

    Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce which was organized by the British Library, being supported by NTIS and JICST, at the University of Warwick on 1-4 September 1987. Topics discussed include, US policy on Japanese information, EEC/Japan-Info Project, various private initiatives, language barrier and translation, education of Japanese language and personnel exchange programme, quality and usage of Japanese secondary materials, original document delivery, Japanese produced databases and foreign access to them, requests upon JICST and other Japanese information services.

  19. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Eastern Europe, Interior's agreement, Political Health, Refugee, WOrking People, Saving Banks, Radio Telephones, Budget Draft, Reduced Inflation Rate, New Land, Land Management, Real Estate Laws...

  20. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  1. West Europe Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This document contains articles about Western Europe. Some topics discussed are socialism, political parties, international relations, foreign policy, sociology, consumerism, economics, military operations, commerce, industries, energy, trade, private...

  2. West Europe Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Western Europe, Austria, Finland, Greece, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, Greenland, Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy, contains articles on Politics...

  3. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  4. The first Latin American workshop on professional skills for young female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, A.; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Ponce-Dawson, Silvina

    2015-12-01

    To effectively build capacity for research and training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) across Latin America and the Caribbean, a gender perspective must be factored in. Working from an awareness of the gender situation as well as of the multiple personal challenges experienced due to gender disparity, a group of Latin American female scientists organized a workshop with the goal of empowering young female scientists and assessing the challenges they face. In this paper we summarize the outcomes of the workshop, highlighting the barriers that are common in the region. Among other aspects, the workshop stressed the need for resource platforms for finding technical and professional networks, jobs, and scholarships.

  5. Impact of China in Latin America: The inter-industry trade and its challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hyong Rhee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the implications of the rapid economic rise of China for the development prospects of Latin America. Since 1990s we have witnessed the growing exchanges between Latin America and Asian economies. China has led the Latin-Pacific exchanges. Based on an analysis of the changing trade relations between China and major Latin American countries since 2000, it argues as follows. First, China imports energy, food and other resources for domestic and export needs, and looks more like a “trade angel” and a “helping hand” as well as being an outlet for huge amounts of commodities from the region. China’s trade impact on Latin America is positive with higher gdp per capita, both directly, through a boom of export and indirectly, through better terms of trade. But it is also a challenge for development for the future. Second, the trade relations are now structured into a kind of inter-industry trade. China imports natural resources and primary products but exports manufacturing products from low-wage products (such as textiles and apparel to high-wage products (mainly electronics and telecommunications. Lack of inter-industry relation with China shows the weaker side of Latin America’s integrations in the value chain of global production.In this sense, the China boom presents a challenge to Latin American countries. For the region’s raw-materials producers, there is good news in the short-term but they run the risk of losing enthusiasm for diversification beyond extraction-based industries. Economic forces tend to reduce incentives for engaging in activities outside the resource sector: the “Dutch disease.” In order to ameliorate somewhat the effects of Dutch disease and move up the value chain, they need more proactive development strategy which has focused on developing domestic technological capabilities and diversifying the productive structure.

  6. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  7. Environmental technology verification methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) is a tool that has been developed in the United States of America, Europe and many other countries around the world to help innovative environmental technologies reach the market. Claims about...

  8. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  9. Sustainable cities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Tejerina, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    In the present day, Latin America is the most urbanised region - and also the most inequitable - on the planet, which means that its urban areas amass both huge wealth and huge poverty. Within this context, dealing with climate change is also a chance to increase citizens' well-being. Better public transport and more efficient energy and waste management are, besides being effective measures to reduce emissions, ultimately actions with a strong social component and work towards improving transportation and public health care and generate savings for citizens. Equally, actions geared towards boosting urban resilience represent measures that go beyond adaptation responses to climate change and primarily benefit those that are most vulnerable in the population. In the context of the future new global climate agreement, cities are taking a more prominent role in this new urban era, and gained in importance in the Sustainable Development Goals, LAC has a lot to give in the lessons learned from urbanisation. Rapidly urbanising regions like Asia and Africa, where population growth will be concentrated in cities in the present and near future, could learn a lot from the urbanisation process that has occurred, and continues to occur, in LAC. From the transport industry to energy and water, successful cases are numerous and varied, as are the setbacks, from which valuable lessons can be drawn for the purposes of more effectively facing up to this new global urban reality

  10. Internet Use in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Salzman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza el desarrollo del uso de Internet en América Latina. Los análisis exploran las expectativas y realidades macro y micro sociales del uso de Internet en la región. Mientras se conjetura tanto acerca de la penetración de Internet en América Latina, este documento establece las tasas reales de penetración, e intenta comprender qué ha fomentado su crecimiento en la región. Diferentes niveles de desarrollo económico, tecnológico y gubernamental impulsan la expansión de la penetración de Internet en la región. Al observar el consumo en un nivel micro, esta investigación emplea datos de encuestas de varios años del Proyecto de Opinión Pública de América Latina (Latin American Public Opinion Project y ofrece un análisis inicial de los factores determinantes del uso de Internet. En comparación con otras formas de consumo de medios de comunicación, los usuarios de Internet son más jóvenes y más escépticos a los medios de prensa locales.

  11. Quantification of virtue in late Medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Simon

    2018-02-01

    Fourteenth century Europe saw a growing interest in quantification. This interest has been well studied by historians of physical sciences, but medieval scholars were also interested in the quantification of psychological qualities. In general, the quantification issues addressed by medieval scholars were theoretical, even (by our standards) mathematical, rather than those of practical measurement. There was recognition that the seriousness of a sin and the penance laid down for it should be proportionate. A number of late medieval scholars were interested in the quantification of caritas, a Latin word that is translatable as charity or loving benevolence. The scholastic interest linked to the practical issue of how caritas might become habitual through the repeated performance of virtuous acts. Gregory of Rimini's treatment of caritas in his commentary on Peter Lombard's Sentences illustrates how one medieval scholar related the quantification of virtue to the quantification of physical qualities such as temperature and luminescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Role of Engineering Design in Technological and 21st Century Competencies Capacity Building: Comparative Case Study in the Middle East, Asia, and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdulwahed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design is considered an effective means for developing engineering technical skills. Normally, engineering design is conducted in teams and is a collaborative open-ended approach under constraints. This nature of engineering design involves engagement of several interpersonal, cognitive, and management skills or competencies such as teamwork, communications, decision making, problem solving, etc. While modern engineers are supposed to be technically competent, they need to posses a wide set of interpersonal, cognitive, and management competencies to function effectively in the workplace. Increasingly there has been more deployment of engineering design competitions (EDCs in engineering education to address some gaps in current curricula system. In this study, the impact of a complex engineering design competition on developing 21st century competencies of engineering and technology talent is investigated. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods in the approach to self-reporting perceptions were utilized. Data was collected through interviews from students and faculty, and through surveys from students. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from students and faculty indicate that the investigated EDC have positive impact on a large set of 21st century engineering and technology competencies, this has been consistent across groups of students from the EU, Middle East, and Asia, as well as across genders. This is one of the few available investigations that sheds light in further depth on the impact of engineering design on non-technical skills.

  13. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  14. Urban scaling in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  15. Biosimilars in psoriasis: Clinical practice and regulatory perspectives in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Claudia; de Carvalho, André V E; Dorantes, Gladys L; Londoño Garcia, Angela M; Gonzalez, Cesar; Maskin, Matías; Podoswa, Nancy; Redfern, Jan S; Valenzuela, Fernando; van der Walt, Joelle; Romiti, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Latin American countries view biosimilar agents as an effective approach to curtail health-care expenditures while maintaining the safety and efficacy profile of their branded innovator comparators. To understand the complexities of the regulatory landscape and key therapeutic issues for use of biosimilars to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in Latin America, the International Psoriasis Council convened dermatology experts from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico in October 2015 to review the definition, approval, marketing and future of biosimilars in each country and develop a consensus statement. The regulatory framework for marketing approval of biosimilars in Latin America is currently a mosaic of disparate, country-specific, regulatory review processes, rules and standards, with considerable heterogeneity in clarity and specificity. Regulations in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico have undergone multiple refinements whereas Colombia is finalizing draft guidelines. Verification of the similarity in quality, safety and efficacy of biosimilars to the innovator biologic remains a key challenge for policy makers and regulatory authorities. Other key regulatory challenges include: naming of agents and traceability, pharmacovigilance, extrapolation of indications, and interchangeability and substitution. An urgent need exists for more Latin American countries to establish national psoriasis registries and to integrate their common components into a multinational psoriasis network, thereby enhancing their interpretative power and impact. A Latin American psoriasis network similar to PSONET in Europe would assist health-care providers, pharmaceutical companies, regulators and patients to fully comprehend specific products being prescribed and dispensed and to identify potential regional trends or differences in safety or outcomes. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Gearing up and accelerating cross-fertilization between academic and industrial robotics research in Europe technology transfer experiments from the ECHORD project

    CERN Document Server

    Veiga, Germano; Natale, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    This monograph by Florian Röhrbein, Germano Veiga and Ciro Natale is an edited collection of 15 authoritative contributions in the area of robot technology transfer between academia and industry. It comprises three parts on Future Industrial Robotics, Robotic Grasping as well as Human-Centered Robots. The book chapters cover almost all the topics nowadays considered ‘hot’ within the robotics community, from reliable object recognition to dexterous grasping, from speech recognition to intuitive robot programming, from mobile robot navigation to aerial robotics, from safe physical human-robot interaction to body extenders. All contributions stem from the results of ECHORD – the European Clearing House for Open Robotics Development, a large-scale integrating project funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme from 2009 to 2013. ECHORD’s two main pillars were the so-called experiments, 52 small-sized industry-driven research projects, and the structured dialog, a powerful interac...

  17. Gearing up and accelerating cross-fertilization between academic and industrial robotics research in Europe technology transfer experiments from the ECHORD project

    CERN Document Server

    Veiga, Germano; Natale, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    This monograph by Florian Röhrbein, Germano Veiga and Ciro Natale is an edited collection of 15 authoritative contributions in the area of robot technology transfer between academia and industry. It comprises three parts on Future Industrial Robotics, Robotic Grasping as well as Human-Centered Robots. The book chapters cover almost all the topics nowadays considered ‘hot’ within the robotics community, from reliable object recognition to dexterous grasping, from speech recognition to intuitive robot programming, from mobile robot navigation to aerial robotics, from safe physical human-robot interaction to body extenders. All contributions stem from the results of ECHORD – the European Clearing House for Open Robotics Development, a large-scale integrating project funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme from 2009 to 2013. ECHORD’s two main pillars were the so-called experiments, 51 small-sized industry-driven research projects, and the structured dialog, a powerful interac...

  18. Online Continuing Medical Education for the Latin American Nephrology Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Alvaro; Gonzalez-Martinez, Francisco; Noboa, Oscar; Abbud-Filho, Mario; Lorier, Leticia; Nin, Marcelo; Silvariño, Ricardo; García, Sofía; Pefaur, Jacqueline; Greloni, Gustavo C; Noronha, Irene L; Lopez, Antonio; Ribeiro-Alves, María A; Tanús, Roberto; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    A continuing medical education (CME) course was implemented for Latin American nephrologists in 2013. The topic was Immunopathology in native and transplanted kidneys. The course was given in Spanish and Portuguese. The activities included a distance education seven-week asynchronous online modality with multiple educational strategies. Thirty hours of study workload were estimated to complete the course. Four hundred and ninety-eight physicians coming from 18 countries registered for the course; 442 of them participated in it. Of those who participated, 51% received a certificate of completion and 29% a certificate of participation. Sixty-five percent of registrants participated in the case discussions. Eighty-six percent were very satisfied and 13% were satisfied. Lack of time to devote to the course was the main limitation expressed (62%), while Internet access or difficulties in the use of technology were considered by only 12 and 6% of participants, respectively. There was a significant increase in knowledge between before and after the course; the average grade increased from 64 to 83%. In conclusion, technology-enabled education demonstrated potential to become an instrument for Latin American nephrologists.

  19. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little...

  20. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  1. Western Europe's America Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  2. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  3. Islam in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007.......A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007....

  4. Towards a New Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    This article raises two questions: What are the challenges for an understanding of Europe and European future? How can we rethink literary history so that it reflects the present historical and political moment of Europe? The aim of bringing these two concerns together is to argue that European...

  5. WetVegEurope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landucci, Flavia; Řezníčková, Marcela; Šumberová, Kateřina; Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    WetVegEurope is a research project (http://www.sci.muni.cz/botany/vegsci/wetveg) whose goal is to provide a synthesized formalized classification of the aquatic and marsh vegetation across Europe at the level of phytosociological associations. In order to achieve the project objective, a

  6. Governing Cocaine Supply and Organized Crime from Latin America and the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stambøl, Eva Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The logics of the European Union’s policy and practices against narcotic drugs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have undergone a substantial shift the past decade: from development to security. Based on an empirical mapping of the EU’s drug-related projects in LAC, this article argues...... at dismantling transnational organized crime along the cocaine trafficking routes to Europe might have unintended consequences. While keeping in mind the shifting tectonics of the international drug prohibition consensus, the article goes on to analyze the increasingly salient security rationale in EU external...

  7. Panorama 2007: Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur-Vernat, A.; His, St.

    2007-01-01

    The current leader on the world bio-diesel market, Europe is, after the United States and Brazil, one of the regions driving the production and utilization of biofuels. Its ambitious bio-fuel content targets for motor fuels (5.75% by 2010 and 8% by 2015) encourage Member States to significantly develop those pathways. This raises certain questions, especially about available biomass resources. It is likely that, beyond 2010, technologies other than those in existence today, using ligno-cellulosic biomass, will have to be implemented. (author)

  8. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  9. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. A Latin American perspective of periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffesse, Raúl G

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases occur worldwide, and Latin American populations are significantly affected by different manifestations of periodontal disease. The interest in periodontics and periodontal therapy first developed in the early 1930s in the southernmost countries of Latin America, and spread, as the years went by, throughout the region. Today, periodontal research is vibrant in Latin America. The aim of this volume of Periodontology 2000 was to present an overview of the periodontal research currently being performed in different countries of Latin America. The epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults, children and adolescents, and the pathogenesis of such diseases (including microbiological characteristics and risk factors), are discussed. The role of systemic antibiotic therapy and the effect of smoking are discussed in relation to the progression and the treatment of periodontitis. In addition, the benefit of lasers in periodontal therapy is evaluated. Latin American research groups have been active in exploring new venues of regenerative periodontal treatment, addressing the role of cementum proteins, growth factors and oral mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering. Finally, basic research to study cancerization is reported.

  11. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  12. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

    1998-10-20

    Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

  13. Design, Automation, and Test in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Design, Automation, and Test in Europe (DATE) conference celebrated in 2007 its tenth anniversary. As a tribute to the chip and system-level design and design technology community, this book presents a compilation of the three most influential papers of each year. This provides an excellent...

  14. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  15. [Proliferation of medical schools in latin America. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro

    2002-08-01

    Significant changes in university education have occurred in Latin America, caused by the strategic importance that it has on economical and social development. The educational system expanded and science, technology and informatics, experienced an important development. The eighties were characterized by a reduction in government expenditures, a more efficient use of resources, an increase in the number and variety of universities and university students. The creation of new universities, mostly private, was favored by a highly unregulated market. In Latinamerica, more new universities were created during the eighties than in the previous one hundred years. Since 1981, the number of universities in Chile increased from 8 to 60, the type of institutions was diversified, the government financing of public universities decreased substantially and the regulatory role of the market was emphasized. These changes have been quantitatively understandable but qualitatively unsatisfactory. Since 1981, the number of university students between 19 and 24 years old has triplicated. The number of medical schools and the annual admission of students has duplicated. In most Latin American countries, there is an insufficient number of physicians (Chile has one physician per 783 inhabitants). Since the decade of the nineties, an effort has been made to regulate the market, to introduce new barriers for the acceptance of new educational institutions, to improve the transparency of the system and to preserve the quality of teaching. The quality control of medicine and health is one of the most serious problems in Latin American countries. This includes accreditation of medical schools, health centers and specialists. In Chile there have been some progress in these topics but quality control is still unsatisfactory.

  16. Technology and Innovation Management in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Antonio Adrián Arciénaga; Nielsen, Janni; Bacarini, Hernán Alberto

    2018-01-01

    To solve common bottlenecks in the innovation and development process known as the “European Paradox” or the “Latin American Innovative Gap”, we introduce different experiences of training and education at graduate level. The main objective of this study is to analyze different cases from Europe ...

  17. LATIN-MH: a model for building research capacity within Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, B B; Araya, R; Quayle, J; Silva Evangelista, M; Price, LeS N; Menezes, P R

    2017-01-01

    Latin America Treatment and Innovation Network in Mental Health (LATIN-MH) is a research hub located in Brazil and Peru that conducts a research project to help reduce the treatment gap in mental health in Latin America (LA). Besides its research core, LATIN-MH has a Capacity Building (CB) component that aims to help young researchers receive the specific training to contribute to the growing scientific production in mental health in LA. LATIN-MH proposal in CB includes a series of actions to prepare professionals in the research area. The main proposals are described here, which include online study groups, promotion of scientific meetings, hands-on training in different levels and sharing of information. LATIN-MH CB activities are at its initial stages but the proposed activities were well evaluated by the participants. The first participating fellows who finished their fellowships are contributing elsewhere in the mental treatment and human resources formation area. The repercussion of LATIN-MH actions in CB and its evaluation, particularly on the formation of human resources and dissemination of information, show that the hub is contributing to the critic formation of young researchers and the circulation of important information.

  18. Latin hypercube sampling with inequality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, B.; Petelet, M.; Asserin, O.; Loredo, A.

    2010-01-01

    In some studies requiring predictive and CPU-time consuming numerical models, the sampling design of the model input variables has to be chosen with caution. For this purpose, Latin hypercube sampling has a long history and has shown its robustness capabilities. In this paper we propose and discuss a new algorithm to build a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) taking into account inequality constraints between the sampled variables. This technique, called constrained Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS), consists in doing permutations on an initial LHS to honor the desired monotonic constraints. The relevance of this approach is shown on a real example concerning the numerical welding simulation, where the inequality constraints are caused by the physical decreasing of some material properties in function of the temperature. (authors)

  19. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  20. Latin and Greek in gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean B; Carmichael, Stephen W; Pawlina, Wojciech; Spinner, Robert J

    2007-04-01

    Medical students and practitioners learn and use a vocabulary originating almost entirely from classical Latin and Greek languages. Previous generations required Latin or Greek prior to medical school, but the current generation does not have such requirements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that understanding Latin or Greek helps students to learn and practitioners to recall otherwise foreign terminology. This study evaluated students' familiarity with Latin and Greek etymologies before and after a gross anatomy course that incorporated etymologies into its curriculum. First-year medical students at Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were taught Latin and Greek etymologies through lectures and handouts during their gross anatomy course. They took a pretest and a posttest before and after the course to assess their understanding of etymologies. In addition, students from all four years of medical school, residents, and staff physicians also took a general etymology quiz to assess their understanding of etymologies. After their gross anatomy course emphasizing etymologies, first-year students scored higher on the posttest than they did on the pretest. First-year students also reported that learning etymologies enhanced anatomy learning, made the experience more enjoyable, and proved to be less difficult than they thought it would be prior to the course. Medical students, residents, and staff physicians scored almost equally on the general etymology quiz and almost equally reported that etymologies enhanced learning and recalling terminology. Medical students, residents, and staff physicians almost equally endorsed incorporating etymologies into medical education. This study provides novel scientific evidence that a basic understanding of Latin and Greek etymologies enhances performance and comfort when learning and using medical terminology.