WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology diffusion strategies

  1. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  2. Ising-like agent-based technology diffusion model: adoption patterns vs. seeding strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Laciana, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    The well-known Ising model used in statistical physics was adapted to a social dynamics context to simulate the adoption of a technological innovation. The model explicitly combines (a) an individual's perception of the advantages of an innovation and (b) social influence from members of the decision-maker's social network. The micro-level adoption dynamics are embedded into an agent-based model that allows exploration of macro-level patterns of technology diffusion throughout systems with different configurations (number and distributions of early adopters, social network topologies). In the present work we carry out many numerical simulations. We find that when the gap between the individual's perception of the options is high, the adoption speed increases if the dispersion of early adopters grows. Another test was based on changing the network topology by means of stochastic connections to a common opinion reference (hub), which resulted in an increment in the adoption speed. Finally, we performed a simula...

  3. Selected Dissemination/Diffusion Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marshall L.

    This analysis of selected diffusion and dissemination methods used by developer-demonstrator projects in the National Diffusion Network discusses strategies under the following headings: managing the project, developing materials, disseminating information, conducting awareness sessions, training personnel, using certified trainers, providing…

  4. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  5. European Framework for the Diffusion of Biogas Uses: Emerging Technologies, Acceptance, Incentive Strategies, and Institutional-Regulatory Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas will constitute a significant fraction of future power supply, since it is expected to contribute a large share of the EU renewable energy targets. Biogas, once produced, can be combusted in traditional boilers to provide heat, or to generate electricity. It can be used for the production of chemical compounds, or fed into a pipeline. This review paper will briefly analyze the current most promising emerging biogas technologies in the perspective of their potential uses, environmental benefits, and public acceptance; draw a picture of current conditions on the adoption of a biogas road map in the several EU Member States; analyze incentive and support policy implementation status and gaps; discuss non-technological barriers; and summarize proposed solutions to widen this energy’s use.

  6. Theories on diffusion of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark.......Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark....

  7. Technology Planning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Effective planning strategies drive achievement of an overall technology goal to increase access to electronic information in real time in order to increase efficiency, productivity, and communication across campus. Planning relies on providing access, 'Anytime Anywhere' to student information, calendar, email, course management tools, and the…

  8. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration. © the Owner Societies 2013.

  9. CHANNELS AND DETERMINANTS OF TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub M. Kwiatkowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential for development of all countries of modern World is highly dependent on the ability to create and absorb technology. The following paper constitutes review of the literature focused on channels and factors that determine speed of this process between countries. The first part of the paper analyses three basic channels of technology diffu-sion: international trade, Foreign Direct Investments and networking. In the second part methology proposed by UNCTAD is utilized in order to systematize determinants of technology diffusion. Examined factors are divided into four groups: related to the nature of technology, seller of technology, buyer of technology and determinants associated with economic policy and society. The analysis allows to draw a number of conclusions and highlights need for further research.

  10. Technological Strategies and National Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the international and domestic implications of technological growth. Defines three basic national strategies: a broad front approach, scientific and technological specialization and importation. Analyzes the strategies followed by form countries - France, the United States, Sweden, and Japan- to illustrate the alternatives and the…

  11. Technological Strategies and National Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the international and domestic implications of technological growth. Defines three basic national strategies: a broad front approach, scientific and technological specialization and importation. Analyzes the strategies followed by form countries - France, the United States, Sweden, and Japan- to illustrate the alternatives and the…

  12. Diffusion of irreversible energy technologies under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacallo, J.D.; Sutherland, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents a model of technology diffusion is consistent with characteristics of participants in most energy markets. Whereas the models used most widely for empirical research are based on the assumption that the extended delays in adoption of cost-saving innovations are the result of either lack of knowledge about the new processes or heterogeneity across potential adopters, the model presented in this paper is based on the strategic behavior by firms. The strategic interdependence of the firms` decisions is rooted in spillover effects associated with an inability to exclude others from the learning-by-doing acquired when a firm implements a new technology. The model makes extensive use of recent developments in investment theory as it relates irreversible investments under uncertainty.

  13. Innovation, Diffusion, and Regulation in Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Theodore Robert

    The innovation and diffusion of new technologies is one of the central concerns of economics. New inventions or technological combinations do not spring fully formed into the world; as firms encounter and learn about new technologies they experiment, refine, and learn about them, improving productivity (and sometimes earning economic rents). Understanding the processes by which firms learn, and how these processes interact with regulations, is fundamental to understanding the emergence of new technologies, their contribution to growth, and the interaction of innovation and regulation. This dissertation addresses how firms learn and respond to regulations in the context of emerging technologies. Within this framework, I address several questions. When production inputs are socially controversial, do firms respond to disclosure laws by voluntarily constraining their inputs? Do these public disclosure laws facilitate knowledge transmission across firms, and if so, what are the implications for public welfare - for instance, do the gains from trade outweigh any effects of reduced incentives for innovation? I study these questions in the context of hydraulic fracturing, though the results offer insight for more general settings. Panning out to a much broader view, I also explore how energy-related technologies - in both generation and consumption - diffuse across national boundaries over time, and whether innovation and diffusion of energy-efficient technologies has led to more or less energy-efficient economic growth. In my first paper, I contribute to improved understanding of the conditions in which information-based regulations, which are increasingly common in multiple policy domains, decrease externalities such as environmental pollution. Specifically, I test whether information disclosure regulations applied to hydraulic fracturing chemicals caused firms to decrease their use of toxic inputs. Prior to these mandatory disclosure laws, some operators voluntarily

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISM MODELS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION DIFFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiuping; HU Minan

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanism and principle of diffusion of technology diffusion on the basis of quantitative analysis. Then it sets up the diffusion model of innovation incorporating price, advertising and distribution, the diffusion model of innovation including various kinds of consumers, and the substitute model between the new technology and the old one applied systems dynamics, optimization method, probabilistic method and simulation method on computer. Finally this paper concludes with some practical observations from a case study.

  15. Understanding Dynamic Competitive Technology Diffusion in Electronic Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Song, Peijian; Xu, Yunjie; Xue, Ling

    The extant literature on information technology (IT) diffusion has largely treated technology diffusion as a generic and independent process. This study, in contrast, examines the diffusion of different IT products with brand differentiation and competition. Drawing upon existing theories of product diffusion, we propose a research model to capture the dynamics of the competitive diffusion of web-based IT products and validate it with longitudinal field data of e-business platforms. Our findings suggest that IT product diffusion can be better predicted by a competitive model than by an independent-diffusion-process model. This research extends IT research to the context of competitive diffusion and provides practitioners an effective model to predict the dissemination of their products. The research also suggests the existence of asymmetric interactions among competing products, prompting scholars and practitioners to pay attention to the influence of competing products when making forecast of their product market.

  16. Comparing three knowledge communication strategies - Diffusion, Dissemination and Translation - through randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P; Stone, Vathsala I

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of three randomized controlled case studies comparing the effectiveness of three strategies for communicating new research-based knowledge (Diffusion, Dissemination, Translation), to different Assistive Technology (AT) stakeholder groups. Pre and post intervention measures for level of knowledge use (unaware, aware, interested, using) via the LOKUS instrument, assessed the relative effectiveness of the three strategies. The latter two approaches were both more effective than diffusion but also equally effective. The results question the value added by tailoring research findings to specific audiences, and instead supports the critical yet neglected role for relevance in determining knowledge use by stakeholders.

  17. The Diffusion of Research on the Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Williams, Michael D.; Lal, Banita

    The considerable level of investigation into information systems and technology acceptance and diffusion to date has witnessed the use of an extensive range of exploratory techniques examining numerous diverse systems and technologies in a myriad of different contexts. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature relating to such adoption and diffusion issues in order to establish the current "state of play" in the domain along a number of dimensions including unit of analysis, research paradigm employed, technology examined, and theoretical models and constructs. Our findings suggest that the positivist paradigm, empirical and quantitative research, the survey method, and TAM theory were used predominantly when investigating the topics of adoption and diffusion of technology. Although the adoption of broad range of technologies has been examined, our results indicate that a number of technologies have so far received relatively little investigative attention.

  18. Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    This guidebook provides practical and operational guidance on how to assess and overcome barriersfacing the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change mitigation and adaptation.The guidebook is designed to support the analysis of specific technologies, rather than pursuing asectoral...... (e.g. transport) or technology group (e.g. renewable energy) approach.Given that there is no single solution to enhancing technology transfer and diffusion policies needbe tailored to country-specific context and interests. Therefore, the guidebook presents a flexibleapproach, identifying various...

  19. Technology Diffusion and Productivity Growth in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jonathan; Staiger, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    We draw on macroeconomic models of diffusion and productivity to explain empirical patterns of survival gains in heart attacks. Using Medicare data for 2.8 million patients during 1986-2004, we find that hospitals rapidly adopting cost-effective innovations such as beta blockers, aspirin, and reperfusion, had substantially better outcomes for their patients. Holding technology adoption constant, the marginal returns to spending were relatively modest. Hospitals increasing the pace of technology diffusion ("tigers") experienced triple the survival gains compared to those with diminished rates ("tortoises"). In sum, small differences in the propensity to adopt effective technology lead to wide productivity differences across hospitals.

  20. Research on mechanism of technological diffusion in industry cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qin; Cheng Yong

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to explain the reason and mechanism of technological diffusion in industry cluster. Following the idea showed in Zhou Qin's model, we further develop the theoretical analysis that how the technological gap between strong enterprises and weak enterprises determines the level and speed of technological diffusion. The bigger the technological disparity between strong enterprise and weak enterprise is, the quicker technology spreads and knowledge overflows; on the contrary, the smaller the technological disparity between strong enterprise and weak enterprise is, the slower technology spread and knowledge overflows. Therefore, this kind of mechanism is helpful for enterprises in an industry cluster to learn from each other and to enable each enterprise close to the "the average level" of technology or knowledge. As a result, we think that, there exists a close relation between technological gap and technological diffusion. The paper puts forward the way of knowledge overflows of the strong enterprises: imitation-demonstration effect, the longitudinal connection in the industrial chain, the labor force flow and transfer, informal exchange.

  1. Diffusion of multi-generational high-technology products

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xiaohui; Fernandes, Kiran,; Chumnumpan, Pattarin

    2014-01-01

    Previous multi-generational product diffusion (MGPD) models were developed based on the diffusion patterns at that time, but may not be adopted in today’s cases. By incorporating the effect of customers’ forward-looking behaviour, this paper offers a parsimonious and original model that captures the dynamics of MGPD in current high-technology markets. We empirically examine the feasibility of using previous MGPD models and our suggested model to explain the market growth of new products from ...

  2. Leaders, laggards and technology seeking strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Bosker, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the conditions determining optimal technology seeking strategies for leader and laggard firms. We extend existing theories by differentiating leaders and laggards in terms of absorptive capacity and intra-firm technology transfer skills, next to productivity levels. In addition, both Fore

  3. The Uneven Diffusion of Collaborative Technology in a Large Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarulaitis, Gasparas

    This paper investigates the large-scale diffusion of a collaborative technology in a range of different business contexts. The empirical data used in the article were obtained from a longitudinal (2007-2009) case study of a global oil and gas company (OGC). Our study reports on ongoing efforts to deploy an inte grated collaborative system that uses Microsoft SharePoint (MSP) technology. We assess MSP as a configurational technology and analyze the diffusion of a metadata standard developed in-house, which forms an embedded component of MSP. We focus on two different organizational contexts, namely research and development (R&D) and oil and gas production (OGP), and illustrate the key differences between the ways in which configurational technology is managed and used in these contexts, which results in an uneven diffusion. In contrast with previous studies, we unravel the organizational and technological complexity involved, and thus empirically illustrate the flexibility of large-scale technology and show how the trajectories of the various components are influenced by multiple modes of ordering.

  4. A new technology for solving diffusion and heat equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new technology combing the variational iterative method and an integral transform similar to Sumudu transform is proposed for the first time for solutions of diffusion and heat equations. The method is accurate and efficient in development of approximate solutions for the partial differential equations.

  5. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  6. Maximum length sequence and Bessel diffusers using active technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor J.; Avis, Mark R.; Xiao, Lejun

    2006-02-01

    Active technologies can enable room acoustic diffusers to operate over a wider bandwidth than passive devices, by extending the bass response. Active impedance control can be used to generate surface impedance distributions which cause wavefront dispersion, as opposed to the more normal absorptive or pressure-cancelling target functions. This paper details the development of two new types of active diffusers which are difficult, if not impossible, to make as passive wide-band structures. The first type is a maximum length sequence diffuser where the well depths are designed to be frequency dependent to avoid the critical frequencies present in the passive device, and so achieve performance over a finite-bandwidth. The second is a Bessel diffuser, which exploits concepts developed for transducer arrays to form a hybrid absorber-diffuser. Details of the designs are given, and measurements of scattering and impedance used to show that the active diffusers are operating correctly over a bandwidth of about 100 Hz to 1.1 kHz. Boundary element method simulation is used to show how more application-realistic arrays of these devices would behave.

  7. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  8. Effect of repeat purchase and dynamic market size on diffusion of an innovative technological consumer product in a segmented market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, S.; Gupta, A.; Govindan, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops diffusion models for technological consumer products under the marketing environment when a product is marketed in a segmented market and observes two distinctive promotional strategies of mass and differentiated promotion; an under explored study area. Mass promotion strategy...... creates a spectrum effect in market with an aim to create wider product awareness and influence the market size. Whereas the differentiated promotion strategy plays major role in external influence component in the respective segment and target for adoption by the current potential segment. Previous...... studies on segmented diffusion models assumed only first time purchase and constant market size which may yield underestimated results and fail to give appropriate insight of the diffusion process. The study develops and validates generalized diffusion models for segmented market incorporating...

  9. The association between technology type and diffusion pattern under duopolistic competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsou Ching-Shih

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many firms consider adopting new technologies as a means for enhancing competitive advantages. Therefore, the subject of technology diffusion has been studied by many researchers from different disciplines in order to explore the diffusion profiles throughout the industry or the country. The argument has frequently been made that the pattern of diffusion associated with most new technologies will typically have certain characteristics. In general, the diffusion pattern within an industry will depend on the competitive arena and technology characteristics. Based on a duopolistic game-theoretic model, this paper tries to explore the association between technology type and diffusion pattern. The results show that the cost-reducing technologies are adopted sequentially within a duopoly. On the other hard, strategic technologies diffuse over time or in a swarm. Although both technologies might be adopted sequentially, the rate for strategic technologies is faster than that for cost-reducing technologies. .

  10. Technology Spillover and Licensing Strategy of Patentee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The optimal license proportions with and without technology spillover are analyzed with a game-theoretical approach when a patent-holding firm licensed non-drastic process innovation to his incumbent rivals by means of a first price sealed bid auction. The optimal strategy is obtained through solving the game by backward induction. It is found that the range of optimal license proportion is narrower when there is spillover compared to the no spillover case.

  11. Educational Cognitive Technologies as Human Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Nesterova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity is characterized by profound changes in all spheres of human life caused by the global transformations on macro and micro levels of social reality. These changes allow us to speak about the present as the era of civilizational transition in the mode of uncertainty. Therefore, this situation demands qualitative transformations of human adaptive strategies and educational technologies accordingly. The dominant role in the dynamics of pedagogics and andragogy’s landscape belongs to transformative learning. The transformative learning theory is considered as the relevant approach to education of the individual, which is able to become an autonomous communicative actor of the social complexity. The article considers the cognitive technologies of social cohesion development and perspectives of their implementation in the educational dimension. In addition to implementing the principles of inclusion, equity in education, an important factor for improving social cohesion, stability and unity of society is the development of cognitive educational technologies. The key factors and foundations for the cognitive educational technologies are transversal competencies. They create the conditions for civil, public dialogue, non-violent type of communication. These “21st century skills” are extremely important for better human adaptation. One of the aspects and roots of social adaptation is social cohesion. Mutual determinations and connections between social cohesion development and transversal competences have been shown. The perspective direction of further researches is to find a methodological base for the further development of cognitive education technologies and platform for realization of innovative services for educational programs. New educational paradigm offers the concept of human adaptation as cognitive effectiveness and how to reach it through educational technologies. The article includes topics of creative thinking, teambuilding

  12. Acquisition strategy to obtain quantitative diffusion NMR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrère, Caroline; Thureau, Pierre; Thévand, André; Viel, Stéphane

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) diffusion NMR experiments constitute a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures because they can in principle separate the NMR spectra of each mixture component. However, because these experiments intrinsically rely on spin echoes, they are traditionally regarded as non-quantitative, due to the signal attenuation caused by longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) nuclear magnetic relaxation during the rather long delays of the pulse sequence. Alternatively to the quantitative Direct Exponential Curve Resolution Algorithm (qDECRA) approach proposed by Antalek (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 8402-8403), this work presents an acquisition strategy that renormalizes this relaxation attenuation using estimates of the T1 and T2 relaxation times for all the nuclei in the mixture, as obtained directly with the pulse sequence used to record the PGSE experiment. More specifically, it is shown that only three distinct PGSE experiments need to be recorded, each with a specific set of acquisition parameters. For small- and medium-sized molecules, only T1 is required for obtaining accurate quantification. For larger molecular weight species, which typically exhibit short T2 values, estimates of T2 must also be included but only a rough estimation is required. This appears fortunate because these data are especially hard to obtain with good accuracy when analyzing homonuclear scalar-coupled systems. Overall, the proposed methodology is shown to yield a quantification accuracy of ±5%, both in the absence and in the presence of spectral overlap, giving rise - at least, in our hands - to results that superseded those achieved by qDECRA, while requiring substantially less experimental time.

  13. A national strategy for the export of US geothermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This document presents a proposal for an explicit US strategy to focus this still diffuse interest into a coordinated effort by the public and private sectors to increase exports of US geothermal goods and services over the next five to ten years. This document summarizes the background and need for an explicit US strategy, the factors influencing the development of this strategy, strategy options, and a recommended strategy.

  14. Industrial diffusion models and technological standardization; Patrones industriales de diversificacion y estandarizacion tecnologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo-Hermosilla, J.

    2007-07-01

    Conventional models of technology diffusion have typically focused on the question of the rate of diffusion at which one new technology is fully adopted. The model described here provides a broader approach, from the perspective the extension of the diffusion of multiple technologies, and the related phenomenon of standardization. Moreover, most conventional research has characterized the diffusion process in terms of technology attributes or adopting firms attributes. Alternatively, we propose here a wide-ranging and consistent taxonomy of the relationships between the circumstances of an industry and the attributes of the technology standardization processes taking place within it. (Author) 100 refs.

  15. The global institutional frameworks and the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bodas Freitas, I.M.; E. Dantas; Iizuka, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the global institutional frameworks on the national processes of innovation diffusion. we focus on the influence of the Kyoto mechanisms on the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS countries i.e. Brazil, China India, Russia and South Africa. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the Kyoto Mechanisms may support the diffusion of some simple, low cost and mature technologies which are already diffused in the host countries, rather than the dif...

  16. Diffusion of energy efficient technologies in the German steel industry and their impact on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, M.; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715

    2014-01-01

    We try to understand the role of technological change and diffusion of energy efficient technologies in order to explain the trend of energy intensity developments in the German steel industry. We selected six key energy efficient technologies and collected data to derive their diffusion since their

  17. Diffusion of energy efficient technologies in the German steel industry and their impact on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, M.; Worrell, E.

    2014-01-01

    We try to understand the role of technological change and diffusion of energy efficient technologies in order to explain the trend of energy intensity developments in the German steel industry. We selected six key energy efficient technologies and collected data to derive their diffusion since their

  18. A vintage model of technology diffusion: The effects of returns to disversity and learning by using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.F. de Groot (Henri); M.W. Hofkes; P. Mulder (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe diffusion of new technologies is a lengthy process and many firms continue to invest in relatively old technologies. This paper develops a vintage model of technology adoption and diffusion that aims at explaining these two phenomena. Our explanation for these phenomena emphasises th

  19. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy m...

  20. A policy model for diffusion of electricity saving technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimdal, Sverre Inge; Bjoernstad, Even (Even Enova SF (Norway))

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses an integrated model for information and marketing tools combined with various subsidy elements developed for achieving electricity savings and improved energy efficiency in the Norwegian residential sector. The model represents the framework within which current Norwegian policies within this field are based. A central element of the model is the way marketing and subsidy elements are combined in different phases of the market diffusion process of the relevant technologies, and how market distortions are sought minimized through criteria for entry and exit to the scheme. The paper further gives examples of applications of the model. In 2003 Norwegian parliament launched a one-shot Household Subsidy Programme for heating and efficiency technologies in the residential sector. The evaluation report of the subsidy scheme as well as the IEA national report on Norway in 2005 concluded that the subsidy scheme had been a great success. This programme was reinstated on a permanent basis in 2006, and the paper uses data from these programmes as illustrations to the theoretical model.

  1. The Diffusion and Value of Healthcare Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Anthony G

    2006-01-01

    Through a series of interviews and database analyses, and an extensive literature review and synthesis, this report characterizes the diffusion of use of electronic health records and places a value on that diffusion.

  2. Technology diffusion in energy-economy models: The case of Danish vintage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological vintage models to describe technology diffusion. The focus is on short- to medium-term issues. Three different models of Danish energy supply and demand are used to illustrate......Technological progress is an important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological progress and diffusion of new technologies are among the reasons for diverging results obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analyzing...... of residential heat demand, fuel price increases are found to accelerate diffusion by increasing replacement rates for heating equipment....

  3. A Natural Analogy to the Diffusion of Energy-Efficient Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mathematical approach to the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies is presented using the diffusion of natural processes as an analogy. This approach is applied to the diffusion of the electric arc furnace in Japan. The main advantage offered by the new approach is the incorporation of an average effect of barriers to, and support measures for, innovation. This approach also incorporates some of the parameters influencing the cost-effectiveness of the investment in the new technology as the main driver for adopting the innovation. The straightforward equivalence between natural phenomena and the diffusion of innovation requires the conceptual abstraction of setting a dimension (and defining the medium in which the diffusion takes place. This new approach opens new research paths to analysing under what circumstances innovations can take-off, the effect of barriers in the diffusion of energy efficient technologies, or how the diffusion process is incorporated in energy-system models.

  4. A Diffusion Theory Model of Adoption and Substitution for Successive Generations of High-Technology Products

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Norton; Frank M. Bass

    1987-01-01

    This study deals with the dynamic sales behavior of successive generations of high-technology products. New technologies diffuse through a population of potential buyers over time. Therefore, diffusion theory models are related to this demand growth. Furthermore, successive generations of a technology compete with earlier ones, and that behavior is the subject of models of technological substitution. Building upon the Bass (Bass, F. M. 1969. A new-product growth model for consumer durables. M...

  5. The Diffusion of Information and Behavior in Social Networks: Renewable Energy Technology Adoption in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan He; Marcella Veronesi

    2015-01-01

    Adopting renewable energy technologies has been seen as a promising way to reduce CO2 emissions and deforestation. This paper investigates how social networks may affect renewable energy technology adoption. We distinguish two channels through which social networks may play a role: (i) the diffusion of information; and (ii) the diffusion of behavior. Most empirical studies fail to quantitatively separate the diffusion of information and behavior in social networks. We conduct a survey on biog...

  6. Diffusion of community empowerment strategies for Aedes aegypti control in Cuba: a muddling through experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Lefèvre, Pierre; Castro, Marta; Toledo, María Eugenia; Zamora, Gilberto; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Effective participatory strategies in dengue control have been developed and assessed as small-scale efforts. The challenge is to scale-up and institutionalize these strategies within dengue control programs. We describe and critically analyze the diffusion process of an effective empowerment strategy within the Cuban Aedes aegypti control program, focusing on decision-making at the national level, to identify ways forward to institutionalize such strategies in Cuba and elsewhere. From 2005 to 2009, we carried out a process-oriented case study. We used participant observation, in-depth interviews with key informants involved in the diffusion process and document analysis. In a first phase, the data analysis was inductive. In a second phase, to enhance robustness of the analysis, emerging categories were contrasted with Rogers' five-stage conceptual model of the innovation-decision process, which was eventually used as the analytical framework. The diffusion of the empowerment strategy was a continuous and dynamic process. Adoption was a result of the perceived potential match between the innovative empowerment strategy and the performance gap of the Ae. aegypti control program. During implementation, the strategy was partially modified by top level Ae. aegypti control program decision-makers to accommodate program characteristics. However, structure, practices and organizational culture of the control program did not change significantly. Thus rejection occurred. It was mainly due to insufficient dissemination of know-how and underlying principles of the strategy by innovation developers, but also to resistance to change. The innovation-diffusion process has produced mitigated results to date, and the control program is still struggling to find ways to move forward. Improving the innovation strategy by providing the necessary knowledge about the innovation and addressing control program organizational changes is crucial for successful diffusion of empowerment

  7. High technology in developing countries: Analysis of technology strategy, technology transfer, and success factors in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    Economical development is highly related to technological development. It is therefore not surprising that many of the industrially developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competence level. Industrially developing countries may even pursue a strategy of developi

  8. High technology in developing countries: Analysis of technology strategy, technology transfer, and success factors in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Economical development is highly related to technological development. It is therefore not surprising that many of the industrially developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competence level. Industrially developing countries may even pursue a strategy of

  9. NASA ESTO Lidar Technologies Investment Strategy: 2016 Decadal Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinia, Azita; Komar, George J.; Tratt, David M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Gaab, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) recently updated its investment strategy in the area of lidar technologies as it pertains to NASA's Earth Science measurement goals in the next decade. The last ESTO lidar strategy was documented in 2006. The current (2016) report assesses the state-of-the-art in lidar technologies a decade later. Lidar technology maturation in the past decade has been evaluated, and the ESTO investment strategy is updated and laid out in this report according to current NASA Earth science measurement needs and new emerging technologies.

  10. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Self Organizing Map (SOM for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy modeling for technology marketing. Also PCA and SOM are used to analyze patent data in STP modeling. To verify improved performance of our study, we make experiments using patent data from USPTO.

  11. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  13. Innovation in industry and the diffusion of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utterback, J M

    1974-02-15

    the strategy for growth or competition evident in a firm or an industry, such as sales maximization (automotive), cost minimization (transportation, communications), performance maximization (aircraft, chemicals), or control of materials resources (mining, petroleum), as a basis for drawing distinctions (67). For example, in an industry that seeks to maximize sales, one would expect innovations that would be highly visible to consumers to be developed rapidly (68). In a cost-minimizing situation, production, as opposed to product technology, would be a major source of uncertainty, while the reverse might be the case in a performance-maximizing situation. Greater uncertainty arising from technical sources would imply greater sophistication in effective firms' product planning approaches, while a more stable technology would imply greater sophistication in market research and market-oriented strategies for innovation, and so forth. Much more work is needed along these lines if outcomes of interventions in the innovative process are to be predicted with any accuracy. Some implications for providing incentives and reducing barriers do seem clear from the work to date. Effective directions for federal action lie in strategies such as creating new markets through purchases or procurement policies; aggregating or focusing markets through regulation and other means; providing for market entry by contracts to smaller firms, venture capital, stronger patent protection, and so on; and providing for mobility and informal contacts within the technical community. Technology "push" strategies (such as tax incentives) to increase most research spending, prizes for new technology, and documentation and information retrieval systems would probably be less important in stimulating innovation. Definitive answers will require the most difficult kind of research-experiments in the field. Since the interventions required are difficult and expensive in most cases, they will not be under the

  14. Lotka systems with directed dispersal dynamics: Competition and influence of diffusion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E; Kamrujjaman, Md

    2016-09-01

    We study a Lotka system describing two competing populations, and each of them chooses its diffusion strategy as the tendency to have a distribution proportional to a certain positive prescribed function. For instance, the standard diffusion corresponds to the choice of a uniform distribution. The paper is focused on the interplay of species competition and diffusion strategies. In the case when one of the diffusion strategies is proportional to the carrying capacity, while the other is not, and the competition does not discriminate the former species, we prove the competitive exclusion of the latter one. If the competition favors the latter species, there is still a range of parameters for which there is a coexistence, thanks to the better dispersal strategy chosen by the former species. The dependency on the interaction type, diffusion coefficients and intrinsic growth rates is explored. We prove that in the limit case, higher diffusion coefficients are detrimental while higher growth rates, as well as lower resources sharing, are beneficial for population survival.

  15. Group-based strategy diffusion in multiplex networks with weighted values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianyong; Jiang, J. C.; Xiang, Leijun

    2017-03-01

    The information diffusion of multiplex social networks has received increasing interests in recent years. Actually, the multiplex networks are made of many communities, and it should be gotten more attention for the influences of community level diffusion, besides of individual level interactions. In view of this, this work explores strategy interactions and diffusion processes in multiplex networks with weighted values from a new perspective. Two different groups consisting of some agents with different influential strength are firstly built in each layer network, the authority and non-authority groups. The strategy interactions between different groups in intralayer and interlayer networks are performed to explore community level diffusion, by playing two classical strategy games, Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift Game. The impact forces from the different groups and the reactive forces from individual agents are simultaneously taken into account in intralayer and interlayer interactions. This paper reveals and explains the evolutions of cooperation diffusion and the influences of interlayer interaction tight degrees in multiplex networks with weighted values. Some thresholds of critical parameters of interaction degrees and games parameters settings are also discussed in group-based strategy diffusion.

  16. Strategies for Defining and Understanding Critical Technology Integration Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Ahmed Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Educational technology scholars believe that teachers should understand how to effectively integrate technology in their teaching. This study identified key terms related to integrating technology in education and investigated the effectiveness of three online instructional strategies (Text-only, Text plus Video, and Text plus Video plus Question)…

  17. FAW Technology Strategies of Low-Carbon Passenger Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun

    2012-01-01

    Author analyzed the global background of low-carbon technology around the world,a technology & economy analysis model called TOS was developed in the paper,author analyzed technology paths for low-carbon Car in China based on the current technologies available and technologies to he developed in China,3 possible paths are presented based on the analysis,author also explained the FAW BlueWay technology strategies for low carbon cars both for short mid and long term objectives.Author concludes the paper with illustration of powertrain lineup for FAW BlueWay Technologies.

  18. Market structure and technology diffusion incentives under emission taxes and emission reduction subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares emission taxes with emission reduction subsidies regarding the incentives they create to enhance technology diffusion under imperfect competition. Finns can adopt a "dirty" technology or a "clean" abatement technology. If the clean and dirty products are perfect substitutes, and

  19. When Shall I Tell? Relational Promotion and Timing of Information Technology Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Deborah; Butler, Brian; Boss, Scott

    2004-01-01

    This study adds to existing knowledge about information technology diffusion within organizations by examining the effects of social embeddedness on behavior of individual diffusers. Building on a social capital perspective of relationships, the authors theorize that individuals make intentional decisions to promote or suppress an innovation contingent on the nature of their relationship(s) with the potential adopters. Hypotheses regarding the likelihood of diffusion of an IT i...

  20. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  1. The diffusion of two diagnostic technologies among hospitals in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, C C; Begun, J W

    1988-01-01

    Using combined data from an independent survey by the American Hospital Association and the State of New York, the diffusion of two diagnostic technologies--the automated chemistry analyzer and the computed tomography (CT) scanner--among hospitals in New York State was analyzed. A linearized form of the logistic function was estimated using cumulative diffusion data for each. Diffusion patterns of both technologies fit the logistic curve well, with the coefficient of diffusion for the CT scanner being greater than that for the automated analyzer. Further analysis examined characteristics of early adopters of each technology. Similar hospital characteristics (e.g., high volume of admissions and medical school affiliation) were important in explaining early adoption of both technologies.

  2. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

    2010-06-01

    Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

  3. A Study on Diffusion Pattern of Technology Convergence: Patent Analysis for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Choi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology convergence indicates that technologies of different application areas are converted into a new and common unity of technology. Its range spans from inter-field, whereby technologies are converged between heterogeneous fields in homogeneous sector, to a wider inter-sector, whereby technologies belong to heterogeneous technology sector are converged. This paper determined the definition of technology convergence from previous literature and classified patents into technology category depending on patent information. Furthermore, we empirically measure technology convergence degree based on co-classification analysis and estimate its diffusion trend at the entire technology domain level by using overall 1,476,967 of patents filed to the KIPO (Korean Intellectual Property Office from 1998 to 2010. As a result, potential size and growth rate of technology convergence are varied by both technology and type of technology convergence, i.e., inter-field and inter-sector technology convergence. Diffusion pattern of inter-sector technology convergence appears as the more various form than that of inter-field technology convergence. In a relationship between potential size and growth rate of technology convergence, growth rate of technology convergence is in inverse proportion to potential size of technology convergence in general. That is, the faster the growth rate of technology convergence, the smaller the potential size of technology convergence. In addition, this paper found that technology convergence of the instrument and chemistry sector is actively progressing in both inter-field and inter-sector convergence, while the technologies related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT in electrical engineering sector have relatively mature progress of technology convergence, especially in inter-sector technology convergence.

  4. ICT diffusion in developing countries towards a new concept of technological takeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Lechman, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an extensive overview of the diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in developing countries between 2000 and 2012. It covers issues such as country-specific ICT diffusion patterns, technological substitution and technological convergence. By identifying social, economic and institutional prerequisites and analyzing critical country-specific conditions, the author develops a new approach to explaining the emergence of their technological takeoff. Readers will discover how developing countries are now adopting ICTs, rapidly catching up with the developed world in terms of ICT access and use.

  5. The development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Norway and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, A. (NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education, Oslo (Norway)); Holst Joergensen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Wind Energy Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    By applying the technological innovation systems concept this paper compares two case studies on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: the case of solar photovoltaics in Norway and offshore wind in Denmark. Both cases show a high activity level, in terms of RD and D and industrial deployment. Both cases illustrate the contribution to energy security of supply as well as prospects for business opportunities on global markets. The focus of the paper is on what stimulates the development and diffusion of new renewable technologies, asking: Which framework conditions facilitate technology development and the competitiveness of the industry and what are the lessons learned? (Author)

  6. The development strategy of financial and innovative technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Lavrov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define and to estimate the forming of expediency of the development strategy of financial and innovative technologies in the context of modern economic space realities.The results of the analysis. The growing importance of the financial sector in the contemporary economic space, as well as rapid changes in it, generates a need for financial innovative technologies. Development strategy of financial and innovative technologies is always associated with the current state of the financial system, its existent technical, technological and financial base. Therefore, the strategy of financial and innovative technologies will be considered the system of long-term goals and means of achieving them, implemented in the financial activity. Financial innovative technologies strategy includes two aspects: 1 management of the introduction of technical and technological innovations; 2the process of constant changes in the financial sector according to the environment change. Thus, theessence of the development strategy of financial innovative technologies is to target business entities (including banks to application new and more efficient technologies, services and organizational structures. In other words, to put the problem of profitability, flexibility and adaptability increasing in the financial market.The development expediency of the financial and innovative technologies is determined by such criteria: concordance with the amount of capital that can be directed to the financial activity; efficiency or concordance of the results and the real costs of achieving them; distinctness in terms of achieving the aim; the optimal combination of expected achievement the necessary profitability and possible risks and uncertainty in the future period; concordance of planned financial technologies with general economic conditions of the environment. Choosing the basic strategy of financial innovative technologies

  7. Where Diffusion of Clean Technologies and Barriers to Innovation Clash: Application to the Global Diffusion of the Electrical Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of barriers preventing the worldwide take-up of a clean technology: the electrical arc furnace. It also identifies which barriers affect a parameter that summarises the combined effect of all of them. The first step, determination of the combined effect of the barriers, is carried out using a novel approach to model the diffusion of innovations. This new approach is composed only by terms that account for the driver of innovations and the parameter that summarises the effect of barriers. The objective quantification of the effect of barriers in the diffusion of innovations opens up new opportunities for designing policies to overcome the barriers identified as the most relevant, for identifying the effect of existing policies, for relating innovation indicators with those barriers or for better incorporating the effect of barriers in bottom-up models that forecast the technological evolution of the economy.

  8. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    outcomes.Three cases are presented, each of them with a particular bearing on how materials participate in the making of emerging strategic identities and outcomes:The first case account for strategies transforming plans into anti-plans. This is a case of how a strategic plan is betrayed (or rejected......The aim of this article is to inquire into the possible significance of materials in the production of emerging strategic outcomes. The article first sets out to discuss the different ways contemporary strategy research define the identity of strategic actors. It is argued that the various schools...... of strategy research, although different in important respects, operate with a common human centered assumption: Humanity is treated as given - the strategic actor or subject is assumed to be an individual human or a collective of humans.By adding the possible significance of materials and other non...

  9. On the Emergence and Diffusion of Technological Capabilities and the Theory of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Kappen, Philip; Zander, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    This paper intersects extant theories of the MNC with empirically observed patterns in the intra-company emergence and diffusion of technological capabilities. It draws upon a database containing the complete patenting history of 24 Swedish multinationals over the 1890-2008 period, which allows...... as distinctive and differentiated diffusion patterns across headquarters, greenfield subsidiaries, and acquired units in the MNC group. We conclude that a theory of the MNC should recognize the shift towards more equal conditions for the generation of new technology within the multinational organization......, but that within this overall development some conspicuous inequalities in intra-company capability dif-fusion remain to be accounted for....

  10. Bioadsorption strategies with yeast molecular display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular display techniques using microbial cell surfaces have been widely developed in the past twenty years, and are useful tools as whole cell catalysts for various applications such as bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensing, and the screening system of protein libraries. Furthermore, different types of microbial cells among eukaryotic and prokaryotic strains have been investigated for their use in surface display technologies. Recently, several kinds of protein-displaying yeasts have been utilized as bioadsorbents in this platform technology. In particular, these trials have successfully expanded the possibility of applications to metal binding, affinity purification, and receptor-ligand interaction by using the yeast cell surface. In this mini review, we describe the general principles of molecular display technology using yeast cells and its applications, with a particular focus on bioadsorption.

  11. Technology diffusion in energy-economy models: The case of Danish vintage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    the consequences of the vintage modelling approach. The fluctuating utilization rates for power capacity in Denmark are found to have a significant impact on average fuel efficiencies. Diffusion of electric appliances is linked to economic activity and saturation levels for each appliance. In the sector......Technological progress is an important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological progress and diffusion of new technologies are among the reasons for diverging results obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analyzing...... the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological vintage models to describe technology diffusion. The focus is on short- to medium-term issues. Three different models of Danish energy supply and demand are used to illustrate...

  12. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested instructional strategies. Student perceptions give direction to and affirm the benefits of instructional strategies that increase student motivation to engage more actively in their learning. Based on quantitative and qualitative responses through action research in multiple courses, students perceive their learning as more engaging and enjoyable when technology-nested instructional strategies are infused into their classes.

  13. Advice Networks and Local Diffusion of Technological Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Juan Carlos; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    Classical writers such as John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx speculated that the standard of living could not rise indefinitely unless advances in technology increased the yield of the means of production. Neoclassical growth theory, based on capital accumulation, supports this intuition [1]. Digital tools increase personal productivity. Communication technologies enhance the coordination among individuals and increase the efficacy and efficiency of collective efforts. In both ways, technology contributes with wealth creation and the overall welfare of the community.

  14. Generation of diffuser dot patterns for light guides using fuzzy scheme strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Fang, Suping; Yang, Qing; Shang, Bo

    2009-12-01

    We propose a fuzzy scheme strategy for the generation of the diffuser dot patterns in the light guide of an edge-lit backlight. The fuzzy scheme strategy is based on fuzzy logic and rules, which are closely related to the physical luminance properties of the light guide. During the process of generating diffuser dot patterns, two inputs are the dot radius and the distance from dots to a light source, and one output is the luminance of the light guide panel. This strategy converts the linguistic strategy based on expert knowledge the optimal dot-generation strategy. Furthermore, this study includes the discussion of fuzzification and defuzzification strategies, the derivation of fuzzy logic rules, and the analysis of fuzzy reasoning mechanisms. Experiment results reveal that the proposed strategy can achieve an even luminance condition by establishing dot patterns. Compared to conventional methods, the fuzzy scheme strategy has two advantages. It effectively integrates the dot generation scheme into the subsequent optical design phase to make dot patterns more efficient and easy to control. Moreover, optimized dot patterns realize sufficient luminance uniformity.

  15. How Do Emerging Technologies Conquer the World? An Exploration of Patterns of Diffusion and Network Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Grasping the fruits of "emerging technologies" is an objective of many government priority programs in a knowledge-based and globalizing economy. We use the publication records (in the Science Citation Index) of two emerging technologies to study the mechanisms of diffusion in the case of two innovation trajectories: small interference RNA (siRNA) and nano-crystalline solar cells (NCSC). Methods for analyzing and visualizing geographical and cognitive diffusion are specified as indicators of different dynamics. Geographical diffusion is illustrated with overlays to Google Maps; cognitive diffusion is mapped using an overlay to a map based on the ISI Subject Categories. The evolving geographical networks show both preferential attachment and small-world characteristics. The strength of preferential attachment decreases over time, while the network evolves into an oligopolistic control structure with small-world characteristics. The transferability of the research technology in cognitive terms--that is, the tra...

  16. Organelle Structures: Bridging Strategy and Technological Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rob; Dekkers

    2002-01-01

    The shifting requirements as imposed on operations ma nagement require adjusting and tailoring the organisational structure to meet ma rket demands. However, translating these requirements directly into hierarchical structure will not ensure the integration of processes across organisational un its and guarantee desirable performance. Therefore, management and management li terature wonders: · How should we connect processes to the external environment within a strategi c framework · Which organisationa...

  17. Does Your Department Have a Technology Innovation Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkey, Bill G; Fox, Brent I

    2016-11-01

    There are ways to facilitate the successful implementation of technological innovations. These are especially important in a time of rapid development of new tools to support safe and effective medication therapy. This installment addresses some of the key components of a successful technology innovation strategy.

  18. Stochastic Lotka-Volterra equations: A model of lagged diffusion of technology in an interconnected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model of technological evolution due to interaction between multiple countries and the resultant effects on the corresponding macro variables. The world consists of a set of economies where some countries are leaders and some are followers in the technology ladder. All of them potentially gain from technological breakthroughs. Applying Lotka-Volterra (LV) equations to model evolution of the technology frontier, we show that the way technology diffuses creates repercussions in the partner economies. This process captures the spill-over effects on major macro variables seen in the current highly globalized world due to trickle-down effects of technology.

  19. Information Technology, Environmental Innovations and Complementarity Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the extent to which the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by firms affects the likelihood of adopting environmental innovations (EI). We also test empirically whether various types of ICT adoption and other innovation practices (R&D, techno-organizational change) are complementary inputs with respect to the introduction of specific environmental innovations. The analysis is based on two different data sources, which offer various views on ICT an...

  20. The technology boundary: A strategy for bridging the gap

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this demonstration is to promote discussion regarding strategies that enable teachers to concentrate upon the pedagogy of e-learning design, rather than how to cope with technology. The domains of academia and technology have traditionally been separated by a technology boundary that teachers have felt they are required to cross. But, many teachers also understandably feel that do not have the time or inclination to make the journey. Most importantly, the crucial issue of developin...

  1. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Dittmar, L.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers

  2. Understanding differences in the diffusion of environmentally beneficial technology. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, A.; Boyd, J.; Simpson, R.D.; Toman, M.

    1996-12-31

    The factors affecting the diffusion of technical discoveries among firms and nations remain one of the most interesting and important but least understood elements of economic behavior. Recently, interest in technology diffusion has been heightened by a recognition that the spread of technologies could have important implications for environmental quality as well as for market goods and services. A specific motivation for this study was the question of how rapidly technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions might diffuse. Technologies in this category include technologies that improve the efficiency of fossil energy use or promote substitution of renewable energy resources. The speed with which these technologies spread could have a significant effect on the rate of accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere. From a modeling perspective, the rate of innovation and diffusion of carbon-reducing technology is known to be a crucial parameter in integrated assessments of climate change risks and policy responses. Thus, a better understanding of factors that might influence the spread of carbon-reducing technologies could be valuable in studies on long-term global change and policy assessment.

  3. Educational Technology Diffusion in Organizations: A Call for Systemic Vision and Organizational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    The research and development in Europe of new educational technologies and methodologies is in continuous progress. We are not, however, seeing at the same time an equally wide diffusion of these technologies and methodologies in organizational contexts (Blain, 2011). In short, there is a quite marked difference between the speed with which…

  4. The development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2011-01-01

    &D and industrial deployment. Both cases illustrate the contribution to energy security of supply as well as prospects for business opportunities on global markets. The focus of the paper is on what stimulates the development and diffusion of new renewable technologies, asking: Which framework conditions facilitate......By applying the technological innovation systems concept this paper compares two case studies on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: the case of solar photovoltaics in Norway and offshore wind in Denmark. Both cases show a high activity level, in terms of RD...

  5. Resource efficiency potential of selected technologies, products and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Holger; Pastewski, Nico; Lettenmeier, Michael; Wiesen, Klaus; Bienge, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Despite rising prices for natural resources during the past 30 years, global consumption of natural resources is still growing. This leads to ecological, economical and social problems. So far, however, limited effort has been made to decrease the natural resource use of goods and services. While resource efficiency is already on the political agenda (EU and national resource strategies), there are still substantial knowledge gaps on the effectiveness of resource efficiency improvement strategies in different fields. In this context and within the project "Material Efficiency and Resource Conservation", the natural resource use of 22 technologies, products and strategies was calculated and their resource efficiency potential analysed. In a preliminary literature- and expert-based identification process, over 250 technologies, strategies, and products, which are regarded as resource efficient, were identified. Out of these, 22 subjects with high resource efficiency potential were selected. They cover a wide range of relevant technologies, products and strategies, such as energy supply and storage, Green IT, transportation, foodstuffs, agricultural engineering, design strategies, lightweight construction, as well as the concept "Using Instead of Owning". To assess the life-cycle-wide resource use of the selected subjects, the material footprint has been applied as a reliable indicator. In addition, sustainability criteria on a qualitative basis were considered. The results presented in this paper show significant resource efficiency potential for many technologies, products and strategies.

  6. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  7. Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  8. Technology diffusion and diagnostic testing for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Florian R; Kaufman, Samuel R; Jacobs, Bruce L; Skolarus, Ted A; Miller, David C; Weizer, Alon Z; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Wei, John T; Shahinian, Vahakn B; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2013-11-01

    While the dissemination of robotic prostatectomy and intensity modulated radiotherapy may fuel the increased use of prostatectomy and radiotherapy, these new technologies may also have spillover effects related to diagnostic testing for prostate cancer. Therefore, we examined the association of regional technology penetration with the receipt of prostate specific antigen testing and prostate biopsy. In this retrospective cohort study we included 117,857 men 66 years old or older from the 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries living in Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) areas from 2003 to 2007. Regional technology penetration was measured as the number of providers performing robotic prostatectomy or intensity modulated radiotherapy per population in a health care market, ie hospital referral region. We assessed the association of technology penetration with the prostate specific antigen testing rate and prostate biopsy using generalized estimating equations. High technology penetration was associated with an increased rate of prostate specific antigen testing (442 vs 425/1,000 person-years, pbiopsy (10.1 vs 9.9/1,000 person-years, p=0.69). The impact of technology penetration on prostate specific antigen testing and prostate biopsy was much less than the effect of age, race and comorbidity, eg the prostate specific antigen testing rate per 1,000 person-years was 485 vs 373 for men with only 1 vs 3+ comorbid conditions (ptechnology penetration is associated with a slightly higher rate of prostate specific antigen testing and no change in the prostate biopsy rate. Collectively, our findings temper concerns that adopting new technology accelerates diagnostic testing for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffusion of renewable energy technologies - barriers and stakeholders' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, S.; Painuly, Jyoti P.

    2004-01-01

    State, India, as a case study, the paper develops a systematic classification of barriers to the adoption of RETs (economic, technological, market and institutional) and ranking them based on the perceptions of various stakeholders. The results provide evidence of how the consumers receive RET...

  10. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every c

  11. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibl

  12. COMPETITIVE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN ADOPTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghua LIU; Chulin LI

    2003-01-01

    In dynamic uncertain environments, the investment timing of the firm about adopting the existing new technology is influenced by the rival's actions and technological progress. This paper employs option games approach to present a simplified duopoly continuous time model of technology adoption.In the model, the irreversible investment in adoption of the existing new technology is in strategic competitive circumstances and facing the threat of a further new technology after the competition setting is established. The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of technological displacement on firms' strategic investment. The results show that rapid displacement of the technology encourages the leader's investment and discourages the follower's investment. Comparing with the optimal timing without the expectation of a further new technology, the firm hastens to invest when no firm has invested; however, once one firm has invested first, the firm will delay its investment. Using mixed strategy analysis, competitive investment strategies with sequential exercise and simultaneous exercise are derived.

  13. Strategy development for anticipating and handling a disruptive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    The profession of radiology has greatly benefited from the introduction of new imaging technologies throughout its history. Therefore, it would seem reasonable for radiologists to believe that the emergence of a new imaging technology can generally be foreseen with sufficient advance notice to allow the appropriate levels of time, effort, and money to be devoted toward incorporating it into radiology practice. However, in his seminal work, Christiansen characterized a new form of technologic innovation, known as "disruptive technology," whose emergence often heralds the replacement of market leaders in an industry by competitors who are quicker in adopting and deploying the new technology. This article briefly describes the phenomenon of disruptive technology and addresses the challenges that organizations face in dealing with disruptive technology. The article raises 4 questions about the future of radiology: (1) Are health care and radiology vulnerable to disruptive technology? (2) What kinds of change may be in store for the radiology profession? (3) Can the radiology profession prepare itself to recognize and respond to a disruptive innovation among a group of new imaging technologies? and (4) How should a radiology organization decide whether to invest significant resources in a potentially disruptive technology? This article addresses these questions by reviewing key insights from leading "gurus" in the fields of competitive strategy and technology management and applying them to radiology. This illustrates how and why (despite past successes) the radiology profession may still have a blind spot in recognizing and handling disruptive technologies.

  14. A chaos-based digital image encryption scheme with an improved diffusion strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chong; Chen, Jun-jie; Zou, Hao; Meng, Wei-hong; Zhan, Yong-feng; Yu, Ya-wen

    2012-01-30

    Chaos-based image cipher has been widely investigated over the last decade or so to meet the increasing demand for real-time secure image transmission over public networks. In this paper, an improved diffusion strategy is proposed to promote the efficiency of the most widely investigated permutation-diffusion type image cipher. By using the novel bidirectional diffusion strategy, the spreading process is significantly accelerated and hence the same level of security can be achieved with fewer overall encryption rounds. Moreover, to further enhance the security of the cryptosystem, a plain-text related chaotic orbit turbulence mechanism is introduced in diffusion procedure by perturbing the control parameter of the employed chaotic system according to the cipher-pixel. Extensive cryptanalysis has been performed on the proposed scheme using differential analysis, key space analysis, various statistical analyses and key sensitivity analysis. Results of our analyses indicate that the new scheme has a satisfactory security level with a low computational complexity, which renders it a good candidate for real-time secure image transmission applications.

  15. A Modified Lotka–Volterra Model for Diffusion and Substitution of Multigeneration DRAM Processing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chih Hung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to develop an effective forecasting model for the diffusion and substitution of multigeneration Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM processing technologies. We consider market share data and propose a modified Lotka–Volterra model, in which an additional constraint on the summation of market share is introduced. The mean absolute error is used to measure the accuracy of our market share predictions. Market share data in DRAM industries from quarter one (Q1 of 2005 to 2013 Q4 is collected to validate the prediction accuracy. Our model significantly outperforms other benchmark forecasting models of both revenue and market share data, including the Bass and Lotka–Volterra models. Compared to prior studies on forecasting the diffusion and substitution of multigeneration technologies, our model has two new perspectives: (1 allowing undetermined number of multigeneration technologies and inconsecutive adoption of new technologies and (2 requiring less data for forecasting newborn technologies.

  16. Diffusion of energy-efficient technologies in industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    United States energy policies aim at cutting down dependence on foreign oil in two ways: by energy conservation and by finding new domestic supplies. The study investigates how the first goal can be achieved in the industrial sector (manufacturing) of the economy, which accounts for about 40% (about 7.3 million barrels per day) of the total energy consumption in the US. It is noted that industry is able to conserve as much as 25 to 30% of its energy consumption by adopting simple conservation measures and energy-efficient technologies. These technologies can be implemented without major alterations of the original equipment. The schools of thought on innovative processes are discussed; these will serve as the conceptual and methodological base of the project. (MCW)

  17. Pinning Control Strategies for Synchronization of Linearly Coupled Neural Networks With Reaction-Diffusion Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen; Ren, Shun-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Two types of coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms are considered in this paper. In the first one, the nodes are coupled through their states. In the second one, the nodes are coupled through the spatial diffusion terms. For the former, utilizing Lyapunov functional method and pinning control technique, we obtain some sufficient conditions to guarantee that network can realize synchronization. In addition, considering that the theoretical coupling strength required for synchronization may be much larger than the needed value, we propose an adaptive strategy to adjust the coupling strength for achieving a suitable value. For the latter, we establish a criterion for synchronization using the designed pinning controllers. It is found that the coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with state coupling under the given linear feedback pinning controllers can realize synchronization when the coupling strength is very large, which is contrary to the coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with spatial diffusion coupling. Moreover, a general criterion for ensuring network synchronization is derived by pinning a small fraction of nodes with adaptive feedback controllers. Finally, two examples with numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  18. Modelling diffusion feedbacks between technology performance, cost and consumer behaviour for future energy-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martino; Brand, Christian; Banister, David

    2014-04-01

    Emerging technologies will have important impacts on sustainability objectives. Yet little is known about the explicit feedbacks between consumer behaviour and technological change, and the potential impact on mass market penetration. We use the UK as a case-study to explore the dynamic interactions between technology supply, performance, cost, and heterogeneous consumer behaviour and the resulting influence on long term market diffusion. Simulations of competing vehicle technologies indicate that petrol hybrids (HEVs) dominate the market over the long-term because they benefit from improved performance and are able to reach the steep part of the diffusion curve by 2025 while competing technologies remain in the early stages of growth and are easier to displace in the market. This is due to the cumulative build-up of stock and slow fleet turnover creating inertia in the technological system. Consequently, it will be difficult to displace incumbent technologies because of system inertia, cumulative growth in stock, long operational life, and consumer risk aversion to new unproven technologies. However, when accounting for both technological and behavioural change, simulations indicate that if investment can reach 30-40% per annum growth in supply, combined with steady technology improvements, and more sophisticated agent decision making such as accounting for full technology lifecycle cost and performance, full battery electric vehicles could displace the incumbent system by 2050.

  19. Wind Technology: A Framework for the Evaluation of Innovations’ Impacts on the Diffusion Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dinica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework based on which innovations in wind power technologies can be evaluated from the standpoint of their contribution to diffusion expansion. The framework helps build up a missing link between the technical literature on innovations and policy-oriented contributions concerned with the diffusion potential of wind power in national energy systems. The ideas are applied for the evaluation of wind technology innovations adopted in Spain. The framework can help policy-makers prioritize their innovation objectives and funding, so as to support the adoption of innovations that deserve the highest priority, given the country’s resources and energy system characteristics.

  20. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  1. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  2. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  3. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  4. A Sales Execution Strategy Guide for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gilbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of startups fail to consider sales execution as part of their overall strategy. This article demonstrates how a sales execution strategy can help a company take a product or service to market more efficiently and effectively by focusing on the customers that are key to generating revenue. Combined with techniques for recruiting effectively and measuring sales outcomes, a sales execution strategy helps technology startups exceed growth aspirations and potentially reduce or even eliminate the requirement for external investment. In this article, we first describe the focus of assistance currently given to startups and the reasons why sales execution strategies are often overlooked. Next, we outline recommendations for developing, implementing, and supporting a sales execution strategy. Finally, we summarize the key points presented in the article.

  5. R&D Advancement, Technology Diffusion, and Impact on Evaluation of Public R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norland, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In a 2001 report titled "Research at DOE: Was It Worth It?", a National Research Council (NRC) committee defined a set of simplifying rules to estimate the net economic benefits from technologies supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). This NREL paper evaluates the efficacy of the NRC rules compared to published literature on acceleration of technology introduction into markets, technology diffusion, and infrastructure change. It also offers considerations for revisions of the rules that call for the use of technology and sector-specific data, advanced forecasting techniques, and sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the methodology.

  6. A Comparative Assessment of Wind Turbine Innovation and Diffusion Policies. Historical Case Studies of Energy Technology Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neij, Lena; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2012-01-01

    path of the 1980s. The third stage is the emerging markets of the 1990s and 2000s, including countries such as India and China. Within these different stages, common elements in government policy strategies can be identified as essential for a sustainable and successful innovation process. These can......Wind turbines have become a mainstream technology, a first choice for many when investing in new electricity generation facilities. This comparative case study addresses how governmental policy has been formulated to support the wind turbine innovation and diffusion process. Three innovation stages...... and corresponding innovation strategies are identified. The first stage is the early movers of the 1970s and early 1980s, including pioneer countries such as Denmark, the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands. The second stage is the booming markets of the 1990s, guided by the successful Danish innovation...

  7. Nanotechnology knowledge diffusion: measuring the impact of the research networking and a strategy for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Hsinchun; Larson, Catherine A.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2014-09-01

    Given the global increase in public funding for nanotechnology research and development, it is even more important to support projects with promising return on investment. A main return is the benefit to other researchers and to the entire field through knowledge diffusion, invention, and innovation. The social network of researchers is one of the channels through which this happens. This study considers the scientific publication network in the field of nanotechnology, and evaluates how knowledge diffusion through coauthorship and citations is affected in large institutions by the location and connectivity of individual researchers in the network. The relative position and connectivity of a researcher is measured by various social network metrics, including degree centrality, Bonacich Power centrality, structural holes, and betweenness centrality. Leveraging the Cox regression model, we analyzed the temporal relationships between knowledge diffusion and social network measures of researchers in five leading universities in the United States using papers published from 2000 to 2010. The results showed that the most significant effects on knowledge diffusion in the field of nanotechnology were from the structural holes of the network and the degree centrality of individual researchers. The data suggest that a researcher has potential to perform better in knowledge creation and diffusion on boundary-spanning positions between different communities and when he or she has a high level of connectivity in the knowledge network. These observations may lead to improved strategies in planning, conducting, and evaluating multidisciplinary nanotechnology research. The paper also identifies the researchers who made most significant contributions to nanotechnology knowledge diffusion in the networks of five leading U.S. universities.

  8. Six Strategies for Beating the Competition for Information Technology Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Connecticut State University has achieved success in recruiting and retaining information technology (IT) workers through six strategies: modifying the administrative structure to make positions and salaries more attractive; grooming students for IT positions; promoting benefits of university employment; transferring state civil-service employees;…

  9. Literacy and Communication Technologies: Distance Education Strategies for Literacy Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinoye, Rashid

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the promotion of literacy through information and communication technologies (ICTs) and through various modes of distance learning. After a general discussion of these approaches, the article focuses on efforts towards reducing illiteracy in Nigeria through integrated strategies for literacy delivery and especially through…

  10. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part II: practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

  11. Timing Successive Product Introductions with Demand Diffusion and Stochastic Technology Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mark Krankel; Izak Duenyas; Roman Kapuscinski

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a firm's decisions on the introduction timing for successive product generations. We examine the case where a firm introduces multiple generations of a durable product for which demand is characterized by a demand diffusion process. Under fixed introduction costs, we consider the case where available product technology improves stochastically. As such, delaying introduction to a later date may lead to the capture of further technology improvements, potentially at the cost...

  12. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  13. Patent Strategy at the Age of High Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper is a summary of the lecture which the author presented at the 5th Hokuriku Workshop for Study of Scientific and Technological Information Activities on the 17th of January in 1986. The author analyzed the present situation and made some suggestions on them ; (1) the role of patent system has shifted from introduction of foreign technologies to independent technological development at the age of high technology, (2) circumstances of rapidly increasing international patent war, particularly patent conflict between U.S. and Japan concerning U.S. ITC, (3) as the service of soft aspects of economy has been closed up, the new business has come to the fore front, and the move to consider technology as a good has been activated, (4) how patent specification should be written, the way of obtaining and protecting patent successfully, (5) basic pattern of patent strategy and what the strategy should be to respond to the enterprises level, (6) present situation of patent information service, effective use of patent maps and information strategy.

  14. Information Technology Investment Strategy Planning: Balance Scorecard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Hendarti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research are to prepare the IT investment strategy using Balanced Scorecard approach in the company where the appropriate planning of this IT investment strategy can maximize the competitive benefit in the company, and it also to recommended a strategy of IT investment that can be implemented and measure the rate of return from the IT investment in the company. Research Method used book studies, field studies, and analysis system. Book studies from the books and journal. Field studies done by observation, interview, and questioner, and analysis system done by analyzed the ongoing system in the company. The result from this analysis is a recommendation in investment IT such as sales module, payment module, and report module. Then for the conclusion, this information technology investment planning can be develop to another investment implementation such authorized website of the company and using PDA (Personal Digital AssistantIndex Terms - Planning, Information Technology, Investment, Balance Scorecard

  15. Technology Licensing Strategy for Network Product in a Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpei Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology licensing has gained significant attention in literature and practice as a rapid and effective way to improve firm’s capability of technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate a duopolistic service provider competition market, where service providers develop and sell a kind of network product. In this setting, we analyze the innovating service provider’s four licensing strategies: no licensing, fixed fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The literature suggests that when the network products can be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is the optimal strategy of the innovating service provider. We find that when the network products cannot be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is not always optimal. The degree of the product differentiation, the intensity of the network effects, and the R&D cost of the potential licensee play a key role in determining the innovating service provider’s optimal licensing strategies.

  16. Uncertainty in diffusion of competing technologies and application to electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems

    2011-07-01

    The diffusion of innovations is an important process and its models have applications in many fields, with particular relevance in technological forecast. The logistic equation is one of most important models in this context. Extensions of this approach as the Lotka-Volterra model have been developed to include the effect of mutual influences between technologies such as competition. However, many of the parameters entering this description are uncertain, difficult to estimate or simply unknown, particularly at early stages of the diffusion. Here, a systematic way to study the effect of uncertain or unknown parameters on the future diffusion of interacting innovations is proposed. The input required is a general qualitative understanding of the system: is the mutual influence positive or negative and does it apply symmetrically to either technology? Since the parameters enter the problem via a set of coupled non-linear differential equations, the approach proposed here goes beyond simple Monte-Carlo-like methods where the result is an explicit function of the parameters. The methodology is developed in detail and applied the case of three types of upcoming electric vehicle propulsion technologies. The findings indicate that competition between electric vehicles and mild hybrid vehicles implies a slow decline of the latter. The approach can easily be generalised to include other initial conditions, more technologies or other technological areas to find stable results for future market evolution independent of specific parameters. (orig.)

  17. Dynamics and distribution of public and private research and extension roles for technological innovation and diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eastwood, C.; Klerkx, L.; Nettle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Precision farming technologies represent an innovation challenge in terms of their diffusion into farming practice, and create a new dynamic for research and extension roles. The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction and distribution of research and extension roles of public, private,

  18. Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations in Fertilizer-Related Agricultural Production Technology in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Kerry J.

    This monograph reviews a wide range of research literature on the diffusion and adoption of innovations in agricultural production technology in the developing countries, with particular emphasis on the practice of using commercially purchased, inorganic fertilizer as a source of plant nutrients. It is intended that the report's documentation of…

  19. Active Flow Control in a Radial Vaned Diffuser for Surge Margin Improvement: A Multislot Suction Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Marsan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the final step of a research project that aims at evaluating the possibility of delaying the surge of a centrifugal compressor stage using a boundary-layer suction technique. It is based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations. Boundary-layer suction is applied within the radial vaned diffuser. Previous work has shown the necessity to take into account the unsteady behavior of the flow when designing the active flow control technique. In this paper, a multislot strategy is designed according to the characteristics of the unsteady pressure field. Its implementation results in a significant increase of the stable operating range predicted by the unsteady RANS numerical model. A hub-corner separation still exists further downstream in the diffuser passage but does not compromise the stability of the compressor stage.

  20. Effect of technological innovation and diffusion on the interindustry mobility of Brazilian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gonçalves Taveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effects of investment in industrial R & D on the mobility of workers between firms and/or industrial sectors in Brazil, considering that the technological gap between the sectors can reduce the propensity for interindustrial labor mobility. Using panel data for the period 2003–2008, constructed from microdata RAIS-Migra and industry data from the Brazilian Technological Innovation Survey (PINTEC, the Annual Industrial Survey (PIA and input–output matrices, we estimate a multinomial logit model with random intercepts (GLLAMM – Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Models. The main results show that the technological diffusion increases the chances of changing jobs, the technological variables have greater importance for unskilled workers than for skilled, and among non-intensive technology industries, the technological innovation can have positive impact on interindustrial mobility.

  1. Factors related to the implementation and diffusion of new technologies: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In order to develop an understanding of how government intervention affects the processes of implementation and diffusion of new technologies, case studies of 14 technologies were carried out: automobiles; broadcast radio; frozen foods; black and white TV; color TV; polio vaccine; supersonic transport; fluoridation of water supplies; computer-aided instruction; basic oxygen process for steel; numerical control in manufacturing; digital computers; lasers; and integrated circuit. The key factors, their motivations for implementing/adopting the technology (or not doing so), the interactions among the key factors, and how these affected implementation/adoption are examined.

  2. Energy technology perspectives: scenarios and strategies to 2050 [Russian version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  3. Energy technology perspectives - scenarios and strategies to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-03

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  4. Diffusion and dissemination of evidence-based dietary strategies for the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliska, D; Robinson, P; Horsley, T; Ellis, P; Brouwers, M; Gauld, M; Baldassarre, F; Raina, P

    2006-08-01

    We used a systematic review to identify strategies that have been evaluated for disseminating cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of a healthy diet in adults. Studies were identified by contacting technical experts and by searching MEDLINE, PreMedline, CANCERLIT, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Psycinfo, cinahl, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and reference lists. English-language primary studies were selected if they evaluated the dissemination of healthy diet interventions to individuals, health care providers, or institutions. Studies involving only children or adolescents were excluded.We retrieved 101 articles for full-text screening, and identified nine reports of seven distinct studies. Four of the studies were randomized trials, one was a cohort design, and three were descriptive studies. Six of the studies were rated methodologically weak, and one was rated moderate. Because of heterogeneity, low methodological quality, and incomplete data reporting, the studies were not pooled for meta-analysis. No beneficial dissemination strategies were found. One strategy involving the use of peer educators at the work site, which led to a short-term increase in fruit and vegetable intake, looks promising.Overall, the quality of the evidence is not strong, and the evidence that exists is more descriptive than evaluative. No clear conclusions can be drawn from these data. Controlled studies are needed to evaluate dissemination strategies and to compare dissemination and diffusion strategies that communicate different messages and target different audiences.

  5. Diffusion and Localization of Relative Strategy Scores in The Minority Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, Mats; Perez-Diaz, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    We study the equilibrium distribution of relative strategy scores of agents in the asymmetric phase (α ≡ P/N≳ 1) of the basic Minority Game using sign-payoff, with N agents holding two strategies over P histories. We formulate a statistical model that makes use of the gauge freedom with respect to the ordering of an agent's strategies to quantify the correlation between the attendance and the distribution of strategies. The relative score xin Z of the two strategies of an agent is described in terms of a one dimensional random walk with asymmetric jump probabilities, leading either to a static and asymmetric exponential distribution centered at x=0 for fickle agents or to diffusion with a positive or negative drift for frozen agents. In terms of scaled coordinates x/√{N} and t / N the distributions are uniquely given by α and in quantitative agreement with direct simulations of the game. As the model avoids the reformulation in terms of a constrained minimization problem it can be used for arbitrary payoff functions with little calculational effort and provides a transparent and simple formulation of the dynamics of the basic Minority Game in the asymmetric phase.

  6. Transferring federally-funded technologies: New strategies for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.

    1993-02-01

    In almost every year of the post-war era, the federal government has spent more on research and development (R D) than has US industry. These expenditures have been divided largely among the nation's federal laboratories and universities and. contrary to widely held beliefs, devoted in greater measure to applied R D than basic research. As pointed out by Salvador, this federally-funded research has resulted in the development of market/application oriented'' technology that, for the most part, has failed to reach the commercial marketplace. This report discusses new strategies for a more success technology transfer.

  7. Transferring federally-funded technologies: New strategies for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.

    1993-02-01

    In almost every year of the post-war era, the federal government has spent more on research and development (R&D) than has US industry. These expenditures have been divided largely among the nation`s federal laboratories and universities and. contrary to widely held beliefs, devoted in greater measure to applied R&D than basic research. As pointed out by Salvador, this federally-funded research has resulted in the development of ``market/application oriented`` technology that, for the most part, has failed to reach the commercial marketplace. This report discusses new strategies for a more success technology transfer.

  8. Diffusion Strategies for Distributed Kalman Filter with Dynamic Topologies in Virtualized Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network virtualization has become pervasive and is used in many applications. Through the combination of network virtualization and wireless sensor networks, it can greatly improve the multiple applications of traditional wireless sensor networks. However, because of the dynamic reconfiguration of topologies in the physical layer of virtualized sensor networks (VSNs, it requires a mechanism to guarantee the accuracy of estimate values by sensors. In this paper, we focus on the distributed Kalman filter algorithm with dynamic topologies to support this requirement. As one strategy of distributed Kalman filter algorithms, diffusion Kalman filter algorithm has a better performance on the state estimation. However, the existing diffusion Kalman filter algorithms all focus on the fixed topologies. Considering the dynamic topologies in the physical layer of VSNs mentioned above, we present a diffusion Kalman filter algorithm with dynamic topologies (DKFdt. Then, we emphatically derive the theoretical expressions of the mean and mean-square performance. From the expressions, the feasibility of the algorithm is verified. Finally, simulations confirm that the proposed algorithm achieves a greatly improved performance as compared with a noncooperative manner.

  9. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The {open_quotes}Lube Oil{close_quotes} view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented.

  10. A Novel Marketing Strategy based on Information Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Marketing, electronic data interchange, internet data center, electric ordering system Abstract:Marketing is the process of performing market research, selling products and/or services to customers and promoting them via advertising to further enhance sales. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments. Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.

  11. Reaction-diffusion systems in natural sciences and new technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, André A.

    2012-12-01

    Diffusion mechanisms in natural sciences and innovation management involve partial differential equations (PDEs). This is due to their spatio-temporal dimensions. Functional semi-discretized PDEs (with lattice spatial structures or time delays) may be even more adapted to real world problems. In the modeling process, PDEs can also formalize behaviors, such as the logistic growth of populations with migration, and the adopters’ dynamics of new products in innovation models. In biology, these events are related to variations in the environment, population densities and overcrowding, migration and spreading of humans, animals, plants and other cells and organisms. In chemical reactions, molecules of different species interact locally and diffuse. In the management of new technologies, the diffusion processes of innovations in the marketplace (e.g., the mobile phone) are a major subject. These innovation diffusion models refer mainly to epidemic models. This contribution introduces that modeling process by using PDEs and reviews the essential features of the dynamics and control in biological, chemical and new technology transfer. This paper is essentially user-oriented with basic nonlinear evolution equations, delay PDEs, several analytical and numerical methods for solving, different solutions, and with the use of mathematical packages, notebooks and codes. The computations are carried out by using the software Wolfram Mathematica®7, and C++ codes.

  12. Decomposing productivity growth in OECD countries: domestic R&D vs. international technology diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Growiec; Lukasz Marc; Dorota Pelle

    2009-01-01

    This paper decomposes productivity growth across highly developed OECD countries in the period 1972-2000 into components attributable to domestic R&D output, a catchup effect, and international technology diffusion via imports of hi-tech products. Two alternative specifications of “productivity growth” are considered: (i) increments of the conventional residual measure of total factor productivity (computed under the assumption that the production function takes both physical and human capita...

  13. Human spaceflight technology needs-a foundation for JSC's technology strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, J. M.

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which added risks and became a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (Tech Needs) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology disciplines. Th

  14. International Diffusion of Open Path FTIR Technology and Air Monitoring Methods: Taiwan (Republic of China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Bogdan, Stefan It; Levine, Steven P

    1996-08-01

    International cooperation and diffusion of environmental technologies is a central goal of the U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Initiative, and is of great interest to many countries. One objective is to exchange knowledge and skills concerning new monitoring technologies. In this case, the technology was open path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (op-FTIR). Taiwan is a high-technology, newly industrialized country. Because of air pollution problems, it is interested in obtaining skills, knowledge, and instrumentation for monitoring air pollutants. In April 1994, the Industrial Technology Research Institute, Center for Industrial Safety and Health Technology (ITRI/CISH) in Hsinchu, Taiwan, requested intensive training in op-FTIR. Training was held between September 30,1994 and October 29,1994. During the stay, the instructor provided intensive training on op-FTIR theory as well as an introduction to available instrumentation and software. The training concluded with a field demonstration of the instrumentation in a manufacturing facility. This report gives an overview of the training methods, structure, and materials in the op-FTIR training course. It will also address various problems encountered while teaching this course. In addition, the potential use for this technology in industry as well as by the Taiwanese government will be explained.

  15. Promotional Strategies Direct Marketing and Technological Innovations in Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Arina BALACEANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern advertising strategies involve the use of a bank's media and consumer incentives, so that banking institution, and thus offer products/services to cause favorable changes in mentality and their consumption habits, also important is the establishment an effective communication with employees, shareholders, competitors. Promotion strategies are essential to business success. Success is guaranteedif the message is sent to the right people at the right time. Promotion has a special place in the marketing mix because it is created by, developed and made known image of the institution, services and products. Technological innovations, but fierce competition and changing purchasing behavior of the beneficiaries of banking services and products banks have challenged management, directing their work towards introduction of modern technologies to promote banking products and services.Adapting to new technologies and innovations in the field needs is strategic for any financial institution aimed at both retail and corporate activity which leads to improved operative staff, by targeting the growing activities of guidance, coordination and advice to clients.

  16. Diffusion and utilization of scientific and technological knowledge within state and local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I.; Flanary, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art is reviewed concerning current knowledge of processes by which technological innovation and scientific information are disseminated among state and local governments. The effectiveness of various mechanisms, strategies, and approaches by which federal agencies have sought to transfer technology to state, regional, and city governments are assessed. It is concluded that the existing relationships between the state and local governments, and the scientific communities are not adequate.

  17. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.

    2015-07-01

    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  18. Literacy and Communication Technologies: Distance Education Strategies for Literacy Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinoye, Rashid

    2008-11-01

    This article examines the promotion of literacy through information and communication technologies (ICTs) and through various modes of distance learning. After a general discussion of these approaches, the article focuses on efforts towards reducing illiteracy in Nigeria through integrated strategies for literacy delivery and especially through distance learning. After highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these measures, the author makes some suggestions on how to maximize their effectiveness in helping Nigeria to achieve the targets of the Education for All agenda and the Millennium Development Goals.

  19. Mobile Data Technologies and SME Adoption and Diffusion: an empirical study of barriers and facillitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Van Akkeren

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological environment in which Australian SMEs operate can be best described as dynamic and vital. The rate of technological change provides the SME owner/manger a complex and challenging operational context. Wireless applications are being developed that provide mobile devices with Internet content and E-business services. In Australia, the adoption of ecommerce by large organisations has been relatively high, however, the same cannot be said for SMEs, where adoption has been slower than other developed countries. In contrast, however, mobile telephone adoption and diffusion is relatively high by SMEs. Will SMEs who have been reluctant to adopt commerce technologies in the past be more ready to go on-line with the merging of the Internet and mobile data technologies? This exploratory study identifies attitudes, perceptions and issues for mobile data technologies by regional SME owner/managers across a range of industry sectors. The major issues include the sector the firm belongs to, the current adoption status of the firm, the level of mistrust of the IT industry, the cost of the technologies, and the applications and attributes of the technologies.

  20. The dynamics of technology diffusion and the impacts of climate policy instruments in the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F; Foley, A M; Chewpreecha, U; Pollitt, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of possible uses of climate policy instruments for the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector in a non-equilibrium economic and technology innovation-diffusion perspective. Emissions reductions occur through changes in technology and energy consumption; in this context, investment decision-making opportunities occur periodically, which energy policy can incentivise in order to transform energy systems and meet reductions targets. Energy markets are driven by innovation, dynamic costs and technology diffusion; yet, the incumbent systems optimisation methodology in energy modelling does not address these aspects nor the effectiveness of policy onto decision-making since the dynamics modelled take their source from the top-down `social-planner' assumption. This leads to an underestimation of strong technology lock-ins in cost-optimal scenarios of technology. Our approach explores the global diffusion of low carbon technology in connection to a highly disaggregated sector...

  1. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  2. Information technology strategy and alignment issues in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveroth, Einar; Fryk, Pontus; Rapp, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) plays a key role in public health care management because it could improve quality, efficiency, and patient care. Researchers and practitioners repeatedly contend that a health care organization's information systems strategy should be aligned with its objectives and strategies, a notion commonly known as IT alignment. Actor-related IT alignment issues in health care institutions were explored in this study. More specifically, it explores the possibility of moving beyond the current IT alignment perspective and, in so doing, explores whether IT alignment-as currently conceptualized in the dominant body of research-is sufficient for attaining improved quality, efficiency, and patient care in health care organizations. The findings are based on a qualitative and longitudinal study of six health care organizations in the Stockholm metropolitan area. The empirical data were gathered over the 2005-2011 period from interviews, a focus group, observations, and archival material. The data suggest recurrent misalignments between IT strategy and organizational strategy and operations due to the failure to deconstruct the IT artifact and to the existence of various levels of IT maturity. A more complex picture of IT alignment in health care that goes beyond the current perspective is being offered by this study. It argues that the previously common way of handling IT as a single artifact and applying one IT strategy to the entire organizational system is obsolete. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The article suggests that considerable benefits can be gained by assessing IT maturity and its impact on IT alignment. The article also shows that there are different kinds of IT in medical care that requires diverse decisions, investments, prioritizations, and implementation approaches.

  3. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  4. The Enemy is Still Below: The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G

    2012-06-05

    The spread of submarines and related technology is an end product of globalization. Globalization is not a new story. By one estimate, our ancestors first crossed out of Africa roughly 80,000 years ago, and began the process that they now call globalization. With the dispersion of people around the world came the development of culture and civilization as well as the spread of ideas, goods, and technology. The process of globalization then is a long-standing one, not an innovation of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Over the millennia, this process has been an uneven one. Globalization has often cuased great disruptions even to the societies that initiated various innovations in culture and civilization, including science and technology. Indeed, many cultures and civilizations have disappeared while some regions failed to advance as rapidly as others, so the process of globalization is not just one of continuing progress. Globalization in the current era seems to be penetrating the most remote corners of the world at a remarkable rate as a result of advances in science and technology, particularly information technology. The diffusion of science and technology is not necessarily a benign development. It could increase the potential for a global military industrial base that may have an adverse affect on world stability in the future. For example, the spread of key military capabilities, like submarines, could still have an impact, especially over the longer term, on the US capability to project power overseas.

  5. Adapting qualitative research strategies to technology savvy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna Marie; Ide, Bette

    2014-05-01

    To adapt research strategies involving adolescents in a grounded theory qualitative research study by conducting email rather than face-to-face interviews. Adolescent culture relies heavily on text-based communication and teens prefer interactions mediated through technology. Traditional qualitative research strategies need to be rethought when working with adolescents. Adapting interviewing strategies to electronic environments is timely and relevant for researching adolescents. Twenty three adolescents (aged 16-21) were interviewed by email. A letter of invitation was distributed. Potential participants emailed the researcher to convey interest in participating. If the inclusion criteria were met, email interviews were initiated. Participants controlled the interviews through their rate of response to interview questions. A grounded theory methodology was employed. Initial contact with participants reiterated confidentiality and the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Interviews began with the collection of demographic information and a broad opening based on a semi-structured interview guide. All data were permissible, including text, photos, music, videos or outside media, for example YouTube. The participant was allowed to give direction to the interview after initial questions were posed. Email interviews continued until saturation was reached in the data. Participants were enthusiastic about email interviewing. Attrition did not occur. Email interviewing gave participants more control over the research, decreased power differentials between the adolescent and researcher, allowed the study to be adapted to cultural, linguistic and developmental needs, and maintained confidentiality. As participants said that email communication was slow and they preferred instant messaging, replication in faster-paced media is recommended. Repetition in face-to-face settings is warranted to evaluate how technology may have influenced the findings. Implications for

  6. A case study investigation into the diffusion of e-mediated learning technology in UK higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Simran Kaur

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 20/01/2006. This thesis addresses the following research paradox: Despite continual investment in e-mediated learning technology by higher education institutions, why has technological diffusion within UK universities been a slow process? It will be argued that the level of investment in e-mediated learning technology by UK universities and the impact of this technology across higher educatio...

  7. Adoption of alternative financing strategies to increase the diffusion of picture archiving and communication systems into the radiology marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, B; Siegel, E; McKay, P

    2000-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate current marketplace conditions and strategies employed by major picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) vendors in the creation of alternative financing strategies, to enhance the diffusion of filmless imaging. Data were collected from the major PACS vendors in the forms of survey questionnaires and review of existing leases. Topics evaluated in the survey included current financing options available, foreseeable changes in PACS financing, role of third-party financiers, and creation of risk-sharing arrangements. Generic leases were also reviewed evaluating the presence or absence of several key variables including technology obsolescence protection, hardware/software upgrades, end-of-term options, determination of fair market value, functionality/acceptance testing, uptime guarantees, and workflow management consulting. Eight of the 10 PACS vendors surveyed participated in the data collection. The vast majority of current PACS implementations (60% to 90%) occur through direct purchase, with conventional leasing (operating or capital) accounting for only 5% to 30% of PACS installations. The majority of respondents view fee-for-lease arrangements and other forms of risk sharing as increasing importance for future PACS financing. The specific targets for such risk-sharing arrangements consist of small hospital and privately owned imaging centers. Leases currently offered range in duration from 3 to 5 years and frequently offer technology obsolescence protection with upgrades, multiple end-of-term options, and some form of acceptance testing. A number of important variables frequently omitted from leases include uptime guarantees, flexibility in changing financing or vendors, and incorporation of expected productivity/operational efficiency gains. As vendors strive to increase the penetration of PACS into the radiology marketplace, there will be a shift from conventional financing (loan or purchase) to leasing. Fee

  8. Nurses' adoption of technology: application of Rogers' innovation-diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2004-11-01

    This qualitative study applied Everett Rogers' innovation-diffusion model to analyze nurses' perceptions toward using a computerized care plan system. Twelve nurses from three respiratory intensive care units in Taiwan voluntarily participated in a one-on-one, in-depth interview. Data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis. The content that emerged was compared with the model's five innovation characteristics (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability), as perceived by new users. Results indicate that Rogers' model can accurately describe nurses' behavior during the process of adopting workplace innovations. Related issues that emerged deserve further attention to help nurses make the best use of technology.

  9. Psychological factors in the diffusion of sustainable technology: a study of Norwegian households' adoption of wood pellet heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper aims to understand the determinants of the adoption of wood pellet technology for home heating to identify possible strategies towards the slow diffusion of wood pellet in Norway. A mail survey of 737 Norwegian households was conducted in 2008, involving wood pellet adopters and non wood pellet adopters as respondents. An integrated model combining psychological factors (such as intentions, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, habits and norms), perceived wood pellet heating characteristics, and ecological and basic values is applied to predict the installation of a wood pellet stove retrospectively. Results from a path analysis gain empirical support for the proposed integrated model. Wood pellet heating adoption is mainly predicted by a deliberate decision process starting with the evaluation of heating system characteristics, mediated by attitudes and intentions. Perceived behavioural control and habits pose relevant barriers to the adoption process. The influence of norms and values are indirect and only minor in the given market conditions. The most important heating system characteristics in the analysis were perceived functional reliability and perceived installation and maintenance costs. Possible intervention strategies to speed up wood pellet adoption in Norway are discussed in the last part of the paper. (Author)

  10. The Effect of Physician and Hospital Market Structure on Medical Technology Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Town, Robert J; Wilcock, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    To examine the influence of physician and hospital market structures on medical technology diffusion, studying the diffusion of drug-eluting stents (DESs), which became available in April 2003. Medicare claims linked to physician demographic data from the American Medical Association and to hospital characteristics from the American Hospital Association Survey. Retrospective claims data analyses. All fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who received a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a cardiac stent in 2003 or 2004. Each PCI record was joined to characteristics on the patient, the procedure, the cardiologist, and the hospital where the PCI was delivered. We accounted for the endogeneity of physician and hospital market structure using exogenous variation in the distances between patient, physician, and hospital locations. We estimated multivariate linear probability models that related the use of a DES in the PCI on market structure while controlling for patient, physician, and hospital characteristics. DESs diffused faster in markets where cardiology practices faced more competition. Conversely, we found no evidence that the structure of the hospital market mattered. Competitive pressure to maintain or expand PCI volume shares compelled cardiologists to adopt DESs more quickly. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. MIND THE GAP: ALIGNING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY WITH THE BUSINESS STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business organizations engage in strategic planning sessions in order to become more compet itive in the chan ging markets, However, despite evidence to the contrary, they do not seem to realize the grow ing value of information and technology in achieving this. Rarely do business organizations reali ze the need for strategic IT planning, and more over , alignment of the busines s and IT strategies in one synergistic, cohesive whole . This paper explores the evolution of IT as competitive medium and as center for growth, innovation and radical change, The notion of IT centered organizations over and above IT as support or enabling function is discussed, It is maintained that organizations that do not deal with the above, that stay in flux or believe in incremental change , will not remain competitive and will be lost in the Information world.

  12. R&D Strategy of High Technology Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan

    2003-01-01

    In a symmetrical static game model, this paper is mainly concerned with the research and development (R&D) strategy of the High Technology (HT) industry and the society's optimal R&D level given the investment revenue. We obtain different investment decision with different amount of firms engaging in the R&D and each firm's expected profit respectively. When the risk (the probability each firm succeed) is not random, it's socially desirable to have more firm engaging in R&D if and only if the relationship among the invest cost, the probability and the prize satisfies some condition, that is, Eπ, (n) ≥Eπ, (n- 1 ) I≤a( 1 -a)n-1V. When the R&D cost I is certain, more prizes or higher probability will make more firms engage in the R&D and higher prize makes it's socially desirable to have more firm invest in R&D.

  13. Implementing a learning technology strategy: top–down strategy meets bottom–up culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lisewski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using interview-based ‘insider case study' research, this paper outlines why the University of Salford has adopted a Learning Technologies Strategy and examines the factors which are likely to lead to its successful implementation. External reasons for the adoption focused on the need to: respond to ‘increased Higher Education (HE competition', meet student expectations of learning technology use, provide more flexibility and access to the curriculum, address the possible determining effect of technology and establish a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE presence in this ‘particular area of the HE landscape'. Internal drivers centred on the need to: continue a ‘bottom– up' e-learning pilot project initiative, particularly given that a VLE is a ‘complex tool' which requires effective strategic implementation, and promote the idea that learning technology will play an important role in determining the type of HE institution that the University of Salford wishes to become. Likely success factors highlighted the need to: create ‘time and space' for innovation, maintain effective communication and consultation at all levels of the organization, emphasize the operational aspects of the strategy, establish a variety of staff development processes and recognize the negotiatory processes involved in understanding the term ‘web presence' in local teaching cultures. Fundamentally, the paper argues that policy makers should acknowledge the correct ‘cultural configuration' of HE institutions when seeking to manage and achieve organizational change. Thus, it is not just a question of establishing ‘success factors' per se but also whether they are contextualized appropriately within a ‘correct' characterization of the organizational culture.

  14. Diffusion of Energy Efficient Technology in Commercial Buildings: An Analysis of the Commercial Building Partnerships Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi Argyro

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication of green building measures by Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners' replication efforts of green building approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization's building portfolio, and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States. Findings from this study provided insight into motivations and objectives CBP partners had for program participation. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The optimized approach to the CBP program allows partners to develop green building parameters that fit the specific uses of their building, resulting in greater motivation for replication. In addition, the diffusion model developed

  15. Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Technology Acceptance Model: Supporting Employees' Intentions to Use E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-Ning

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to investigate factors affecting business employees' behavioral intentions to use the e-learning system. Combining the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) with the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study proposes an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 552…

  16. Information Technology and Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion: Exploring the Intermediary-End User Interface in a Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses U.S. technology policy and the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI). Results of a study of knowledge diffusion in the aerospace industry are reported, including data on aerospace information intermediaries, use of computer and information technologies, and the use of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)…

  17. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies for Education: An Analysis of Planning, Implementation, and Diffusion in Florida's Eleven State University System Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand and appreciate the methodologies and procedures used in determining the extent to which an information technology (IT) organization within the eleven member State University Systems (SUS) of Florida planned, implemented, and diffused emerging educational technologies. Key findings found how critical it…

  18. Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Technology Acceptance Model: Supporting Employees' Intentions to Use E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-Ning

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to investigate factors affecting business employees' behavioral intentions to use the e-learning system. Combining the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) with the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study proposes an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 552…

  19. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  20. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  1. [Columbia: strategy for the introduction of educational technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, C E

    1979-01-01

    Educational technology has in Colombia a recent history, and its importance is known only to limited circles; therefore this phenomenon has not been understood nor studied by large areas of the national opinion. The public is completely ignorant in this field and the government encourages this situation. The 1st step was made in 1948 by a priest who used the radio as a tool for the education of the citizens. This project faced several technical and scientific obstacles, such as the large volume of the radios, the rarity of electricity in rural areas, the cost of receiving sets and the lack of a technical service. However, the project developed; its actual name is ACPO and its broadcasting station is Radio Sutatenza. ACPO's main function is to provide the rural areas of Colombia with "education and culture"; to do this, ACPO has powerful resources such as: a broadcasting network which covers the whole country plus some neighbouring countries; one of South America's most modern presses; and powerful economic means. From its creation to this day, the education of the Colombian peasant has been the monopoly of ACPO. Television appeared in Colombia in 1954. It was imported with the prospect of using it in the field of education. Television is in the hands of the Organization of American States, which created multinational centres. The system is controlled from Florida, where the staff is trained. In 1969 the international audio-visual centre (Cavisat project) was created, whose base is in Colombia; its goal, a world-wide policy of education available to everyone. The strategy of the Colombian government is to open up education to any type of research, thus preparing the ground for the new imperialistic strategy: to create conditions in which educational technology becomes a need so that its level of development and the logic with which the system was conceived impose with their own strength the general decisions which become necessary in order to transform it into an

  2. Sustainable Phosphorus Measures: Strategies and Technologies for Achieving Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.

  3. Portfolios — a strategy for reform in information technology teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    teaching methodology for Information Technology (IT) students at the Vaal University of Technology ... The development and availability of skilled manpower in the Informa- ... The rapid advances in technology laid another challenge at the.

  4. Data for evaluation of fast kurtosis strategies, b-value optimization and exploration of diffusion MRI contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe and provide diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data that was acquired in neural tissue and a physical phantom. Data acquired in biological tissue includes: fixed rat brain (acquired at 9.4 T) and spinal cord (acquired at 16.4 T) and in normal human brain (acquired at 3 T). This data was recently used for evaluation of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) contrasts and for comparison to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameter contrast. The data has also been used to optimize b-values for ex vivo and in vivo fast kurtosis imaging. The remaining data was obtained in a physical phantom with three orthogonal fiber orientations (fresh asparagus stems) for exploration of the kurtosis fractional anisotropy. However, the data may have broader interest and, collectively, may form the basis for image contrast exploration and simulations based on a wide range of dMRI analysis strategies. PMID:27576023

  5. Data for evaluation of fast kurtosis strategies, b-value optimization and exploration of diffusion MRI contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-08-01

    Here we describe and provide diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data that was acquired in neural tissue and a physical phantom. Data acquired in biological tissue includes: fixed rat brain (acquired at 9.4 T) and spinal cord (acquired at 16.4 T) and in normal human brain (acquired at 3 T). This data was recently used for evaluation of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) contrasts and for comparison to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameter contrast. The data has also been used to optimize b-values for ex vivo and in vivo fast kurtosis imaging. The remaining data was obtained in a physical phantom with three orthogonal fiber orientations (fresh asparagus stems) for exploration of the kurtosis fractional anisotropy. However, the data may have broader interest and, collectively, may form the basis for image contrast exploration and simulations based on a wide range of dMRI analysis strategies.

  6. Bertillonnage : savoirs, technologies, pratiques et diffusion internationale de l’identification judiciaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Piazza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lors de la mise en ligne de la première version du Projet Bertillon et l’identification des personnes, 1880-1914 sur Criminocorpus en mars 2010, un appel à contributions avait été lancé en vue d’approfondir l’étude du Bertillonnage et des différents enjeux qui s’y rattachent à travers la publication d’articles scientifiques inédits. Trois thématiques à explorer avaient alors été privilégiées : la diffusion internationale de l’identification judiciaire ; les réseaux de savoir et les technologi...

  7. General strategy for development of fuel cell technology in Denmark; Overordnet strategi for udvikling af braendselscelleteknologi i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This strategy memo on fuel cell technology R and D is prepared by the Danish Energy Authority, Elkraft System and Eltra. The objective of the strategy process is to ensure that publicly funded research is efficient and coordinated with commercial development efforts, and, furthermore, in line with societal objectives for energy related R and D. The first strategy phase focused on establishing an updated overview of Danish R and D regarding fuel cells and evaluation of the perspectives for future use. In the second phase the strategy for fuel cell technology presented in this memo was prepared. The strategy is general and includes two tracks, 'Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' (SOFC) and 'Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells' (PEMFC). A general strategy for publicly funded fuel cell projects should contribute to establish overview and targeting throughout the programme in order to ensure the best possible coordination and efficient use of R and D investments. (BA)

  8. R&D Strategy of High Technology Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuJia-hua; WangYan

    2003-01-01

    In a symmetrical static game model, this paper is mainly concerned with the research and development (R&D) strategy of the High Technology (HT) industry and the society' s optimal R&D level given the investment revenue. We obtain different investment decision with different amount of firms engaging in the R&D and each firm's expected profit respectively. When the risk (the probability each firm succeed) is not random, it's socially desirable to have more firm engaging in R&D if and only if the relationship among the invest cost, the probability and the prize satisfies some condition, that is, Eπs, (n)≥Eπs, (n- 1) Ⅰ≤α(1-α)π-1 V. When the R&D cost Ⅰ is certain, more prizes or higher probability will make more firms engage in the R&D and higher prize makes it's socially desirable to have more firm invest in R&D.

  9. Technology and intellectual property strategy of a firm: A view through the commons theory lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Raghavan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategy theory positions technology as a crucial resource of private value creation while commons theory provides governance structures pertinent to resource utilisation. The widening disconnect in the approach towards leveraging a resource and its governance increases the pressure on intellectual property that links strategy and commons. We discern in this work the existence of an implicit relationship between strategy and commons. Based on a multidisciplinary study of strategy, commons, and intellectual property theories, we propose patent pools in the form of semicommons as a strategic appropriation mechanism that balances technology strategy, IP strategy and commons in the pursuit of value creation.

  10. Computer technology and computer programming research and strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakos, James L

    2011-01-01

    Covering a broad range of new topics in computer technology and programming, this volume discusses encryption techniques, SQL generation, Web 2.0 technologies, and visual sensor networks. It also examines reconfigurable computing, video streaming, animation techniques, and more. Readers will learn about an educational tool and game to help students learn computer programming. The book also explores a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  12. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVII - Knowledge diffusion and U.S. government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in stimulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  13. Social impacts of technological diffusion: prenatal diagnosis and induced abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, H M

    2000-01-01

    Scientific and technological development plays an essential part in shaping contemporary societies, and medicine and health care are considered to be particularly receptive to the incorporation of new concepts, techniques and products, producing impacts not only on the health problems for which they were originally intended, but also varied 'side-effects', less frequently recognised and studied. In this study the point of departure was the hypothesis that the intensive diffusion in Brazil of prenatal ultrasound would create new problems for individuals (pregnant women, their families and health professionals) and society in coping with foetal malformations, due to the existence of a very restrictive induced abortion legislation. The objective of the research was to study the social visibility of these problems, in the written mass media. The period under analysis went from 1991 to 1996. The four most important daily newspapers and two medical council journals were studied, with a criteria oriented selection of articles, and their macrotextual thematic analysis. The results indicate that the basic elements in the relationships between medical technology, prenatal diagnosis, foetal malformations and induced abortions stayed the same along the period - a restrictive Penal Code, the public recognition of the disseminated and usually tolerated practice of induced abortion, done in risky conditions for the majority of women, with very evident consequences on maternal health, a divided Congress, a divided 'public opinion', religious opposition and new scientific and technological practices in health care. Nevertheless, tension between these 'contradictory' factors increases, so much so, that new elements are introduced which make an accommodation possible, without implying in major changes of position. This is achieved through the development of new alliances between Science, the judiciary and obstetrical leaders, which benefit individual initiatives, instead of leading

  14. Validity of Business Strategy as Driver in Technology Management – A Critical Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Østergaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks for technological development are increasingly requiring that technology must be developed in accordance with the corporate business strategy. It is an interesting tendency that technological development should reflect and interact with central change processes of the enterprise...... in connecting technological design tightly to the business strategy. The purpose of this paper is to advance a research agenda, where long-term orientation of technology is connected to the necessary tools for obtaining insight in assessing adequacy, reliability and quality of business strategy and evaluation....... This is however colliding with challenges in case of normative or prescriptive strategies: Such strategies can be erroneous, misrepresenting, unsubstantiated, short lived, and centrered narrowly in internal top-level management processes. This paper discusses advantages, disadvantages and alternatives...

  15. Implementation strategies for incorporating new technologies into the dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Foroud; Kachalia, Parag R

    2010-05-01

    Staying ahead of the technology curve is an ongoing challenge for all dentists. Ignoring advancements in technology and the related improvements in diagnostics and delivery of care, as well as the impact technology may have on productivity in practice, is simply not an option for the modern clinician who aims to maintain a successful contemporary practice. This article delivers some insight into the challenges that arise when upgrades in technology and the related acquisition investment are considered.

  16. Current State and Development Strategy of CNPC Engineering Technology Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Challenges to CNPC engineering technology service Internal contraction and problems (1) Pricing mechanism for technology service. CNPC engineering technology companies have been under deficit for many years after restructuring, and eight subordinate companies lost 239 million RMB in 2008 and even 770 million RMB in 2009.

  17. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.

    2015-01-01

    Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen…

  18. Essays on marketing strategy in technology-intensive markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremersch, S.

    2001-01-01

    Marketing scholars have only recently started to explore the strategic marketing challenges faced by firms in technology-intensity (TI) markets. Still, technology is at the core of many contemporary markets and TI markets are unique because of their knowledge-intensity and technological turbulence.

  19. Diffusion imaging: technology and clinical application; Diffusionsbildgebung. Technik und klinische Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Greschus, Susanne; Pieper, Claus Christian [Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Goldstein, Jan [Staedtisches Klinikum Solingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-03-15

    While diffusion imaging was predominantly used for cerebral ischemia diagnostics it is now a widely applied MR diagnostic tool for oncologic or inflammatory diseases. The contribution is focused on the fundamentals of diffusion imaging and the most important indications.

  20. US–China Military Technological Competition and the Making of Chinese Weapons Development Strategies and Plans

    OpenAIRE

    CHEUNG, Tai Ming

    2017-01-01

    How do Chinese decision-makers and strategists view the United States todayas a military strategic competitor especially in light of the US Third Offset Strategy? This brief examines the nature, dynamics, and direction of intensifying US–China military strategic technology competition and how the Third Offset Strategy may influence implementation of Chinese strategies and plans for long-termdevelopment of its military technological and war-fighting capabilities.

  1. Leveraging Informal Leadership in Higher Education Institutions: A Case of Diffusion of Emerging Technologies in a Southern Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ambi, Dick; Bozalek, Vivienne

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, emerging technologies and transformative practices have diffused into higher education social systems in ways that formal leadership styles are increasingly stretched to both keep abreast of and to manage. While many scholars have argued for the importance of the role of leadership styles in shaping the strategic direction of…

  2. Measures for the Diffusion of Solar PV are Aligned in Technology Action Plans for Six Countries in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2014-01-01

    in the region prioritized solar PV, and action plans for the diffusion of solar home systems were put forward in Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mali and Senegal, while the implementation of grid-connected systems was proposed in Rwanda, Mali and Senegal. The project reports and technology action plans prepared...

  3. The Dynamics of Son Preference, Technology Diffusion, and Fertility Decline Underlying Distorted Sex Ratios at Birth: A Simulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Villavicencio, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    We present a micro-founded simulation model that formalizes the "ready, willing, and able" framework, originally used to explain historical fertility decline, to the practice of prenatal sex selection. The model generates sex ratio at birth (SRB) distortions from the bottom up and attempts to quantify plausible levels, trends, and interactions of son preference, technology diffusion, and fertility decline that underpin SRB trajectories at the macro level. Calibrating our model for South Korea, we show how even as the proportion with a preference for sons was declining, SRB distortions emerged due to rapid diffusion of prenatal sex determination technology combined with small but growing propensities to abort at low birth parities. Simulations reveal that relatively low levels of son preference (about 20 % to 30 % wanting one son) can result in skewed SRB levels if technology diffuses early and steadily, and if fertility falls rapidly to encourage sex-selective abortion at low parities. Model sensitivity analysis highlights how the shape of sex ratio trajectories is particularly sensitive to the timing and speed of prenatal sex-determination technology diffusion. The maximum SRB levels reached in a population are influenced by how the readiness to abort rises as a function of the fertility decline.

  4. Modeling cascading diffusion of new energy technologies: case study of residential solid oxide fuel cells in the US and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Seth; Williams, Eric

    2013-08-06

    Subsidy programs for new energy technologies are motivated by the experience curve: increased adoption of a technology leads to learning and economies of scale that lower costs. Geographic differences in fuel prices and climate lead to large variability in the economic performance of energy technologies. The notion of cascading diffusion is that regions with favorable economic conditions serve as the basis to build scale and reduce costs so that the technology becomes attractive in new regions. We develop a model of cascading diffusion and implement via a case study of residential solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for combined heating and power. We consider diffusion paths within the U.S. and internationally. We construct market willingness-to-pay curves and estimate future manufacturing costs via an experience curve. Combining market and cost results, we find that for rapid cost reductions (learning rate = 25%), a modest public subsidy can make SOFC investment profitable for 20-160 million households. If cost reductions are slow however (learning rate = 15%), residential SOFCs may not become economically competitive. Due to higher energy prices in some countries, international diffusion is more favorable than domestic, mitigating much of the uncertainty in the learning rate.

  5. Sharing risk between payer and provider by leasing health technologies: an affordable and effective reimbursement strategy for innovative technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Hall, Peter; Wallner, Klemens; McCabe, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The challenge of implementing high-cost innovative technologies in health care systems operating under significant budgetary pressure has led to a radical shift in the health technology reimbursement landscape. New reimbursement strategies attempt to reduce the risk of making the wrong decision, that is, paying for a technology that is not good value for the health care system, while promoting the adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice. The remaining risk, however, is not shared between the manufacturer and the health care payer at the individual purchase level; it continues to be passed from the manufacturer to the payer at the time of purchase. In this article, we propose a health technology payment strategy-technology leasing reimbursement scheme-that allows the sharing of risk between the manufacturer and the payer: the replacing of up-front payments with a stream of payments spread over the expected duration of benefit from the technology, subject to the technology delivering the claimed health benefit. Using trastuzumab (Herceptin) in early breast cancer as an exemplar technology, we show how a technology leasing reimbursement scheme not only reduces the total budgetary impact of the innovative technology but also truly shares risk between the manufacturer and the health care system, while reducing the value of further research and thus promoting the rapid adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice.

  6. A Low-Technology Strategy for Increasing Engagement of Students with Autism and Significant Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Christi; Basham, James; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2009-01-01

    Active engagement is critical to promote learning for students with autism. Although evidence-based strategies exist for promoting engagement for individual students with autism, there are few strategies designed for use with small groups. This study used an ABCAC design to assess the effects of a low-technology use strategy, namely interactive…

  7. A comparison of teaching strategies for integrating information technology into clinical nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrink, V L; Davis, L S; Fitzwater, E; Castleman, J; Burley, J; Gorney-Moreno, M J; Sullivan, J; Nichols, B; Hall, D; Queen, K; Johnson, S; Martin, A

    2000-01-01

    As health care becomes more information-intensive and diverse, there is a need to integrate information technology (IT) into clinical education. Little is known, however, about how to design instructional strategies for integrating information technology into clinical nursing education. This article outlines the instructional strategies used by faculty in five nursing programs who taught students to use a point-of-care information technology system. The article also reports students' computer acceptance and summarizes IT clinical teaching recommendations.

  8. Strategic interdependence in the process of diffusion of new technologies within the company; Interdependencia estrategica en el proceso de difusion de nuevas tecnologias dentro de la empresa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentelsaz, L.; Palomas, S.; Gomez, J.

    2012-07-01

    This article explores the mechanisms by which firms are interdependent in their intra firm diffusion processes. We argue that intra firm diffusion is strictly different to first adoption in terms of the mechanism by which other firms influence the process. Instead of the dominant epidemic diffusion theories, we propose an alternative one based on competitive interaction. According to it, technology deployment by rivals increases the intra firm diffusion incentive by raising competitive pressures, but also reduces the incentive by lowering the expected profitability of the technology. We test our propositions by analyzing the diffusion of the Automated Teller Machine among the Spanish savings banks between 1986 and 2004. (Author) 35 refs.

  9. The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition.

  10. Transition strategies for managing technological discontinuities: lessons from the history of the semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of competition under conditions of technological change and asks how firms can manage technological discontinuities. By drawing on the literatures on strategic management and technology dynamics, it is proposed that firms should change the nature of their strategy as a

  11. Competitive spatially distributed population dynamics models: Does diversity in diffusion strategies promote coexistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E; Kamrujjaman, Md; Korobenko, L

    2015-06-01

    We study the interaction between different types of dispersal, intrinsic growth rates and carrying capacities of two competing species in a heterogeneous environment: one of them is subject to a regular diffusion while the other moves in the direction of most per capita available resources. If spatially heterogeneous carrying capacities coincide, and intrinsic growth rates are proportional then competitive exclusion of a regularly diffusing population is inevitable. However, the situation may change if intrinsic growth rates for the two populations have different spatial forms. We also consider the case when carrying capacities are different. If the carrying capacity of a regularly diffusing population is higher than for the other species, the two populations may coexist; as the difference between the two carrying capacities grows, competitive exclusion of the species with a lower carrying capacity occurs.

  12. Diffusion Patterns in Convergence among High-Technology Industries: A Co-Occurrence-Based Analysis of Newspaper Article Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeokseong Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firms in high-technology industries have faced great technological and market uncertainty and volatility in the past few decades. In order to be competitive and sustainable in this environment, firms have been pursuing technological innovation, product differentiation, vertical integration, and alliances, which eventually drive industry convergence, defined as the process of blurring boundaries between previously distinct industries. Although industry convergence has greatly affected industrial structure and the economy, little research has investigated this phenomenon, especially its diffusion patterns; thus, it is still unclear which industries are converging more rapidly or have a higher potential for convergence. This paper explores these issues by investigating industry convergence in U.S. high-technology industries, using a large set of newspaper articles from 1987 to 2012. We perform a co-occurrence-based analysis to obtain information on industry convergence and estimate its diffusion patterns using an internal-influence logistic model. We find heterogeneous diffusion patterns, depending on convergent-industry pairs and their wide dispersion. In addition, we find that the potential degree of industry convergence is significantly negatively associated with its growth rate, which indicates that a great deal of time will be required for industry convergence between high-technology industries with this high potential to achieve a high degree of convergence.

  13. DevelOpment Strategy of CNPC Engineering Technology Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingli; Liu Bingyi; Zheng Yi; Zhu Jingping; Jiang Xinsheng

    2011-01-01

    An overview of CNPC engineering technology service As an important backup and guarantee for CNPC's oil and gas business, engineering technology service companies have focused on the goal of building an integrated international energy company, and launched new round of specialized restructuring and business integration since the end of 2007, in accordance with the principle of intensification, specialization, and integration.

  14. Towards a Resilient Strategy for Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to argue that the strategic implementation of technology is implicated in a range of crises or socio-economic disruptions, like peak oil, climate change and the rising environmental costs of energy consumption. It aims to argue that institutional technological implementation is contested, complex and should not be…

  15. Curation-Based Network Marketing: Strategies for Network Growth and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Earnie Mitchell, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of years, a new aspect of online social networking has emerged, in which the strength of social network connections is based not on social ties but mutually shared interests. This dissertation studies these "curation-based" online social networks (CBN) and their suitability for the diffusion of electronic word-of-mouth…

  16. Understanding technology use and constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties.

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdulaziz, M.; Higgins, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper will investigate the relationship between technology use and the use of constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used for the purpose of this research, which were undertaken with three mathematics teachers from school A which used technology, and the other three from school B, which did not use technology. We found that technology can support constructivist approach when teaching and...

  17. Promotional Strategies Direct Marketing and Technological Innovations in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Arina BALACEANU

    2011-01-01

    Modern advertising strategies involve the use of a bank's media and consumer incentives, so that banking institution, and thus offer products/services to cause favorable changes in mentality and their consumption habits, also important is the establishment an effective communication with employees, shareholders, competitors. Promotion strategies are essential to business success. Success is guaranteed if the message is sent to the right people at the right time. Promotion has a special place ...

  18. Technology diffusion of anesthesia information management systems into academic anesthesia departments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stol, Ilana S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Epstein, Richard H

    2014-03-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are electronic health records that automatically import vital signs from patient monitors and allow for computer-assisted creation of the anesthesia record. When most recently surveyed in 2007, it was estimated that at least 16% of U.S. academic hospitals (i.e., with an anesthesia residency program) had installed an AIMS. At least an additional 28% reported that they were in the process of implementing, or searching for an AIMS. In this study, we updated the adoption figures as of May 2013 and examined the historical trend of AIMS deployment in U.S. anesthesia residency programs from the perspective of the theory of diffusion of technologic innovations. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to program directors or their identified contact individuals at the 130 U.S. anesthesiology residency programs accredited as of June 30, 2012 by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. The questionnaires asked whether the department had an AIMS, the year of installation, and, if not present, whether there were plans to install an AIMS within the next 12 months. Follow-up e-mails and phone calls were made until responses were obtained from all programs. Results were collected between February and May 2013. Implementation percentages were determined using the number of accredited anesthesia residency programs at the start of each academic year between 1987 and 2013 and were fit to a logistic regression curve using data through 2012. Responses were received from all 130 programs. Eighty-seven (67%) reported that they currently are using an AIMS. Ten programs without a current AIMS responded that they would be installing an AIMS within 12 months of the survey. The rate of AIMS adoption by year was well fit by a logistic regression curve (P = 0.90). By the end of 2014, approximately 75% of U.S. academic anesthesiology departments will be using an AIMS, with 84% adoption expected between 2018 and 2020. Historical adoption

  19. Practice management companies. Creating sound information technology strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, M A

    1997-10-01

    Practice management companies are becoming more prominent players in the health care industry. To improve the performance of the group practices that they acquire, these companies are striving to use updated information technologies.

  20. Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, C.; Schofield, D.

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their basis, students learn via visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic styles. Labs provide for all but the aural style, while lectures lack kinesthetic learning. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style. By using multi-touch technology in lecture, not only can we accommodate kinesthetic learners, but we can also enrich the experiences of visual learners. Ushering to this wider array of students will hopefully lead to an increase in meaningful learning.

  1. Technology roadmapping for strategy and innovation charting the route to success

    CERN Document Server

    Isenmann, Ralf; Phaal, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Technology roadmapping is a core method to help companies and other organisations gain orientation for future opportunities and changes. This book is a key resource for technology roadmapping – it provides expert knowledge in four areas: To frame/embed technology roadmapping To structure the process and tasks of technology roadmapping To implement technology roadmapping into corporate strategies To link technology roadmapping to further instruments of strategic planning and corporate foresight This comprehensive survey of technology roadmapping includes papers from leading European, American and Asian experts: It provides an overview of different methods of technology roadmapping and the interactions between them It familiarises readers with the most important sub-methods It embeds/links technology roadmapping to the overall framework of management research and business studies This book, the first of a series, is unique: it aims to become the leading compendium for technology roadmapping knowledge and prac...

  2. Understanding the Adoption Process of National Security Technology: An Integration of Diffusion of Innovations and Volitional Behavior Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Irina A; Egnoto, Michael J; Fisher Liu, Brooke; Ackerman, Gary; Roberts, Holly; Smith, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government initiated several national security technology adoption programs. The American public, however, has been skeptical about these initiatives and adoption of national security technologies has been mandated, rather than voluntary. We propose and test a voluntary behavioral intention formation model for the adoption of one type of new security technology: portable radiation detectors. Portable radiation detectors are an efficient way of detecting radiological and nuclear threats and could potentially prevent loss of life and damage to individuals' health. However, their functioning requires that a critical mass of individuals use them on a daily basis. We combine the explanatory advantages of diffusion of innovation with the predictive power of two volitional behavior frameworks: the theory of reasoned action and the health belief model. A large sample survey (N = 1,482) investigated the influence of factors identified in previous diffusion of innovation research on portable radiation detector adoption intention. Results indicated that nonfinancial incentives, as opposed to financial incentives, should be emphasized in persuasive communications aimed at fostering adoption. The research provides a new integration of diffusion of innovation elements with determinants of volitional behavior from persuasion literature, and offers recommendations on effective communication about new security technologies to motivate public adoption and enhance national safety. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Technological innovation and developmental strategies for sustainable management of aquatic resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.

  4. A Novel Method for Technology Forecasting and Developing R&D Strategy of Building Integrated Photovoltaic Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jing Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of global warming, renewable energy technologies have become more essential currently, with solar energy technology advancing worldwide. Therefore, interdisciplinary integration is an important trend, and building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV is an emerging technology involving the photovoltaic and building fields. The purpose of this study is to understand the technology evolution of BIPV and to determine the R&D planning direction. This paper proposes a hybrid approach to explore the life cycle of BIPV technology and develop the R&D strategy of related industries. The proposed approach comprises the following submodules. First, patent analysis is employed to transform patent documents into structured data. Second, the logistic growth model is used to explore the life cycle of BIPV technology. Third, a patent matrix map analysis is used to develop the R&D strategy of the BIPV industry. Through the analysis by the logistic model, the BIPV technology is transformed from the emerging stage to the growth stage of a long-term life cycle. The other important result is created by the three-dimensional matrix for R&D strategies in this paper.

  5. Strategic management in the new economy : Modern information technologies and multichannel contact strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wegberg, M; van Witteloostuijn, A

    2001-01-01

    The so-called information revolution has loosened many tongues in the academic, business and policy worlds. The communis opinio is that the diffusion of modern information technologies in the global village is about to radically change the rules of the competitive game in many, if not all, industrie

  6. New strategies in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: translating findings from gene expression analyses into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2011-10-01

    Gene expression profiling has had a major impact on our understanding of the biology and heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using this technology, investigators can identify biologic subgroups of DLBCL that provide unique targets for rational therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes these potential targets and updates the progress of clinical development of exciting novel agents for the treatment of DLBCL. Results of ongoing studies suggest that in the near future, we will be able to use gene expression profiling, or an accurate surrogate, to define the best therapeutic approach for individual patients with DLBCL. ©2011 AACR

  7. Diffusion MRI: A New Strategy for Assessment of Cancer Therapeutic Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Chenevert

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of anatomical imaging in clinical oncology practice traditionally relies on comparison of patient scans acquired before and following completion of therapeutic intervention. Therapeutic success is typically determined from inspection of gross anatomical images to assess changes in tumor size. Imaging could provide significant additional insight into therapeutic impact if a specific parameter or combination of parameters could be identified which reflect tissue changes at the cellular or physiologic level. This would provide an early indicator of treatment response/outcome in an individual patient before completion of therapy. Moreover, response of a tumor to therapeutic intervention may be heterogeneous. The use of imaging could assist in delineating therapeutic-induced spatial heterogeneity within a tumor mass by providing information related to specific regions that are resistant or responsive to treatment. Largely untapped potential resides in exploratory methods such as diffusion MRI, which is a non-volumetric intravoxel measure of tumor response based upon water molecular mobility. Alterations in water mobility reflect changes in tissue structure at the cellular level. While the clinical utility of diffusion MRI for oncologic practice is still under active investigation, this overview on the use of diffusion MRI for the evaluation of brain tumors will serve to introduce how this approach may be applied in the future for the management of patients with solid tumors.

  8. Open standard building in South Africa: new concepts, strategies and technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ” of the structures prohibited adaptation over time. This paper constructs a framework for developing, validating, and applying Open Standard Building in South Africa. The paper finds that Open Standard Building concepts, strategies and technologies can deliver...

  9. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  10. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G

    2002-09-05

    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  11. Diffusion of research-based instructional strategies: the case of SCALE-UP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foote, Kathleen T; Neumeyer, Xaver; Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa H; Beichner, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    ... successfully to secondary sites. Since this ‘show them and they will adopt’ model has yet to produce the desired large-scale transformation, this study examines one innovative teaching strategy that has demonstrated success in spreading...

  12. Scaling up a learning technology strategy: supporting student/faculty teams in learner-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Carey

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for post-secondary institutions to think strategically about the application of learning technologies has been well documented. The strategy must plan to effect change in faculty approaches to teaching and learning, not just to 'add technology and stir'. An effective strategy will also address both content - the particular applications with the most leverage for institutional goals - and the process of obtaining commitment and moving forward (Daniel, 1996.

  13. Technology Strategy and Industrial Relations: Case Studies of Japanese Multinationals in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Eight case studies of U.S. manufacturing subsidiaries of Japanese multinationals are analyzed in terms of variations in competitive strategies and industrial relations practices. Based on data collected in 1980 on-site visits, each firm is reviewed in light of the technology contributions coming from the Japanese parent and is categorized as having product-, process-, and/or management-centered technology strategies. The industrial relations practices are also grouped according to similaritie...

  14. Analysis of Language Learning Strategies Used by Students of Traffic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategies play a vital role in the language acquisition process, and this includes the realm of ESP at the tertiary level of education. This contribution first defines the concept of language learning strategies and gives a historical background to language learning strategy research. The central section focuses on a comparative analysis of language learning strategies used by first year students of traffic technology at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož, University of Ljubljana. The analysis, based on Rebecca Oxford’s “Strategy Inventory for Language Learning”, aims to assess the students’ existing awareness of the process of language acquisition and the learning strategies that they use. Objectives of language teachers should include helping students to raise their awareness of language learning strategies and providing them with contexts for their development. Therefore, the concluding section contains sample ESP teaching materials and student instructions focusing on cognitive language learning strategies.

  15. Variation in lithic technological strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri Shipton

    Full Text Available THE EVIDENCE FOR NEANDERTHAL LITHIC TECHNOLOGY IS REVIEWED AND SUMMARIZED FOR FOUR CAVES ON THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR: Vanguard, Beefsteak, Ibex and Gorham's. Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas. The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C. The Gibraltar Mousterian, including the youngest assemblage from Layer IV of Gorham's Cave, spans the typical Middle Palaeolithic range of variation from radial Levallois to unidirectional and multi-platform flaking schemas, with characteristic emphasis on the former. A diachronic pattern of change in the Gorham's Cave sequence is documented, with the younger assemblages utilising more localized raw material and less formal flaking procedures. We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

  16. Variation in lithic technological strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, Ceri; Clarkson, Christopher; Bernal, Marco Antonio; Boivin, Nicole; Finlayson, Clive; Finlayson, Geraldine; Fa, Darren; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Petraglia, Michael

    2013-01-01

    THE EVIDENCE FOR NEANDERTHAL LITHIC TECHNOLOGY IS REVIEWED AND SUMMARIZED FOR FOUR CAVES ON THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR: Vanguard, Beefsteak, Ibex and Gorham's. Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas. The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C. The Gibraltar Mousterian, including the youngest assemblage from Layer IV of Gorham's Cave, spans the typical Middle Palaeolithic range of variation from radial Levallois to unidirectional and multi-platform flaking schemas, with characteristic emphasis on the former. A diachronic pattern of change in the Gorham's Cave sequence is documented, with the younger assemblages utilising more localized raw material and less formal flaking procedures. We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

  17. Science and Technology Investment Strategy for Squadron Level Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    34 Maintainers felt that some of the globally imposed training requirements, such as block training, were entirely inappropriate or overtrained . They also...system risk. He must answer the question of 442 whether or not the new technology could cause loss of life, personnel injury , mission failure, or

  18. Learning to Teach with Technology: Strategies for Inservice Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Karen; Simkins, Michael; Penuel, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes and reports evaluation results for five key elements of the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project's inservice professional development program. The five elements are: (a) Technology Learning Coordinators (a mentoring system), (b) Minigrants (small local grants tied to a planning process for teachers), (c) Partnerships…

  19. Administrative Strategies for Successful Adoption of Computer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Joan E.; Shedletsky, Leonard J.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that offering online courses extends the reach of education to people who otherwise may be unable to complete courses. Gives administrators a perspective from the standpoint of professors who are not "techies," but have been involved in the infusion of technology. Proposes that administrators keep seven critical ideas before them while…

  20. Desktop Simulation: Towards a New Strategy for Arts Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsheim, Nina Sun

    2009-01-01

    For arts departments in many institutions, technology education entails prohibitive equipment costs, maintenance requirements and administrative demands. There are also inherent pedagogical challenges: for example, recording studio classes where, due to space and time constraints, only a few students in what might be a large class can properly…

  1. A strategy for nontimber forest products research and technology transfer for southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Southern Research Station (SRS) and the Southern Regional Office (R8) of the U.S. Forest Service worked through a 3-day facilitated discussion to develop a strategy to guide research and technology transfer on non-timber forest products (NTFPs). In all, more than 14 specialists took part in developing the strategy, representing the Forest Service...

  2. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  3. The University and Transformation towards Sustainability: The Strategy Used at Chalmers University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John; Lundqvist, Ulrika; Svanstrom, Magdalena; Arehag, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the strategy used for achieving change towards sustainability at Chalmers University of Technology (Chalmers). Examples of how this strategy has been used are described and discussed, and exemplified with different lines of activities in a project on Education for Sustainable Development, the ESD…

  4. Technological Factors, User Characteristics and Didactic Strategies in Educational Virtual Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natsis, Antonios; Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos

    2012-01-01

    Technological factors, user characteristics and didactic strategies do not function consistently across Educational Virtual Environments. This study investigates the impact of viewing condition and didactic strategy on attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, spatial presence, and learning...... outcomes in an Educational Virtual Environment concerning ancient Greek pottery. Our results show that the viewing condition does not affect attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, and spatial presence. Learning outcomes are better in the monoscopic viewing condition. Didactic strategy has an impact...... Virtual Environments....

  5. Intellectual property and financing strategies for technology startups

    CERN Document Server

    Halt, Jr , Gerald B; Stiles, Amber R; Fesnak, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, easy to understand guide for startup entities and developing companies, providing insight on the various sources of funding that are available, how these funding sources are useful at each stage of a company’s development, and offers a comprehensive intellectual property strategy that parallels each stage of development. The IP strategies offered in this book take into consideration the goals that most startups and companies have at each stage of development, as well as the limitations that exist at each stage (i.e., limited available resources earmarked for intellectual property asset development), and provides solutions that startups and companies can implement to maximize their return on intellectual property investments. This book also includes a number of descriptive examples, case studies and scenarios to illustrate the topics discussed, and is intended for use by startups and companies across all industries. Readers will garner an appreciation for the value that inte...

  6. Algorithmic trading technology and strategy research on financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Barca Linares, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Due to the financial digitalization, the human intervention in many operations both functional and those aimed to make profit in the market are likely to be substituted by algorithms and automated processes. This thesis lay the foundations of algorithmic trading developing a framework to automate the whole process of trading financial assets. Also, it researches trading strategies and the real potential to make profit. The framework consists of separated functional modules to acquire ...

  7. Technological Innovation and Management Strategies for Higher Education in Africa: Harmonizing Reality and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Philip M.; Nleya, Paul; Molelu, G. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses and suggests possible technological innovation strategies in higher educational institutions in Africa. The paper describes management issues in the implementation of eLearning with particular reference to its usage in higher education abroad and in Africa, and also suggests appropriate approaches for technological innovation…

  8. Differentiated Instructional Strategies and Assistive Technology in Brazil: Are We Talking about the Same Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Gerusa Ferreira; Goncalves, Adriana Garcia; Elias, Nassim Chamel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the association of educational strategies and differentiated instructions with assistive technology for special education students. The use of technology is an important ally for mediation among teachers, students and academic content. For special education students, there is a need to promote general…

  9. Strategy for diffusion of alternative energy sources and energetic efficiency; Uma estrategia de divulgacao de energias alternativas e eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Hamilton Moss de; Aguiar, Joao Carlos; Sa, Antonio Leite de; Galdino, Marco Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dutra, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Pierre T. [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Hortencio A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the results obtained up to the present from a technological divulgation strategy which resulted into a cooperation program between the CEPEL and the University-Society Integration Program (PIUES) that is been conducted by the catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. That cooperation was initially restricted to the divulgation and stimulation of technical teaching of alternative energy sources, particularly solar energy, being posteriorly extended to the energy efficiency techniques.

  10. Wave energy technology. Strategy for research, development and demonstration 2012; Boelgekraftteknologi. Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K.; Krogh, J.; Kofoed, J.P. [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark); Jensen, N.E.H. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, E. [Boelgekraftforeningen, Hurup (Denmark); Mikkelsen, B.V. [Hanstholm Havneforum (Denmark); Jensen, A. [DanWEC, Thisted (Denmark)

    2012-06-15

    The vision for Danish development of wave energy technology is that Danish industrial and commercial firms gain skills for marketing of competitive wave energy technologies in both the Danish and the international market. Utilization of wave power is a prerequisite for that there in the future can be built offshore energy parks at greater sea depths. The development of wave energy technology should from 2030 at the latest provide the opportunity for cost-effective, sustainable electricity from offshore energy parks in Denmark. This strategy contains a detailed development plan and overview of the investment required to achieve the expected technological development. The objective to produce 1500 GWh / year at a reduced price of 0.10 DKK / kWh compared to pure offshore wind power will require a public investment of approx. 1.5 billion DKK over the next 20 years. This investment will, at the reduced electricity production cost alone, be paid back in 10 years. (LN)

  11. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yi Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race.

  12. Advantage management strategy in competition via technological race perspective: empirical evidence from the Taiwanese manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the "catch-up" strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race.

  13. Study on international publicity and export strategy establishment of nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Bok; Choi, C.O.; Park, K. B.; Chang, M. H.; Kim, K. K.; Yang, M. S.; Jung, I. H.; Kim, K. P.; Wu, J. S.; Jang, C. I.; Han, B. O.; Sim, J. H.; Chung, M.; Chung, J.K

    1999-05-01

    The objective of this study is to devise a proper measure for international publicity and technology export strategy. Analysed and summaries in detail are other countries nuclear policy trend and the current technology development status of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant that we developed on our own technology, design and construction technology for research reactor, System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor of which design is in progress, Direct use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors, and Radioisotopes. Based on that, the measures are proposed for the export industrialization of nuclear technology and establishment of the export basis. Also the international nuclear cooperation and publicity strategy are suggested to support the technology export basis. By surveying the world nuclear status, the direction for the international cooperation and publicity is settled and the specific publicity strategy is proposed for the cooperation with IAEA and multi-countries and the establishment of the nuclear technology export basis. As part of this project, the panel on major technologies such as Korea Standard Nuclear Plant, HANARO, and System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor was displayed successfully at the IAEA meeting, which contribute much to the publicity of our nuclear technology to the international nuclear society. (author)

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNAL TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK WITHIN THE SERVICES SECTOR UTILISING TQM PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pieterse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is generally accepted as one of the key factors that influences society and business in an unmistakable manner. Current literature is not singular in its views and methods of technology strategy development, the interface between technology strategy and business strategy and how technology strategy is executed and assessed internally. This article proposes an internal technology strategy assessment framework for the services sector. The framework is developed by merging the disciplines and current models of technology management, business architecture, strategic performance measurement and total quality management. The model is presented in the text in flowchart form. The required data was gathered by means of case study protocol. Three case studies were conducted in the services sector and the tabulated results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie word algemeen aanvaar as een van die mees deurslaggewende drywers wat besigheid en die samelewing onomkeerbaar verander. Verskillende opinies bestaan in die literatuur oor die metodes van tegnologiestrategie-ontwikkelling, die raakvlak tussen tegnologiestrategie en besigheidstrategie en hoe tegnologiestrategie uitgevoer en geassesseer moet word. Die artikel fokus op 'n interne tegnologiestrategie assesseringsmodel, spesifiek vir die dienstesektor. Die assesseringsmodel word ontwikkel deur die dissiplines en beskikbare modelle van tegnologiebestuur, besigheidsargitektuur, strategiese prestasiemeting en totale kwaliteitsbestuur te integreer. Die model word in die teks in die formaat van ‘n vloeidiagram aangebied. Die nodige data vir die model is ingesamel deur gebruik te maak van gevallestudieprotokol. Drie gevallestudies is uitgevoer en die getabuleerde resultate gelys in die teks.

  15. Final Report: Towards an Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating the Diffusion of Residential Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-15

    This project sought to enable electric utilities in Texas to accelerate diffusion of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by systematically identifying and targeting existing barriers to PV adoption. A core goal of the project was to develop an integrated research framework that combines survey research, econometric modeling, financial modeling, and implementation and evaluation of pilot projects to study the PV diffusion system. This project considered PV diffusion as an emergent system, with attention to the interactions between the constituent parts of the PV socio-technical system including: economics of individual decision-making; peer and social influences; behavioral responses; and information and transaction costs. We also conducted two pilot projects, which have yielded new insights into behavioral and informational aspects of PV adoption. Finally, this project has produced robust and generalizable results that will provide deeper insights into the technology-diffusion process that will be applicable for the design of utility programs for other technologies such as home-energy management systems and plug-in electric vehicles. When we started this project in 2013 there was little systematic research on characterizing the decision-making process of households interested in adopting PV. This project was designed to fill that research gap by analyzing the PV adoption process from the consumers' decision-making perspective and with the objective to systematically identifying and addressing the barriers that consumers face in the adoption of PV. The two key components of that decision-making process are consumers' evaluation of: (i) uncertainties and non-monetary costs associated with the technology and (ii) the direct monetary cost-benefit. This project used an integrated approach to study both the non-monetary and the monetary components of the consumer decision-making process.

  16. Firms’ Negative Perceptions on Patents, Technology Management Strategies, and Subsequent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While patents do have many advantages, their disadvantages include requiring disclosure of technical information and imposing the burden of patenting and litigation costs. In this study, we investigate the relationship between a firm’s negative perception on patents, technology management strategies, and subsequent performance. For this purpose, we use a categorical canonical correlation analysis of the top 200, large, R&D-intensive firms in Korea. We find that negative perceptions such as burdensome transaction costs, non-patenting culture, and uncertainty of the outcome of patent litigation are associated with firms’ technology management strategies, such as purchase of licenses, and subsequent performance, such as an increase in the number of inventions from the cross-fertilization of different technologies. The results of this study are expected to contribute to a better understanding of firms’ negative attitudes toward the effects of patents, their subsequent technology management strategies, and resulting performance.

  17. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  18. Suriname - politics, technology, and Third World energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auty, R.M.

    Suriname illustrates how some developing countries responded to the oil price shocks by developing domestic energy sources as a substitute for imported oil. Suriname's effort to develop a capital-intensive hydrosmelter aluminum project ran into both technical and political problems despite its economic appeal. A combination of delays, inflation, and disappointing bauxite deposits raised the final cost estimation of the first stage from $460 to $740 million. A military coup slowed the project until the appeal of a green-technology option of small-scale rural development revived interest. The country's response to the 1973 oil shock still lacks coherence. 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From STEM to STEAM: Strategies for Enhancing Engineering & Technology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to challenge the common pedagogies found in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics education with a particular focus on engineering. The dominant engineering pedagogy remains “chalk and talk”; despite research evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. Such pedagogical approaches do not embrace the possibilities provided by more student-centric approaches and more active learning. The paper argues that there is a potential confusion in engineering education around the role of active learning approaches, and that the adoption of these approaches may be limited as a result of this confusion, combined with a degree of disciplinary egocentrism. The paper presents examples of design, engineering and technology projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting pedagogies and delivery methods more usually attributed to the liberal arts such as studio based learning. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how best to create a fertile environment from which inquiry based learning can emerge as well as a reflection on whether the only real limitation on cultivating such approaches is the disciplinary egocentrism of traditional engineering educators.

  1. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2003-05-20

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  2. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  3. A study on future nuclear reactor technology and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, D. S.; Suk, S. D.; Zee, S. K.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Park, W. S

    2000-12-01

    Development of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology for future is essential to meet the current issues such as enhancement of nuclear power reactor safety, economically competitive with gas turbine power generation, less production of radioactive waste, proliferation resistant fuel cycle, and public acceptance in consideration of lack of energy resources in the nuclear countries worldwide as well as in Korea. This report deals with as follows, 1) Review the world energy demand and supply perspective and analyse nature of energy and sustainable development to set-up nuclear policy in Korea 2) Recaptitulate the current long term nuclear R and D activities 3) Review nuclear R and D activities and programs of USA, Japan, France, Russia, international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA 4) Recommend development directions of nuclear reactors and fuels.

  4. A SECOND ORDER CONTROL-VOLUME FINITE-ELEMENT LEAST-SQUARES STRATEGY FOR SIMULATING DIFFUSION IN STRONGLY ANISOTROPIC MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayantha Pasdunkorale A.; Ian W. Turner

    2005-01-01

    An unstructured mesh finite volume discretisation method for simulating diffusion in anisotropic media in two-dimensional space is discussed. This technique is considered as an extension of the fully implicit hybrid control-volume finite-element method and it retains the local continuity of the flux at the control volume faces. A least squares function reconstruction technique together with a new flux decomposition strategy is used to obtain an accurate flux approximation at the control volume face, ensuring that the overall accuracy of the spatial discretisation maintains second order. This paper highlights that the new technique coincides with the traditional shape function technique when the correction term is neglected and that it significantly increases the accuracy of the previous linear scheme on coarse meshes when applied to media that exhibit very strong to extreme anisotropy ratios. It is concluded that the method can be used on both regular and irregular meshes,and appears independent of the mesh quality.

  5. Diffuse low-grade glioma: a review on the new molecular classification, natural history and current management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, P D; Corrales-García, E M; Martino, J; Lastra-Aras, E; Dueñas-Polo, M T

    2017-03-02

    The management of diffuse supratentorial WHO grade II glioma remains a challenge because of the infiltrative nature of the tumor, which precludes curative therapy after total or even supratotal resection. When possible, functional-guided resection is the preferred initial treatment. Total and subtotal resections correlate with increased overall survival. High-risk patients (age >40, partial resection), especially IDH-mutated and 1p19q-codeleted oligodendroglial lesions, benefit from surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation. Under the new 2016 WHO brain tumor classification, which now incorporates molecular parameters, all diffusely infiltrating gliomas are grouped together since they share specific genetic mutations and prognostic factors. Although low-grade gliomas cannot be regarded as benign tumors, large observational studies have shown that median survival can actually be doubled if an early, aggressive, multi-stage and personalized therapy is applied, as compared to prior wait-and-see policy series. Patients need an honest long-term therapeutic strategy that should ideally anticipate neurological, cognitive and histopathologic worsening.

  6. Freeze Dried Quetiapine-Nicotinamide Binary Solid Dispersions: A New Strategy for Improving Physicochemical Properties and Ex Vivo Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Remawi, Mayyas Mohammad Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Improving the physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate (QF) enabling enhanced antipsychotic attributes are the main aims of this research. The freeze dried solid dispersion strategy was adopted using nicotinamide (NIC) as highly soluble coformer. The prepared dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Static disc intrinsic dissolution rate and ex vivo diffusion through intestinal tissues were conducted and compared to pure quetiapine fumarate. The results demonstrated a highly soluble coamorphous system formed between quetiapine fumarate and nicotinamide at 1 : 3 molar ratio through H-bonding interactions. The results showed >14-fold increase in solubility of QF from the prepared dispersions. Increased intrinsic dissolution rate (from 0.28 to 0.603 mg cm−2 min−1) and faster flux rate through duodenum (from 0.027 to 0.041 mg cm−2 h−1) and jejunum (0.027 to 0.036 mg cm−2 h−1) were obtained. The prepared coamorphous dispersion proved to be effective in improving the drug solubility and dissolution rate and ex vivo diffusion. Therefore, binary coamorphous dispersions could be a promising solution to modify the physicochemical properties, raise oral bioavailability, and change the biopharmaceutics classification (BCS) of some active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:28042494

  7. [The technological innovation strategy for quality control of Chinese medicine based on Big Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented.

  8. Evaluating the enhancement and improvement of China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Sung; Hu, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Fu-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-tech industry has been prosperous around the world in past decades, while technology and finance have already become the most significant issues in the information era. While high-tech firms are a major force behind a country's economic development, it requires a lot of money for the development process, as well as the financing difficulties for its potential problems, thus, how to evaluate and establish appropriate technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy has become one of the most critical and difficult issues. Moreover, how the chosen intertwined financial environment can be optimized in order that high-tech firms financing problems can be decided has seldom been addressed. Thus, this research aims to establish a technology and financial services platform innovation strategy improvement model, as based on the hybrid MADM model, which addresses the main causal factors and amended priorities in order to strengthen ongoing planning. A DEMATEL technique, as based on Analytic Network Process, as well as modified VIKOR, will be proposed for selecting and re-configuring the aspired technology and financial services platform. An empirical study, as based on China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy, will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this proposed methodology. Based on expert interviews, technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy improvement should be made in the following order: credit guarantee platform (C)_credit rating platform (B)_investment and finance platform (A).

  9. Customer social network affects marketing strategy: A simulation analysis based on competitive diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.

    2017-03-01

    To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.

  10. Design verification of a compact system for detecting tissue perfusion using bimodal diffuse optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakela, Julia M.; Hedrick, Taylor L.; Lee, Seung Yup; Vishwanath, Karthik; Zanfardino, Sara; Chung, Yooree G.; Helton, Michael C.; Kolodziejski, Noah J.; Stapels, Christopher J.; McAdams, Daniel R.; Fernandez, Daniel E.; Christian, James F.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2017-02-01

    It is essential to monitor tissue perfusion during and after reconstructive surgery, as restricted blood flow can result in graft failures. Current clinical procedures are insufficient to monitor tissue perfusion, as they are intermittent and often subjective. To address this unmet clinical need, a compact, low-cost, multimodal diffuse correlation spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system was developed. We verified system performance via tissue phantoms and experimental protocols for rigorous bench testing. Quantitative data analysis methods were employed and tested to enable the extraction of tissue perfusion parameters. This design verification study assures data integrity in future in vivo studies.

  11. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

    2004-02-13

    The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

  12. Final Report: The Influence of Novel Behavioral Strategies in Promoting the Diffusion of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillingham, Kenneth [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bollinger, Bryan [Duke

    2017-08-30

    This is the final report for a systematic, evidence-based project using an unprecedented series of large-scale field experiments to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of novel approaches to reduce the soft costs of solar residential photovoltaics. The approaches were based around grassroots marketing campaigns called ‘Solarize’ campaigns, that were designed to lower costs and increase adoption of solar technology. This study quantified the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Solarize programs and tested new approaches to further improve the model.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF FORESIGHT PROJECTS IN FORMATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL COMPANIES’ INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Zolotareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is considered the possibility of application of methodology of foresight to the formation of strategy of innovative development of technological companies. The application of existing approaches to defining targets and goals of innovation development does not meet the requirements of the nonlinearity of the modern processes of technological companies’ innovation development.The goals and objectives. The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of application of methods of foresight in forming of technological companies’ innovation development strategy. To achieve the goal, the author has solved the following problems: considered the interrelationship and interdependence between corporate strategy and technological companies’ innovation development strategy; defined the main problems of formation technological companies’ innovation development strategies; revealed the concept of "foresight" and diff erence in methodology of foresight and traditional forecasting techniques; defined the basic principles of foresight; presents the main stages of the foresight project implementation in technological companies.Research methods. The theoretical basis of the study are the publications of Russian and foreign scientists in the field of formation and development of innovation strategies through the application of foresight methods at the level of national innovation system and at company level. As a methodological basis of the study used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction method, deduction method, the comparison, was applied certain aspects of the synergetic analysis.Summary. The results of Russian and foreign researchers systematized by author confirm the possibility and necessity foresight projects implementation in formation and adjustment of technological companies’ innovation development strategies and in the national innovation system development. The principles of engagement of various social forces

  14. Specific factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potančok, Martin; Voříšek, Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare facilities use a number of information system/information and communication technologies. Each healthcare facility faces a need to choose sourcing strategies most suitable to ensure provision of information system/information and communication technology services, processes and resources. Currently, it is possible to observe an expansion of sourcing possibilities in healthcare informatics, which creates new requirements for sourcing strategies. Thus, the aim of this article is to identify factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities. The identification was based on qualitative research, namely, a case study. This study provides a set of internal and external factors with their impact levels. The findings also show that not enough attention is paid to these factors during decision-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Long Term Potentials and Costs of RES - Part I: Potentials, Diffusion and Technological learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Panzer, C.; Resch, G.; Held, A.

    2011-01-01

    Europe requires a long term vision for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in order to pave the way for a successful and in the mid-term stable RES deployment beyond 2020. This encompasses, on the one hand, an assessment of the mid-term potentials and diffusion constraints for the broad basket of RES opt

  16. Targeted PET imaging strategy to differentiate malignant from inflamed lymph nodes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Salloum, Darin; Carney, Brandon; Brand, Christian; Kossatz, Susanne; Sadique, Ahmad; Lewis, Jason S; Weber, Wolfgang A; Wendel, Hans-Guido; Reiner, Thomas

    2017-09-05

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in adults. DLBCL exhibits highly aggressive and systemic progression into multiple tissues in patients, particularly in lymph nodes. Whole-body (18)F-fluodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET) imaging has an essential role in diagnosing DLBCL in the clinic; however, [(18)F]FDG-PET often faces difficulty in differentiating malignant tissues from certain nonmalignant tissues with high glucose uptake. We have developed a PET imaging strategy for DLBCL that targets poly[ADP ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1), the expression of which has been found to be much higher in DLBCL than in healthy tissues. In a syngeneic DLBCL mouse model, this PARP1-targeted PET imaging approach allowed us to discriminate between malignant and inflamed lymph nodes, whereas [(18)F]FDG-PET failed to do so. Our PARP1-targeted PET imaging approach may be an attractive addition to the current PET imaging strategy to differentiate inflammation from malignancy in DLBCL.

  17. Industrial innovation and intra sectoral and inter sectoral technology diffusion; Innovacion industrial y difusion tecnological intrasectorial e intersectorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Domingo, G.; Cabrera Borras, B.; Requena Silvente, F.

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines whether sectoral backward and forward linkages can generate positive externalises in sectoral innovation through diffusion of technological knowledge, both across countries within a sector or across sectors within a country. Using a sample of 14 OECD countries and 12 sectors over the period 1995-2005 we find that forward linkages enhance sectoral innovation. Intra sectoral slipovers are important among sectors and countries with low-to-medium R an D intensity while inter sectoral slipovers have a major impact on sectors with high R and D intensity. (Author)

  18. COMPETITIVE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN NEW TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baojian YIN; Shigeng HU

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a general dynamic duopoly in which two firms compete in the adoption of current technology with a further new technology anticipated. Three kinds of equilibria may occur in technology adoption, namely the preemptive, sequential, and simultaneous equilibrium, depending on the level of operating costs and the first-move advantage. It shows that the faster technological innovation encourages the leader to invest earlier, while induces the follower to invest later. Furthermore,like the investment costs, with the increase of the operating costs, the follower tends to invest later,while the leader tends to invest earlier. However, the investment thresholds are more sensitive to the change of the operating costs than that of the investment costs.

  19. Coal India Limited - technology strategy to meet the challenges of future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, S.M.P.; Misra, S.B.C.

    1989-08-01

    The production increases of the next 5 and 10 years are challenges to Coal India. Organized and planned efforts are called for. Coal India is well aware of it and has started gearing itself up to meet the challenges right now. The proposed strategy is as follows: development and adoption of new technologies through indigenous means and by import wherever necessary; upgradation of technology; wider application of new/upgraded technologies already established; commercialization of technologies established with R D work; and R D work. The major areas where work on this strategy has been taken up are: coal exploration; shaft sinking, mine development and mine construction; underground mining; opencast mining; coal handling dispatch; coal beneficiation; coal combustion utilization; slurry pipeline transport of coal; environmental management; and electronics for coal sector, including surface telecommunication network, data base management (computer), and mining electronics, safety, communication and industrial electronics. This paper briefly describes the work being done in each of these areas.

  20. A Family Medicine Health Technology Strategy for Achieving the Triple Aim for US Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert L; Bazemore, Andrew W; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Weida, Thomas J; Krist, Alex H; Dulin, Michael F; Biagioli, Frances E

    2015-09-01

    Health information technology (health IT) and health technology, more broadly, offer tremendous promise for connecting, synthesizing, and sharing information critical to improving health care delivery, reducing health system costs, and achieving personal and community health. While efforts to spur adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) among US practices and hospitals have been highly successful, aspirations for effective data exchanges and translation of data into measureable improvements in health outcomes remain largely unrealized. There are shining examples of health enhancement through new technologies, and the discipline of family medicine is well poised to take advantage of these innovations to improve patient and population health. The Future of Family Medicine led to important family medicine health IT initiatives over the past decade. For example, the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) Center for Health Information Technology and the Robert Graham Center provided important leadership for informing health IT policy and standard-setting, such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services EHR incentives programs (often referred to as "meaningful use."). As we move forward, there is a need for a new and more comprehensive family medicine strategy for technology. To inform the Family Medicine for America's Health (FMAHealth) initiative, this paper explores strategies and tactics that family medicine could pursue to improve the utility of technology for primary care and to help primary care become a leader in rapid development, testing, and implementation of new technologies. These strategies were also designed with a broader stakeholder audience in mind, intending to reach beyond the work being done by FMAHealth. Specific suggestions include: a shared primary care health IT center, meaningful primary care quality measures and capacity to assess/report them, increased primary care technology research, a national family medicine registry

  1. Diffusion of Environmental Technology in a Megacity - A case study of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    In a world recently declared urban, each day technology plays a more important role in society. A majority of people seem to believe in technology not only for solving everyday problems and for supporting the current production and economic systems, but also for the redress of environmental problems that are caused to a large extent by the same technology that has driven society to the current standards. In this direction, megacities (i.e. cities with more than ten million inhabitants) repres...

  2. Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reisman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

  3. Power plant technology 2014. Strategies, systems engineering and operation; Kraftwerkstechnik 2014. Strategien, Anlagentechnik und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael; Hurtado, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The book on power plant technology 2014 (strategies, systems engineering and operation) covers the following issues: Climate, politics and economy; wind power; fossil-fuel power plants, flexible power plants - plant operation, flexible power plants- materials, materials for energy technology, fuel feed and incineration, modeling of the water-vapor-circuit, corrosion, deposits and cleaning, vapor turbines, GUD power plants, fluidized bed combustion, energetic biomass use, combined heat and power generation and decentralized units, storage facilities, emissions - mitigation and measuring techniques.

  4. Moodle-based Distance Language Learning Strategies: An Evaluation of Technology in Language Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Khabbaz; Rasool Najjar

    2015-01-01

    English language teaching curriculum developers now turn to the heavy use of technology in classrooms. Computer technology, specifically, has brought about many changes in the strategies of language leaning. One of the new computer programs which has recently attracted the attention of language teachers is called Moodle. It is an open-source Course Management System (CMS) which delivers online courses as well as supplement traditional face-to-face language courses. Since there is little infor...

  5. Technology-based strategies for promoting clinical reasoning skills in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenbarger, Teresa; Robb, Meigan

    2015-01-01

    Faculty face the demand of preparing nursing students for the constantly changing health care environment. Effective use of online, classroom, and clinical conferencing opportunities helps to enhance nursing students' clinical reasoning capabilities needed for practice. The growth of technology creates an avenue for faculty to develop engaging learning opportunities. This article presents technology-based strategies such as electronic concept mapping, electronic case histories, and digital storytelling that can be used to facilitate clinical reasoning skills.

  6. Strategies to mitigate diffuse phosphorus pollution during rewetting of fen peat soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, R; Rupp, H; Seeger, J; Leinweber, P

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of fen peat soils (Eutric Histosols) for agricultural purposes, started in Europe about 250 years ago, resulting in decreased soil fertility, increased oxidation of peat and corresponding greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere, nutrient transfer to aquatic ecosystems and losses in total area of the former native wetlands. To prevent these negative environmental effects set-aside programs and rewetting measures were promoted in recent years. Literature results and practical experiences showed that large scale rewetting of intensively used agricultural Histosols may result in mobilisation of phosphorus (P), its transport to adjacent surface waters and an accelerated eutrophication. The paper summarises results from an international European Community sponsored research project and demonstrates how results obtained at different scales and from different scientific disciplines were compiled to derive a strategy to carry out rewetting measures. Based on this findings a simple decision support system (DSS) for a hydrologically sensitive area in the Droemling catchment in north-eastern Germany was developed and since 2005 practically used to prevent freshwater resources from non point P pollution.

  7. DIFFUSIVELY ALLOYED COMPOUNDS MADE OF METAL DISCARD WITH A REDUCED MELTING TEMPERATURE FOR OBTAINING WEAR RESISTANT COATINGS USING INDUCTION HARD-FACING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Shcherbakou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of obtaining diffusion doped alloys made from metal scrap is reviewed in the article. The influence of short term preprocessing at high temperature on structure formation by concentrated energy sources within the further induction deposit is reviewed. A mechanism of a contact eutectic melting in diffusion doped alloys at short term high temperature treatment is described and suggested in this work. It was shown that such kind of processing of diffusion doped alloys is a perspective way of treatment when using induction hard-facing technologies for obtaining wear resistant coatings. A resource and energy saving technology was developed for obtaining wear resistant coatings based on diffusion doped alloys from metal scrap treated using induction hard-facing process.

  8. SUPPLIER SELECTION STRATEGY AND MANUFACTURING FLEXIBILITY: IMPACT OF QUALITY AND TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Jantan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the relationship between technology, quality, cost and delivery performance-based, supplier selection strategies, and manufacturing flexibilities namely, product flexibility, launch flexibility, and volume flexibility. Moreover, the moderating impact of supplier management strategies, namely quality roadmap and technology roadmap on the above relationships were also explored. The data for the study was drawn from a sample of companies listed in the factory directory published by the Penang Development Corporation (PDC. A postal survey of 120 manufacturers provided a return of 92 usable responses. The results reveal that the selection of suppliers based on technological and quality performance positively affects all the three dimensions of manufacturing flexibility, with complementary effects of good technology and quality roadmaps. Technology and quality roadmaps act as predictors for product and volume flexibilities. However, when launch flexibility is the focus, both technology and quality roadmaps moderate the impact of supplier selection strategies. Details of the findings, theoretical and practical implications, and the research limitation are discussed.

  9. The Diffusion of Computer-Based Technology in K-12 Schools: Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colandrea, John Louis

    2012-01-01

    Because computer technology represents a major financial outlay for school districts and is an efficient method of preparing and delivering lessons, studying the process of teacher adoption of computer use is beneficial and adds to the current body of knowledge. Because the teacher is the ultimate user of computer technology for lesson preparation…

  10. Examining Technology Perception of Social Studies Teachers with Rogers' Diffusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan; Koçoglu, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Mobile learning has started to take place in education literature with the developing technology, and this technology started to have an increasing spread along with its advantages. This study examines the responses of social studies teachers to the innovations in the field of mobile learning. The study was designed within the framework of theory…

  11. Essays on Adoption and Diffusion of New Technology in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daeheon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, network technologies across supply chains have been introduced and promoted with the premised benefits for all participants. However industry experience with an adoption process of some technology suggests that some firms have a great amount of uncertainty in estimating the benefits of its adoption. This uncertainty will…

  12. Essays on Adoption and Diffusion of New Technology in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daeheon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, network technologies across supply chains have been introduced and promoted with the premised benefits for all participants. However industry experience with an adoption process of some technology suggests that some firms have a great amount of uncertainty in estimating the benefits of its adoption. This uncertainty will…

  13. Adoption and diffusion of clean technologies. Application to paper industry in Spain; La adopcion y difusion de tecnologias limpias. Aplicacion a la Industria del papel en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, P. del

    2003-07-01

    The barriers preventing and the factors leading to clean technology adoption are worth being analysed. This paper shows that three sets of interrelated factors (and driving forces) prevent the widespread adoption and diffusion of clean technology: factors external to the firm, internal characteristics and conditions of the potential adopters and characteristics of the environmental technology. This factors are analysed and included in the so-called triangular model, which is further applied to the study of clean technology adoption in the pulp and paper sector in Spain. The empirical study shows that, although former empirical analysis have focused on the role of regulation as the main driving force (and obstacle) in environmental technological change, clean technology adoption decisions are the results of a interaction between the above mentioned factors. finally, some public policy recommendations for the effective and efficient promotion of clean technology diffusion are suggested. (Author)

  14. Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, Menzie [Alberta Environment, 7th Floor, Oxbridge Place, 9820-106 Street, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Hanson, Susan [Department of Geography, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries. (author)

  15. The Defense Science Board 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Study Task Force On 21ST Century Defense Technology Strategies Volume 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...3. Defense Technology Strategy and Management PART 4. Strategic Agility PART 5. Analysis and Quantitative Results iii PREFACE The Defense Science...Board (DSB) 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies continues a series of studies that have examined key challenges

  16. Information Technology Project Portfolio and Strategy Alignment Assessment Based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Analía Sánchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that companies face considerable difficulties in assessing the strategy value contribution of Information Technology (IT investments. One of the major obstacles to achieving strategy alignment is that organizations find extremely difficult to link and quantify the IT investments benefits with strategic goals. The aim of this paper is to define an approach to assess portfolio-strategy alignment. To this end a formal specification of Kaplan and Norton Strategy Map is developed utilizing Unified Modeling Language (UML. The approach uses the Strategy Map as a framework for defining the portfolio value contribution and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is used as the methodology for measuring efficiency of project portfolios.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i2.66

  17. Barriers to the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations for climate-smart agriculture in Europe: evidence from the Netherlands, France, Switzerland and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, T.B.; Blok, V.; Coninx, I.

    2016-01-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is one response to the challenges faced by agriculture due to climate change. As with other sustainability transitions, technological innovation is highlighted as playing a critical role, however, the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations in OECD countri

  18. Improving the efficiency of R&D and the market diffusion of energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bradke, Harald; Som, Oliver; Mannsbar, Wilhelm; Cremer, Clemens; Dreher, Carsten; Edler, Jakob; Ebersberger, Bernd; Radgen, Peter; Ruhland, Sascha; Krebs, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Is there a chance that public or private research and development institutions can improve the efficiency of the R&D process? This book gives a positive answer by designing an integrated concept of the science technology cycle and the innovation system of each technology. The position of a new technology in the sciencetechnology cycle is identified by several indicators from patent analysis, citations and market information data. The innovation system supports the search for a comprehensive understanding of all important stakeholders of an innovation, possible obstacles and related policies. T

  19. Technologies and Second Language: Nigerian Students' Adaptive Strategies to Cope with Language Barrier in Northern Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elega, Adeola Abdulateef; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how Nigerian students in Northern Cyprus cope with language barrier and increase interactions with people of the host community beyond the classroom via utilizing technological adaptive strategies. In order to complete this study, a descriptive design based on a survey conducted among 238 Nigerian students studying…

  20. Predominant Teaching Strategies in Schools: Implications for Curriculum Implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuonye, Keziah Akuoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey is hinged on predominant teaching strategies in schools, implications for curriculum implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Target population consisted of teachers in primary, secondary and tertiary schools. However, purposive sample of 900 respondents was drawn from the six BRACED states namely Bayelsa,…

  1. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  2. Enhancing Role-Play Activities with Pocket Camcorder Technology: Strategies for Counselor-Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sara Meghan; Thanasiu, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Counselor-educators can benefit from specific guidelines and creative suggestions when implementing role-play and technology-related teaching strategies in counseling training programs. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the use of role-play and video recording in counselor education; (b) introduce counselor-educators to…

  3. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fis

  4. New Biomedical Technologies and Strategies for Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura C. T. Mpondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections remain to be of public health concern in many developing countries. Their control is important, considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, and their socioeconomic impact. This article discusses the new biomedical technologies and strategies for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  5. Exploring the Relationships between Pedagogy, Ethics and Technology: Building a Framework for Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Pat; Carsten-Stahl, Bernd; McRobb, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The various political and technological drivers that are currently prevalent within many educational institutions increasingly encourage educationalists to experiment with tools that promote e-learning. Many then engage in this activity in the belief that this will help in the development of more autonomous, responsible learners. Strategies for…

  6. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fis

  7. Integration of Technology Enhanced Learning within Business Organizations: Which Strategy to Choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Rutkiene, Aušra; Trepule, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses a responsible and a responsive strategic organizational approach for a smooth integration of technology enhanced learning (TEL). A response to external and internal contingencies and an involvement of different stakeholders into the development and implementation of the so-called eLearning strategies is one of the approaches…

  8. Predominant Teaching Strategies in Schools: Implications for Curriculum Implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuonye, Keziah Akuoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey is hinged on predominant teaching strategies in schools, implications for curriculum implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Target population consisted of teachers in primary, secondary and tertiary schools. However, purposive sample of 900 respondents was drawn from the six BRACED states namely Bayelsa,…

  9. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and

  10. Creative Teaching and Learning Strategies for Novice Users of Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses perspectives of creative teaching and learning strategies in the new learning context of mobile technology, particularly for novice learners. The discussion presented here is framed by two case studies and uses an ethnographical approach, informed by participant observation to consider the experiences of users of mobile…

  11. Creative Teaching and Learning Strategies for Novice Users of Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses perspectives of creative teaching and learning strategies in the new learning context of mobile technology, particularly for novice learners. The discussion presented here is framed by two case studies and uses an ethnographical approach, informed by participant observation to consider the experiences of users of mobile…

  12. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  13. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  14. National Strategies to Harness Information Technology Seeking Transformation in Singapore, Finland, the Philippines, and South Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The ability to harness Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) is increasingly at the heart of competitiveness and sustainable growth. As countries engage in an increasingly competitive global economy, they are trying to weave ICT into their development strategies, in the same way enterprises have learned to use ICT to transform their business models and strategies. This integration offers a new path to development that is responsive to the challenges of our times.  In National Strategies to Harness Information Technology, Nagy Hanna and Peter Knight provide a framework for assessing the opportunities, challenges, and prospects for “e-transformation” and for analyzing the options and innovations adopted to manage the e-transformation process.  They ask hard questions: what does it take to harness ICT to transform an economy?  Why some countries accelerate their development journey with ICT while others fail?  How did successful countries balance the need for strategic leadership with bottom up ...

  15. A Review on Diffusion Absorption Refrigeration Technology%扩散吸收式制冷技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹园树; 李华山; 龙臻; 卜宪标; 马伟斌

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion absorption refrigeration (DAR) that could use low-grade thermal sources such as solar energy and waste heat, etc, is an environmental-friendly and energy-efficient technology and thus has a very promising prospect. By reviewing the latest researches around the world, this paper introduces the main findings for the DAR technology from three aspects including working fluid selection, cycle thermodynamic analysis as well as system improvement and optimization. Also, the development trends and future research directions of the DAR technology are presented. Some research works done by our team are also summarized.%扩散吸收式制冷(Diffusion Absorption Refrigeration,DAR)能够利用低品位能源如太阳能和余热等,是一种有利于环保和能源高效利用的技术,具有十分广阔的应用前景。结合国内外的最新研究动态,本文从工质选择、循环热力学分析、系统改进与优化研究三个方面介绍扩散吸收式制冷技术的主要研究成果,并对扩散吸收式制冷技术的发展趋势以及未来研究方向进行展望。同时,对本课题组关于扩散吸收式制冷所做的工作也进行了总结。

  16. Strategies to address the desertion university from Information Technologies and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Rocio Ramirez Saavedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents general objective describe the main components of a strategy by the use of Information Technology and Communications (TIC to address the problem of the undergraduate student desertion of universities in Colombia. it is the purpose of proposing a strategy to avoid duplication of efforts and resources expenses when determining whether a student is at risk of dropping out. The overall methodological development was approached from heuristics and the projectile area, the specific methodology to establish three phases, planning, design and development were defined. Through this article the institutions of higher education may have a strategy to address the problem of undergraduate student desertion. Regionally the study may be used as a reference for implementing new strategies to help reduce dropout rates from the experiences of other institutions in the country.

  17. Distributed optimal technology networks: a concept and strategy for potable water sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W J

    2002-01-01

    Viable strategies for ensuring adequate supplies of potable water are essential to long-term societal sustainability. The steadily increasing necessity for multiple reuse of water in urban societies is even now taxing our technical and financial abilities to meet ongoing needs for water suitable for human consumption. As a consequence, the current practice of treating the entire water demands of urban communities to the increasingly stringent standards required for drinking water is becoming an unsustainable practice, and thus a questionable strategy for planning and development of urban water systems. An innovative technology-based concept for implementation of a more sustainable strategy and practice for potable water is developed here. The concept is predicated on the inherent advantages of flexibility and responsiveness associated with decentralization of complex functions and operations. Specifically, it calls for strategic dispersal of flexible advanced treatment and control technologies throughout urban water transport and storage networks. This is in direct contradistinction to current strategies and practices of centralized and inflexible monolithic facilities. By integrating use-related satellite systems with critical components of existing systems and infrastructures, the concept can enable and facilitate optimal cost-effective applications of highly sophisticated advanced treatment and on-line monitoring and control technologies to in-place infrastructures in a holistic and sustainable manner.

  18. Joint and Cross-border Patents as Proxies for International Technology Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWith the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sen

  19. Positioning Education in the Information Society: The Transnational Diffusion of the Information and Communication Technology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hwan; Cha, Yun-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    One of the most distinctive qualities that characterize present-day society is the social fact that people are shifting to the information age. In recent years, they have witnessed remarkable developments in information and communication technology (ICT), in which microelectronics, computers, and telecommunications have converged. Transnational…

  20. Positioning Education in the Information Society: The Transnational Diffusion of the Information and Communication Technology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hwan; Cha, Yun-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    One of the most distinctive qualities that characterize present-day society is the social fact that people are shifting to the information age. In recent years, they have witnessed remarkable developments in information and communication technology (ICT), in which microelectronics, computers, and telecommunications have converged. Transnational…

  1. DEVELOPING A TECHNOLOGY-BASED BUSINESS STRATEGY FOR THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OF TELKOM SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at developing a technology-based business strategy for Telkom’s international business. Deregulation, competition and demand for converging voice, data and video in the telecommunication market were the driving forces behind this study. Without a proper strategy, Telkom will not be able to withstand the new competition. As the initial step in strategy formulation, Telkom’s strategic goals were identified. A SWOT analysis was conducted and a strategy formulation map was developed. A technology balance sheet and S-curve models were developed to analyse the current products and technologies. It become evident through the research that there is a high potential for business expansion into Africa and Telkom has sufficient capabilities to support this. The implementation of voice over Internet protocol technology will enable Telkom to deliver international services at competitive rates. The study concluded by developing a technology strategy for Telkom’s international business. Recommendations are put forward and future research gaps are identified.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n tegnologie-gebaseerde besigheidstrategie vir Telkom se internasionale besigheid te ontwikkel. Deregulering, mededinging en die vraag na konvergensie van stem, data en video in die telekommunikasiemark was die dryfkragte agter hierdie studie. Sonder ‘n behoorlike strategie sal Telkom nie teen die nuwe mededinging kan staande bly nie. As eerste stap in die formulering van ‘n strategie, is Telkom se doelwitte geïdentifiseer. ‘n SWOT-analise is uitgevoer en ‘n strategieformuleringskaart is ontwikkel. ‘n Tegnologiebalansstaat en S-krommemodelle is ontwikkel om die bestaande produkte en tegnologieë te ontleed. Hierdie navorsing het aangetoon dat daar ‘n hoë potensiaal vir uitbreiding van Telkom se besigheid in Afrika bestaan en dat Telkom genoegsame vermoëns besit om dit te

  2. [A new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies: coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.

  3. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    According to prior findings of the E4 project, considerable savings potential exists both for lifts and escalators that could be realized if appropriate technology is implemented. However, energy-efficient technology is slowly diffusing the market - a phenomenon that could be explained by barriers present in the market. A barrier is defined as a mechanism that inhibits a decision or behavior that appears to be both energy-efficient and economically efficient and thereby prevents investment in energy-efficient technologies. This document has two aims. First, it will identify influential barriers in the European lift and escalator market. This analysis is based on the literature as well as a study including interviews as well as group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Second, strategies and measures to overcome the barriers identified in the first step are outlined. Major barriers to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies identified in this paper include a lack of monitoring energy consumption of installations and a lack of awareness of as well as knowledge about energy-efficient technology. Thus, installations and components are usually chosen without a (comprehensive) assessment of their energy consumption and without considering life-cycle approaches. On top of this, split incentives are a regularly occurring barrier. Various stakeholders are influential in the decisionmaking process about an installation or its components. However, those who will later pay for the energy consumption often are not involved in this process. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the number of new lifts and escalators installed each year is relatively low compared to the existing stock. Thus, it is very important to discuss enhancement of energy efficiency also for the existing stock. Based on our analyses, several recommendations are developed in this paper that could contribute to a market transformation in the lift and escalator market. First of all, a

  4. Development of newly engineering technology based on computer analysis for dust diffusion; Funjin kakusan kaiseki gijutsu wo kihon to shita atarashii engineering gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Murahashi, Y.; Kawakami, H.; Tanaka, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-30

    Nippon Steel has made a comprehensive survey of the space environment designing technology that can precisely cope with the needs required for a space in a plant in a very wide range from the ventilation problem in steel mill to the turbulence problem in semiconductor plant, through accomplishing the development of computer analysis technology for dust diffusion that can estimate and control `air flow` and `dust movement` in an electric angstrom [furnace plant]. This paper describes the basic concept for establishing the computer analysis technology for dust diffusion and the concrete measures to solve accompanying problems, and further enters into details how the new engineering technology has innovated technical measures to solve problems, the new engineering technology which introduces a concept of both estimation and control to attain objects such as to curtail the equipment cost and so by estimating the `air flow` and `dust movement` to create both a new flow and movement depending on needs. 3 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Analysis of the development and diffusion of technological innovations in oil spill forecasting: The MEDESS-4MS case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcati, Alberto; Prete, M. Irene; Mileti, Antonio; Cortese, Mario; Zodiatis, George; Karaolia, Andria; Gauci, Adam; Drago, Aldo

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a case study on the management of users' engagement in the development of a new technology. Based on the experience of MEDESS-4MS, an integrated operational model for oil spill Decision Support System covering the whole Mediterranean Sea, the case study is aimed at the development of a framework for user engagement and for the management of its dual logic. Indeed, users may play a dual role in the innovation process, contributing to both the design of the innovation and its promotion. Users contribute to shaping the innovation, by aggregating and integrating knowledge, and they facilitate its diffusion, by adopting the innovation and fostering its adoption within the socio-economic system.

  6. Diffusion of an innovation: Computer technology integration and the role of collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Hoerup, Sharon Lynn

    2001-01-01

    (Abstract) This study investigates the extent to which teachers adopted a computer technology innovation and the role of collaboration in the adoption process. Semi-structured interviews with seven teachers and one Computer Resource Teacher, supplemented by observations and documentation regarding the innovation, provide data for an in-depth, ethnographic case study. Six months were spent in the setting recording the teachers' interactions and processes centered on adopting the innovati...

  7. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  8. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA's proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for development of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  9. Perspectives of energy technologies: scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista; Perspectives des technologies de l'energie: scenarios et strategies a l'horizon 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every two years, the International Energy Agency (IEA) publishes the 'Energy Technology Perspectives' (ETP) report which analyses the foreseeable energy scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista and stresses on the best available technologies. For the first time, the IEA describes in this study a scenario allowing to divide by two the CO{sub 2} emissions at the world scale, i.e. compatible with the 'factor 4' scenario of industrialized countries. The study estimates the R and D needs and the necessary additional investments to meet the different tendentious and voluntaristic scenarios proposed by the IEA. This 15. session of the cycle of energy-climate conferences aimed at presenting, from the ETP 2008 study, a thorough examination of the present day situation and perspectives of existing or future 'clean' energy technologies through the analysis of several scenarios. An examination of the interpretation of these scenarios at the France and European levels is made in order to define what should be the trends of public policies and international cooperation. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given during this conference. The first presentation by Pieter Boot, Director of the Office of Sustainable Energy Policy and Technology of IEA, makes a synthesis of the ETP study and presents the recommendations of the agency. The second presentation by Olivier Appert, President of the French institute of petroleum (IFP), gives a counterpoint of the first presentation by considering the financing and acceptance aspects, in particular from the French point of view. Finally a debate with the audience completes the presentations. (J.S.)

  10. Exploration Requirements Development Utilizing the Strategy-to-Task-to-Technology Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.; Josten, B. Kent; Monell, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration provides direction for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to embark on a robust space exploration program that will advance the Nation s scientific, security, and economic interests. This plan calls for a progressive expansion of human capabilities beyond low earth orbit seeking to answer profound scientific and philosophical questions while responding to discoveries along the way. In addition, the Vision articulates the strategy for developing the revolutionary new technologies and capabilities required for the future exploration of the solar system. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration faces new challenges in successfully implementing the Vision. In order to implement a sustained and affordable exploration endeavor it is vital for NASA to do business differently. This paper provides an overview of the strategy-to-task-to-technology process being used by NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop the requirements and system acquisition details necessary for implementing a sustainable exploration vision.

  11. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  12. Information management and technology strategy in healthcare: local timescales and national requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Smith

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK National Health Service’s strategic switch-back is well documented and each centrally originated change results in various attempts to record the repercussions and predict the outcomes. The most recent shift is embodied in the Department of Health’s information strategy, Information for health published in September 1998. This document provides the context for an examination of the issue of developing an Information Management and Technology (IM&T strategy at the local level within the changing national requirements for NHS information management. The particular pressures on an individual unit and the need to react to them alongside the requirements of the national strategy are the subjects of this article. The case detailed is that of Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology (CCO on Merseyside, the second largest centre of its type in the UK. Its initial investigation of information needs preceded the publication of the national strategy and its implementation straddled the timescale devised by the NHS Information Authority. The inevitable incompatibility between timescales for the local and the national developments is examined within the case. The work of the new NHS Information Authority and its supporting guidance in its Circular, Information for Health: Initial Local Implementation Strategies, is evaluated as a tool in aligning local and national strategy. Information Managers in other centrally governed organisations within the public sector and large corporations are often alert to similar issues.

  13. The business case: The missing link between information technology benefits and organisational strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Business cases are an integral part of information technology (IT) projects, providingthe linkage between the organisational strategies and the promised benefits. Most majorproject management standards and methodologies make reference to the business case andits intended usage.Problem investigated: The success of IT projects is measured based on the benefits they deliver; anecdotal evidence states that IT projects fail at an alarming rate. The benefits are promised in the business ca...

  14. Brand Strategy and Marketing Communication : Case Company: Huawei Technologies. Co. Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyze brand strategy and marketing communication. How these two aspects influence brand awareness and customers’ satisfaction will be further checked, based on the selected case company, Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Attentions will be focused on Huawei’s mobile phone business. Both theoretical background and empirical study are included in this paper. Firstly, brand relevant literature will be viewed. Brief history of modern brands, different definitions of brand, brand ...

  15. Information Technology Strategies for Honor Society and Organization Membership Retention in Online Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily E; Wasco, Jennifer J

    Membership retention in an honor society or organization is of utmost importance for sustainability. However, retaining members in organizations that serve online education nursing students can be a challenging task. Understanding the importance of creating a sense of community to promote retention within an honor society chapter, nursing faculty at a small private university implemented different online approaches. This article highlights successful information technology strategies to promote membership retention in organizations for online nursing students.

  16. 從創新採用者觀點探究資訊種子學校的推廣策略 Investigating the Diffusion Strategies Used by Seed Schools from the Perspectives of Innovation Adopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fung Chang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究從創新推廣的觀點出發,編製「資訊種子學校資訊融入教學推廣策略」問卷,並以台北縣國民小學資訊種子學校及其伙伴學校為調查對象,目的在於從推廣者(資訊融入教學小組)與被推廣者(資訊種子學校的其他教師以及伙伴學校的資訊教師)的角度,檢視資訊種子學校的推廣策略及評價。結果顯示種子學校的資訊融入教學推廣獲得校內資訊融入教學小組以及其他教師的一致肯定,特別是在「教育訓練」與「提供資源」方面。但是多數伙伴學校表示種子學校對於該校的推廣投入較少,幫助也有限。根據上述發現,本研究針對資訊種子學校的推廣策略與角色、伙伴學校之擇定、資訊教育經費之分配,以及後續研究提供建議,庶幾���助於資訊融入教學之全面推廣。This study developed a questionnaire on “the diffusion strategies of information technology integration into instruction used by information seed schools” from the perspectives of educational innovation diffusion. The questionnaire was then sent to the seed elementary schools and their partner schools in Taipei County so as to investigate the seed schools’ diffusion strategies and their usefulness from different points of view including facilitators, i.e., the teams for information integration into instruction, other teachers in seed schools and the information teachers in partner schools. It was found that the diffusion strategies used by the information seed schools were highly recognized by their school teachers especially in the areas of “providing resources” and “in-service trainings,” and were very helpful in personal professional development in information integration into instruction. However, the information teachers indicated that the diffusion strategies used by the seed schools to their partner schools were relatively few and accordingly

  17. Challenges, Strategies and Techniques for International Training in Technology for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Almagro Vidal, A.

    2013-07-01

    Technology to document and investigate cultural heritage sites is rapidly advancing - multispectral and high dynamic range imaging, spherical high resolution photography, three-dimensional laser scanning and unmanned aerial vehicles are only a few of the new technologies available to heritage conservation professionals to record monuments, buildings, city centres and landscapes. These advanced tools are giving architects, engineers and conservation professionals' new insights and additional information which helps to make better informed decisions. But this technology and the knowledge about its correct use are extremely unevenly distributed across the world. The Digital Divide is present and growing in the field of cultural heritage preservation (Letellier, 2001). Many of those responsible for the management, maintenance and care of some of the world's most significant cultural heritage sites do not have access to or information about the latest technologies. They are also confronted with an overwhelming assortment of new technologies and consultants or developers that promote them and therefore must allocate their limited budgets with limited information. What is to be done about bridging this gap? Obviously cost and accessibility are issues. However one of the most important challenges to be addressed is education. As the base knowledge of these technologies is very uneven this leads to further questions: Are there strategies or methodologies for teaching this technology? How to combine and balance different professional backgrounds from different and so unevenly distributed places around the world and provide them all with useful information to make good documentation and conservation decisions? This paper will describe the methodology developed over the last ten years in teaching documentation technologies to diverse groups of cultural heritage professionals and students from Côte d'Ivoire, Germany, Belgium, Kosovo, Albania, Nigeria, Egypt, Japan, Iraq

  18. Accelerating the development and diffusion of new energy technologies: Beyond the 'valley of death'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyant, John P., E-mail: weyant@stanford.edu

    2011-07-15

    There are at least three motivations for government intervention in GHG mitigation: (1) inducing the private sector to reduce GHG emissions directly by setting a price on emissions, (2) increasing the amount of innovative activity in GHG mitigation technology development, and (3) educating the public regarding GHG-reducing investment opportunities, allowing consumers to make better private decisions. This paper discusses the pros and cons of policy instruments that might be used to respond to these motivations and makes recommendations for an appropriate mix of policy instruments over time given both economic and policital/instituional considerations. - Research Highlights: > Increases in pre-competitive energy R and D and energy efficiency technology diffusion policies in the US are highly desirable. > The cost of well designed programs in these areas can be low and the pay off very high. > Such policies make sense even if the GHG externality is internalized through a GHG tax or equivalent, but are even more desirable if they are not.

  19. Decomposition strategies in the problems of simulation of additive laser technology processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenko, M. D.; Dubrov, A. V.; Mirzade, F. Kh.

    2016-11-01

    The development of additive technologies and their application in industry is associated with the possibility of predicting the final properties of a crystallized added material. This paper describes the problem characterized by a dynamic and spatially nonuniform computational complexity, which, in the case of uniform decomposition of a computational domain, leads to an unbalanced load on computational cores. The strategy of partitioning of the computational domain is used, which minimizes the CPU time losses in the serial computations of the additive technological process. The chosen strategy is optimal from the standpoint of a priori unknown dynamic computational load distribution. The scaling of the computational problem on the cluster of the Institute on Laser and Information Technologies (RAS) that uses the InfiniBand interconnect is determined. The use of the parallel code with optimal decomposition made it possible to significantly reduce the computational time (down to several hours), which is important in the context of development of the software package for support of engineering activity in the field of additive technology.

  20. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program

  1. Population health-based approaches to utilizing digital technology: a strategy for equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth N; Ostrowski, MaryLynn; Sabina, Alyse B

    2016-11-01

    Health care disparities and high chronic disease rates burden many communities and disproportionally impact racial/ethnic populations in the United States. These disparities vary geographically, increase health care expenses, and result in shortened lifespans. Digital technologies may be one tool for addressing health disparities and improving population health by increasing individuals' access to health information-especially as most low-income U.S. residents gain access to smartphones. The Aetna Foundation partners with organizations to use digital technologies, including mobile applications, data collection, and related platforms, for learning and sharing. Projects range from the broad-childhood education, lifestyle modification, health IT training, and nutrition education, to the specific-local healthy foods, stroke rehabilitation, and collection of city-level data. We describe our approaches to grantmaking and discuss lessons learned and their implications. When combined with sound policy strategies, emerging, scalable, digital technologies will likely become powerful allies for improving health and reducing health disparities.

  2. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  3. Diffusion of the biogas technology into Switzerland: a GIS-based multiagent simulation; Diffusion der Biogastechnologie in der Schweiz: eine GIS-basierte Multiagenten-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Christian [Campana und Schott Realisierungsmanagement Schweiz AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Madlener, Reinhard [Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften insb. Energieoekonomik, Inst. for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), Fakultaet fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In this article we introduce a GIS-based multi-agent simulation model. It is used to study the spatial diffusion dynamics of agricultural biogas plants in Switzerland, which lags markedly behind those in the neighboring countries Austria and Germany. The investigation concentrates in particular on the impacts of economic factors and of locally available resources on the diffusion process. The model considers three different types of plants (100 kW{sub el}, 200 kW{sub el}, 1 MW{sub el}). The results show that feed-in tariffs, cosubstrate prices and the revenues from heat sales are critical parameters. They indicate further that the present promotion policy fosters smaller plants, whereas larger plants are preferred only in few areas with high substrate densities. Finally, we find evidence that increased heat sales can significantly raise diffusion dynamics, and that the higher feed-in tariffs planned in Switzerland could actually overcompensate deteriorating cosubstrate prices. (orig.)

  4. Investigating the Total Cost of Technology in Schools: Tools and Strategies for Managing Technology Investments. Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Pat

    This document describes total cost of ownership (TCO) as a useful tool in the effective planning of technology use in schools. TCO is an analysis of all the costs of computer technology in a school in comparison with the value derived from the current investment. It also includes an assessment of strategies that can be implemented to reduce costs.…

  5. Contemporary teaching strategies of exemplary community preceptors--is technology helping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen M; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Anthony, David; Chao, Jason; Chessman, Alexander W; Margo, Katherine; Seagrave, Martha; Leong, Shou Ling

    2014-01-01

    Many schools rely upon community preceptors for office-based education of medical students. These preceptors struggle to balance clinical care with the learning needs of students. We aim to gain a deeper understanding of the teaching rewards and challenges of current community preceptors. Five schools' family medicine clerkship directors conducted in-depth interviews of two exemplary preceptors at each of their programs. Following qualitative analysis of the interviews, three directors conducted one focus group at their school. The individual and group interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Exemplary community preceptors described strategies to improve the learning environment and specific teaching approaches. Well-known teaching strategies such as role modeling, adjusting instruction to the learner's needs, and selecting patients appropriate for a specific student were used. They also described newer techniques such as co-learning and integrating technology, for example, accessing online, current practice guidelines together with the student. They detailed challenges to teaching, including time constraints and too much content to cover and provided advice about teaching tools. While challenged by clinical demands, preceptors enjoyed teaching and found it rewarding. They used time-proven teaching strategies as well as technology and online resources to facilitate ambulatory teaching. Community preceptors continue to struggle to integrate learners and the priorities of the medical school curriculum into the clinical environment. Further development of electronic tools and other resources to support the teaching needs of preceptors may contribute to learning and help minimize preceptor burden.

  6. The feasible strategies of technological and economic development of HIP Petrohemija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors have presented a case study of HIP Petrohemija company (Pančevo, Serbia with the aim of generating feasible strategies for technological and economic development. The research philosophy is based on the critical realism, while the research methodology is qualitative. The paper begins with the introduction to the history of HIP Petrohemija, followed by the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, & Threats analysis, and the SWOT analysis results that were used to construct TOWS (Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, & Strengths matrix. This procedure generated two feasible strategies, both of which are subjected to further tests. The three portfolio models: Boston Consulting Group (BCG matrix, General Electric (GE matrix, and Nine specimen standardized strategies were used to describe the current situation of HIP Petrohemija, needed steps for the company to produce more finalized products, i.e., polymers, as well as the actions aimed at minimizing losses. This however did not provide sufficient data for determining the appropriate strategy for the company. The dilemma was solved with the help of Ansoff matrix, which showed that merging with, in its value chain, the distributor, not with to the supplier will be more profitable for the HIP Petrohemija. Contemporary Porter’s models - Five Forces and Value Chain Analysis, further confirmed the advantage of this strategy. The last model used in this paper is the Competitors Differentiation Iceberg Model that answers what the core competence of HIP Petrohemija is, with the results indicating the high quality of finalized products. Finally, the authors conclude that both strategies that were generated by the analysis are feasible - the merging with the supplier of raw material, as well as the merging with the large distributor of finalized products, with the latter being more profitable in the case of HIP Petrohemija.

  7. Marketing Mix Strategy Based on Innovation Diffusion Model%基于创新扩散模型的市场营销组合策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜海兴; 宋福根; 易艳红

    2011-01-01

    采用随机过程方法构建包含营销组合的3阶段创新扩散模型,通过动态规划方法求得模型的最优控制策略.在分析最优控制策略的基础上,采用数值模拟的方法对模型进行仿真.%Three-stage innovation diffusion model of the marketing mix strategy model is constructed by using stochastic process approach, optimal control strategy is obtained by dynamic programming method.Based on the analysis of these optimal control strategies, numerical simulation method of model is adopted.

  8. National health information management/information technology strategies in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Julia Yinxin; Protti, Denis J

    2009-01-01

    A national health information management/information technology (IM/IT) strategy is crucially important for a country in planning and implementing healthcare priorities. However, little comparative research has been performed in this area, especially in Asian countries. This paper reviews, assesses and compares the healthcare systems, as well as the national health IM/IT initiatives and strategies in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore. Although the proportion of public and private health services, IT infrastructure development, and government involvement in these three jurisdictions are different, they experience similar challenges with limited resources. By outlining the approaches being taken in the three Asian jurisdictions, this paper provides comparison, evaluation and insights that may be useful to other jurisdictions.

  9. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  10. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the

  11. A Strategy for Thailand's Space Technology Development: National Space Program (NSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin; Purivigraipong, Somphop

    2016-07-01

    The Royal Thai Government has established the National Space Policy Committee (NSPC) with mandates for setting policy and strategy. The NSPC is considering plans and budget allocation for Thai space development. NSPC's goal is to promote the utilization of space technology in a manner that is congruent with the current situation and useful for the economy, society, science, technology, educational development and national security. The first proposed initiative of the National Space Program (NSP) is co-development of THEOS-2, a next-generation satellite system that includes Thailand's second and third earth observation satellite (THAICHOTE-2 and THAICHOTE-3). THEOS-1 or THAICHOTE-1 was the first Earth Observation Satellite of Thailand launched in 2008. At present, the THAICHOTE-1 is over the lifetime, therefore the THEOS-2 project has been established. THEOS-2 is a complete Earth Observation System comprising THAICHOTE-2&3 as well as ground control segment and capacity building. Thus, NSPC has considered that Thailand should manage the space system. Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) has been assigned to propose the initiative National Space Program (NSP). This paper describes the strategy of Thailand's National Space Program (NSP) which will be driven by GISTDA. First, NSP focuses on different aspects of the utilization of space on the basis of technology, innovation, knowledge and manpower. It contains driving mechanisms related to policy, implementation and use in order to promote further development. The Program aims to increase economic competitiveness, reduce social disparity, and improve social security, natural resource management and environmental sustainability. The NSP conceptual framework includes five aspects: communications satellites, earth observation satellite systems, space economy, space exploration and research, and NSP administration. THEOS-2 is considered a part of NSP with relevance to the earth observation

  12. Formulation Strategies and Particle Engineering Technologies for Pulmonary Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cun, Dongmei; Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-01-01

    remains the most significant challeng to their clinical adoption due to their unfavorable intrinsic physicochemical properties. Among noninvasive administration routes the lung has been attempted intensively to be an alternative to injection to deliver the biopharmaceuticals, and has shown to be promising....... In this review we discussed the formulation strategies and particle engineering technologies to improve the efficiency of pulmonary delivery of biopharmaceutical, with a focus on systemic therapy of pharmaceutical proteins/peptides and local delivery of siRNA via the lung administration....

  13. WHEN THE PRESENT GETS US ... GLOBALIZATION: NEW TECHNOLOGIES, STRATEGY AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martín Fragachán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current phase of the capitalist world development receives the name of globalization and has brought a series of consequences: a few positive and great very denials, some of which will try to be analyzed by me in the lines that continue later, insisting, very specially, in those who say to the development of new technologies of communication, to the called “social networks” and to the consequences that the same ones have had both for the communication and for the development of new modalities of political strategy.

  14. Using Common Sense to Effectively Integrate Security Technologies within a School's Security Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gree, M.W.

    1998-11-03

    Security technologies are not the answer to all school security problems. However, they can be an excellent tool for school administrators and security personnel when incorporated into a total security strategy involving personnel, procedures, and facility layout. Unfortunately, very few of the tougher security problems in schools have solutions that are affordable, effective, and acceptable. Like any other type of facility, a school's security staff must understand the strengths and limitations of the security measures they are c

  15. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programs in solid organ transplantation: the promises of information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapepas, Demetra S; McKeen, Jaclyn T; Martin, Spencer T; Walker-McDermott, Jennifer K; Yang, Alex; Hirsch, Jamie; Mohan, Sumit; Tiwari, Ruchi

    2014-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) required by the Food and Drug Administration are implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing safe use throughout the life of a pharmaceutical agent. Healthcare organizations have begun to adopt information technologies with clinical decision support (CDS) to ensure safe use of medications. Systems have been expanded and customized to also ensure compliance with regulatory standards. End users who are unfamiliar with particular medication use provisions are at risk of unknowingly inappropriately fulfilling specific components. Institution-specific customization of vendor-provided CDS is useful to enhance provider awareness and ensure compliance with standards. Integration of health information technology systems to fulfill REMS requirements is novel and important to ensure consistency as healthcare standards evolve.

  16. Teaching Strategies to Apply in the Use of Technological Tools in Technical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Arranz García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new technologies in education area is changing the way of organizing the educational processes. Teachers are not unrelated to these changes and must employ new strategies to adapt their teaching methods to the new circumstances. One of these adaptations is framed in the virtual learning, where the learning management systems have been revealed as a very effective means within the learning process. In this paper we try to provide teachers in engineering schools how to use in an appropriate way the different technological tools that are present in a virtual platform. Thus, in the experimental framework we show the results outcomes in the analysis of two data samples obtained before and after the implementation of the European Higher Education Area, that would be extrapolated for its innovative application to the learning techniques.

  17. Review of Strategies and Technologies for Demand-Side Management on Isolated Mini-Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Meg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This review provides an overview of strategies and currently available technologies used for demandside management (DSM) on mini-grids throughout the world. For the purposes of this review, mini-grids are defined as village-scale electricity distribution systems powered by small local generation sources and not connected to a main grid.1 Mini-grids range in size from less than 1 kW to several hundred kW of installed generation capacity and may utilize different generation technologies, such as micro-hydro, biomass gasification, solar, wind, diesel generators, or a hybrid combination of any of these. This review will primarily refer to AC mini-grids, though much of the discussion could apply to DC grids as well. Many mini-grids include energy storage, though some rely solely on real-time generation.

  18. Political Entrepreneurialism: Reflections of a Civil Servant on the Role of Political Institutions in Technology Innovation and Diffusion in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Bitange Ndemo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper narrates how an innovative political institution in Kenya gained support from private sector players in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT sector. The paper is centered on the reflections of a top civil servant who leveraged Lewin’s theoretical foundations and leadership to propel Kenya from obscurity to global renown in the ICT arena. The paper details the leadership of key players in the political system explaining on how their tolerance for risk encouraged ICT diffusion and innovation in Kenya. The paper delves into the details of executive decision making and how those decisions influence different stakeholders. The analysis reveals why Kenya succeeded where its neighbours did not. It shows that Kenya’s continued success in ICTs depends upon its stability – endemic corruption and previous political decisions could threaten this. The paper will also highlight the emergence of a new crop of innovators developing new applications across all sectors including education, health, agriculture and financial services.

  19. Impact of technology on women: strategies for non-formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, S

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of technology on women and its implications for nonformal education in developing countries. It describes how poverty and illiteracy created a distinctive gender bias in terms of women's participation in the labor force and health. Compared to men, women have lower levels of literacy, are poorer, and have more limited access to nontraditional skills. Moreover, illiteracy is associated with socioeconomic exploitation and deprivation suffered by women. It is therefore essential to identify how functional nonformal education (NFE) can help change the lives of women. To define, NFE is an integrated approach to education and training outside the formal system. It includes literacy, skills development, collaborative group activities, information, and training on issues of everyday life and work for improved health, status, and sustainable economic development. Following a discussion of the external factors that influence technology, the paper will focus on access to use of technology in two areas, namely, health and work opportunities, with emphasis on environment in both areas. It also outlines the role and responsibilities of NFE actors, the necessary infrastructures, and the barriers faced by women. Finally, the paper sets out the objectives of NFE programs, factors that determine the use of technology, strategies for NFE, and the challenges ahead.

  20. Process qualification strategy for advances embedded non volatile memory technology - the Philips'0.18um embedded flash case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Guoqiao; Scarpa, Andrea; Dijk, van Kitty; Kuper, Fred G.

    2003-01-01

    A qualification strategy for advanced embedded non-volatile memory technology has been revealed. This strategy consists of: a thorough understanding of the requirements, extensive use and frequent update of the FMEA (failure mode effect analysis), a qualification plan with excellent coverage of all

  1. Effects of Instructional Technology Integration Strategies in Orientation Programs on Nurse Retention in Magnet and Non-Magnet Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancharik, Sharon D.

    2008-01-01

    This applied dissertation study was designed to learn if the increased use of instructional technology integration strategies in nursing orientation programs resulted in an increased retention of new nurses. The study attempted to uncover the current retention rate and use of technology at the participating hospitals. The data obtained from Magnet…

  2. Optimal Strategies for Low Carbon Supply Chain with Strategic Customer Behavior and Green Technology Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is mainly caused by excessive emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. In order to reduce carbon emissions, cap and trade policy is implemented by governments in many countries, which has significant impacts on the decisions of companies at all levels of the low carbon supply chain. This paper investigates the decision-making and coordination of a low carbon supply chain consisting of a low carbon manufacturer who produces one product and is allowed to invest in green technology to reduce carbon emissions in production and a retailer who faces stochastic demands formed by homogeneous strategic customers. We investigate the optimal production, pricing, carbon trading, and green technology investment strategies of the low carbon supply chain in centralized (including Rational Expected Equilibrium scenario and quantity commitment scenario and decentralized settings. It is demonstrated that quantity commitment strategy can improve the profit of the low carbon supply chain with strategic customer behavior. We also show that the performance of decentralized supply chain is lower than that of quantity commitment scenario. We prove that the low carbon supply chain cannot be coordinated by revenue sharing contract but by revenue sharing-cost sharing contract.

  3. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  4. Agent Technology Application Strategies in Personal and Team Software Process Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern system development emphasize on the use of standard and procedures to ensure the system develop meets user needs and of high quality. Standards such as Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI, Software Process Improvement and Capability determination (SPICE and ISO/IEC 90003:2004 are introduced. Personal Software Process (PSP focusing on improving the individual engineer tasks in software development activities and can be extended to Team development (TSP of large-scale software systems. Approach: To ensure the quality of system, defect must be managed or organized properly. Knowledge Management (KM provides a solution to manage and promoting shared defect-information as knowledge. Agents technology offer a way to deal with complex systems that have multiple and distinct components and are often used as a metaphor for autonomous, intelligent entities. Results: Agent technology is also used to enhance a Knowledge Management System (KMS based on software agent application strategies to increase the performance of knowledge sharing and its utilization. Conclusion: This study presents an agent-based application strategy in a KMS that manages defect-information as knowledge and shares it amongst software engineers who are majoring involved in PSP and TSP system development environment.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  6. Study on Social Capital Factors in Green Technology Diffusion%绿色技术扩散中的社会资本因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群

    2012-01-01

    As the world shows much more concern about sustainable development, more and more countries focus on the development and use of green technology. However, in practice, it is less efficient to achieve effective diffusion of green technology entirely by the operation of market mechanisms. In most of the time, governments have to undertake the spread of green technology, but the effect is limited. The article explores the social capital factors to the diffusion of green technology and studies the mechanism that the social capital promotes the green technology diffusion. In essence, "diffusion is a social process. "%随着世界各国对可持续发展的逐渐关注,更多的国家注重有关绿色技术的研发和使用.然而,在实践中完全由市场机制进行运作,实现绿色技术的有效扩散,效率较低;因此,在大部分时候,中国社会中往往是以政府出面的方式,来承担实现绿色技术扩散的工作,但是,政府的作用也很有限.在政府和市场以外,探讨了影响绿色技术扩散的社会资本因素,分析了社会资本促进绿色技术扩散的作用机制,从本质上说,“扩散就是一个社会化过程.”

  7. Relational technologies as instruments of care in the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Tatiana Fernandes Kerches de; Amendola, Fernanda; Trovo, Monica Martins

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to identify the relational technologies used by Family Health Strategy nurses in their daily work when treating patients. Descriptive and cross-sectional study with qualitative approach; conducted between May and July 2015, in three Basic Health Units of the Southern Region of the Municipality of São Paulo, with 19 nurses of the Family Health Strategy. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview, and the speeches were fully transcribed and analyzed according to the technique of content analysis. From the speeches of the participants, three categories emerged, showing the unawareness of the concept, but the valorization of its use; which are the relational technologies used by the participating nurses (communication, listening, empathy and welcoming reception), as well as the report of barriers to the use of relational technologies. Although the nurses value the use of relational technologies, the participants denoted unawareness of the nomenclature and its associated concepts, suggesting superficiality in the understanding and use of these instruments in the context of care in the Family Health Strategy. Identificar as tecnologias relacionais utilizadas por enfermeiros de Estratégia Saúde da Família em seu cotidiano de trabalho no atendimento aos usuários. Estudo descritivo, transversal, com abordagem qualitativa; desenvolvido entre maio e julho de 2015, em três Unidades Básicas de Saúde da Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, com 19 enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, e os discursos foram transcritos na íntegra, analisados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo. Das falas dos participantes, surgiram três categorias, que evidenciam o desconhecimento do conceito, mas valorização do uso; quais são as tecnologias relacionais utilizadas pelos enfermeiros participantes (comunicação, escuta, empatia e acolhimento), além do relato de barreiras

  8. The Using Condition of Interactive Reading Strategy in Reading Scientif-ic and Technological English Literature of Postgraduates of Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hong; CUI Xiao-ling

    2014-01-01

    In the reading process and after reading of the scientific and technological English literature for postgraduates of engi-neering, there are several barriers like the understanding of the vocabulary, the analyzing the complex sentences and the grasping the whole texts. This paper tries to investigate the using condition of interactive reading strategy in reading scientific and techno-logical English literature of postgraduates of engineering. The study reveals that postgraduates of engineering frequently using some of strategies of the interactive reading strategy, but the overall using condition is only in the average level, and is not so flexi-ble.

  9. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  10. A Top Down Strategy to Enhance Information Technologies into Israeli Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Guri-Rosenblit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the integration of the new information technologies (IT into Israeli higher education, and most particularly its research universities through a top-down strategy, initiated by the Israeli Council for Higher Education since the end of 1999. This top-down strategy has created a systemic change that will affect the many layers of university activities rather than in a random, sporadic manner undertaken by enthusiastic individuals. This article discusses the built-in contradictions and dilemmas in the process of adapting distance teaching methods by conventional universities in Israel (as well as in other higher education systems. It examines the merits of a top-down strategy aimed to implement the IT through a macro-level, systemic approach, and analyses the differential uses of the IT in Israeli higher education institutions, relating to variables of: access-outreach; teaching-learning processes; study materials production; data and information retrieval; administrative functions; the creation of researchers' communities; inter-institutional collaboration; and associated costs. The article concludes with some suggestions for effective implementation of the IT in different types of higher education institutions in a comprehensive and systematic manner, that will take into account their academic ethos and organizational infrastructure, and cater to the unique needs and characteristics of their relevant constituencies.

  11. Impact of technology diffusion on economic growth and international competitiveness. Empirical evidence for four East Asian countries; Gijutsu hakyu no koka to Asia keizai no seichoryoku, yushutsu kyosoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Sakurai, N.

    1999-06-01

    Asian economies hit by the currency crisis in 1997 are still in struggle to recover their growth and to boost again their exports. Although several short-term policy measures to stimulate the demand- side of the economy is certainly necessary, in a longer-term perspective, the key to real recovery would exist in their ability to absorb foreign technologies through trade and/or FDI, as stressed by recent new theories of growth and trade. This paper examines empirically the role of technology diffusion from advanced countries to total factor productivity (TFP) and export competitiveness in four major East-Asian countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, three of which were seriously damaged by the currency crisis. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, we found that technology acquisition from abroad is quite important for TFP growth of most industries in Asia, in particular for two ASEAN countries (Malaysia and Indonesia), while such productivity impact from foreign technology was relatively small for Korea and Singapore. Second, the impact of technology diffusion was much larger in that through trade than in that through foreign direct investment. Some FDI practices to preclude technology access for developing countries might explain such weaker role of FDI on TFP. Third, the nexus between TFP and export competitiveness was surely positive, in particular for industries of high export performance. However, the magnitude of impact was relatively small in Korea, in spite of its overwhelming productivity performance. (author)

  12. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology--strategies for drug delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denora, Nunzio; Trapani, Adriana; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopedota, Angela; Trapani, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of some recent approaches for the treatment of brain pathologies examining both medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology contributions. Medicinal chemistry-based strategies are essentially aimed at the chemical modification of low molecular weight drugs in order to increase their lipophilicity or the design of appropriate prodrugs, although this review will focus primarily on the use of prodrugs and not analog development. Recently, interest has been focused on the design and evaluation of prodrugs that are capable of exploiting one or more of the various endogenous transport systems at the level of the blood brain barrier (BBB). The technological strategies are essentially non-invasive methods of drug delivery to malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) and are based on the use of nanosystems (colloidal carriers) such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric micelles and dendrimers. The biodistribution of these nanocarriers can be manipulated by modifying their surface physico-chemical properties or by coating them with surfactants and polyethylene-glycols (PEGs). Liposomes, surfactant coated polymeric nanoparticles, and solid lipid nanoparticles are promising systems for delivery of drugs to tumors of the CNS. This mini-review discusses issues concerning the scope and limitations of both the medicinal chemistry and technological approaches. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that crossing of the BBB and drug delivery to CNS is extremely complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach such as a close collaboration and common efforts among researchers of several scientific areas, particularly medicinal chemists, biologists and pharmaceutical technologists.

  13. Long-term impacts of air capture technologies on optimal climate strategies under economic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, F.

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread attention to the consequences of climate change, tangible and concerted progress toward mitigation of the adverse effects of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions has yet to be coordinated among various national and international agents. The energy objectives set by such initiatives as 'Sustainable Energy for All' partially help slow down the global warming in short term, but the risks posed by GHG emissions would persist for a long time. This fact makes negative emission solutions more appealing as a part of the climate protection efforts. Here I use integrated assessment modeling to investigate the potential added value of air capture technologies as a complement for more conventional solutions such as carbon capture and storage, and the use of renewables. Thermodynamic limits of air capture technologies are used as a general guideline for the estimation of the performance of air capture technologies. Optimal long-run climate strategies are discussed taking into account the uncertainties in the impact of CO2 concentration on the Global Wealth Product, and possible scenarios that result in an overshoot beyond the 2°C warming limit.

  14. Nonthermal plasma technology as a versatile strategy for polymeric biomaterials surface modification: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Tim; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe; Schacht, Etienne; Dubruel, Peter

    2009-09-14

    In modern technology, there is a constant need to solve very complex problems and to fine-tune existing solutions. This is definitely the case in modern medicine with emerging fields such as regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The problems, which are studied in these fields, set very high demands on the applied materials. In most cases, it is impossible to find a single material that meets all demands such as biocompatibility, mechanical strength, biodegradability (if required), and promotion of cell-adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. A common strategy to circumvent this problem is the application of composite materials, which combine the properties of the different constituents. Another possible strategy is to selectively modify the surface of a material using different modification techniques. In the past decade, the use of nonthermal plasmas for selective surface modification has been a rapidly growing research field. This will be the highlight of this review. In a first part of this paper, a general introduction in the field of surface engineering will be given. Thereafter, we will focus on plasma-based strategies for surface modification. The purpose of the present review is twofold. First, we wish to provide a tutorial-type review that allows a fast introduction for researchers into the field. Second, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of recent work on surface modification of polymeric biomaterials, with a focus on plasma-based strategies. Some recent trends will be exemplified. On the basis of this literature study, we will conclude with some future trends for research.

  15. Characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles dispersed in organic ligand solutions by using a diffusion-ordered spectroscopy-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lokeren, Luk; Maheut, Géraldine; Ribot, François; Escax, Virginie; Verbruggen, Ingrid; Sanchez, Clément; Martins, José C; Biesemans, Monique; Willem, Rudolph

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY NMR) is presented as a tool for the determination of the diffusion coefficients of organic ligands in suspensions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel process by hydrolysis and condensation reactions of titanium tetra-n-butoxide in the presence of pentane-2,4-dione (acacH: acetylacetone), as well as para-toluenesulfonic acid (pTsA) and n-butanol (nBuOH). NMR spectroscopic studies were performed in various deuterated solvents, on both dispersed xerosols and diluted sols. The bipolar-pulsed field gradient longitudinal eddy-current delay (LED) pulse sequence was used for data acquisition. The data were processed by inverse Laplace transformation (ILT), by using a maximum entropy algorithm, to afford 2D DOSY spectra. Different diffusion regimes for organic ligands in the bound and unbound states were successfully discriminated, more particularly in [D3]acetonitrile, thus allowing assessment of their interactions with the nanoparticles.

  16. Strategies for diagnosing and alleviating artifactual attenuation associated with large gradient pulses in PGSE NMR diffusion measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W S; Hayamizu, K; Ide, H; Arata, Y

    1999-08-01

    The generation of phase-based artifacts resulting from mismatch in the effective areas (i.e., the time integrals) of sequential gradient pulses is discussed in the context of large gradient pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR diffusion measurements. Such effects result in artifactual attenuation and distortion in the spectra which, in the first instance, are similar to (and commonly mistaken for) the effects of eddy currents. Small degrees of mismatch cause "unphysical" concave downward curvature in PGSE attenuation plots of freely diffusing species. However, larger mismatches can result in artifactual diffraction peaks in the plots which could easily be confused for true restricted diffusion effects. Although "rectangular" gradient pulses are preferable from a theoretical viewpoint, we found that shaped gradient (e.g., half-sine) pulses, which due to their slower rise and fall times were more tractable for the current amplifier, were more sequentially reproducible. As well as generating fewer phase-based artifacts such shaped pulses also decrease the likelihood of vibration problems.

  17. "We noticed that suddenly the country has become full of MRI". Policy makers' views on diffusion and use of health technologies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishelman Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Uncontrolled proliferation of health technologies (HT is one contributor to the increasing pressure on health systems to adopt new technologies. With limited resources, policy-makers encounter difficulties in fulfilling their responsibility to meet the healthcare needs of the population. The aim of this study is to explore how policy-makers' reason about the diffusion and utilization of health technologies in Iran using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and interferon beta as tracers. Method This qualitative exploration complements quantitative data generated in a research project investigating the diffusion and utilization of MRI and interferon beta in Iran. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 informants in different positions and levels of authority in the Ministry of Health (MOH, University of Medical Sciences, Health Insurance Organizations, and Parliament. The data was analysed using the framework approach. Findings Although policy-makers appeared to be positive to health technology assessment (HTA, the processes of policy-making described by the interviewees did not seem to be based on a full understanding of this (discipline. Several obstacles to applying knowledge about HT and HTA were described. The current official plan for MRI adoption and diffusion in the country was said not to be followed, and no such plan was described for interferon beta. Instead, market forces such as advertising, and physician and consumer demand, appear to have strong influence on HT diffusion and use. Dual practice may have increased the induced demand and also reduced the supervision of the private sector by the MOH. Conclusion Management instability and lack of coordination in the MOH were found to be important obstacles to accumulation of knowledge and experience which, in turn, could have led to suboptimal managerial and policy-making processes. Furthermore marketing should be controlled in order to avoid

  18. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  19. Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies - A case study of the state of Maharashtra, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2001-07-01

    India's expanding economy and the strong growth expected in the next few decades (at around 10% per annum), will require additional energy. The use of fossil fuels is likely to dominate the strategy for meeting these needs in the near and medium term. However, India's own reserves are finite and will only be available for a limited period and the use of fossil fuels is not sustainable and is directly linked to environmental problems, particularly CO{sub 2} emissions and climate change. The importance of the increasing use of renewable energy sources was recognized in India in the early 1970s. During the past quarter century, a significant effort has gone into the development, trial and induction of a variety of technologies for use in different sectors. Today, India has one of the world's largest programs for renewable energy. The activities cower all the major renewable energy sources, including biogas, biomass, solar, wind and small-hydro power and other emerging technologies. By the end of 20th century nearly three million family-sized biogas plants (second in number in the world and next only to China's) and 30 million improved wood stoves have been established. These technologies could save about 15 million tons of fuel wood every year. Several other renewable energy technologies and products are now commercially available, and are economically viable in comparison to fossil fuels for some applications. However, there are many barriers to achieve the full potential of the renewable energy technologies. In order to study the potential and evaluate different RETs, we carried out a study of barriers to RETs in the state of Maharashtra, which accounts for about 16% of the Gross Domestic Product and 17% of the electricity supply in India. The study has been carried out in two parts. In the first part analysis was done on two technologies, viz., solar and wind. For doing this, information was collected from various secondary sources such as

  20. Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies - A case study of the state of Maharashtra, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2001-07-01

    India's expanding economy and the strong growth expected in the next few decades (at around 10% per annum), will require additional energy. The use of fossil fuels is likely to dominate the strategy for meeting these needs in the near and medium term. However, India's own reserves are finite and will only be available for a limited period and the use of fossil fuels is not sustainable and is directly linked to environmental problems, particularly CO{sub 2} emissions and climate change. The importance of the increasing use of renewable energy sources was recognized in India in the early 1970s. During the past quarter century, a significant effort has gone into the development, trial and induction of a variety of technologies for use in different sectors. Today, India has one of the world's largest programs for renewable energy. The activities cower all the major renewable energy sources, including biogas, biomass, solar, wind and small-hydro power and other emerging technologies. By the end of 20th century nearly three million family-sized biogas plants (second in number in the world and next only to China's) and 30 million improved wood stoves have been established. These technologies could save about 15 million tons of fuel wood every year. Several other renewable energy technologies and products are now commercially available, and are economically viable in comparison to fossil fuels for some applications. However, there are many barriers to achieve the full potential of the renewable energy technologies. In order to study the potential and evaluate different RETs, we carried out a study of barriers to RETs in the state of Maharashtra, which accounts for about 16% of the Gross Domestic Product and 17% of the electricity supply in India. The study has been carried out in two parts. In the first part analysis was done on two technologies, viz., solar and wind. For doing this, information was collected from various secondary sources such as

  1. Epistemological experience in developing of biomolecular technology for immunogene therapy strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Castillo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have been faced with a 40 year long challenge: how to establish tools that can be applied in the treatment of brain tumor - glioblastoma (100% fatal - using our knowledge of evolution, chemistry of proteins, genetics, molecular biology and immunology. An efficient strategy targeting growth factor IGF-I, present in tumor development, was established by construction of vectors expressing either IGF-I antisense RNA or IGF-I RNA forming RNA-DNA triple helix. The vectors introduced in the cancer cells in vitro, enable to completely stop the synthesis of IGF-I: on translation or transcription level, respectively. When injected in vivo, these cells induce an immune anti-tumor effect (CD8+ accompanied by increase of the median survival of patients. The first thesis in Colombia describing the used technology, was presented in Distrital University in February 2016.

  2. Telehealth: seven strategies to successfully implement disruptive technology and transform health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamm, Lee H

    2014-02-01

    "Telehealth" refers to the use of electronic services to support a broad range of remote services, such as patient care, education, and monitoring. Telehealth must be integrated into traditional ambulatory and hospital-based practices if it is to achieve its full potential, including addressing the six domains of care quality defined by the Institute of Medicine: safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Telehealth is a disruptive technology that appears to threaten traditional health care delivery but has the potential to reform and transform the industry by reducing costs and increasing quality and patient satisfaction. This article outlines seven strategies critical to successful telehealth implementation: understanding patients' and providers' expectations, untethering telehealth from traditional revenue expectations, deconstructing the traditional health care encounter, being open to discovery, being mindful of the importance of space, redesigning care to improve value in health care, and being bold and visionary.

  3. Strategies for Corporate Global Expansion of Pakistani Companies in the Age of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawaid Ahmed Qureshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to meticulously probe about the applications of cutting-edge strategies of globally expanding companies operative in several industrial sectors of Pakistan. Many companies craft and execute various strategies to globalize their operations and networks in several continents, which can not only benefit them but add value in the domestic cum global economy. Many researchers expounded that along with many other factors, capacity-building and competitive edges of business provide these companies the competitive strengths to excel in their global operations. Regarding such strengths, advancement in technology inclusive of research in business R&D (Research & Development, and marketing and business research, process design, automation, and e-commerce play a decisive role in providing them the core competitive edges that they leverage to advance their growth and expansion in the global market. This paper employs hybrid research techniques including qualitative and quantitative research. Semi-structured interviews have been taken for qualitative enquiry and structured survey has been undertaken for quantitative enquiry. The samples are drawn from multiple populations pertaining top-five export sectors of Pakistan by applying convenience sampling procedures for interviews and proportionate stratified sampling articulated with systematic sampling for survey. The findings uncover that after turning as retrenched domestic entities, many of the companies in Pakistan prefer global expansion. They usually resume from export operations in various countries especially where they develop a network of business associates, and then gradually move to open subsidiaries abroad. They avail technological edges to upgrade their processes, plants, products

  4. Fault self-repair strategy based on evolvable hardware and reparation balance technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Junbin; Cai Jinyan; Meng Yafeng; Meng Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    In the face of harsh natural environment applications such as earth-orbiting and deep space satellites, underwater sea vehicles, strong electromagnetic interference and temperature stress, the circuits faults appear easily. Circuit faults will inevitably lead to serious losses of availability or impeded mission success without self-repair over the mission duration. Traditional fault-repair methods based on redundant fault-tolerant technique are straightforward to implement, yet their area, power and weight cost can be excessive. Moreover they utilize all plug-in or component level circuits to realize redundant backup, such that their applicability is limited. Hence, a novel self-repair technology based on evolvable hardware (EHW) and reparation balance technology (RBT) is proposed. Its cost is low, and fault self-repair of various circuits and devices can be realized through dynamic configuration. Making full use of the fault signals, correcting circuit can be found through EHW technique to realize the balance and compensation of the fault out-put-signals. In this paper, the self-repair model was analyzed which based on EHW and RBT tech-nique, the specific self-repair strategy was studied, the corresponding self-repair circuit fault system was designed, and the typical faults were simulated and analyzed which combined with the actual electronic devices. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed fault self-repair strategy was feasible. Compared to traditional techniques, fault self-repair based on EHW consumes fewer hardware resources, and the scope of fault self-repair was expanded significantly.

  5. Merging Intelligent Systems Technologies with CFD Analysis Strategies: Prototype Development at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David E.; Brooks, Walt F. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative team of researchers from fields of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), fluid physics, computer architectures, and computer science and knowledge engineering have begun work on a prototype system that addresses several of industry's concerns in using NASA-developed CFD codes as part of the design cycle. A major problem exists in the application of CFD technologies within the aeronautics design cycle due primarily to misunderstandings in the ranges of applicability of the various solver codes or turbulence models. Features that arise during the CFD solution process need to be discriminated and recognized as actual flow features with physical support in the geometry and flow conditions of the problem being solved, or as numerical or non-physical errors arising from mis-application of solver code and its parameters, gridding strategies, or discretization. interpolations. The fundamental concept is to develop an intelligent computational system that can accept the engineer's definition of the problem and construct an optimal CFD solution. To do this requires capturing both the knowledge of how to apply the various CFD tools and how to adapt the application of those tools to flow structures as they evolve during the flow simulation. Embedded within this adaptive system approach is the additional desire to automatically identify and quantify the quality of resolution of the pertinent flow structures, be they genuine or error-induced, and then to adjust the solution strategy accordingly. This paper discusses the status of that prototyping effort.

  6. The Contribution of Earth Observation Technologies to Monitoring Strategies of Cultural Landscapes and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, B.

    2017-08-01

    Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO) as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of "professional monitoring strategies". More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a "hazardous attitude" towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps) for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  7. The role of National Strategies in maintaining Competitive Edge in Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Popoviciu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economical impact of IPv6, Internet Protocol's next generation. Technically, IPv6 represents an upgrade, an evolution that offers the resources necessary for deeper and wider market penetration of the IP technology, to support the needs of a global economy, to build new products and new services. Politically and economically it has the potential of being a quiet revolution. Countries that trailed US into the information revolution recognize this opportunity to take a leading role in its next expansion phase and have developed national strategies to help better position their respective economies. Despite understanding the constraints imposed by the current version of IP, the private sector is currently inclined to largely ignore IPv6 because of its initial deployment costs and long term returns. Forced by high investor expectations to focus exclusively on the immediate bottom line it trades long term growth opportunities for short term benefits revolving around productivity increases. The paper analyses the importance of a National Strategy in driving IPv6 adoption and in closing a widening knowledge and deployment gap between US and countries such as China, Japan, Korea and the EU.

  8. The role of National Strategies in maintaining Competitive Edge in Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Popoviciu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economical impact of IPv6, Internet Protocol's next generation. Technically, IPv6 represents an upgrade, an evolution that offers the resources necessary for deeper and wider market penetration of the IP technology, to support the needs of a global economy, to build new products and new services. Politically and economically it has the potential of being a quiet revolution. Countries that trailed US into the information revolution recognize this opportunity to take a leading role in its next expansion phase and have developed national strategies to help better position their respective economies. Despite understanding the constraints imposed by the current version of IP, the private sector is currently inclined to largely ignore IPv6 because of its initial deployment costs and long term returns. Forced by high investor expectations to focus exclusively on the immediate bottom line it trades long term growth opportunities for short term benefits revolving around productivity increases. The paper analyses the importance of a National Strategy in driving IPv6 adoption and in closing a widening knowledge and deployment gap between US and countries such as China, Japan, Korea and the EU.

  9. Comparative research on technological innovation and technological diffusion of magnates in communication equipment industry%通信设备巨头技术创新布局与扩散比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋天华; 于光; 石春生

    2011-01-01

    专利引文是衡量技术创新的重要指标。以著名的德温特(DII)创新系统的数据,对通信设备行业两家重要企业思科与华为的专利引文进行分析。结果显示,一些中国高技术企业经过多年的技术创新,其研发效率已经追上世界一流的跨国企业;中国企业的技术扩散主要是在国内,国际间技术扩散刚刚起步,影响力较小;而跨国企业技术扩散是全球性的,影响力处于龙头地位;追赶型企业技术创新是力求突破的锥型布局,领先企业是平衡型的哑铃布局;企业的技术创新布局主导着它们的技术扩散方向,中国企业技术创新与扩散的宽度大,但是优势技术少,技术深度低。而跨国企业优势技术多,技术扩散的深度高,技术专业化程度比较高。%Patent citation is one of important indicators surveying technological innovation. By analyzing DII' S patent citations of two top enterprises Cisco and Huawei in communications equipments industry, their innovation and technology diffusion are explored. Results argue that through long - term innovation, the efficiency of some Chinese high - technological firms in R&D has caught up with that of some top multinationals; Technological diffusion of Chinese enterprises mainly distributes in domestic firms. Its technological internationalization just starts now and has the weak influence. And the multinational technological diffusion is global and has the strong influence; Technological innovation of the pursuing enterprise displays a awl - shaped distribution, and technological innovation of the advanced enterprise shows a dumbbell distribution; the distribution of technological innovation leads the direction of technological diffusion; The distribution width of technological innovation and diffusion for Chinese enterprises are widen, however, its top technologies are fewer, the technical specialization level is low, and multinational

  10. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  11. Using a new intelligent well technology completions strategy to increase thermal EOR recoveries-SAGD field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Joel; Bedry, Mark [Halliburton (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the bitumen and heavy oil industry, thermal recovery methods are often used to enhance oil recovery. At the moment, traditional steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) systems are being used but they present some issues: poor injectability, steam breakthrough and lack of conformance. This paper presents a new completions strategy addressing the problems of steam injection and production conformance. This strategy relies on an intelligent completion technology incorporating interval control valves, well segmentation and instrumentation. A field test of this technology is being done in an SAGD system in the Orion field of Northern Alberta. Up to now results have shown the new completions strategy to be successful with an improvement in injectivity of 35%. This paper presented a new completions strategy which has been successfully implemented in a field trial and could improve the steam oil ratio and recovery in thermal enhanced oil recovery projects.

  12. 社会资本与可持续农业技术扩散研究%Analysis on the Social Capital and Sustainable Agricultural Technology Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群

    2012-01-01

    In the process of realizing sustainable agricultural technology diffusion, a social network within farmers and farmers, farmers and agribusiness or agricultural associations, research institutions was formed. The accumulated social capital could eliminate the constraints of the small - scale agriculture, help farmers to obtain credit, purchase new technology and adopt new technologies, decrease the opportunism in the use of green technology, reduce the constraints for the new technology use, then accelerate the spread of sustainable agricultural - technology. Therefore , we should not only pay attention to the role of market and government, but also focus on building and accumulating social capital during the process of realizing rural sustainable development technology diffusion.%在实现可持续的农业技术扩散的过程中,区域内农户与农户之间及农户与涉农企业或者农业协会、科研机构的联系所形成的社会网络,所积累的社会资本能够消除单个农户规模小的制约,有助于农户获得信用贷款,引进和购买新技术.社会资本能够减少技术采用中的机会主义,降低采用可持续发展的新技术的制约,从而加快绿色农业技术的扩散.因此,在实现农村可持续发展的技术扩散过程中,除了发挥市场和政府的作用以外,也要注重社会资本的构建和积累.

  13. Analysis on Technology Diffusion Based on Vertical Product Differentiation%基于垂直产品差异的技术扩散分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文榜

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the role played by network externality and product differentiation in a new product technology diffusion,this paper analyzes new technology diffusion paths under different conditions in duopoly environment by using vertical product differentiation framework and dynamic analysis. The results show as follows: when the coefficient of product differentiation &? Network externality (namely the ration of network externality intensity and the product differentiation degree) is small,new technologies can always survive in the market successfully,especially when the difference in consumer preference is not very large,new technologies will finally be able to monopolize the whole market;if this coefficient is large,new technologies will diffuse in the market successfully only when its initial network size exceed a threshold. The firm could select a optimal diffusion path according to the factors such as the coefficient of product difference &- network externality,the initial network size laid cost,the survival period of new technology and so on.%针对网络外部性和产品差异程度在新产品技术扩散中的作用,采用垂直产品差异分析框架和动态分析方法,分析了在双寡头垄断环境中新技术在不同条件下的扩散路径.研究结果表明:当产品差异-外部性系数(即网络外部性强度和产品差异程度之比)较小时,新技术总能够在市场中成功生存,特别是当消费者偏好差异不是很大时,新技术最终能够垄断整个市场;当该系数较大时,只有当新技术期初的网络规模超越了一定阀值后,它才能在市场中成功扩散.厂商可根据产品差异-外部性系数、期初网络规模铺设成本及新技术在市场中生存的期限等因素选择最佳的新技术扩散路径.

  14. Electroless nickel alloy deposition on SiO2 for application as a diffusion barrier and seed layer in 3D copper interconnect technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yoo; Son, Hwa-Jin; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Song, Young-Il; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Electroless Ni-P films were investigated with the aim of application as barrier and seed layers in 3D interconnect technology. Different shapes of blind-via holes were fabricated with a deep reactive ion etcher and SiO2 formed on these holes as an insulating layer. The surface of the substrate has been made hydrophilic by O2 plasma treatment with 100 W of power for 20 min. Electroless Ni-P films were deposited as both a diffusion barrier and a seed layer for Cu filling process. Prior to plating, substrates were activated in a palladium chloride solution after sensitization in a tin chloride solution with various conditions in order to deposit uniform films in TSV. After the formation of the electroless barrier layer, electro Cu was plated directly on the barrier layer. Ni-P films fabricated in blind-via holes were observed by scanning electron microscope. Energy dispersive spectroscopy line scanning was carried out for evaluating the diffusion barrier properties of the Ni-P films. The electroless Ni-P layer worked well as a Cu diffusion barrier until 300 degrees C. However, Cu ions diffused into barrier layer when the annealing temperature increases over 400 degrees C.

  15. R and D strategy on remote response technology for emergency situations of nuclear facilities in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Cho, Jae Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Eom, Heung Seup; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Hoch Ul; Lee, Sung Uk; Kim, Chang Hoi; Jeong, Seung Ho; Kim, Seung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    equipped with various tools allowing it to scour surfaces, scoop samples and vacuum sludge. To perform cleanup tasks, they built Workhorse that featured system redundancy and had a boom extend able to reach high places, but it was never used because it had too many complexities and to clean and fix. While remote robotics technology has proven to remove the human from the radioactive environment, it is also difficult to make it useful because it may requires skill about remote control and obtaining remote situation awareness regardless of the actual task. The efficiency of the human robot interaction is very important to obtain the overall goal for the emergency response in timely manner. It would be a bottle neck to apply the robotic technology for carrying the emergency response in NPP. Simple remote operation schemes are not adequate, more intelligent autonomous operation schemes are required to enhance the effectiveness of robots for the emergency response. KAERI has been developing various robotic systems for nuclear power plants over than 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. But the majority of the developed robotic systems is for the inspection and maintenance of nuclear power plants during their outage periods. Based on the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, KAERI has planned R and D projects for developing remote response technologies really applicable in emergency situations of nuclear facilities. This paper presents the R and D strategy to achieve real usability and the purpose and research activity plans of on going three projects derived from the strategy.

  16. Devise and design a technology strategy in power distribution industrial, Case study: great tehran electrical distribution company.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing importance of technology in organizational development, considered as one of the most important issues of strategic enterprise technology strategy actually. The increasing production and consumption of electric energy in the developing world and interconnected and expand interaction with other development of industrial, trade, agriculture activities, and services power industry development has become one of the pillars. Industry is an industry study in the field of power supply providing electricity services to consumers and applicants; to determine priorities for future investment, technology strategy is to develop their technological needs thereby determine the scope of its activities in the future. This study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are the industry's technological capabilities? Technologies required by industry to offer new services to their business in what condition? What are important development technologies of this industry? The models presented in this article were positioning school and then focus on these patterns according to industry characteristics studied, Hax and Majlof was considered as the base model and making changes in some of its parts, including technology risk assessment in addition to the capability and attractiveness, the final model was presented.

  17. Discrepant longitudinal volumetric and metabolic evolution of diffuse intrinsic Pontine gliomas during treatment: implications for current response assessment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebel, U. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Hwang, S.; Edwards, A.; Patay, Z. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Li, Y.; Li, X. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Broniscer, A. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Pediatrics, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that in infiltrative high-grade brainstem neoplasms, such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), longitudinal metabolic evaluation of the tumor by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be more accurate than volumetric data for monitoring the tumor's biological evolution during standard treatment. We evaluated longitudinal MRS data and corresponding tumor volumes of 31 children with DIPG. We statistically analyzed correlations between tumor volume and ratios of Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cr at key time points during the course of the disease through the end of the progression-free survival period. By the end of RT, tumor volume had significantly decreased from the baseline (P <.0001) and remained decreased through the last available follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study (P =.007632). However, the metabolic profile of the tumor tissue (Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, and Cho/NAA ratios) did not change significantly over time. Our data show that longitudinal tumor volume and metabolic profile changes are dissociated in patients with DIPG during progression-free survival. Volume changes, therefore, may not accurately reflect treatment-related changes in tumor burden. This study adds to the existing body of evidence that the value of conventional MRI metrics, including volumetric data, needs to be reevaluated critically and, in infiltrative tumors in particular, may not be useful as study end-points in clinical trials. We submit that advanced quantitative MRI data, including robust, MRS-based metabolic ratios and diffusion and perfusion metrics, may be better surrogate markers of key end-points in clinical trials. (orig.)

  18. Family milk farmers´technological strategies in periurbana reas of Buenos Aires city (2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Giordano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades innovations have promoted large-scale productions not adapted to households’ socio-productive situations. Numerous family farms disappeared and others have had to develop specific strategies in order to overcome such situation. This work aims tho explain and understand these technological strategies developed by dairy farming families. For doing so, capitals and family trajectories were analysed based on 7 family farming. It was found that the relationship between capitals and trajectory explains the strategies of the family units. We conclude that this relationship is not linear but offers elements to propose technical recommendations.

  19. Determination of the Most Suitable Technology Transfer Strategy for Wind Turbines Using an Integrated AHP-TOPSIS Decision Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dinmohammadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high-speed development of industrial products and goods in the world has caused “technology” to be considered as a crucial competitive advantage for most large organizations. In recent years, developing countries have considerably tended to promote their technological and innovative capabilities through importing high-tech equipment owned and operated by developed countries. There are currently a variety of solutions to transfer a particular technology from a developed country. The selection of the most profitable technology transfer strategy is a very complex decision-making problem for technology importers as it involves different technical, environmental, social, and economic aspects. In this study, a hybrid multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM model based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is proposed to evaluate and prioritise various technology transfer strategies for wind turbine systems. For this purpose, a number of criteria and sub-criteria are defined from the viewpoint of wind energy investors, wind turbine manufacturers, and wind farm operators. The relative importance of criteria and sub-criteria with respect to the ultimate goal are computed using the eigenvalue method and then, the technology transfer alternatives are ranked based on their relative closeness to the ideal solution. The model is finally applied to determine the most suitable wind turbine technology transfer strategy among four options of reverse engineering, technology skills training, turn-key contracts, and technology licensing for the renewable energy sector of Iran, and the results are compared with those obtained by classical decision-making models.

  20. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Technology and its Clinical Application%弥散加权成像(DWI)技术及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广义; 程起元

    2015-01-01

    This paper described the theory of diffusion-weighted imaging in magnetic resonance. It reviewed the imaging technology of intracranial organization, liver, genitourinary system, bone tissue, breast and lymph nodes, and had superiority over other imaging techniques.%本文给出了核磁共振中弥散加权成像(diffusion-weighted imaging, DWI)技术的理论工作原理。对DWI技术在颅内组织、肝脏、泌尿生殖系统、骨组织、乳腺、淋巴结等部位的成像以及其较其他成像技术的优越性做了阐述。

  1. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  2. Fiscal 1999 research report on long-term energy technology strategy. Basic research on industrial technology strategy (Individual technology strategy). Electronic information technology field (Human process ware field for computers); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chsao hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijutsu senryaku) denshi joho gijutsu bun'ya (computer kanren bun'ya no uchi, human process wear bun'ya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 basic research result on industrial technology strategy of a human process ware (HPW) field on electronic information. Although the current HPW industry is not yet complete, various technologies concerned are being stored, and the HPW industry is expected as new major industry for home and personal information equipment. As factors hindering technological innovation in Japan, the incomplete market, poor cooperation between industry and government, ambiguous role of university, and poor standardization were pointed out. Technology trends were analyzed to extract seed technology fields from 3 viewpoints of mobile HPW available at any time, at any place and to anybody, HPW system capable of customizing every personal use, and HPW supporting development of a creativity. As general strategy, the technology seed chart and map of technical development targets for every HPW were prepared to conceive a route to practical use, and develop element technologies required for practical use, based on the future trend of the market. (NEDO)

  3. Urban Form and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Findings, Strategies, and Design Decision Support Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael West Mehaffy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this dissertation contains three complementary and overlapping parts:One, “findings”: It assesses the factors of urban morphology that contribute to increased rates of greenhouse gas emissions per capita, and the ways they interact. It finds a significant but underrepresented set of factors, distinct from but relating the factors at the individual building scale and the scale of regional transportation systems.Two, “strategies”: It assesses the methodologies by which such findings might be put to use in identifying and achieving reductions through changes in urban design, and proposes new strategies to do so using innovative forms of design decision support tools.Three, “design decision support tools”: It then proposes a specific new technology, namely a new class of open-source scenario-modelling tool, embodied in new prototype software. The tool utilizes a new kind of “federated” web-based wiki technology incorporating design pattern languages, which was developed in collaboration with the software engineer and wiki inventor Ward Cunningham.As part of this research, it has been necessary to examine fundamental methodological questions, and to account for limitations of current data as well as current significant gaps in research. In the process, this research has made a modest contribution to the state of knowledge about additional research needed.For me, this work has also highlighted the need for urgent and effective reforms to current “business as usual” practices. The need is all the more urgent given unprecedented rates of urbanisation – much of it sprawling and resource-inefficient – taking place in many parts of the world today.

  4. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Siriwardena, K.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies.

  5. A robust multi-shot scan strategy for high-resolution diffusion weighted MRI enabled by multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan-Kuei; Guidon, Arnaud; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Song, Allen W

    2013-05-15

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) data have been mostly acquired with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) to minimize motion induced artifacts. The spatial resolution, however, is inherently limited in single-shot EPI, even when the parallel imaging (usually at an acceleration factor of 2) is incorporated. Multi-shot acquisition strategies could potentially achieve higher spatial resolution and fidelity, but they are generally susceptible to motion-induced phase errors among excitations that are exacerbated by diffusion sensitizing gradients, rendering the reconstructed images unusable. It has been shown that shot-to-shot phase variations may be corrected using navigator echoes, but at the cost of imaging throughput. To address these challenges, a novel and robust multi-shot DWI technique, termed multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE), is developed here to reliably and inherently correct nonlinear shot-to-shot phase variations without the use of navigator echoes. The performance of the MUSE technique is confirmed experimentally in healthy adult volunteers on 3Tesla MRI systems. This newly developed technique should prove highly valuable for mapping brain structures and connectivities at high spatial resolution for neuroscience studies.

  6. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  7. Analysis of Strategies for Tacit Knowledge Diffusion in Weighted Social Networks%加权社会网络隐性知识扩散策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹吉鸣; 董鑫; 徐吉祥

    2012-01-01

    文章基于组织网络结构视角,结合小世界网络相关理论和系统动力学对隐性知识扩散策略进行仿真和演化分析。仿真结果显示,组织提供较高水平的信任保障且采用知识势差优先的学习策略时,组织知识水平在极短时期内快速提升并且收敛,经过长期演化达到稳态时的组织知识均衡程度也最高。由此可知,有必要在组织内部淡化基于情感的个人信任,着力构建以制度为保障的组织信任来推动隐性知识在组织内部网络上的有效扩散。%From the perspective of the organizational network structure,this paper combines with the theory of small-world network and the system dynamics to simulate and make an evolutionary analysis of the strategies for tacit knowledge diffusion.The simulation results show that when the organization provides the higher-level trust guarantee and adopts the knowledge potential difference priority learning strategies,the level of organizational knowledge increases and converges quickly in a very short period,and the organizational knowledge equilibrium degree which reaches a steady state after a long-term evolution is the highest.Therefore,it’s necessary to dilute the personal trust based on emotion within the organization and strive to build the organizational trust guaranteed by the system so as to promote the effective diffusion of tacit knowledge within the organizational network.

  8. Heavy Metal Soil Contamination at U.S. Army Installations: Proposed Research and Strategy for Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document represents a research strategy to develop new and innovative technologies for treatment of heavy metal -contaminated soils on U.S. Army...contaminated by heavy metals are a common problem. Over 50 percent of the installations surveyed have potential heavy metal problems that may prove to be

  9. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  10. Applying Future Studies Methods to Understanding the Impact of University Information and Communication Technology Strategies on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aczel, J. C.; Hardy, P.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to explore the potential of certain future studies techniques to provide insight into the question of the impact of higher education information and communication technology (ICT) strategies on student learning. The approach is to consider three case studies of new universities in different countries, and to identify the main…

  11. Academic Workload: The Silent Barrier to the Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Learning Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Mary Sarah-Jane; Lodge, Jason Michael

    2015-01-01

    The effect of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) strategies in higher education has arguably been transformative despite the not-insignificant barriers existing in this context. Throughout the discourse very little attention has been paid to those primarily responsible for this implementation--academic teaching staff. This paper aims to highlight…

  12. Variations of Language Learning Strategy Use among Three Colleges at a Private Four-Year Technology University in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Huei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the college students in Taiwan for the attributes of how their English test scores are being affected by language learning strategy use. The university is recognized as a second-tier technology university in Taiwan, as the students are considered to have low levels of English proficiency and learning motivation. A group…

  13. Hydrogen technologies. Strategy for research, development and demonstration in Denmark, June 2005; Brintteknologier. Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration i Danmark, juni 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    Hydrogen as energy carrier makes its mark on the international energy and research political agenda. In numerous places around the world great expectations are tied to hydrogen and fuel cell technology as a significant contributor to a future sustainable energy economy, which implies gradual reduction of fossil fuel dependence, reduction of greenhouse gas emission and increased use of renewable energy. Denmark has even now an international position of strength in this area. This position has been reached through continuous research and development efforts since the early 1990ies. This strategy report describes existing and future technologies within hydrogen production, distribution and use. Furthermore, the international development is described. The report points at areas in which Danish research and development can assist in helping Danish industry to influence the future global market for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. (BA)

  14. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  15. Power Saving Strategies and Technologies in Network Equipment Opportunities and Challenges, Risk and Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Ceuppens, Luc; Kharitonov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from todays best-in-class solutions, we identify power-saving strategies that have succeeded in the past and look forward to new ideas and paradigms. We strongly believe that designing energy-efficient network equipment can be compared to building sports cars, task-oriented, focused and fast. However, unlike track-bound sports cars, ultra-fast and purpose-built silicon yields better energy efficiency when compared to more generic family sedan designs that mitigate go-to-market risks by being the masters of many tasks. Thus, we demonstrate that the best opportunities for power savings come via protocol simplification, best-of-breed technology, and silicon and software optimization, to achieve the least amount of processing necessary to move packets. We also look to the future of networking from a new angle, where energy efficiency and environmental concerns are viewed as fundamental design criteria and forces that need to be harnessed to continually create more powerful networking equipment.

  16. Grassland Degradation, Construction and the Economic-technological Strategies of Sustainable Development of Grassland-agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; YU Hua-ying; OKAMOTO Chinobu; WANG Yu-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Natural grassland in the West of Northeastern China is located in 40° 0′ - 43° 5′ N latitude and 117° 0′ -127° 5′ Elongitude. It lies in the Lisp River Valley, the Songhua River Valley and Nen River Valley. About 130 years ago, this region had rich natural grassland resources, was numerically 26.67 millions in hectare of grasslands.Since the last stage of Qing Dynasty, the grassland has been destroyed seriously in 3 times. Up to now, this region only preserved about 2 millions in hectare of the grasslands. In addition, 3.33 millions in hectare of the grasslands have changed from primary grassland to desertification, salinizatio-nalkalinization and degeneration grasslands in the form of patches of bare soil (their simple form of a name is "3 kinds of degeneration grasslands"). This paper indicaed that in any period both grasslands destruction and its restoration were relevant to economic changes and economic systems,particularly to market economy in that time. The following agricultural economic-technological strategies have been production bases of concentrated feed crops and coarse herbage crops.

  17. [Flipped Classroom: A New Teaching Strategy for Integrating Information Technology Into Nursing Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shwu-Fen; Su, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Kuei-Fen; Hwang, Hei-Fen

    2015-06-01

    The traditional "teacher-centered" instruction model is still currently pervasive in nursing education. However, this model does not stimulate the critical thinking or foster the self-learning competence of students. In recent years, the rapid development of information technology and the changes in educational philosophy have encouraged the development of the "flipped classroom" concept. This concept completely subverts the traditional instruction model by allowing students to access and use related learning activities prior to class on their smartphones or tablet computers. Implementation of this concept has been demonstrated to facilitate greater classroom interaction between teachers and students, to stimulate student thinking, to guide problem solving, and to encourage cooperative learning and knowledge utilization in order to achieve the ideal of student-centered education. This student-centered model of instruction coincides with the philosophy of nursing education and may foster the professional competence of nursing students. The flipped classroom is already an international trend, and certain domestic education sectors have adopted and applied this concept as well. However, this concept has only just begun to make its mark on nursing education. This article describes the concept of the flipped classroom, the implementation myth, the current experience with implementing this concept in international healthcare education, and the challenging issues. We hope to provide a reference for future nursing education administrators who are responsible to implement flipped classroom teaching strategies in Taiwan.

  18. Activating social strategies: Face-to-face interaction in technology-mediated citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Francesco; Laut, Jeffrey; Nov, Oded; Giustiniano, Luca; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    The use of crowds in research activities by public and private organizations is growing under different forms. Citizen science is a popular means of engaging the general public in research activities led by professional scientists. By involving a large number of amateur scientists, citizen science enables distributed data collection and analysis on a scale that would be otherwise difficult and costly to achieve. While advancements in information technology in the past few decades have fostered the growth of citizen science through online participation, several projects continue to fail due to limited participation. Such web-based projects may isolate the citizen scientists from the researchers. By adopting the perspective of social strategy, we investigate within a measure-manipulate-measure experiment if motivations to participate in a citizen science project can be positively influenced by a face-to-face interaction with the scientists leading the project. Such an interaction provides the participants with the possibility of asking questions on the spot and obtaining a detailed explanation of the citizen science project, its scientific merit, and environmental relevance. Social and cultural factors that moderate the effect brought about by face-to-face interactions on the motivations are also dissected and analyzed. Our findings provide an exploratory insight into a means for motivating crowds to participate in online environmental monitoring projects, also offering possible selection criteria of target audience.

  19. Drug discovery technologies and strategies for Machupo virus and other New World arenaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Kuhn, Jens H.; de Kok-Mercado, Fabian; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Seven arenaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans: the Old World arenaviruses Lassa and Lujo, and the New World Clade B arenaviruses Machupo (MACV), Junín (JUNV), Guanarito (GTOV), Sabiá (SABV), and Chapare (CHPV). All of these viruses are Risk Group 4 biosafety pathogens. MACV causes human disease outbreak with high case-fatality rates. To date, at least 1,200 cases with ≈200 fatalities have been recorded 1, 2. Areas covered This review summarizes available systems and technologies for the identification of antivirals against MACV, animal models for in vivo evaluation of novel inhibitors, present treatment of arenaviral diseases, overview of efficacious small molecules and other therapeutics reported to date, and strategies to identify novel inhibitors for anti-arenaviral therapy. Expert opinion New high-throughput approaches to quantitate infection rates of areaviruses, as well as viruses modified to carry reporter genes, will accelerate compound screens and drug discovery efforts. RNAi, gene expression profiling and proteomics studies will identify host targets for therapeutic intervention. New discoveries in the cell entry mechanism of MACV and other arenaviruses as well as extensive structural studies of arenaviral L and NP could facilitate the rational design of antivirals effective against all pathogenic New World arenaviruses. PMID:22607481

  20. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  1. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  2. Diffusion in porous crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of many separation and catalytic process technologies require a proper quantitative description of diffusion of mixtures of guest molecules within porous crystalline materials. This tutorial review presents a unified, phenomenological description of diffusion inside meso-

  3. Modeling rational, psychological, and social behavior toward diffusion of new technology using agent-based simulation: the case of the public utility jeepney (PUJ) fleet in Metro Manila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahanchian, Mohammad; Biona, Jose Bienvenido Manuel

    2017-01-01

    is to assist policymakers for energy and environmental policy design based on consumers’ behavior. The jeepney owners in the old public utility jeepney (PUJ) fleet in Metro Manila are chosen as case study to prove the applicability of the model. The results show that rational, psychological, and social...... configuration affect diffusion of innovation. This study presents an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate the rational decision-making, psychological behavior, and social interaction of people to explore their reaction to policy scenarios toward adopting technological changes over time. The aim of model...

  4. Defense Technology and Trade Initiative: Ashton Carter’s Strategy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    product assembly in India : Rather, it aims at joint development of new technologies through design, engineering, manufacturing, testing, production...Technology Development and Transfer Steps Technology Transferred Transfer Media Research Product Design Documentation & Hardware Laboratory...staunchly advocates treating India like some of the closest U.S. partners in terms of the extent and level of technology transfer, co- develop - ment

  5. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  6. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    , self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...... perform simple obstacle avoidance in a wide range of different car-like robots constructed using ATRON modules...

  7. Current Trends in Exercise Intervention Research, Technology, and Behavioral Change Strategies for People With Disabilities: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Byron; Young, Hui-Ju; Bickel, C Scott; Motl, Robert W; Rimmer, James H

    2017-04-08

    This review synthesized physical activity and exercise intervention literature for the past 10 yrs for people with physical and cognitive disabilities including intervention characteristics, behavior change strategies, and types of technologies used to improve targeted outcomes. Systematic searches yielded 132 eligible studies. The major disability groups were multiple sclerosis (41%), stroke (15%), and spinal cord injury (12%). Research designs primarily involved randomized controlled trials (61%) versus quasi-experimental designs (39%). Approximately 20% of the interventions used some form of the following technology: information and communication technology (48%), interactive technology (37%), or electronic gauges (30%). Eighteen percent of studies used intervention strategies based on behavioral theory, which was typically combined with technology to promote activity and increase adherence in generally larger study samples. The three prevailing theories included social cognitive theory (58%), social accountability theory (21%), and transtheoretical model (21%). Upon completing the intervention, studies reported primarily significant outcomes (80%). Exercise research for PWD has grown in both quantity and quality, but several gaps remain. Study findings provide a roadmap for future exercise trials on understudied populations and highlight technology and behavior change theory as drivers of future intervention research.

  8. The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Janet Laughlin

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation seeks to determine the role of government policy in advancing the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and to determine if specific policies or policy types are more effective than others in achieving these ends. This study analyzes legislation, regulations, research and development (R&D) programs and their impacts on wind energy in California, the rest of the United States, Denmark and Germany, from 1970 through 2000. These countries (and state) were chosen because each has followed a very different path and has adopted wind energy at different rates. Demand for energy, particularly electricity, is rising rapidly worldwide. Renewable energy technologies could meet much of the world's future demand for electricity without the national security, environmental and social costs of conventional technologies. But renewables now play only a minor role in the electric generation systems of most countries. According to conventional economic theory, renewable energy will achieve greater market penetration once it is cost-competitive with conventional generation. This dissertation concludes, however, that government policy is the most significant causal variable in determining the development and diffusion of wind energy technology. Policy is more important for bringing wind energy to maturity than a nation's wind resource potential, wealth, relative differences in electricity prices, or existing infrastructure. Further, policy is essential for enabling a technology to succeed in the marketplace once it is cost-competitive. Policies can affect a technology's perceived, or real, costs; they can reduce risks or increase the availability and affordability of capital; appropriate and consistent policies can eliminate barriers to wind technology. To be adopted on a large scale, renewables require effective, appropriate and, above all, consistent policies that are legislated with a long-term view toward advancing a technology and an

  9. Central nervous system involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an analysis of risks and prevention strategies in the post-rituximab era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher D; Kahl, Brad S

    2014-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs infrequently (approximately 5%), but is almost universally fatal. Controversy exists regarding which factors most reliably identify high risk patients in the post-rituximab era. Clarification is also needed regarding the value of prophylaxis strategies when contemporary rituximab-based chemotherapy regimens (chemoimmunotherapy) are used. A systematic review with focus on the era of chemoimmunotherapy has been performed. Involvement of > 1 extranodal site plus an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level identifies individuals at highest risk (> 20%) for CNS recurrence who merit additional evaluation. Only certain solitary extranodal sites (testis, kidney and breast, but not bones, orbit or epidural space) appear to confer higher risk in patients receiving chemoimmunotherapy. Data from studies employing modern regimens suggest that intrathecal prophylaxis is ineffective even for high risk populations. Systemic prophylaxis (e.g. high dose methotrexate) may be useful, but does not have strong support in the literature. A significant portion of patients with high risk features (˜25%) may already have subclinical CNS disease, which requires alternative detection and treatment strategies. Flow cytometry is a promising approach with increased sensitivity. Widespread use of this approach could redefine what risk and prophylaxis mean. An algorithm for incorporating risk factors, evaluation and treatment is presented.

  10. Adoption of precision agriculture technologies in India and in some developing countries: Scope, present status and strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Mondal; Manisha Basu

    2009-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic changes in some developing countries, including India, are creating new scopes for application of precision agriculture (PA). The implications of dramatic shifts for economic development, urbanization and energy consumption in some devel-oping countries are immense. High-tech nature of traditional PA technologies developed in advanced countries created a real challenge for engineers to search suitable PA technologies for developing countries. It is expected that application of balanced soft and hard PA technologies based on the need of specific socio-economic condition of a country will make PA suitable for developing countries also. 'Soft' PA depends mainly on visual observation of crop and soil and management decision based on experience and intuition, rather than on statistical and scientific analysis. 'Hard' PA utilizes all modern technologies such as GPS, RS, and VRT. Three components, namely, 'single PA technology', 'PA technology package' (for the user to select one or combination) and 'integrated PA technology', have been identified as a part of adoption strategies of PA in the developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to find out the scope, the present status and the strategies for adoption of PA in India and in some developing countries. Application of PA in cash crop, plan-tation crop, etc. has been discussed. Application of some medium and low-tech PA tools such as chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart. in small farms has been included. This exhaustive review of the present status of PA in India and in some developing countries is expected to help to find out the adoption trend and direction of future research. Detailed strategy for the adoption of PA in India has also been proposed.

  11. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Diffusion-Based Recommendation in Collaborative Tagging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2009-11-01

    Recently, collaborative tagging systems have attracted more and more attention and have been widely applied in web systems. Tags provide highly abstracted information about personal preferences and item content, and therefore have the potential to help in improving better personalized recommendations. We propose a diffusion-based recommendation algorithm considering the personal vocabulary and evaluate it in a real-world dataset: Del.icio.us. Experimental results demonstrate that the usage of tag information can significantly improve the accuracy of personalized recommendations.

  12. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  13. CLOUD COMPUTING AND BIG DATA AS CONVERGENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR RETAIL PRICING STRATEGIES OF SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George SUCIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most retailers know that technology has played an increasingly important role in helping retailers set prices. Online business decision systems are at the core point of an SMEs management and reporting activities. But, until recently, these efforts have been rooted in advances in computing technology, such as cloud computing and big data mining, rather than in newfound applications of scientific principles. In addition, in previous approaches big data mining solutions were implemented locally on private clouds and no SME could aggregate and analyze the information that consumers are exchanging with each other. Real science is a powerful, pervasive force in retail today, particularly so for addressing the complex challenge of retail pricing. Cloud Computing comes in to provide access to entirely new business capabilities through sharing resources and services and managing and assigning resources effectively. Done right, the application of scientific principles to the creation of a true price optimization strategy can lead to significant sales, margin, and profit lift for retailers. In this paper we describe a method to provide the mobile retail consumers with reviews, brand ratings and detailed product information at the point of sale. Furthermore, we present how we use Exalead CloudView platform to search for weak signals in big data by analyzing multimedia data (text, voice, picture, video and mining online social networks. The analysis makes not only customer profiling possible, but also brand promotion in the form of coupons, discounts or upselling to generate more sales, thus providing the opportunity for retailer SMEs to connect directly to its customers in real time. The paper explains why retailers can no longer thrive without a science-based pricing system, defines and illustrates the right science-based approach, and calls out the key features and functionalities of leading science-based price optimization systems. In particular, given

  14. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational

  15. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational

  16. The business case: The missing link between information technology benefits and organisational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Business cases are an integral part of information technology (IT projects, providingthe linkage between the organisational strategies and the promised benefits. Most majorproject management standards and methodologies make reference to the business case andits intended usage.Problem investigated: The success of IT projects is measured based on the benefits they deliver; anecdotal evidence states that IT projects fail at an alarming rate. The benefits are promised in the business case and should be delivered. This study focuses on whether there is a gap between theory and practice with regard to the way that organisations use the business case to approve, manage and track the promised benefits throughout an IT project.Methodology: This article reports on exploratory research that was initiated to establish the current practice of business case application. Four research questions were developed based on an extensive literature review to support or debunk the anecdotal evidence. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather evidence from organisations based on these research questions.Findings: The results suggest that organisations make use of business cases for various reasons and mostly in line with theory. There are, however, aspects that need to be addressed, such as the linkage between the business case and the harvesting of promised benefits.Value of research: This article confirms the theoretical aspects of the business case but highlights some deviations from practice. Organisations need to be more vigilant in the management of the business case to ensure the tracking and realisation of promised benefits. 

  17. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  18. Strategy tools-in-use: A framework for understanding “technologies of rationality” in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzabkowski, P.; S. Kaplan

    2015-01-01

    In response to critiques of strategy tools as unhelpful or potentially dangerous for organizations, we suggest casting a sociological eye on how tools are actually mobilized by strategy makers. In conceptualizing strategy tools as tools-in-use, we offer a framework for examining the ways that the affordances of strategy tools and the agency of strategy makers interact to shape how and when tools are selected and applied. Further, rather than evaluating the ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’ use of tool...

  19. STRATEGY TOOLS-IN-USE: A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING "TECHNOLOGIES OF RATIONALITY" IN PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzabkowski, P.; S. Kaplan

    2015-01-01

    : In response to critiques of strategy tools as unhelpful or potentially dangerous for organizations, we suggest casting a sociological eye on how tools are actually mobilized by strategy makers. In conceptualizing strategy tools as tools-in-use, we offer a framework for examining the ways that the affordances of strategy tools and the agency of strategy makers interact to shape how and when tools are selected and applied. Further, rather than evaluating the ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’ use of to...

  20. Patterns of technology diffusion Spanish. An identification through the information contained in patents; Pautas de difusion de la tecnologia espanola. Una identificacion a traves de la informacion contenida en las patentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Sero, M.; Coronado Guerrero, D.; Fernandez Perez, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to answer the following research questions: What countries are the geographical destinations of technological knowledge generated by Spanish inventors? What sectors take advantage of the technological knowledge produced in a different sector? What are the characteristics of the patented knowledge more intensively diffused? Our methodology rests on a biblio metric analysis of patent granted by the Patent Office from the US (USPTO) to Spanish inventors. We found some relevant aspects that might be useful to think about technological policy favouring knowledge diffusion. (Author) 27 refs.

  1. Securing Public Safety Vehicles: Reducing Vulnerabilities by Leveraging Smart Technology and Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Three 154 Ibid., 34. 155 Frost and Sullivan , Using Wireless Technology to Manage and Optimize...Government Fleets (Mountain View, CA: Frost & Sullivan , 2011). 156 Ibid., 3. 42 components combined: interconnectivity solutions, mobile devices...research-technology/report/vit-best- practices-law-enforcement-nov2007.pdf. Frost & Sullivan . Using Wireless Technology to Manage and Optimize

  2. Managing Technology in Higher Education: Strategies for Transforming Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A. W.; Sangra, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Universities continue to struggle in their efforts to fully integrate information and communications technology within their activities. Based on examination of current practices in technology integration at 25 universities worldwide, this book argues for a radical approach to the management of technology in higher education. It offers…

  3. Civilian-military co-operation strategies in developing new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulve, te Haico; Smit, Wim A.

    2003-01-01

    Dual use technology has been advocated as the solution for the twin problem of maintaining a high tech defence technology base and improving economic competitiveness. The concept of dual use technology turns out to be rather imprecise representing a multitude of different meanings. This paper focuse

  4. The Y Generation Myth: Evidences Based on the Causality Relations Among Age, Diffusion and Adoption of Technology of College Students of São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gabriel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess whether college students, classified as Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants, show different behavioral styles and adoption profiles in relation to technology. To do so three measurement scales (Technological Origin - OTE, Adoption Profile - PAD and Innovator Behavioral Style - ECI were used and to identify the causal relationships among concepts, attitudes and processes of technology adoption among students. The data analysis choice was based on structural equation model (SEM variance based approach or partial least squares (PLS-SEM using the SmartPLS 2.0 software. The general model was tested, comprised by the constructs of the three scales and then a variable which characterizes the respondent’s generation was introduced as moderator. As a result it is possible to state that for the concepts of Digital Native and Digital Immigrant are lacking empirical foundations, simply serving as a rhetorical figure, of easy acceptance and assimilation, but unable to substantiate the existence of a phenomenon or generations effect on the process of diffusion and technology adoption, unlike what is commonly proposed in the literature. 

  5. Sustainable technological process as an element of the sustainable development strategy realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is a presentation of the possibility of the sustainable development conception realisation through the sustainable technological processes designing and implementation.Design/methodology/approach: The article includes analysis and estimation of the nickel and chromium coated on the metal elements. In order to modernization of the real process in direction to the sustainable process, the technical solutions which minimise influence on the environment of galvanic treatment process were presented.Findings: The sustainable technological process reduces the achievement of the sustainable development to small area analysis which is the technological process, what makes possible the quantitative estimation (in the internal area of technology.Research limitations/implications: The definition, the model of the sustainable technology and the sustainable development conception are relative and they have not clear character. It means there is no possibility of absolutely the best technology or technological process determination. Because of that we can only design the better process in the comparison with another with regard to adequate criteria.Practical implications: The solution presented in the paper can apply in the industry to estimation and selection of a group of technological processes which characterise different environmental influences.Originality/value: The paper presents search for the sustainable technological processes according to proposed procedure of the sustainable technology design and implementation. Application of the sustainable technological processes in the local scale can leads to the sustainable development conception realisation in the global scale.

  6. Economic and Technological Role of Kuzbass Industry in the Implementation of National Energy Strategy of Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhironkin, Sergey Aleksandrovich; Khoreshok, Aleksey Alekseevich; Tyulenev, M. A.; Barysheva, Galina Anzelmovna; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the problems and prospects of development of coal mining in Kuzbass - the center of coal production in Siberia and Russia, in the framework of the major initiatives of the National Energy Strategy for the period until 2035. The structural character of the regional coal industry problems, caused by decline in investment activity, high level of fixed assets depreciation, slow development of deep coal processing and technological reduction of coal mining is shown.

  7. Economic and Technological Role of Kuzbass Industry in the Implementation of National Energy Strategy of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhironkin, S. A.; Khoreshok, A. A.; Tyulenev, M. A.; Barysheva, G. A.; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the problems and prospects of development of coal mining in Kuzbass - the center of coal production in Siberia and Russia, in the framework of the major initiatives of the National Energy Strategy for the period until 2035. The structural character of the regional coal industry problems, caused by decline in investment activity, high level of fixed assets depreciation, slow development of deep coal processing and technological reduction of coal mining is shown.

  8. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  9. Report on technological trend survey in fiscal 2000. Survey on bio-technology development strategy; 2000 nendo gijutsu doko nado chosa hokokusho. Bio technology gijutsu kaihatsu senryaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Survey and research have been performed on bio-technologies as to their seeds of technological development projects to be worked on by the government from the viewpoint of industrial utilization technologies. In the survey on the trends of research and development and technological development on human-genomes, the survey has been done on the status of execution in the Millennium Genome Project, and how the works related to human-genomes are done at the bio-related government based research organizations and the private sector research organizations. Trends related to the human-genome research in overseas countries were also surveyed. With regard to the future prospect of research and development in the post genome age, discussions were given on the result of the questionnaire survey on opinion leaders in the industrial, governmental and academic areas. In discussing the viewpoint of the industrial utilization technologies related to human genomes, candidates assumed usable in the genome related application fields were discussed, and a basic framework of a technological map was prepared. Based on the results thereof, the technological development areas anticipated to be important in the future were extracted, and the technological development themes were discussed. (NEDO)

  10. New Technologies and Strategies to Exploit Near Earth Asteroids for Breakthrough Space Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, John; Powell, James; Maise, George

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have brought a profound expansion of knowledge of near earth objects (NEO). If creatively exploited, NEOs can significantly increase human safety while reducing costs of exploration and development of the moon, Mars and the solar system. Synergistically, the ability to defend the Earth from devastating impacts will become very effective. A spherical volume having a radius equivalent to the moon's orbit, 400,000 km, is visited every day by approximately ten NEOs having diameters of ~10 meters, while ~30 meter diameter encounters occur about once per month. Because these objects are usually very faint and only within detectable range for a few days, they require specialized equipment to discover them with high probability of detection and to enable accurate determination of orbital parameters. Survey systems are now being implemented that are cataloging many thousands of objects larger than 30 meters, but numerous advantages will result from extending the complete NEO census down to 10 meter diameters. The typical compositions of such NEOs will range from ~80% that are low density dust & rock ``rubble piles'' to perhaps 2% containing heavy metals-properties well known from meteorite samples. It is quite possible that there will also be some fragments of short period comets that are rich in water ice and other volatile components. In this paper we will propose a set of new technologies and strategies for exploiting NEO resources that can yield important space development breakthroughs at much lower costs than existing concepts. Solar powered ``Tugboats'' deployed at the space station can rendezvous with carefully selected NEOs and steer them into captured orbits in the lunar L4 & L5 regions. Robotic equipment will then modify them for a plethora of benefits. Notably, the problem of radiation shielding against the Van Allen belts, solar flares and cosmic rays will be solved. Free transportation from low earth orbit to the moon and beyond will be

  11. The Effect of Technology-Supported Co-Sharing on L2 Vocabulary Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Strategies play an important role in learning a second or foreign language (L2). The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a co-sharing-based strategy learning system for L2 vocabulary learning known as "Mywordtools." Mywordtools is designed specifically for lexical learning, enabling learners to use the currently…

  12. Strategies for Promoting Green Building Technologies Adoption in the Construction Industry-An International Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert Ping Chuen Chan; Amos Darko; Ernest Effah Ameyaw

    2017-01-01

    Because green building technologies (GBTs) adoption is a promising way of ameliorating the sustainability performance of buildings, GBTs are receiving increased interest in the global construction community...

  13. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

    2011-07-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake.

  14. Emerging Technologies in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Ethics: Sufferers' Accounts of Treatment Strategies and Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alina

    2014-09-01

    New neural models for anorexia nervosa (AN) are emerging as a result of increased research on the neurobiology of AN, and these offer a rationale for the development of new treatment technologies such as neuromodulation. The emergence of such treatment technologies raises new ethical questions; however these have been little discussed for AN. In this article, I take an empirical approach and explore how young women who suffer from AN perceive treatment technologies in light of the concept of authenticity. Interview data showed that participants in this study did not seem to unconditionally adhere to treatment modalities that only imply laborious self-work, such as therapy. The data also showed that they were willing to accept new treatment possibilities such as pharmacological or brain-directed treatment strategies, which they view as having potential instrumental value in coping with certain symptoms of the illness. However, such modalities can pose threats to patients' authenticity, especially with regard to self-discovery. I argue that, in a context where there is an increased interest in brain-directed treatment strategies for AN, studies should continue to explore the ethical and psychological impact of such treatment technologies on individuals.

  15. Impact Goals of Research and Development Technology on the Business Strategy of NTT's Fiber-to-the-Home Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    Huge investment is needed for introducing a fiber-to-the-home system, so research and development strategy is very important. Requirements for fiber-to-the-home systems have been increased because communication systems have been recognized as one of the lifelines along with water, electricity, and gas. Furthermore, low energy consumption and recyclable eco-friendliness are required for products. NTT has been challenged to reduce capital expenditure, reduce operational expenditure, and create new applications for expanding the number of fiber-to-the-home subscribers from the viewpoint of a technological approach, including access infrastructure, fiber, transmission, and wireless technologies. Due to continuous and strategic technological development, the number of NTT's fiber-to-the-home subscribers is now over 17 million.

  16. Technological innovation and small-medium enterprises`s strategy; Innovazione tecnologica e strategia delle piccole e medie imprese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddi, Patrizia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-05-01

    The study intend to investigate origin and evolution of concepts on technological innovation as well as enterprises`s strategies, to take the lead from innovative factors present in the economic productive stage. At this purpose, it is considered the theoretical positions of different schools of economic thought with regard to the technological change and to the evolution of the industrial capitalism, comparing the aim of the technological knowledge with the determination of innovation processes, investigating on classification criteria and on economic subjects of the change; then it is examined the connections existing among innovation, enterprises and competitiveness, considering the new contest in which enterprises operate (markets`s globalization, importance of social aspects, etc,) testing the processes of dependent and independent decentralization, starting from 1970, and RS activities. In the share of the study which has empirical characteristic it explored Venetian productive system and the importance of resources, public subjects, privates, others, to innovation.

  17. Key Factors that Influence the Diffusion and Infusion of Information and Communication Technologies in Kenyan Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Jimmy K. N.; Pelser, Theunis G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in the higher education sector, information and communication technology (ICT) provides the impetus for change from the traditional concepts of teaching and learning, as well as prime motivation behind the change in scholarly and professional activities. This underscores the importance of ICT in higher education in…

  18. Key Factors that Influence the Diffusion and Infusion of Information and Communication Technologies in Kenyan Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Jimmy K. N.; Pelser, Theunis G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in the higher education sector, information and communication technology (ICT) provides the impetus for change from the traditional concepts of teaching and learning, as well as prime motivation behind the change in scholarly and professional activities. This underscores the importance of ICT in higher education in…

  19. A Science and Business Equation for Collaborative Corporate Innovation. Business Strategy, IP Strategy, RandD Strategy: an all-in-one Business Model. A review with a Bio-Technology and Green Chemistry Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Rebouillat

    2013-01-01

    Not all the best people work for you... This is likely one of the motivator for open-innovation in terms of future business development. IP, RandD and Business strategies are becoming one. The adjacent technology analysis, ATA©, goes beyond prior art and freedom to operate traditional approaches providing a new role to the IP strategist still preventing excessive lawyering. Coaching and mediating turn out to be part of this role given the broad interdisciplinary and multi-science skills requi...

  20. Two Different Maintenance Strategies in the Hospital Environment: Preventive Maintenance for Older Technology Devices and Predictive Maintenance for Newer High-Tech Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezdi, Mana

    2016-01-01

    A maintenance program generated through the consideration of characteristics and failures of medical equipment is an important component of technology management. However, older technology devices and newer high-tech devices cannot be efficiently managed using the same strategies because of their different characteristics. This study aimed to generate a maintenance program comprising two different strategies to increase the efficiency of device management: preventive maintenance for older technology devices and predictive maintenance for newer high-tech devices. For preventive maintenance development, 589 older technology devices were subjected to performance verification and safety testing (PVST). For predictive maintenance development, the manufacturers' recommendations were used for 134 high-tech devices. These strategies were evaluated in terms of device reliability. This study recommends the use of two different maintenance strategies for old and new devices at hospitals in developing countries. Thus, older technology devices that applied only corrective maintenance will be included in maintenance like high-tech devices.

  1. Organizational technologies for transforming care: measures and strategies for pursuit of IOM quality aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Bolin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Progress on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 6 aims to bridge the "quality chasm" requires both measurement and the concerting of multiple organizational technologies. The basic thesis of this article is that rapid progress on the IOM's multiple aims calls for transformative change within and among healthcare organizations. The promise of a number of types of transformative approaches is closely linked to their ability to simultaneously build upon several organizational technologies: clinical, social, information, and administrative technologies. To encourage and advance such efforts, this article identifies illustrative measures of attainment of the IOM's 6 aims or targeted areas for improvement that reflect the contributions of the 4 organizational technologies. It discusses examples of relationships between the IOM aims and the organizational technologies considered. Finally, the article offers illustrations of the interplay of these organizational technologies and IOM aims-across an array of organizational innovations with transformative potential. Included among such innovations are information technology in the form of electronic medical records, computer-based physician order entry, and patient health records; organization-wide patient-centered cultural change such as Studer's Hardwiring Excellence; Six Sigma and Toyota Production Management/LEAN; major clinical technology change, for example, minimally invasive cardiac surgery and broader treatment innovations such as disease management.

  2. Balancing Technologies for Reverse Supply Chain with Modularity as Strategy for Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vettorato, Giovanna; Hsuan, Juliana

    production activities and modularity in practice. We examine high technology industries and their potential competitiveness implementing reversed supply chain. The main research question addressed in the paper is: How can modularity guide and determine the development of complex technology and subsequently...... contributing to enhancing the efficiency of the reverse supply chain (RSC)?...

  3. Technology Transfer Strategies for Creating Growth Opportunities in Frontier Markets of Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik B.

    be the new growth frontier. Evidence has shown that if countries in SSA where using the same level of technology utilized by industrial countries, income levels in SSA would be significantly higher. The paper aims to address this issue, and study how Danish agriculture firms can use technology transfer...... to create growth opportunities in Frontier Markets of Sub-Saharan Africa....

  4. A 21st Century Science, Technology, and Innovation Strategy for Americas National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    areas. Advanced Computing and Communications The exponential growth of the digital economy, driven by ubiquitous computing and communication...technologies, holds tremendous potential for innovation, economic competitiveness , and national security. New and rapidly evolving technological...weapons- focused R&D, many of the capabilities being developed have significant dual-use potential. Digital connectivity, for instance, brings

  5. Stochastic Diffusion Analysis for Sustainable Green Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenming J. Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sustainability of green innovation under the influence of coopetitive diffusion. We focus on green innovations which repurpose discarded technology accessories for resale. Original manufacturers make every attempt to prevent the use of low-cost replacements. To encourage green innovation, incumbent market leaders need to be provided with business strategies which help them maximize profitability. Using a stochastic differential game from a Lotka–Volterra system, we predict a coopetitive diffusion path among participant stakeholders. We find that green innovation, combined with the positive effect of network externalities can indeed enhance total market growth. Factors such as product characteristics, product pricing, and compatibility protection strategies must interact properly for green innovation to be sustainable.

  6. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part I: theoretical, historical, and contemporary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2011-10-01

    The pioneering work performed in the social sciences on diffusion of innovation can be applied to medical imaging and shed valuable insights as to how innovation is analyzed and adopted within the population of end-users. Successful innovation must take into account unique stakeholder differences, changes in communication and social interactions, and shifting priorities in market economics. The dramatic changes currently underway in current medical imaging practice provides unique innovation opportunities to those individuals and companies which can utilize this knowledge and effect change in objective and reproducible means. Successful innovation should rely upon data-driven objective analysis, which can scientifically validate the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the innovation, when compared with the idea or technology it supercedes.

  7. International mobility technology research: a Delphi study to identify challenges and compensatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferds, Alexandra N; Pearlman, Jon L; Wee, Joy; Cooper, Rory A

    2011-01-01

    We sought to identify logistical and ethical challenges to performing wheelchair-related research in low- and middle-income countries and to generate a list of compensatory strategies to address these challenges. Thirteen individuals with experience in the field participated in an online Delphi study. The surveys asked participants to identify research challenges, suggest strategies to address the selected challenges, and critique each other's strategies. Participants identified challenges in the use of research techniques, compensation for participation that does not result coercion, oral and written translation materials, funding for research, collaboration with local professionals, and "respect for persons." Effective international mobility research requires time, cultural sensitivity, collaboration, and careful planning. An understanding of these requirements can allow researchers to anticipate and compensate for common pitfalls of their work, thus making the research more productive and beneficial to subjects. Future research is required to verify the general effectiveness of compensatory strategies.

  8. Strategies for Corporate Global Expansion of Pakistani Companies in the Age of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jawaid Ahmed Qureshi; Amanat Ali Jalbani

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to meticulously probe about the applications of cutting-edge strategies of globally expanding companies operative in several industrial sectors of Pakistan. Many companies craft and execute various strategies to globalize their operations and networks in several continents, which can not only benefit them but add value in the domestic cum global economy. Many researchers expounded that along with many other factors, capacity-building and competitive edges of business provid...

  9. Strategy Planning of Technology Development for High Speed Railways : Electrical Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Rim, G. H.; Ha, H. D.; Park, K. Y.; Lee, J. D.; Kang, D. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    At the beginning of 1996, Government has set up the Technology Development Program for High Speed Railways as a national project. Accordingly, the detailed action planning has been established with the collaboration works between Ministry of Construction and Transport and Ministry of Commerce and Trade. On the other hand, the current technology status of domestic manufacturer and many related organizations in Korea only reveals the lack of capabilities in producing the high speed trains. Without the technology transfer programs from the advanced foreign manufacturer (GEC-Alsthom), the domestic manufacturers could not produce HSR. Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute has steered the study to integrate the domestic engineering and technology units specialized in the diversified areas by formulating the feasible collaboration structure between KERI and many organizations on the technology basis. The long term action planning both with the strategic guide and on the technology basis shall be the key function to upgrade the current technology status feasibly for development of the advanced high speed train of 350 km/h. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  10. Continuous monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2011-02-01

    Continuous bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients recovering from brain injury could improve the detection of impaired substrate delivery, which can exacerbate injury and worsen outcome. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) provides the ability to monitor perfusion changes continuously, but it is difficult to quantify absolute blood flow - leading to uncertainties as to whether or not CBF has fallen to ischemic levels. To continuously measure CBF, we propose to calibrate DCS data using a single time-point, time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) technique for measuring absolute CBF. Experiments were conducted on newborn piglets in which CBF was increased by raising the arterial tension of CO2 (40-62 mmHg) and decreased by carotid occlusion. For validation, values of CBF measured by TR-NIR were converted into blood flow changes and compared to CBF changes measured by DCS. A strong correlation between perfusion changes from the two techniques was revealed (slope = 0.98 and R2 = 0.96), suggesting that a single time-point CBF measurement by TR-NIR can be used to convert continuous DCS data into units of CBF (ml/100g/min).

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AS AN STRATEGY OF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LATIN AMERICAN CONTEXT: AN APROACHMENT To The VENEZUELAN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Piñeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The new world order demands transdiscipline in the technological scientist advances and the development of countries framed in a holistic vision and strategic approach, able to generate a process with multidirectional character which considers varied participation and from important actors of the communities in the design on strategies for the local development. Is all about assuming new rolls of local public politics. The Municipal Public Power Organic Law (2005, on its 112 article, establishes that inside the functions of the Local Advice of Local Publish Planning, including parochial and communal advices, they are constituted in the main center for the participation and protagonism of the people in the formulation, execution, control and evaluation in the public politics. This it is a new state of local government where scientist, technological, productive and community predominate. In this investigation a descriptive-documentary methodological approach is being followed, referring to the technological management topics and local development specifically Latinoamerica and Venezuela. This work has the objective to give systematized information and some teorical reflections on the local development by the technological management. Finally, we can see it is very low the importance that the technological scientific issue has been taken by the government for the local development, as like the perception on local management like lender of services, adding to this situation the strong inertia of the old styles of local politics, associated to the clientelism, that are limitants as well factors of the own development of the localities.

  12. Benchmarking of control strategies for ATAD technology: a first approach to the automatic control of sludge treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, J A; Gil-Martinez, M; Garcia-Sanz, M; Irizar, I

    2009-01-01

    Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD technology) is a promising alternative to conventional digestion systems. Aeration is a key factor in the performance of these kinds of reactors, in relation to effluent quality and operating costs. At present, the realisation of automatic control in ATADs is in its infancy. Additionally, the lack of robust sensors also makes the control of these processes difficult: only redox potential and temperature sensors are reliable for operation in full-scale plants. Based as it is on the existing simulation protocols for benchmarking of control strategies for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), this paper presents the definition and implementation of a similar protocol but specifically adapted to the needs of ATAD technology. The implemented simulation protocol has been used to validate two different control strategies for aeration (ST1 and ST2). In comparison to an open-loop operation for the ATAD, simulation results showed that the ST1 strategy was able to save aeration costs of around 2-4%. Unlike ST1, ST2 achieved maximum sludge stabilisation but at the expense of higher aeration costs.

  13. Development and implementation of an information management and information technology strategy for improving healthcare services: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memel, D S; Scott, J P; McMillan, D R; Easton, S M; Donelson, S M; Campbell, G; Sheehan, M; Ewing, T N

    2001-01-01

    PeaceHealth is a multistate, not-for-profit integrated delivery network that owns and operates five acute care hospitals, one critical access hospital, and twenty-five outpatient clinics. PeaceHealth employs approximately two hundred physicians and seventy allied health professionals; it has relationships with one thousand affiliated physicians. In 1990, PeaceHealth developed a set of strategic priorities for delivering seamless care across the continuum, and creating partnerships between caregivers and patient-consumers. A major component of these strategies was development and implementation of the technology, knowledge, organizational, and community infrastructures that would support delivering and using high-quality, timely information when and where it is needed for effective clinical, operational, and financial decision making. Executing this strategy has resulted in implementation of standard enterprisewide information systems, including a computer-based patient record system in inpatient and outpatient settings, tactical and strategic decision support systems, a well-developed intranet and access to the Internet, and a knowledgeable workforce that have enabled PeaceHealth to support and improve its services and business by bringing interactive information directly to patients, caregivers, managers, directors, and executives. This case study discusses the drivers behind the development of this strategy, specific components of the information management and information technology infrastructure, examples of the impact they have had on patients, caregivers, and the organization, and lessons learned.

  14. Roadmapping and Strategy in Science, Technology and Innovation: Why connectivity matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    The thesis focuses on the coordination of technology-intensive innovation activities at both sector and firm levels, supported by the use of the strategic roadmapping method. Investigations combine qualitative and quantitative research methods; using a narrative approach in the form of interviews...... to uncover innovation and technology barriers, and a social network analysis of stakeholders’ role in relation to two technology platforms: TPWind and ZEP (Zero Emission Platform), during a five-year period when the roadmaps 2020 were developed. In this respect, the thesis emphasizes the view of innovation...... as an interactive process to develop competences among technology users, producers, research institutions, and politicians. As a result, knowledge on how the platforms evolved, and their dynamics, provide new reflections on the innovation systems approach: that connectivity seems to change along the changes...

  15. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  16. An export strategy and technology networks in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Junko; 水野, 順子

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, trade with Japan has had a deficit since the normalization of Japan-Korea diplomatic relations in 1965. Korea’s trade balance with Japan has remained in deficit since then, although Korean companies have become bigger compared to Japanese companies. My hypothesis is that the problem has been caused because Korea introduced technologies from Japan. However, in recent years Korean companies could not introduce technologies through technical cooperation with Japan like in the 1990s. In...

  17. Advanced Silicon Technology Foundry Access Strategy for DoD Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    TAPO access to 90 nm CMOS and 130 nm BiCMOS • Trust Program – MOSIS access(90nm CMOS) Approved For Public Release, Distribution Unlimited DARPA TEAM...options – TAPO • DOD sponsored IBM access with cost • Limited runs & limited SOA technology – MOSIS • Large MPW schedule • Costs & limited SOA technology...Distribution Unlimited IC Design Flow With MOSIS Product Definition Modeling RTL/Analog Design Synthesis/Simulation Layout Aggregation Mask Making

  18. Groundwater demand management at local scale in rural areas of India: a strategy to ensure water well sustainability based on aquifer diffusivity and community participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Himanshu; Vijay Shankar, P. S.; Deolankar, S. B.; Shah, Mihir

    Watershed development programmes provide an opportunity for sustainable management strategies, although currently, they remain largely `supply-side' mechanisms of water resources development. Hydrogeological conditions, community participation and status of groundwater usage are important in evolving strategies on `demand-side' groundwater management. Neemkheda aquifer is a typical low-storage, low-hydraulic conductivity aquifer from a watershed in the dryland regions of Madhya Pradesh State of central India. A shallow unconfined aquifer, it consists of an upper coarse, calcareous sandstone unit underlain by a fine-grained sandstone unit. A `well commune' of seven wells is poised to test the concept of joint groundwater management, wherein wells are mechanisms of tapping a common water source, the Neemkheda aquifer. The strategy for systematic groundwater management in the Neemkheda well commune is based upon the relationship between Transmissivity (T) and Storage coefficient (S), i.e. aquifer diffusivity, and its variation within the aquifer. Wells within a high diffusivity domain tend to dewater more quickly than wells within a low diffusivity domain. A well-use schedule during the dry season, based upon aquifer diffusivity forms the basis of the groundwater management concept. The distribution of local aquifer diffusivities governs the relationship between local and regional aquifer depletion times and forms the basis of the groundwater management exercise being proposed for the Neemkheda aquifer. Los programas de desarrollo de una cuenca hídrica son una oportunidad para el uso de estrategias de gestión sostenible, aunque hoy en día estas siguen siendo principalmente mecanismos para el desarrollo de recursos hídricos con énfasis en la ``oferta''. Las condiciones hidrogeológicas, la participación comunitaria y la condición de utilización del agua subterránea, son importantes en el desarrollo de estrategias para la gestión del agua subterránea, desde

  19. Web 2.0 technologies at school: formal and informal learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Parmigiani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo presenta uno studio che focalizza le strategie di apprendimento degli alunni della scuola secondaria di primo grado che utilizzano frequentemente le tecnologie e il web 2.0. La ricerca è stata strutturata su tre questioni fondamentali: l’utilizzo del web 2.0 e dei social network supporta negli alunni la motivazione allo studio, la pianificazione e l’autoregolazione dei propri processi di apprendimento e, infine, l’utilizzo di strategie funzionali allo studio? Lo studio sottolinea che alcune potenzialità delle applicazioni 2.0 sono utili per allenare gli alunni ad usare strategie cognitive efficaci, se sostenute da una progettazione e da modelli didattici aperti al problem-solving e alla ricerca-azione.

  20. Research on Chain Diffusion of Low -carbon Technological Innovation Mechanism Based on Evolutionary Game Theory%基于演化博弈理论的低碳技术创新链式扩散机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建中; 徐莹莹

    2015-01-01

    The paper establishes an evolutionary game model between innovation providers and potential adopters in the chain process of low carbon technology innovation diffusion under market mechanism and government regulation based on evolutionary game theory,and explored effects of interaction between innovation providers and potential adopters on macro﹣scopic diffusion.Theoretical study and numerical simulation show that diffusion system can achieve the ideal state when low-carbon technological innovation diffuses successfully and the price of low -carbon technological innovation transformation is controlled within a certain range.Implementation of subsidies and tax cuts has significant positive effect on low -carbon technological innovation diffusion,but punitive measures can easily lead to failure of low -carbon technological innovation diffusion.%基于创新扩散理论,利用演化博弈方法建立市场机制和政府规制下低碳技术创新扩散的链式过程中创新提供者与潜在采纳者间的演化博弈模型,探讨二者间相互作用对宏观扩散的影响机制。理论研究和数值仿真结果表明,市场机制下将低碳技术创新的转移价格控制在一定范围内系统才能达到低碳技术创新成功扩散的理想状态;政府规制下对创新提供者和潜在采纳者实施补贴和减税政策对低碳技术创新扩散有显著正向作用,但采取惩罚措施易导致低碳技术创新扩散的失败。

  1. Rituximab Treatment Strategy for Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma after First-Line Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Rong Ren; Yong-Dong Jin; Zhi-Hui Zhang; Li Li; Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide,doxorubicin,vincristine,and prednisone (CHOP) significantly prolonged event-free survival in first-line chemotherapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).But relapse and refractory DLBCL occur frequently.Although rituximab is effective,its role in salvage therapy after autologous transplant remains unclear.Maintenance therapy with rituximab in responding patients after first line chemotherapy may be a useful novel approach capable of eradicating minimal residual disease and to bring survival benefit.This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effects of rituximab maintenance treatment and salvage therapy of patients with DLBCL.Methods:We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and compared rituximab maintenance or salvage therapy at relapse with observation.We searched the Cochrane Library,PubMed,EMBASE,conference proceedings,databases of ongoing trials,and references of published trials.Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data.Hazard ratios for time-to-event data were estimated and pooled.Results:Seven trials including 1470 DLBCL patients were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis.Patients treated with maintenance rituximab have better overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) than patients in the observation arm,but there was no statistical significance.Patients who received rituximab salvage therapy for relapse or refractory DLBCL have statistically significantly better OS [HR of death =0.72,95% CI (0.55-0.94),P=0.02],progression-free survival (PFS) [HR =0.61,95% CI (0.52-0.72),P< 0.05],odds ratio (OR) [RR =1.26,95% CI (1.07-1.47),P =0.004] than patients in the observation arm.The rate of infection-related adverse events was higher with rituximab treatment [RR =1.37,95% CI =(1.14-1.65) P =0.001].Conclusions:After first-line chemotherapy,the two rituximab

  2. Rituximab Treatment Strategy for Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma after First-Line Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Rong Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP significantly prolonged event-free survival in first-line chemotherapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. But relapse and refractory DLBCL occur frequently. Although rituximab is effective, its role in salvage therapy after autologous transplant remains unclear. Maintenance therapy with rituximab in responding patients after first line chemotherapy may be a useful novel approach capable of eradicating minimal residual disease and to bring survival benefit. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effects of rituximab maintenance treatment and salvage therapy of patients with DLBCL. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and compared rituximab maintenance or salvage therapy at relapse with observation. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, conference proceedings, databases of ongoing trials, and references of published trials. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. Hazard ratios for time-to-event data were estimated and pooled. Results: Seven trials including 1470 DLBCL patients were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Patients treated with maintenance rituximab have better overall survival (OS and event-free survival (EFS than patients in the observation arm, but there was no statistical significance. Patients who received rituximab salvage therapy for relapse or refractory DLBCL have statistically significantly better OS [HR of death = 0.72, 95% CI (0.55-0.94, P = 0.02], progression-free survival (PFS [HR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.52-0.72, P < 0.05], odds ratio (OR [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.07-1.47, P = 0.004] than patients in the observation arm. The rate of infection-related adverse events was higher with rituximab treatment [RR = 1.37, 95% CI = (1.14 - 1.65 P =0.001]. Conclusions: After

  3. Nonmonotonic diffusion in crowded environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzel, Gregory Garbès; Tagliazucchi, Mario; Szleifer, Igal

    2015-01-01

    We study the diffusive motion of particles among fixed spherical crowders. The diffusers interact with the crowders through a combination of a hard-core repulsion and a short-range attraction. The long-time effective diffusion coefficient of the diffusers is found to depend non-monotonically on the strength of their attraction to the crowders. That is, for a given concentration of crowders, a weak attraction to the crowders enhances diffusion. We show that this counterintuitive fact can be understood in terms of the mesoscopic excess chemical potential landscape experienced by the diffuser. The roughness of this excess chemical potential landscape quantitatively captures the nonmonotonic dependence of the diffusion rate on the strength of crowder-diffuser attraction; thus it is a purely static predictor of dynamic behavior. The mesoscopic view given here provides a unified explanation for enhanced diffusion effects that have been found in various systems of technological and biological interest. PMID:25302920

  4. The need for sustainable technology diffusion in mining: Achieving the use of belt conveyor systems in the German hard-rock quarrying industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Braun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of raw materials can be one of the most challenging tasks in open pit mining, with truck transportation representing the largest factor in mining costs and resulting in major greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In this study, the transportation methods of bulk materials within German hard-rock open pit mines were investigated. Approximately 450 quarries were studied for their production tonnage, lease areas, mined rock type as well as mining methods and processing equipment. The results demonstrate that 90% of the operations use truck-based transportation methods, with the remainder relying partly or completely on continuous conveyor-based systems. The installation of continuous conveyors compared to trucks represents a real alternative because of reduced dead load, reduced GHG emissions and in many cases even reduced costs. Thus, for in-pit haulage in quarries sustainable technology substitutions exist that are yet to be adopted by the German quarrying industry. As this study shows, in the future the diffusion of sustainable technologies requires site champions and large-scale case studies that demonstrate their successful introduction in the mining value chain.

  5. Broadening opportunities for job seekers with disabilities: strategies to effectively provide assistive technology in One-Stop centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Boeltzig, Heike; Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Cohen, Allison; Hamner, Doris

    2007-01-01

    The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 mandates that partners in the One-Stop Career Center (One-Stop) system be prepared to serve a diverse customer base, including job seekers with disabilities. For many such individuals, effective service delivery depends in part on the existence of appropriate and efficient assistive technology (AT) options. This article presents challenges experienced by One-Stop partners related to AT provision as well as strategies for providing effective AT support. Findings from case study research conducted in several One-Stops across the country revealed three strategies that have enhanced employment services and addressed barriers. These are (a) an accurate assessment of AT needs, (b) staff training and practice using the equipment, and (c) the ability to make the most of limited financial resources. Implications for the most efficient ways to provide AT options are discussed.

  6. Implementation literacy strategies on health technology theme Learning to enhance Indonesian Junior High School Student's Physics Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranie, Selly; Efendi, Ridwan; Karim, Saeful; Sasmita, Dedi

    2016-08-01

    The PISA results for Indonesian Students are lowest among Asian countries in the past two successive results. Therefore various Innovations in science learning process and its effectiveness enhancing student's science literacy is needed to enrich middle school science teachers. Literacy strategies have been implemented on health technologies theme learning to enhance Indonesian Junior high school Student's Physics literacy in three different health technologies e.g. Lasik surgery that associated with application of Light and Optics concepts, Ultra Sonographer (USG) associated with application of Sound wave concepts and Work out with stationary bike and walking associated with application of motion concepts. Science learning process involves at least teacher instruction, student learning and a science curriculum. We design two main part of literacy strategies in each theme based learning. First part is Integrated Reading Writing Task (IRWT) is given to the students before learning process, the second part is scientific investigation learning process design packed in Problem Based Learning. The first part is to enhance student's science knowledge and reading comprehension and the second part is to enhance student's science competencies. We design a transformation from complexity of physics language to Middle school physics language and from an expensive and complex science investigation to a local material and simply hands on activities. In this paper, we provide briefly how literacy strategies proposed by previous works is redesigned and applied in classroom science learning. Data were analysed using t- test. The increasing value of mean scores in each learning design (with a significance level of p = 0.01) shows that the implementation of this literacy strategy revealed a significant increase in students’ physics literacy achievement. Addition analysis of Avarage normalized gain show that each learning design is in medium-g courses effectiveness category

  7. Two Different Maintenance Strategies in the Hospital Environment: Preventive Maintenance for Older Technology Devices and Predictive Maintenance for Newer High-Tech Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mana Sezdi

    2016-01-01

    A maintenance program generated through the consideration of characteristics and failures of medical equipment is an important component of technology management. However, older technology devices and newer high-tech devices cannot be efficiently managed using the same strategies because of their different characteristics. This study aimed to generate a maintenance program comprising two different strategies to increase the efficiency of device management: preventive maintenance for older tec...

  8. Investment Strategy of Emission-Reduction Technology in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiang Lou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions have serious impacts on the natural environment. Therefore, the restrictions imposed on carbon emission force enterprises to take carbon emission into consideration when making production decisions. In this paper, in the context of allowing emission trading and investment of emission reduction technology, models were presented for a two-stage supply chain to analyze the optimal investment and pricing decisions. The results indicate that manufacturer’s endurance capacity of reduction difficulty is higher in the cooperation model than in the Stackelberg game model, and that perfect coordination of supply chains can be realized by a revenue sharing contract. From the perspective of a consumer, low-carbon products mean higher price, so that subsidies or tax exemptions should be provided to keep low prices. Meanwhile, the government can promote investment in emission-reduction technologies and achieve its emission reduction targets by controlling emission trading price, strengthening emission reduction publicity and providing technology investment subsidies.

  9. Solar Thermal Technologies Dynamics and Strategies for Market Creation in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to sketch Sindh's RE (Renewable Energy based scenario, it is vital to trace the dynamics of simplest RETs (Renewable Energy Technologies such as STTs (Solar Thermal Technologies. STTs are simple to operate, easy to maintain and requires low cost of fabrication. Due to these advantages, STTs possess scope for mass market creation in Sindh as can provide alternate energy solutions to meet daily fuel requirements of heating and cooking etc. The paper identifies that the low awareness creates a negative perception about the price and efficiency of these technologies in masses, which can be removed once the awareness increases. This paper consists of survey findings, which traces the trends for STTs utilization in Sindh by testing various hypotheses to identify the suitable tactics required for their market creation. Finally the key policy recommendations are provided at the end.

  10. Using Technology-Based Strategies to Change Drug-Related Attitudes and First-Time Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ben; Roblyer, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that a solid pre-trial drug intervention program is a vital first step in educating first-time offenders about the seriousness of drug abuse and criminal behavior, staff at the Intervention Program for Substance Abusers in Montgomery County, Maryland's Department of Correction and Rehabilitation decided that better strategies were…

  11. Technology and task parameters relating to the effectiveness of the bracing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.; Wang, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The bracing strategy has been proposed in various forms as a way to improve robot performance. One version of the strategy employs independent stages of motion. The first stage, referred to as the large or bracing arm, carries the second stage of motion. After the first stage has completed its motion it is braced to provide a more rigid base of motion with a more accurate relationship to the parts to be manipulated. The hypothesis is that more rapid completion of certain tasks is possible with lighter arms using the bracing strategy. While it is easy to make conceptual arguments why this should be so, it is less easy to specify even approximately when this will be true for some reasonably generic situation. There is no relevant experience base with bracing arms to be compared to non-bracing arms. Furthermore, if one were interested in obtaining such practical experience, there would be no methodical guidance on the selection of an interesting case, one in which the unproven approach, bracing, can show its superiority. If one such case exists, only the extent of applicability of the new approach is in question. One set of interesting cases is likely to be applications in which a large workspace must be covered, but where a series of small accurate moves will remain within a smaller region of the total workspace. A prototype application with these characteristics is set up and a skeleton design of arms using the competing strategies are compared.

  12. Integrating Scaffolding Strategies into Technology-Enhanced Assessments of English Learners: Task Types and Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…

  13. Integrating Scaffolding Strategies into Technology-Enhanced Assessments of English Learners: Task Types and Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…

  14. A Perspective for Developing Strategies for Utilizing New Communication Technologies in Public Relations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, John A.; Masel-Walters, Lynne

    Based on a definition of public relations that recognizes the field as a purposeful management function, this paper provides a perspective on public relations to help practitioners develop strategies for the use of new media forms in public relations programs. The paper begins with a historical review of mass media effects research and proceeds…

  15. Investigation of Technological University Students' Use of Metacognitive Reading Strategies in First and Second Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Yi-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    Reading, whether the reader's First language, L1 or Second language, L2, is a cognitive enterprise, and it can be treated as a result of the interaction among the reader, the text, and the context. Metacognitive strategies refer to the behaviours applied by learners to plan, arrange, and evaluate their learning. This study aimed to investigate…

  16. Internationalisation strategies of technology-driven small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, Gerda; Brand, Maryse; Sorge, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    SMEs are increasingly active in international markets. Absence of sufficient resources limits the strategic options available to SMEs. This study examines SMEs' use of the cooperation strategy to internationalise, both from a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective. An analysis of data collecte

  17. Balancing Technologies for Reverse Supply Chain with Modularity as Strategy for Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vettorato, Giovanna; Hsuan, Juliana

    In this paper we review applications, case studies, models and techniques proposed for the design and optimization of reverse logistics systems according to the principle of modularity. Based on these studies we give an overview of scientific literature that describes and discusses cases of reverse...... production activities and modularity in practice. We examine high technology industries and their potential competitiveness implementing reversed supply chain. The main research question addressed in the paper is: How can modularity guide and determine the development of complex technology and subsequently...... contributing to enhancing the efficiency of the reverse supply chain (RSC)?...

  18. [Strategy and core technologies for the secondary development of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagn, Bo-Li; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yang; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Chegn, Yi-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Secondary development of Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM) is an effective and innovation-driven way for the leaping development of Chinese medicine industry with less investment and faster return. Aim to improving the efficacy, safety and batch-to-batch consistency of CPMs, the theory and methodology for the secondary development of CPMs, mode for cultivating superior CPM, approaches to reforming the pharmaceutical technology and the corresponding core technologies were proposed in this paper, which is summarized as 'One objective, Three analyses, Five definitudes and Seven improvements'.

  19. Balancing Technologies for Reverse Supply Chain with Modularity as Strategy for Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vettorato, Giovanna; Hsuan, Juliana

    production activities and modularity in practice. We examine high technology industries and their potential competitiveness implementing reversed supply chain. The main research question addressed in the paper is: How can modularity guide and determine the development of complex technology and subsequently...... contributing to enhancing the efficiency of the reverse supply chain (RSC)?......In this paper we review applications, case studies, models and techniques proposed for the design and optimization of reverse logistics systems according to the principle of modularity. Based on these studies we give an overview of scientific literature that describes and discusses cases of reverse...

  20. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  1. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part II: A review of potential technologies and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Environmental legislation is increasing the amounts of bought-in electricity required for sewage treatment, and generating larger volumes of sewage sludge to be treated and disposed of. Concurrently, concerns over global warming and food safety from sewage sludge recycling on agricultural land is augmenting the costs of conventional sewage and sludge treatment technologies and practices. This paper reviews some emerging technologies and practices that may assist in mitigating these problems in the future. In addition, a number of potential renewable energy technologies available to water companies are reviewed. Results suggest that through the take-up of new technologies, current and future water quality standards could be delivered in a more sustainable way. However, this series of papers also highlights that institutional and political conflicts may have inadvertently failed to recognise the wider effects of improving water quality and lessened the financial support necessary for their widespread take-up. It is also suggested that through the use of a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approach, stakeholders could gain a better understanding of the broader environmental effects of achieving certain water quality standards and develop policy and long-term investment strategies accordingly. However, to fulfill the information requirements of an SEA, an appropriate appraisal tool that considers many of these factors in unison is required, and a possible technique is suggested.

  2. Strategies for Maximizing Successful Drug Substance Technology Transfer Using Engineering, Shake-Down, and Wet Test Runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sushil; Bain, David; Bowers, John; Larivee, Victor; Leira, Francisco; Xie, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The technology transfer of biological products is a complex process requiring control of multiple unit operations and parameters to ensure product quality and process performance. To achieve product commercialization, the technology transfer sending unit must successfully transfer knowledge about both the product and the process to the receiving unit. A key strategy for maximizing successful scale-up and transfer efforts is the effective use of engineering and shake-down runs to confirm operational performance and product quality prior to embarking on good manufacturing practice runs such as process performance qualification runs. We consider key factors to consider in making the decision to perform shake-down or engineering runs. We also present industry benchmarking results of how engineering runs are used in drug substance technology transfers alongside the main themes and best practices that have emerged. Our goal is to provide companies with a framework for ensuring the "right first time" technology transfers with effective deployment of resources within increasingly aggressive timeline constraints.

  3. Diffusion of Responsibility in College Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍珍

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion of responsibility takes place in college classes nowadays.The author points out diffusion of responsibility in college classes,analyses psychological reasons of diffusion of responsibility,and gives strategies on avoiding the diffusion of responsibility.The paper aims at doing some contribution to improving teaching quality of college class.

  4. Pathways to excellence: A Federal strategy for science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This Strategic Plan was developed by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) through its Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR), with representatives from 16 Federal agencies. Based on two years of coordinated interagency effort, the Plan confirms the Federal Government's commitment to ensuring the health and well-being of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education at all levels and in all sectors (i.e., elementary and secondary, undergraduate, graduate, public understanding of science, and technology education). The Plan represents the Federal Government's efforts to develop a five-year planning framework and associated milestones that focus Federal planning and the resources of the participating agencies toward achieving the requisite or expected level of mathematics and science competence by all students. The priority framework outlines the strategic objectives, implementation priorities, and components for the Strategic Plan and serves as a road map for the Plan. The Plan endorses a broad range of ongoing activities, including continued Federal support for graduate education as the backbone of our country's research and development enterprise. The Plan also identifies three tiers of program activities with goals that address issues in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education meriting special attention. Within each tier, individual agency programs play important and often unique roles that strengthen the aggregate portfolio. The three tiers are presented in descending order of priority: (1) reforming the formal education system; (2) expanding participation and access; and (3) enabling activities.

  5. Strategies to Increase Representation of Students with Disabilities in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeffry L.; Massiha, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    As a nation wrestles with the need to train more professionals, persons with disabilities are undereducated and underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The following project was proposed to increase representation of students with disabilities in the STEM disciplines. The program emphasizes an integrated…

  6. Creating an Intentional Web Presence: Strategies for Every Educational Technology Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Patrick R.; Dunlap, Joanna C.; Stitson, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Educators are pushing for students, specifically graduates, to be digitally literate in order to successfully read, write, contribute, and ultimately compete in the global market place. Educational technology professionals, as a unique type of learning professional, need to be not only digitally literate--leading and assisting teachers and…

  7. Using Educational Technology as an Institutional Teaching and Learning Improvement Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, educational technology is identified as crucial to addressing many scale issues around higher education learning and teaching. However, such projects are often run with the technical project goals achieved but the educational goals unrealised. Further, in an age of austerity, all investments must be closely scrutinised as to their…

  8. High throughput screening strategies and technology platforms for detection of pathogens: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, foodborne pathogens are a major public health concern. In this chapter, we provide a broad description of the problem of food-borne diseases and current and future detection technologies for food safety assurance and prevention of foodborne illnesses. Current detection approaches include s...

  9. Overview of CERN Technology Transfer Strategy and Accelerator-Related Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Chesta, E; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S; Stora, T; Chiggiato, P; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is actively engaged in identifying technologies developed for its accelerator complex that could be profitably used by partner research organizations or commercial companies in applications with potentially high socio-economic impact beyond pure fundamental physics research. \

  10. Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing demographic and reproductive challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren; Devroey, Paul; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    The decline in the total fertility rate in the latter half of the 20th century in many European countries is becoming increasingly important in determining the demographic composition of Europe and its individual member states. This review focuses on discussion surrounding how assisted reproductive...... technology (ART) can impact declining fertility rates....

  11. Perceptions of a Mobile Technology on Learning Strategies in the Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Chandler H.; Ohara, Peter T.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer new opportunities to improve dissection learning. This study examined the effect of using an iPad-based multimedia dissection manual during anatomy laboratory instruction on learner's perception of anatomy dissection activities and use of time. Three experimental dissection tables used iPads and three tables served as a…

  12. Design strategies for future lithography technologies (or: OPC will never die)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Franklin M.

    2003-06-01

    Resolution Enhancement Technologies (RETs) have extended the life of optical lithography well into the regimes of k1=0.3. Although there are a number of RTEs widely in use now, all involve some degree of optical and process correction (OPC). This puts additional strain on the data handling and management capabilities for process calibration and mask preparation. Alternative lithogrpahic technologies, such as Extreme UV (EUV), electron projection lithography (EPL), direct-write maskless lithography (MLL), and even nanoimprint techniques have been proposed and are under rapid development. All these alternatives create patterns usinga wavelength (or the dimension of the writing tool itself) smaller than the desired feature. Since these should confortably increase k1 back to the values enjoyed many years ago, it is generally assumed that the issues associated with OPC and the data management for RETs will go away. This is not true. Although these will no longer have "optical proximity" effects to compensate, each of these processes introduces its own signature of distortions, which in turn will require compensation and the associated data management. In this paper, we will inventory the state of development for each of these technologies, and outline the expected compensations and requirements palced on data management that are associated with the adoption of the technology. These effects include electron proximity effects and pattern stitching for EPL, Flare induced proximity effects for EUV, gray scale mapping for various maskless techniques, and even local process biasing for various nanoimprint approaches.

  13. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  14. On Optimization of Promotion Strategies for Cross-regional Diffusion of New Product%新产品跨区域扩散的促销策略优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡知能; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    针对新产品跨区域的扩散问题,将市场分为本地市场和外地市场,并考虑本地市场对外地市场产生的影响.通过改进的Bass扩散模型,进行以价格策略组合和免费商品赠送为促销策略的优化分析,探讨区域扩散过程中两地市场的扩散情形.数值分析结果表明:在产品促销策略中,赠样会促进产品扩散,渗透价格策略最优;本地市场对外地市场产品的扩散存在促进作用;考虑重复购买行为时,促销策略产生的效果不变.灵敏度分析表明外部影响率对各自市场的赠样水平存在较大的负影响,但对非自身市场负影响较小;本地市场对外地市场的影响率和/或批量购买量越大,本地市场就越值得采用赠样,但外地市场则越不值得.%For regional diffusion of a new product, this paper divides product market into a local market and a foreign market and presents a model group of regional diffusion of new product,considering the impact of the local market on the foreign market. Then, based on the improved Bass diffusion model, the paper explores the effect of pricing mix, the optimum promotion mix, and the diffusion process of the local and the foreign market. The analysis of model group indicates below:for promotion strategies,sampling can promote the diffusion of the new product; penetration price strategy is the best one. In addition, the diffusion of the local market has a positive influence on the diffusion of the foreign market; promotion strategies have the same effect when considering repeat purchase. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the external innovation coefficients have more negative impact for self-market, but less for non-self market;as the effect of the local market on the foreign market, and/or the multiple units of purchase increase, the local market is more using sampling; however, the foreign market is worthess.

  15. Diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  16. The Strategy and Technology Selection for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-Min; FENG Yong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The emission control of non-CO2 greenhouse gases is conducive to slowing down global warming. It is also helpful in controlling environmental pollution, and beneficial in improving the local health benefits. This paper aims at six kinds of non-CO2 greenhouse gases under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). This paper analyzes the emission status and trend of China’s non-CO2 greenhouse gases, and provides some technology selections for non-CO2 emission reduction. Through strategic policy arrangements and appropriate technology choices, China can gain environmental protection and greenhouse gas control.

  17. Strategic Technological Sourcing Decisions in the Context of Timing and Market Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gerhard, D.; Voigt, K.-I.

    2014-01-01

    In times of changing business models and international competition, there is an inherent need for companies to foster and develop mechanisms to absorb new technologies for innovative products and processes effectively. Such considerations lead to the strategic make-or-buy decision which was the s......In times of changing business models and international competition, there is an inherent need for companies to foster and develop mechanisms to absorb new technologies for innovative products and processes effectively. Such considerations lead to the strategic make-or-buy decision which...... was the subject of our research. This quantitative explanatory study in the German industry shows in particular that companies base their decision for internal or external sourcing on multiple weighted criteria with scoring models and, even more common, with portfolio matrices. These results are in common...... with the proposed characteristics of these strategic focuses in literature. Implications for theory and practice are given to foster future research in this area....

  18. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  19. Non-invasive Prenatal Testing: Technologies, Clinical Assays and Implementation Strategies for Women's Healthcare Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Amy; Sehnert, Amy J; Bhatt, Sucheta

    2013-06-01

    The field of prenatal genetic testing has exploded with new non-invasive technologies and test options in the past several years. It is challenging for women's healthcare providers to keep up with the multitude of publications and provide patients with the most accurate and up-to-date information possible regarding prenatal testing. In this article, we examine the sequencing technologies that provide the framework for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and review the major North American NIPT clinical validation studies published in 2011 and 2012. This paper also compares and contrasts the commercially available non-invasive prenatal tests in the United States, discusses clinical implementation recommendations from professional societies and highlights considerations for genetic counseling.

  20. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Chidozie Chinedu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher order thinking skills (HOTS should be an integral part of teaching and learning especially at the higher education level. Thinking skills lessons should be part of the curriculum if students are to solve problems individually, cooperatively and creatively. Teachers on the other hand must be conversant with relevant techniques needed for teaching higher order thinking. An in-depth review of literature reveals that teachers are faced with the problem of how to prepare and teach higher order thinking skills in design and technology education. This paper is a library based work; and data were collected from textbooks, journal articles and internet search. The paper critically examined existing practices in the teaching of higher order thinking skills in design and technology education. Some of the key features mentioned were the use of concept, inferences, visualization, and schemas, among others. Recommendations for practice change were made regarding the development of HOTS.