WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology chilled water

  1. Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-15

    As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

  2. Targeting and design of chilled water network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, Dominic C.Y.; Ng, Denny K.S.; Leong, Malwynn K.Y.; Chew, Irene M.L.; Subramaniam, Mahendran; Aziz, Ramlan; Lee, Jui-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimum flowrate targeting for chilled water network. • Mixed series/parallel configuration of chilled water-using units. • Integrated cooling and chilled water networks. - Abstract: Chilled water is a common cooling agent used in various industrial, commercial and institutional facilities. In conventional practice, chilled water is distributed via chilled water networks (CHWNs) in parallel configuration to provide required air conditioning and/or equipment cooling in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In this paper, process integration approach based on pinch analysis technique is used to address energy efficiency issues in the CHWN system for grassroots design problem. Graphical and algebraic targeting techniques are developed to identify the minimum chilled water flowrate needed to remove a given amount of heat load from the CHWN. Doing this leads to higher chilled water return temperature and enhanced energy efficiency of the HVAC system. A recent proposed network design technique is extended to synthesize the CHWN in a mixed series/parallel configuration. A novel concept of integrated cooling and chilled water networks (IWN) is also proposed in this work, with its targeting and design techniques presented. Hypothetical examples and an industrial case study are solved to elucidate the proposed approaches

  3. Chilled water optimization at Beek INEOS PVC Plant : ammonia cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami Alaghinloo, B.

    2012-01-01

    In BEEK INEOS PVC plant, polymerization takes place in a suspension process in twenty reactors in five lines. As the reaction is exothermic, a 17MW chilled water unit (CWU) removing heat from reactors which are producing different grades in batch processes. The objective of the project was to

  4. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hu; Li, Xin-hong; Cheng, Peng-sheng; Xu, Bu-gong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  5. An operational experience with cooling tower water system in chilling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Manju B.; Roy, Ankan; Ravi, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    Cooling towers are popular in industries as a very effective evaporative cooling technology for air conditioning. Supply of chilled water to air conditioning equipments of various plant buildings and cooling tower water to important equipments for heat removal is the purpose of chilling plant at PRPD. The cooling medium used is raw water available at site. Water chemistry is maintained by make-up and blowdown. In this paper, various observations made during plant operation and equipment maintenance are discussed. The issues observed was scaling and algal growth affecting the heat transfer and availability of the equipment. Corrosion related issues were observed to be less significant. Scaling indices were calculated to predict the behavior. (author)

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  7. Energetic optimization of the chilled water systems operation at hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reineris Montero Laurencio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hotel exploitation, while continuing to satisfy the customers, needs to decrease the requests of electric power as the principal energy carrier. Solving issues regarding the occupation of a hotel integrally, taking the air conditioning as center of attention, which demands the bigger consumptions of electricity, results in a complex task. To solve this issue, a procedure was implemented to optimize the operation of the water-chilled systems. The procedure integrates an energy model with a strategy of low occupation following energetic criteria based on combinatorial-evolutionary criteria. To classify the information, the formulation of the tasks and the synthesis of the solutions, a methodology of analysis and synthesis of engineering is used. The energetic model considers the variability of the local climatology and the occupation of the selected rooms, and includes: the thermal model of the building obtained by means of artificial neural networks, the hydraulic model and the model of the compression work. These elements allow to find the variable of decision occupation, performing intermediate calculations to obtain the velocity of rotation in the centrifugal pump and the output temperature of the cooler water, minimizing the requirements of electric power in the water-chilled systems. To evaluate the states of the system, a combinatorial optimization is used through the following methods: simple exhaustive, stepped exhaustive or genetic algorithm depending on the quantity of variants of occupation. All calculation tasks and algorithms of the procedure were automated through a computer application.

  8. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  9. Performance Monitoring of Chilled-Water Distribution Systems Using HVAC-Cx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Natascha Milesi; Galler, Michael A; Bushby, Steven T

    2017-01-01

    In this research we develop, test, and demonstrate the newest extension of the software HVAC-Cx (NIST and CSTB 2014), an automated commissioning tool for detecting common mechanical faults and control errors in chilled-water distribution systems (loops). The commissioning process can improve occupant comfort, ensure the persistence of correct system operation, and reduce energy consumption. Automated tools support the process by decreasing the time and the skill level required to carry out necessary quality assurance measures, and as a result they enable more thorough testing of building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. This paper describes the algorithm, developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to analyze chilled-water loops and presents the results of a passive monitoring investigation using field data obtained from BACnet ® (ASHRAE 2016) controllers and presents field validation of the findings. The tool was successful in detecting faults in system operation in its first field implementation supporting the investigation phase through performance monitoring. Its findings led to a full energy retrocommissioning of the field site.

  10. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  11. Survivability of chilled water networks on board ships when using dincs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Fast reaction is required when a chilled water distribution network on board a naval ship is damaged. Without immediate isolation of the leakage area, all water supply is lost soon, with immense consequences for the ship’s operational state. The only solution for that is using an automated recovery

  12. Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical Vapour Compression Chiller at Elevated Chilled Water Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2017-05-18

    The performance of a Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) chiller is experimentally investigated under operating conditions suitable for sensible cooling. With the emergence of the energy efficient dehumidification systems, it is possible to decouple the latent load from the MVC chillers which can be operated at higher chilled water temperature for handling sensible cooling load. In this article, the performance of the chiller is evaluated at the elevated chilled water outlet temperatures (7 – 17° C) at various coolant temperatures (28 – 32° C) and flow rates (ΔT = 4 and 5° C) for both full- and part-load conditions. Keeping the performance at the AHRI standard as the baseline condition, the efficacy of the chiller in terms of compression ratio, cooling capacity and COP at aforementioned conditions is quantified experimentally. It is observed that for each one-degree Celsius increase in the chilled water temperature, the COP of the chiller improves by about 3.5% whilst the cooling capacity improvement is about 4%. For operation at 17° C chilled water outlet temperature, the improvements in COP and cooling capacity are between 37 – 40% and 40 – 45%, respectively, compared to the performance at the AHRI standards. The performance of the MVC chiller at the abovementioned operation conditions is mapped on the chiller performance characteristic chart.

  13. Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical Vapour Compression Chiller at Elevated Chilled Water Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chua, Kian Jon; Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) chiller is experimentally investigated under operating conditions suitable for sensible cooling. With the emergence of the energy efficient dehumidification systems, it is possible to decouple the latent load from the MVC chillers which can be operated at higher chilled water temperature for handling sensible cooling load. In this article, the performance of the chiller is evaluated at the elevated chilled water outlet temperatures (7 – 17° C) at various coolant temperatures (28 – 32° C) and flow rates (ΔT = 4 and 5° C) for both full- and part-load conditions. Keeping the performance at the AHRI standard as the baseline condition, the efficacy of the chiller in terms of compression ratio, cooling capacity and COP at aforementioned conditions is quantified experimentally. It is observed that for each one-degree Celsius increase in the chilled water temperature, the COP of the chiller improves by about 3.5% whilst the cooling capacity improvement is about 4%. For operation at 17° C chilled water outlet temperature, the improvements in COP and cooling capacity are between 37 – 40% and 40 – 45%, respectively, compared to the performance at the AHRI standards. The performance of the MVC chiller at the abovementioned operation conditions is mapped on the chiller performance characteristic chart.

  14. Pulsed-plasma gas-discharge inactivation of microbial pathogens in chilled poultry wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, N J; Espie, S; Harrower, J; Anderson, J G; Marsili, L; MacGregor, S J

    2007-12-01

    A pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (PPGD) system was developed for the novel decontamination of chilled poultry wash water. Treatment of poultry wash water in the plasma generation chamber for up to 24 s at 4 degrees C reduced Escherichia coli NCTC 9001, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560, Campylobacter coli ATCC 33559, Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 9863, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 4931, and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 populations to non-detectable levels ( or = 3 log CFU/ml) in recalcitrant B. cereus NCTC 11145 endospore numbers within 30 s, the level of endospore reduction was dependent on the nature of the sparged gas used in the plasma treatments. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that significant damage occurred at the cellular level in PPGD-treated test organisms. This electrotechnology delivers energy in intense ultrashort bursts, generating products such as ozone, UV light, acoustic and shock waves, and pulsed electric fields that have multiple bactericidal properties. This technology offers an exciting complementary or alternative approach for treating raw poultry wash water and for preventing cross-contamination in processing environments.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water System Design Description. System 47-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water (VPSCHW) system. The discussion that follows is limited to the VPSCHW system and its interfaces with associated systems. The reader's attention is directed to Drawings H-1-82162, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid PandID Vacuum System, and H-1-82224, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Process Chilled Water PandID. Figure 1-1 shows the location and equipment arrangement for the VPSCHW system. The VPSCHW system provides chilled water to the Vacuum Purge System (VPS). The chilled water provides the ability to condense water from the multi-canister overpack (MCO) outlet gases during the MCO vacuum and purge cycles. By condensing water from the MCO purge gas, the VPS can assist in drying the contents of the MCO

  16. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  17. Use mobile pumps and liquid chilling water units to provide chilled water for nuclear reactor during nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guobin; Feng Jiaxuan

    2012-01-01

    From the nuclear accident in Japan Fuksuhima in March this year, despite a shut down of the reactor, the residue heat inside the reactor was not able to remove due to the failure of the cooling system and it finally caused the catastrophe. It was observed that when the failure of the cooling system after an earthquake of magnitude 9 and a tsunami of 28 meters height, the containment vessel for the reactor core was still able to maintain its integrity in the first 24 hours before the first explosion was happened. A backup emergency heat removal system for nuclear power plants using mo- bile pumps and liquid chilling units has been proposed 20 years ago by Cheung [Ref. 1]. Due to the fact that there are more than 400 nuclear power plants around the world and 10% of them are located in earthquake active zone, together with the aging of some of the power plants which were built more than 30 years ago, the risk of another nuclear accident becomes high. An emergency safety measure has to be designed in order to deal with the unforeseen scenario. This re- port re-visits the proposal again; to re-design to the suit the need and to integrate with the current situation of the nuclear industry. (authors)

  18. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line.

  19. Combining active chilled beams and air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    This project is part of a long-term research programme to study the possibilities of using efficient air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor air quality in buildings. The purpose of this part of the project was to study the energy-saving potential of combining the cooling and cleaning of ...... than 5 Pa (0.104 Ibf /ft2). Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 h-1. However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging heat was reduced by 38%....

  20. Combining active chilled beams and air cleaning technologies to improve indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    This project is part of a long-term research programme studying the possibilities of using efficient air cleaning technologies to improve the indoor air quality in buildings. The purpose of this part of the project is to study energy-saving potential by combining cooling and cleaning of air in of....... Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 (h-1). However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging the heat reduced by 38%....

  1. Dynamic modeling of stratification for chilled water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Kahar; Al Khaireed, Syed Muhammad Nasrul; Ariffin, Mohd Kamal; Senawi, Mohd Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    Air conditioning of buildings can be costly and energy consuming. Application of thermal energy storage (TES) reduces cost and energy consumption. The efficiency of the overall operation is affected by storage tank sizing design, which affects thermal stratification of water during charging and discharging processes in TES system. In this study, numerical simulation is used to determine the relationship between tank size and good thermal stratification. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD) and inlet Reynolds number (Re) are investigated. The effect of the number of diffuser holes is also studied. For shallow tanks (low HD) simulations, no acceptable thermocline thickness can be seen for all Re experimented. Partial mixing is observed throughout the process. Medium HD tanks simulations show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water can be seen. Finally, deep tanks (high HD) show less acceptable thermocline thickness as compared to that of medium HD tanks. From this study, doubling and halving the number of diffuser holes show no significant effect on the thermocline behavior

  2. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  3. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  4. Improved energy performance of air cooled centrifugal chillers with variable chilled water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers how to apply optimum condensing temperature control and variable chilled water flow to increase the coefficient of performance (COP) of air cooled centrifugal chillers. A thermodynamic model for the chillers was developed and validated using a wide range of operating data and specifications. The model considers real process phenomena, including capacity control by the inlet guide vanes of the compressor and an algorithm to determine the number and speed of condenser fans staged based on a set point of condensing temperature. Based on the validated model, it was found that optimizing the control of condensing temperature and varying the evaporator's chilled water flow rate enable the COP to increase by 0.8-191.7%, depending on the load and ambient conditions. A cooling load profile of an office building in a subtropical climate was considered to assess the potential electricity savings resulting from the increased chiller COP and optimum staging of chillers and pumps. There is 16.3-21.0% reduction in the annual electricity consumption of the building's chiller plant. The results of this paper provide useful information on how to implement a low energy chiller plant

  5. A corporate water footprint case study: The production of Gazpacho, a chilled vegetable soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivas Ibáñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the water footprint (WF for 1 L of gazpacho, a chilled vegetable soup produced by an agrifood company located in south-eastern Spain, one of the driest regions in Europe. An overview of the main environmental impacts of its WF was carried out by identifying hotspots (high risks areas based on a Water Stress indicator. The total WF calculated for 1 L gazpacho is 580.5 L, which mostly stems from the supply chain (99.9%, olive oil being the major contributor to total WF despite the very low amount used (2%. Most of the WF comes from green water (69%, 23% from blue and 8% represents the grey water. Pollution due to micropollutants such as pesticides, which are not yet regulated, has been taken into account in the WF calculation, pointing out that new regulation of micropollutants is needed to avoid their exclusion in the operational grey WF.

  6. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    . The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing......Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... of Baltic Sea cod. Therefore, addition of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl to Baltic Sea cod fillets was evaluated and shown to protect P, phosphoreum against fro::en storage inactivation and this explained the observed differences in growth of the spoilage bacteria and trimethylamine production between thawed...

  7. Assessment of electrical stunning in fresh water of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and chilling in ice water for loss of consciousness and sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate loss of consciousness and sensibility after electrical stunning in fresh water and live chilling in ice water for slaughter of African catfish using measurement of electrical brain and heart activity. To provoke immediate loss of consciousness and

  8. Oxidative Stress Associated with Chilling Injury in Immature Fruit: Postharvest Technological and Biotechnological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Manzano, Susana; Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-07-08

    Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits.

  9. Evaluation of an Extremum Seeking Control Based Optimization and Sequencing Strategy for a Chilled-water Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhongfan; Li, Yaoyu; Mu, Baojie; Salsbury, Timothy I.; House, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Chilled-water plants with multiple chillers account for a significant fraction of energy use in large commercial buildings. Real-time optimization and sequencing of such plants is thus critical for building energy efficiency. Due to the cost and complexity associated with calibrating a chiller plant model to field operation, model-free control has become an attractive solution. Recently, Mu et al. (2015) proposed a model-free real-time optimization and sequencing strategy based on extremum se...

  10. Modeling Chilled-Water Storage System Components for Coupling to a Small Modular Reactor in a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misenheimer, Corey Thomas

    The intermittency of wind and solar power puts strain on electric grids, often forcing carbonbased and nuclear sources of energy to operate in a load-follow mode. Operating nuclear reactors in a load-follow fashion is undesirable due to the associated thermal and mechanical stresses placed on the fuel and other reactor components. Various Thermal Energy Storage (TES) elements and ancillary energy applications can be coupled to nuclear (or renewable) power sources to help absorb grid instabilities caused by daily electric demand changes and renewable intermittency, thereby forming the basis of a candidate Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES). During the warmer months of the year in many parts of the country, facility air-conditioning loads are significant contributors to the increase in the daily peak electric demand. Previous research demonstrated that a stratified chilled-water storage tank can displace peak cooling loads to off-peak hours. Based on these findings, the objective of this work is to evaluate the prospect of using a stratified chilled-water storage tank as a potential TES reservoir for a nuclear reactor in a NHES. This is accomplished by developing time-dependent models of chilled-water system components, including absorption chillers, cooling towers, a storage tank, and facility cooling loads appropriate for a large office space or college campus, as a callable FORTRAN subroutine. The resulting TES model is coupled to a high-fidelity mPower-sized Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Simulator, with the goal of utilizing excess reactor capacity to operate several sizable chillers in order to keep reactor power constant. Chilled-water production via single effect, lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chillers is primarily examined in this study, although the use of electric chillers is briefly explored. Absorption chillers use hot water or low-pressure steam to drive an absorption-refrigeration cycle. The mathematical framework for a high-fidelity dynamic

  11. Optimal design and operation of a thermal storage system for a chilled water plant serving pharmaceutical buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, Gregor P. [University of Nebraska, Architectural Engineering, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Biffar, Bernd; Kohn, Dietmar [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Biberach D-88400 (Germany); Becker, Martin P. [University of Applied Sciences Biberach, Architectural Engineering, Biberach D-88400 (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A group of buildings in the pharmaceutical industry located in Southern Germany is experiencing a trend of growing cooling loads to be met by the chilled water plant composed of 10 chillers of greatly varying cost effectiveness. With a capacity shortfall inevitable, the question arises whether to install an additional chiller or improve the utilization of the existing chillers, in particular those with low operating costs per unit cooling, through the addition of a chilled water thermal energy storage (TES) system. To provide decision support in this matter, an optimization environment was developed and validated that adopts mixed integer programming as the approach to optimizing the chiller dispatch for any load condition, while an overarching dynamic programming based optimization approach optimizes the charge/discharge strategy of the TES system. In this fashion, the chilled water plant optimization is decoupled but embedded in the TES control optimization. The approach was selected to allow for arbitrary constraints and optimization horizons, while ensuring a global optimum to the problem. Optimization scenarios have been defined that include current load conditions as well cooling loads that are elevated by 25% from current conditions in order to reflect the expected growth in cooling demand in the near future; both scenarios analyzed the impact of storage capacity by investigating several TES tank capacities. The annual optimization runs revealed that - based on the elevated cooling load scenario - the smallest TES system pays back the incremental investment necessary for the TES system in about three years; based on today's cooling loads the static payback is approximately six years. As the efficiency and cost of operating the existing chillers vary over a wide range, the TES system allows for a reduction in operating costs for the chilled water plant by avoiding the operation of inefficient chillers (such as the single-stage absorption type) and

  12. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  13. Water relation response to soil chilling of six olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars with different frost resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, D.; Gijon, M. C.; Marino, J.; Moriana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The relationship between the water relations of six olive cultivars exposed to different soil temperatures (14 0.1, 9.9 0.1 and 5.8 0.2 degree centigrade) and their inherent frost resistance (as determined by two different methods) was investigated. Soil chilling was achieved by introducing pots of olive plants into water baths. The water relations of these plants were compared to those of plants kept under conditions of room temperature. The cultivars Frantoio, Picual and Changlot Real began to show significant dehydration below 14 degree centigrade, while Cornicabra, Arbequina and Ascolana Tenera showed this below 10 degree centigrade. This response is probably due to delayed stomatal closure. Only Cornicabra and Picual showed a significant reduction in leaf conductance (below 10 degree centigrade and 6 degree centigrade respectively). This absence of stomatal control led to a significantly greater dehydration in Ascolana Tenera. These variations in response to the soil chilling temperature suggest that different mechanisms may be at work, and indicate that would be necessary to study the influence of rootstock in the frost resistance of olive plants. The variations recorded grouped the cultivars as either resistant (Cornicabra), tolerant (Picual, Ascolana Tenera and Arbequina), or sensitive (Frantoio and Changlot Real). This classification is in line with the frost resistance reported for these cultivars in the literature, and with the results obtained in the present work using the stomatal density and ion leakage methods of determining such resistance. (Author) 40 refs.

  14. Nondestructive detection of total viable count changes of chilled pork in high oxygen storage condition based on hyperspectral technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    The plate count method is commonly used to detect the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in pork, which is timeconsuming and destructive. It has also been used to study the changes of the TVC in pork under different storage conditions. In recent years, many scholars have explored the non-destructive methods on detecting TVC by using visible near infrared (VIS/NIR) technology and hyperspectral technology. The TVC in chilled pork was monitored under high oxygen condition in this study by using hyperspectral technology in order to evaluate the changes of total bacterial count during storage, and then evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the storage condition. The VIS/NIR hyperspectral images of samples stored in high oxygen condition was acquired by a hyperspectral system in range of 400 1100nm. The actual reference value of total bacteria was measured by standard plate count method, and the results were obtained in 48 hours. The reflection spectra of the samples are extracted and used for the establishment of prediction model for TVC. The spectral preprocessing methods of standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiple scatter correction (MSC) and derivation was conducted to the original reflectance spectra of samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) of TVC was performed and optimized to be the prediction model. The results show that the near infrared hyperspectral technology based on 400-1100nm combined with PLSR model can describe the growth pattern of the total bacteria count of the chilled pork under the condition of high oxygen very vividly and rapidly. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the nondestructive method of TVC based on NIR hyperspectral has great potential in monitoring of edible safety in processing and storage of meat.

  15. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, {open_quotes}Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.{close_quotes} This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions.

  16. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, open-quotes Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.close quotes This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop open-quotes genericclose quotes insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions

  17. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  18. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SPRAY-CHILLING ASSOCIATED TO CONVENTIONAL CHILLING ON MASS LOSS, BACTERIOLOGYCAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF BEEF CARCASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of conventional air chilling associated to intermittent spray-chilling treatment, on weight loss, physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of beef carcasses. Two plants of commercial beef slaughterhouse located in Goiânia and fiscalized by the Federal Inspection Service were used to develop the research. The spray-chilling treatment was accomplished in an intermittent way, commanded by acontrolled logical program, with cycles of 90 seconds, in intervals of 30 minutes, during the first 4 hours of the chilling process. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis were made in spray-chilled water and carcasses samples, according to recommendation of the effective legislation.The average values of carcasses weight loss of treatment group were lower to the ones verified for the control group,in both plants, A and B, (P < 0,001, showing a high economic potential. As a conclusion of physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis results of water and meat samples, it is clear that the technology of chilling beef carcasses inthe conventional system associated to spraying did not interfere in the quality of meat, and it can become an analysis object on part of official organs for sanitary regulation and fiscalization, for its definitive adoption. KEY WORDS: Spray-chilling, shrinkage, beef carcass.

  20. Water Technology Lecture 1: Introducing Water Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is a full set of PowerPoint lectures for a course in Water Technology currently given at Trinity College, University of Dublin by professor N.F. Gray. The lectures cover all aspects of water and wastewater treatment and are available for use to lecturers or those interested in the subject. The lecture series is to be used in conjunction with the new textbook ?Water Science and Technology? (4th edition) published by CRC Press in 2017. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the water indust...

  1. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  4. Water Technology Lecture 3: Water Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is the third lecture in the course Water Technology dealing with water distribution. This is a PowerPoint lecture which is free to use and modify. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the course text Gray, N.F. (2017) Water Science and Technology: An Introduction, published by CRC Press, Oxford. The basis of water distribution is explored including water pipe materials, distribution systems, leakage, water quality problems, pressure issue, water hydrants, effect of floods,...

  5. Demonstration of Noncorrosive, Capacitance- Based Water-Treatment Technology for Chilled-Water Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    maintenance personnel or chemical service provider. Corrosion coupons were installed at all four sites to match the metallurgy of the equipment. The...return (CWR) piping of each condenser. To install the capacitor rods, 1.5 in. mild steel thread-o-lets* were welded into a pipe elbow. Figure 5 shows...threaded external pipe fitting that is welded to a hole in a pipe wall to create a new branch connection. ERDC/CERL TR-14-15 10 Figure 4. Chillers

  6. Chilling Out With Colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and use the time to read, listen to music, or watch a movie. In other words, chill out and you might prevent a cold! Reviewed by: Patricia ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  7. Boron nutrition and chilling tolerance of warm climate crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Ye, Zhengqian; Bell, Richard W; Dell, Bernard

    2005-10-01

    Field observations and glasshouse studies have suggested links between boron (B)-deficiency and leaf damage induced by low temperature in crop plants, but causal relationships between these two stresses at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels have yet to be explored. Limited evidence at the whole-plant level suggests that chilling temperature in the root zone restricts B uptake capacity and/or B distribution/utilization efficiency in the shoot, but the nature of this interaction depends on chilling tolerance of species concerned, the mode of low temperature treatment (abrupt versus gradual temperature decline) and growth conditions (e.g. photon flux density and relative humidity) that may exacerbate chilling stress. This review explores roles of B nutrition in chilling tolerance of continual root or transient shoot chills in crop species adapted to warm season conditions. It reviews current research on combined effects of chilling temperature (ranging from >0 to 20 degrees C) and B deficiency on growth and B nutrition responses in crop species differing in chilling tolerance. For subtropical/tropical species (e.g. cucumber, cassava, sunflower), root chilling at 10-17 degrees C decreases B uptake efficiency and B utilization in the shoot and increases the shoot : root ratio, but chilling-tolerant temperate species (e.g. oilseed rape, wheat) require much lower root chill temperatures (2-5 degrees C) to achieve the same responses. Boron deficiency exacerbates chilling injuries in leaf tissues, particularly under high photon flux density. Suggested mechanisms for B x chilling interactions in plants are: (a) chilling-induced reduction in plasmalemma hydraulic conductivity, membrane fluidity, water channel activity and root pressure, which contribute to the decrease in root hydraulic conductance, water uptake and associated B uptake; (b) chilling-induced stomatal dysfunction affecting B transport from root to shoot and B partitioning in the shoot; and (c) B

  8. Aspect on Research Works of Late Years Contributed to the Industrial Development of a New Trend in Chilling and Freezing Technology of Meat in Oversea Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shunro

    Author presents his review paper on a noticeable trend of late years in meat refrigeration characterizing in three technological concerns such as increase of operation efficiency in chilling and freezing which result in substantial reduction of energy consumption, improvement in meat tenderness and re-examination of the currently available T. T. T. data for frozen meat storage. He considers from industrial point of view that the new trend has been much encouraged by many research papers so far published treating three topics as follows ;1) removal of meat from unchilled carcass (hot boning) which saves time and energy used for operation and helps a concomitant reasonable reduction of refrigeration facilities, 2) electrical stimulation of carcass in order to protect meat from adverse toughening due to cold shortening and 3) processing-induced changes in frozen storage life of meat. And he makes a brief comment on each topic to elucidate its technological or economical significance and gives a review of relevant studies abroad, citing abstracts of many papers from IIR Bulletin and International Journal of Refrigeration issued in last two or three years.

  9. STUDY OF CYLPEBS CHILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the shock resistance of cast-iron grinding bodies are researched. The models of heat transfer in the process of casting and shock-abrasive wear are presented. Tooling to produce experimental samples of milling bodies chilling(gravity die casting is manufactured, samples of cylpebs are produced.

  10. Chilling injury in mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, L.A.E.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular

  11. Reducing a solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s energy consumption by applying real-time occupancy sensors and chilled water storage tanks throughout the summer: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an innovative occupancy and chilled water storage-based operation mode. • This mode was implemented to the solar-assisted air-conditioning system. • It permits to save 42% of total electrical energy during one cooling period. • It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. • It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study describes an innovative occupancy and chilled-water storage-based operation sequence implemented in a solar-assisted air-conditioning system. The core purpose of this solar-assisted air-conditioning system is to handle the cooling and heating load of the Solar Energy Research Centre (CIESOL), thus minimising its environmental impact. In this study, the cooling mode was investigated with special attention focused on the chilled-water storage circuit. The critical concern is that the solar-assisted air-conditioning system should always operate considering the actual load conditions, not using an abstract maximum load that is predetermined during the system’s design process, which can lead to energy waste during periods of low occupancy. Thus, the fundamental problem is to identify the optimum operation sequence for the solar-assisted air-conditioning system that provides the best energy performance. The significance of this work lies in the demonstration of a new operation strategy that utilises real-time occupancy monitoring and chilled-water storage tanks to improve the efficiency of solar-assisted air-conditioning systems, thereby reducing their electricity consumption. Adopting this strategy resulted in a large energy-saving potential. The results demonstrate that during one cooling period, it is possible to conserve approximately 42% of the total electrical energy consumed by the system prior to the adoption of this operation strategy

  12. ChillFish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...... the possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a relaxed state similar to the one offered by traditional breathing exercises. Further, we analyze the opportunities...... and challenges of creating a tangible respiration-based controller and use it as a core game mechanic. Finally, we discuss the challenge of balancing engagement and relaxation in physically controlled games for children with ADHD in order to make a game that can be calming and still sustain their attention....

  13. Fresh Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yang Mun; Kim, O Sik; Kim, Jin Nam; Kim, Cheol Su

    1985-02-01

    This book tells US summary of fresh water with evaporation system like basic principle and outline, multistage flash evaporation, multiple-effect evaporation, other evaporation, evaporation plant by development merger, design of evaporation plant, reverse osmosis on summary, type and production of membrane, reverse osmosis device, reverse osmosis process, electrodialysis with outline of electrodialysis and polarization and energy, freezing preservation and corrosion and scale.

  14. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  16. SolarChill - a solar PV refrigerator without battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.H.; Poulsen, S.; Katic, I. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    A solar powered refrigerator (SolarChill) has been developed in an international project involving Greenpeace International, GTZ, UNICEF, UNEP, WHO, industrial partners and Danish Technological Institute. The refrigerator is able to operate directly on solar PV panels, without battery or additional electronics, and is therefore suitable for locations where little maintenance and reliable operation is mandatory. The main objective of the SolarChill Project is to help deliver vaccines and refrigeration to the rural poor. To achieve this objective, the SolarChill Project developed - and plans to make freely available a versatile refrigeration technology that is environmentally sound, technologically reliable, and affordable. SolarChill does not use any fluorocarbons in its cooling system or in the insulation. For domestic and small business applications, another type of solar refrigerator is under development. This is an upright type, suitable for cool storage of food and beverages in areas where grid power is non-existent or unstable. The market potential for this type is thus present in industrialised countries as well as in countries under development. The unique feature of SolarChill is that energy is stored in ice instead of in batteries. An ice compartment keeps the cabinet at desired temperatures during the night. The paper describes the product development, possible SolarChill applications and experience with the two types of solar refrigerators, as well as results from the laboratory and field test. (orig.)

  17. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  18. Design and Modelling of Water Chilling Production System by the Combined Effects of Evaporation and Night Sky Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y. Taha Al-Zubaydi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and mathematical modelling of thermal radiator panel to be used primarily to measure night sky radiation wet coated surface is presented in this paper. The panel consists of an upper dry surface coated aluminium sheet laminated to an ethylene vinyl acetate foam backing block as an insulation. Water is sprayed onto the surface of the panel so that an evaporative cooling effect is gained in addition to the radiation effect; the surface of a panel then is wetted in order to study and measure the night sky radiation from the panel wet surface. In this case, the measuring water is circulated over the upper face of this panel during night time. Initial TRNSYS simulations for the performance of the system are presented and it is planned to use the panel as calibrated instruments for discriminating between the cooling effects of night sky radiation and evaporation.

  19. Water environment and water preservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, M.; Ofuchi, M.; Tsuzuki, K. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Technologies on monitoring, purification, and simulation were described concerning water quality preservation, especially in closed water bodies such as lakes. In order to detect an increase in plankton bloom causing unpleasant taste and order, a water quality monitoring system using image analysis was developed. The main feature of this system is the use of a microscope to obtain images of plankton, coupled with a high speed image processor containing VLSI circuits used exclusively for image processing. The original gray image, obtained from the ITV in the microscope, is treated in the image processor, which extracts the features of isolated plankton, then classifies them, based on data previously input into the memory. As one of the water purification measures for lakes, a sprinkler system was developed. The sprinkler system has a pump in a boat-like structure set on a lake. It pumps up large quantities of cold water from depth of 10 m, then jets and sprays it from many nozzles after pressurization. In addition, a simulation technique was developed which can forecast the extent of water pollution and the effects of purification systems using the finite element method. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Deep lake water cooling a renewable technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliadis, C.

    2003-06-01

    In the face of increasing electrical demand for air conditioning, the damage to the ozone layer by CFCs used in conventional chillers, and efforts to reduce the greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired power generating stations more and more attention is focused on developing alternative strategies for sustainable energy. This article describes one such strategy, namely deep lake water cooling, of which the Enwave project recently completed on the north shore of Lake Ontario is a prime example. The Enwave Deep Lake Water Cooling (DLWC) project is a joint undertaking by Enwave and the City of Toronto. The $180 million project is unique in design and concept, using the coldness of the lake water from the depths of Lake Ontario (not the water itself) to provide environmentally friendly air conditioning to office towers. Concurrently, the system also provides improved quality raw cold water to the city's potable water supply. The plant has a rated capacity of 52,200 tons of refrigeration. The DLWC project is estimated to save 75-90 per cent of the electricity that would have been generated by a coal-fired power station. Enwave, established over 20 years ago, is North America's largest district energy system, delivering steam, hot water and chilled water to buildings from a central plant via an underground piping distribution network. 2 figs.

  1. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  2. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in a research contract between CNEA and the IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. This paper analyses the benefits and drawbacks of each desalination technology, the distinctive characteristics of the technology that fit better the different uses, and outlines the related antecedents of its application in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations made in the last years for the different technologies are also described. (author)

  3. Water Technology Innovation: 10 Market Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Technology Innovation Blueprint offers an overview of market opportunities that include conserving and recovering energy, recovering nutrients, improving water infrastructure, reducing costs for water monitoring, and improving water quality.

  4. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible, and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in the research contract CNEA - IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. The objective and scope of this work is to know the advantages and disadvantages of each desalination technology, distinctive characteristics of each of them, that make them adapt better to different uses and outline conditions and analysis of related antecedents of its use in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations found in the last years for the different technologies are also included. (author)

  5. Membrane technology revolutionizes water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderer, P A; Paris, S

    2007-01-01

    Membranes play a crucial role in living cells, plants and animals. They not only serve as barriers between the inside and outside world of cells and organs. More importantly, they are means of selective transport of materials and host for biochemical conversion. Natural membrane systems have demonstrated efficiency and reliability for millions of years and it is remarkable that most of these systems are small, efficient and highly reliable even under rapidly changing ambient conditions. Thus, it appears to be advisable for technology developers to keep a close eye on Mother Nature. By doing so it is most likely that ideas for novel technical solutions are born. Following the concept of natural systems it is hypothesized that the Millennium Development Goals can be best met when counting on small water and wastewater treatment systems. The core of such systems could be membranes in which chemical reactions are integrated allowing recovery and direct utilization of valuable substances.

  6. Ruoanvalmistuspaperi Cook and chill prosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjohalme, Sirkka; Helin, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö lähti liikkeelle opinnäytetyön tilaajan, Metsä Tissuen, toiveesta tutkia Cook and chill -ruoanvalmistuspaperin soveltuvuutta Cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ammattikeittiöissä. Uudet toimintamenetelmät eroavat perinteisistä menetelmistä käytännössä näkyvimmin siinä, että ruoanvalmistus ei ole sidottu tarjoilupaikkaan ja ruoan tarjoilun ei tarvitse välttämättä tapahtua valmistuspäivänä. Tähän perustuu myös Cook and chill -tuotantotapa. Tutkimusyhteistyötä tehtiin Pirkkalan tuotanto...

  7. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    for a given product and process and to compare different cooling fluids and methods. Chilling of hot products in professional cooking kettles immediately after cooking is achieved best by using Binary Ice. The paper gives an equation, which describes the cooling velocity for such kettles and other products...

  8. Cable-Based Water Leak Detection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Water leaks can be considered as a serious problem from many sources such as water supply and return chains, air conditioning units, cold-water chillers, clogged drains, damaged skylights or windows, or even construction errors. The new water leak detection technologies can provide significant advantages in cost, reliability, and easy adoption have continued since the traditional technology mainly focusing on a spot detector revealed several limitations.

  9. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  10. Investigation of transient chill down phenomena in tubes using liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A. K.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Chill down of cryogenic transfer lines is a crucial part of cryogenic propulsion as chill down ensures transfer of single phase fluid to the storage tanks of cryogenic engines. It also ensures single phase liquid flow at the start of the engine. Chill down time depends on several parameters such as length of the pipe, pipe diameter, orientation, mass flux etc. To understand the effect of these parameters, experiments are carried out in a set up designed and fabricated at Indian Institute of Technology Bombay using tubes of two different diameters. Experiments are conducted at different inlet pressures and mass flow rate values to understand their effect. Two different pipe sizes are taken to study the effect of variation in diameter on chill down time and quantity of cryogen required. Different orientations are taken to understand their effect on the chill down time, heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux for the same inlet pressure and mass flux. Pipe inner wall temperature, heat transfer coefficient for different boiling regimes and critical heat flux are calculated based on measured outer surface temperature history for each case. A one dimensional energy conservation equation is solved for transient chill down process considering constant mass flux and inlet pressure to predict the chill down time. Temperature variation during chill down obtained from the numerical simulations are compared with the measured temperature history.

  11. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle......-criteria decision analysis method was used to develop a decision support system and applied to the study. In this thesis a standard LCA of the drinking water supply technology of today (base case) and 4 alternative cases for water supply technologies is conducted. The standard LCA points at the case rain...

  12. The effects of chilling stress after anthesis on the physicochemical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dawei; Wei, Haiyan; Guo, Baowei; Dai, Qigen; Wei, Cunxu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Yajie; Cui, Peiyuan; Li, Min; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2017-12-15

    This study investigates the effect of chilling stress, over a period of three days after anthesis, on the physicochemical properties of starches derived from six rice cultivars. Chilling stress significantly affected the grain characteristics and physicochemical properties of rice starches, except for those of two varieties, NJ 9108 and ZD 18. In the other four rice cultivars subjected to chilling stress, the content of medium, and large sized granules showed a decrease, and an increase, respectively. Amylose content increased as a result of chilling stress, thereby resulting in starch with a lower swelling power, water solubility, and higher retrogradation enthalpy and gelatinization temperature. Chilling stress led to deterioration of cooked rice quality as determined by the pasting properties of starch. This study indicated that among the cultivars studied, the two rice varieties most resistant to chilling stress after rice anthesis were NJ 9108 and ZD 18. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane technology water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzdev, E. N.; Starikov, E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The suggested technical solution, in contrast with the traditional treatment methods using pressure filtration and sorption cleaning, can be applied with minimal used for equipment, stable production and the use of reagents, prevention of the formation of waste water with high mineral content and avoid the need for neutralization of the main stream of waste water

  14. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  15. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  16. Deteriorating Inventory Model for Chilled Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ming-Feng; Tseng, Wei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    With many aspects that affect inventory policy, product perishability is a critical aspect of inventory policy. Most goods will deteriorate during storage and their original value will decline or be lost. Therefore, deterioration should be taken into account in inventory practice. Chilled food products are very common consumer goods that are, in fact, perishable. If the chilled food quality declines over time customers are less likely to buy it. The value the chilled food retains is, however,...

  17. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 2 – Human response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Pastuszka, Zuzanna; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2016-01-01

    The response of 24 subjects to the local environment established by localized chilled beam combined with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) was studied and compared with response to the environment generated by mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV) at two temperature conditions of 26°C and...

  18. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 1 – Physical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kosonen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the indoor environment generated by localized chilled beam coupled with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) and compares it with the environment generated by mixing ventilation coupled with chilled ceiling (CCMV). The experiments were performed in a mock-up of single office (4.1 m × 4...

  19. Review of tritiated water concentration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    In order to cooperate with the construction of the spent fuel reprocessing plant in China, the research and application status of tritiated water concentration technology at home and abroad were summarized. Some suggestions for the technology research route in China were put forward. (author)

  20. Decontamination technology of contaminated water with flocculating and settling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Hosobuchi, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    In the joint research and development of treatment systems of cooling water for cutting asphalt pavement surface with our authors' group, the liquid-solid separation technology by flocculating and settling technology, and the flocculants for the use of systems were developed. In this paper, the developed flocculating and settling technology and the flocculants are discussed first. Next, the demonstration tests of decontamination technology on the contaminated water in swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture had been conducted by use of the stationary purification system of contaminated water and the flocculants compounding with or without iron ferrocianide developed by the preliminary test. It was clarified from the results that ionized cesium (Cs) rarely exists in the stagnant water in pools, ponds, lakes and so on at the time when nine months have passed since Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accidents. Further, it is necessary to use the flocculants compounding iron ferrocianide in the case where ionized Cs exists in water. From the above-mentioned results, the following problems were pointed out: One problem was cyanide dissolution in the purified water and the other one was the dissolution from the dehydration sludge. Finally, the high-performance mobile purification units of contaminated water which is capable for carrying with trucks have been developed, and the demonstration test was performed in Minami-soma City, Fukushima Prefecture to purify the contaminated water in a pond and generated by the high-pressure water washing in a Public Hall. From the test results, it was made clear that the dehydration sludge separated by liquid-solid settling of the contaminated water of around 1,000Bq/l became a high radiation dose of about 185,000Bq/l. (author)

  1. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  2. An overview of latest deep water technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The 8th Deep Offshore Technology Conference (DOT VIII, Rio de Janeiro, October 30 - November 3, 1995) has brought together renowned specialists in deep water development projects, as well as managers from oil companies and engineering/service companies to discuss state-of-the-art technologies and ongoing projects in the deep offshore. This paper is a compilation of the session summaries about sub sea technologies, mooring and dynamic positioning, floaters (Tension Leg Platforms (TLP) and Floating Production Storage and Off loading (FPSO)), pipelines and risers, exploration and drilling, and other deep water techniques. (J.S.)

  3. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  4. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G. [Stanford Univ., Dept. of Economics, CA (United States); Van der Zwaan, B. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam, Inst. for Environmental Studies (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  5. Study of a Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran; Afshari, Alireza

    Active chilled beam systems are used to provide heating and cooling in order to achieve comfortable thermal indoor climate. For heating and cooling applications, an active chilled beam has two water circuits comprising four pipes that supply warm and cold water respectively to the beam coil...... according to the space demand. Lindab Comfort A/S has introduced an active chilled beam system which has just one water circuit (two pipes) that is used for both heating and cooling. The concept is based on high temperature cooling and low temperature heating. In this study the energy saving potential...

  6. Aquatek introduces new oily water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Many conventional oily water separators cause clogged filters on marine vessels, which has led some operators to illegally discharge oily wastes into lakes and oceans. This article presented details of a simple and reliable technology to separate chemically emulsified and mechanically suspended oil particles from water. Designed by Newfoundland entrepreneurs and commercialized by Aquatek Environmental Inc., the Aquatek separator does not require membranes or chemicals and can be configured to function without moving parts or external energy. The small size of the separator has made it the subject of considerable interest at marine technology shows. The technology is able to treat highly variable concentrations of oily water without clogging, and works on low oil concentrations as well as fluids consisting of all-free oil. The Aquatek has the ability to separate oil from water as well as water from oil. Tests have indicated that the technology can also be used to treat produced water at oilfields. It was concluded that the separator is a major improvement over other available products. 2 figs

  7. Effects of watertable and fertilizer management on susceptibility of tomato fruit to chilling injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, G.T.; Trenholm, L.; Madramootoo, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In a 2-year study (1993-1994), 'New Yorker' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in field lysimeters were subjected to four water table depth (WTD) treatments (0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 m from the soil surface) factorially combined with 5 potassium/calcium fertilization combinations. Mature-green fruit from four replicates of each treatment were stored at 5C for 21 days, and fruit color was monitored with a tristimulus colorimeter. Fruit were subsequently allowed to ripen at 20C for 10 days, at which time chilling injury was assessed on the basis of delayed ripening and area of lesions. Potassium and calcium applied in the field had no effect on chilling tolerance of the fruit. In the drier year (1993), shallower WTD treatments generally yielded fruit that changed color less during chilling and were more chilling-sensitive based on delayed ripening. In the wetter year, differences in color change and chilling tolerance between WTD, if any, were small. Over both years, lesion area varied with WTD, but not in a consistent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that differences in water availability should be considered when studying tomato fruit chilling

  8. Effects of watertable and fertilizer management on susceptibility of tomato fruit to chilling injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, G. T. [McGill University, Sainte Anne-de-Bellevue, Que. (Canada); Trenholm, L.; Madramootoo, C. A.

    1996-05-15

    In a 2-year study (1993-1994), 'New Yorker' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in field lysimeters were subjected to four water table depth (WTD) treatments (0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 m from the soil surface) factorially combined with 5 potassium/calcium fertilization combinations. Mature-green fruit from four replicates of each treatment were stored at 5C for 21 days, and fruit color was monitored with a tristimulus colorimeter. Fruit were subsequently allowed to ripen at 20C for 10 days, at which time chilling injury was assessed on the basis of delayed ripening and area of lesions. Potassium and calcium applied in the field had no effect on chilling tolerance of the fruit. In the drier year (1993), shallower WTD treatments generally yielded fruit that changed color less during chilling and were more chilling-sensitive based on delayed ripening. In the wetter year, differences in color change and chilling tolerance between WTD, if any, were small. Over both years, lesion area varied with WTD, but not in a consistent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that differences in water availability should be considered when studying tomato fruit chilling.

  9. Chills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child to be uncomfortable, give pain-relieving tablets or liquid. Non-aspirin pain-relievers such as ... fever. In: Hall JE, ed. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  10. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  11. Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Qadir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustainable option that can supply fresh drinking water to communities where fog events are common. Because of the relatively simple design of fog collection systems, their operation and maintenance are minimal and the associated cost likewise; although, in certain cases, some financially constrained communities would need initial subsidies. Despite technology development and demonstrated benefits, there are certain challenges to fog harvesting, including lack of supportive policies, limited functional local institutions, inexpert communities, gender inequality, and perceived high costs without undertaking comprehensive economic analyses. By addressing such challenges, there is an opportunity to provide potable water in areas where fog intensity and duration are sufficient, and where the competition for clean water is intensifying because water resources are at a far distance or provided by expensive sources.

  12. Water Jet Technology Used in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Magurová, D.; Valíček, Jan; Kozak, D.; Harničárová, M.; Rakin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2010), s. 237-240 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : abrasive water jet * medicine * technology Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.083, year: 2010

  13. Impact of broiler processing scalding and chilling profiles on carcass and breast meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Walker, J M; Bourassa, D V; Caudill, A B; Kiepper, B H; Zhuang, H

    2014-06-01

    The effect of scalding and chilling procedures was evaluated on carcass and breast meat weight and yield in broilers. On 4 separate weeks (trials), broilers were subjected to feed withdrawal, weighed, and then stunned and bled in 4 sequential batches (n = 16 broilers/batch, 64 broilers/trial). In addition, breast skin was collected before scalding, after scalding, and after defeathering for proximate analysis. Each batch of 16 carcasses was subjected to either hard (60.0°C for 1.5 min) or soft (52.8°C for 3 min) immersion scalding. Following defeathering and evisceration, 8 carcasses/batch were air-chilled (0.5°C, 120 min, 86% RH) and 8 carcasses/batch were immersion water-chilled (water and ice 0.5°C, 40 min). Carcasses were reweighed individually following evisceration and following chilling. Breast meat was removed from the carcass and weighed within 4 h postmortem. There were significant (P defeathered eviscerated weights did not differ between the scalding and chilling treatments. During air-chilling all carcasses lost weight, resulting in postchill carcass yield of 73.0% for soft-scalded and 71.3% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 1.7%. During water-chilling all carcasses gained weight, resulting in heavier postchill carcass weights (2,031 g) than for air-chilled carcasses (1,899 g). Postchill carcass yields were correspondingly higher for water-chilled carcasses, 78.2% for soft-scalded and 76.1% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 2.1%. Only in trials 1 and 4 was breast meat yield significantly lower for hard-scalded, air-chilled carcasses (16.1 and 17.5%) than the other treatments. Proximate analysis of skin sampled after scalding or defeathering did not differ significantly in moisture (P = 0.2530) or lipid (P = 0.6412) content compared with skin sampled before scalding. Skin protein content was significantly higher (P defeathering. The hard-scalding method used in this experiment did not result in increased skin lipid loss either

  14. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  15. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  16. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  17. Insufficient Chilling Effects Vary among Boreal Tree Species and Chilling Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzhou Man

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient chilling resulting from rising winter temperatures associated with climate warming has been an area of particular interest in boreal and temperate regions where a period of cool temperatures in fall and winter is required to break plant dormancy. In this study, we examined the budburst and growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L., white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh., black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss, jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud. seedlings subjected to typical northern Ontario, Canada, spring conditions in climate chambers after different exposures to natural chilling. Results indicate that chilling requirements (cumulative weighted chilling hours differed substantially among the seven species, ranging from 300 to 500 h for spruce seedlings to more than 1100 h for trembling aspen and lodgepole pine. Only spruce seedlings had fulfilled their chilling requirements before December 31, whereas the other species continued chilling well into March and April. Species with lower chilling requirements needed more heat accumulation for budburst and vice versa. Insufficient chilling delayed budburst but only extremely restricted chilling hours (<400 resulted in abnormal budburst and growth, including reduced needle and shoot expansion, early budburst in lower crowns, and erratic budburst on lower stems and roots. Effects, however, depended on both the species’ chilling requirements and the chilling–heat relationship. Among the seven tree species examined, trembling aspen is most likely to be affected by reduced chilling accumulation possible under future climate scenarios, followed by balsam poplar, white birch, lodgepole pine, and jack pine. Black and white spruce are least likely to be affected by changes in chilling hours.

  18. New aspects of sewerage and water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemczynowics, J.

    1993-01-01

    Highly developed countries with expensive water-related infrastructure, sophisticated waterworks and treatment plants, still contribute to local and global pollution. Many developing countries still lack water-treatment facilities and environmentally-sound water management. These problems are especially accentuated in some of the large and fast growing cities of the world. Means of solving the problems involve a new holistic approach to resource management. The goal of such an approach is to close the cycles of residuals that damage the environment, and to recover resources lost in residuals emitted from human activities. The most important step is to apply pollution prevention, i.e. pollution control at the source. Present knowledge suggests technologies that can solve the problem of pollution from human settlements on a single-house level. Alternatively, wastewater may be treated locally and reused. Ecologically-sound technologies that already exist should be used whenever possible. Water management can be integrated with management of other human activities, such as waste handling, industrial production, transportation, etc. Tools for implementation of such solutions are: legislation coupled with education programs; changing competition rules of the market economy; i.e. developing a sustainable society through resource recovery and reuse. Demonstration projects, in which the rules of preventive approach and novel technology are applied, may constitute a practical means of implementing such an approach. 34 refs, 3 figs

  19. Reprocessing technology for present water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    The basic Purex solvent extraction technology developed and applied in the U.S. in the 1950's provides a well-demonstrated and efficient process for recovering uranium and plutonium for fuel recycle and separating the wastes for further treatment and packaging. The technologies for confinement of radioactive effluents have been developed but have had limited utilization in the processing of commercial light water reactor fuels. Technologies for solidification and packaging of radioactive wastes have not yet been demonstrated but significant experience has been gained in laboratory and engineering scale experiments with simulated commercial reprocessing wastes and intermediate level wastes. Commercial scale experience with combined operations of all the required processes and equipment are needed to demonstrate reliable reprocessing centers

  20. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water.

  1. WATER MICROPOLLUTANTS: CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the different kinds of emerging contaminants, their origin and use, and their presence in the Spanish waters, both in surface and groundwater. Micropollutants are compounds of different origin and chemical nature which had been unnoticed (due to their low concentration and don’t have specific regulation. They are divided into six major groups, and many of them behave as endocrine disruptors causing large negative effects on human health and environment. They are in waters because the waste water treatment plants are not designed for their removal, so they are being discharged. Different alternatives for their removal are discussed - physico- chemical, biological and hybrid treatment technologies -. Among the physicochemical process, the advance oxidation processes (AOPs are very promising.

  2. Effect of heat treatment and shelf life on chilling injury of mango cv. Nam Dok Mai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiradee Muangdech

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effect of heat treatment and shelf life on chilling injury of mango cv.Nam Dok Mai.The heat treatment of mango pulp during storage were determined by hot air oven set at 34 and 38°C for three intervals, as 24, 48, and 72 hours, then they were subsequently stored at 5°C for 10, 20, and 30 days to determine the appropriate shelf life. The findings showed that the symptom of mango fruit after chilling injury appeared within the 30th day of storage at 5°C. Several symptoms of mango fruit after chilling injury treatment were observed, i.e., pitting, browning on the skin, water soaking, and rapid rotting of the fruits that resulted in shorter shelf life. It was found that chilling injury mangoes had lower level of total soluble solid, higher disease incidence, and lower quality of fruit when compared with normal ripe-mango fruits at 25°C. Mango fruits treated at 34°C for either 24 or 48 hours, and at 38°C for 24 hours prior to cold storage at 5°C for 10 and 20 days showed a significant reduction in the chilling injury (CI index when compared to that of non-heated fruits. On the other hand, the heat treatment did not affect fruit weight loss, firmness, color changes, and water soaking at 5°C.

  3. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... saving agricultural technology, which include modern biological water-saving technology, unconventional ... and innovation, water, nutrient migration theory, regula- .... urban sewage of more than 50%; Mexico City, 90% of.

  4. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  5. Materials technologies of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1984-01-01

    Satisfactory materials performance is a key element in achieving reliable operation of light water reactors. Outstanding performance under rigorous operational conditions has been exhibited by pressure boundary components, core internals, fuel cladding, and other critical components of these systems. Corrosion and stress corrosion phenomena have, however, had an impact on plant availability, most notably relating to pipe cracking in BWR systems and steam generator corrosion in PWR systems. These experiences have stimulated extensive development activities by the nuclear industry in improved NDE techniques, investigation of corrosion phenomena, as well as improved materials and repair processes. This paper reviews key materials performance aspects of light water reactors with particular emphasis on the progress which has been made in modeling of corrosion phenomena, control of the plant operating environment, advanced material development, and application of sophisticated repair procedures. Implementation of this technology provides the basis for improved plant availability

  6. Cooling water for SSC experiments: Supplemental Conceptual Design Report (SCDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on cooling water design on the superconducting super collider; low conductivity water; industrial cooling water; chilled water systems; and radioactive water systems

  7. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... DEVELOPING TENDENCY OF MODERN WATER-. SAVING AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY. Excavation of the own water-saving potential using biotechnology. The biological water-saving technology that uses crop physiology control and modern breeding techniques to increase production and water ...

  8. Microstructural Evolution in Intensively Melt Sheared Direct Chill Cast Al-Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Rao, A. K. Prasada; Patel, J. B.; Scamans, G. M.; Fan, Z.

    The work presented here introduces the novel melt conditioned direct chill casting (MC-DC) technology, where intensive melt shearing is applied to the conventional direct-chill casting process. MC-DC casting can successfully produce high quality Al-alloy billets. The results obtained from 80 mm diameter billets cast at speed of 200 mm/min show that MC-DC casting of Al-alloys, substantially refines the microstructure and reduces macro-segregation. In this paper, we present the preliminary results and discuss microstructural evolution during MC-DC casting of Al-alloys.

  9. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

  10. Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing

  11. The inheritance of chilling tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Linger, P; van Heusden, AW; van Hasselt, PR; Brueggemann, W

    During the past 25 years, chilling tolerance of the cultivated (chilling-sensitive) tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild, chilling-tolerant relatives L. peruvianum and L. hirsutum (and, less intensively studied, L. chilense) has been the object of several investigations. The final aim of

  12. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  13. Technological readiness of evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has evolved to a mature industry that supplies over 16% of the world's electricity, and it represents an important option for meeting the global energy demands of the coming century in an environmentally acceptable manner. New, evolutionary water cooled reactor designs that build on successful performance of predecessors have been developed; these designs have generally been guided by wishes to reduce cost, to improve availability and reliability, and to meet increasingly stringent safety objectives. These three aspects are important factors in what has been called technological readiness for an expanded deployment of nuclear power; a major increase in utilization of nuclear power will only occur if it is economically competitive, and meets safety expectations. To this end, the industry will also have to maintain or improve the public perception of nuclear power as a benign, economical and reliable energy source. (author)

  14. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  15. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...

  16. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...

  17. Involvement of Polyamines in the Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenyun; Nada, Kazuyoshi; Tachibana, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    The possible involvement of polyamines (PAs) in the chilling tolerance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Jinchun No. 3 and cv Suyo) was investigated. Plants with the first expanded leaves were exposed to 3°C or 15°C in the dark for 24 h (chilling), and then transferred to 28°C/22°C under a 12-h photoperiod for another 24 h (rewarming). Chilling-tolerant cv Jinchun No. 3 showed a marked increase of free spermidine (Spd) in leaves, once during chilling and again during rewarming. Putrescine increased significantly during rewarming, but the increase of spermine was slight. Any of these PAs did not increase in chilling-sensitive cv Suyo during either period. PA-biosynthetic enzyme activities appear to mediate these differences between cultivars. Pretreatment of Spd to cv Suyo prevented chill-induced increases in the contents of hydrogen peroxide in leaves and activities of NADPH oxidases and NADPH-dependent superoxide generation in microsomes and alleviated chilling injury. Pretreatment of methylglyoxal-bis-(guanylhydrazone), a PA biosynthesis inhibitor, to chilled cv Jinchun No. 3 prevented Spd increase and enhanced microsomal NADPH oxidase activity and chilling injury. The results suggest that Spd plays important roles in chilling tolerance of cucumber, probably through prevention of chill-induced activation of NADPH oxidases in microsomes. PMID:10982456

  18. A study on the kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ice cream stored under static and dynamic chilling and freezing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougouli, M; Angelidis, A S; Koutsoumanis, K

    2008-02-01

    The kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in 2 commercial ice cream products (A and B) that were inoculated and stored under static chilling (4 to 16 degrees C), static freezing (-5 to -33 degrees C), dynamic chilling, and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions was studied, simulating conditions of the aging process and of normal or abuse conditions during distribution and storage. The ice cream products A and B had different compositions but similar pH (6.50 and 6.67, respectively) and water activity (0.957 and 0.965, respectively) values. For both chilling and freezing conditions, the kinetic behavior of the pathogen was similar in the 2 products, indicating that the pH and water activity, together with temperature, were the main factors controlling growth. Under chilling conditions, L. monocytogenes grew well at all temperatures tested. Under freezing conditions, no significant changes in the population of the pathogen were observed throughout a 90-d storage period for either of the inoculum levels tested (10(3) and 10(6) cfu/g). Growth data from chilled storage conditions were fitted to a mathematical model, and the calculated maximum specific growth rate was modeled as a function of temperature by using a square root model. The model was further validated under dynamic chilling and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions by using 4 different storage temperature scenarios. Under dynamic chilling conditions, the model accurately predicted the growth of the pathogen in both products, with 99.5% of the predictions lying within the +/- 20% relative error zone. The results from the chilling-freezing storage experiments showed that the pathogen was able to initiate growth within a very short time after a temperature upshift from freezing to chilling temperatures. This indicates that the freezing conditions did not cause a severe stress in L. monocytogenes cells capable of leading to a significant "additional" lag phase during the subsequent growth of the pathogen at

  19. Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Qadir; Gabriela C. Jiménez; Rebecca L. Farnum; Leslie L. Dodson; Vladimir Smakhtin

    2018-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustaina...

  20. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... fastest 100-year in human history, in which the world population has .... achieving modern water-saving high-yield and quality type from .... Information technology, intelligent technology and 3S technology ... perfor-mance and longer service life. .... using artificial neural network technology and data commu-.

  1. Water Power Technologies FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Water Power Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies and market solutions for clean, domestic power generation from water resources across the U.S. (hydropower, marine and hydrokinetics).

  2. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  3. Comparison of microbial load in immersion chilling water and poultry carcasses after 8, 16 and 24 working hours Comparação da carga microbiana em águas de pré-resfriamento e carcaças de frangos, após jornadas de trabalho de 8, 16 e 24 horas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry processing facilities are known for using a great amount of water, which is mainly used on carcasses chilling stage. In Brazil, meat regulations state that each chiller tank must be emptied, cleaned and sanitized every 8 working hours. The aim of the current study was to assess the microbial load of chiller water used in poultry immersion chilling system after 8, 16 and 24 working hours in order to evaluate the reduction of water changes and chiller sanitization. Conventional physicochemical and microbiological assays were done in water supply samples (n=69 to suppress interferences caused by freshwater addition; pre chilled (n=345 post chilled carcasses (n=345 and chiller water samples of the last stage (n=69. The results showed no significant differences on microbial load samples between the three shifts suggesting that the proposed reduction may be secure and reduces the volume of wastewater that would impact the environment, besides improving the rational use of processing time.As atividades dos estabelecimentos de abate de frangos são conhecidas por utilizarem grandes volumes de água durante seus processos, principalmente no processo de resfriamento das carcaças de frangos. Parte desse volume utilizado se faz necessário, em cumprimento à legislação que determina que cada tanque do sistema de pré-resfriadores contínuos por imersão deve ser completamente esvaziado, limpo e desinfetado no final de cada período de trabalho (oito horas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a carga microbiana das águas do sistema de resfriamento e das carcaças de frango ao final de oito, dezesseis e vinte e quatro horas de trabalho do abatedouro, para possível redução do número de vezes do completo esvaziamento dos tanques do sistema de resfriamento. Foram avaliadas, por meio de métodos convencionais microbiológicos e físico-químicos, amostras da água de abastecimento (n=69, visando a evitar possível interferência nas contagens das

  4. Materials and membrane technologies for water and energy sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-03-10

    Water and energy have always been crucial for the world’s social and economic growth. Their supply and use must be sustainable. This review discusses opportunities for membrane technologies in water and energy sustainbility by analyzing their potential applications and current status; providing emerging technologies and scrutinizing research and development challenges for membrane materials in this field.

  5. Materials and membrane technologies for water and energy sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Water and energy have always been crucial for the world’s social and economic growth. Their supply and use must be sustainable. This review discusses opportunities for membrane technologies in water and energy sustainbility by analyzing their potential applications and current status; providing emerging technologies and scrutinizing research and development challenges for membrane materials in this field.

  6. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the analysis of water-saving agricultural technology development status and trends in China, and in combination with the development and the needs of modern water-saving agricultural technology, we have put forward a future research emphasis and developing direction of modern watersaving agricultural ...

  7. Laser cutting technology using water jet waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Miyuki; Shiihara, Katsunori; Chida, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    Laser with water jet is examined to cut in-vessel structure. However, it is necessary to increase the break-up length of water jet to cut a thick plate. Therefore, the effects of the water jet parameter (water pressure, assist gas, laser power) on break-up length were investigated. It was found from observation results of water jet that the longest break-up length is about 135mm under condition of water pressure 40 MPa, laser power 30W and helium assist gas 1L/min. (author)

  8. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  9. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat

  10. International water and sanitation technology transfers, experiences from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of transferring cost-effective, innovative water and wastewater technologies on public water markets are discussed based on experiences of the Dutch water business cluster in the Central and Eastern European Countries. These transfers evolved under suitable conditions, among others

  11. Superchilling of muscle foods: Potential alternative for chilling and freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rituparna; Maheswarappa, Naveena Basappa

    2017-12-05

    Superchilling is an attractive technique for preservation of muscle foods which freezes part of the water and insulate the food products from temperature fluctuations thereby enhancing the shelf-life during storage, transportation and retailing. Superchilling process synergistically improves the product shelf-life when used in combination with vacuum or modified atmospheric packaging. The shelf-life of muscle foods was reported to be increased by 1.5 to 4.0 times relative to traditional chilling technique. Advantages of superchilling and its ability to maintain the freshness of muscle foods over freezing has been discussed and its potential for Industrial application is highlighted. Present review also unravel the mechanistic bases for ice-crystal formation during superchilling and measures to ameliorate the drip loss. The future challenges especially automation in superchilling process for large scale Industrial application is presented.

  12. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4....../s and 16 0C. The localised chilled beam was installed over the workstation placed by the simulated window. During the experiment the subjects were delegated control over the primary flow rate supplied by the localised chilled beam. The whole exposure lasted 2 hours with 30 min of acclimatisation before...

  13. Advantageous technology for treatment of laundry waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Y.; Gorbachev, D.; Volkov, A.; Barinov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, based on preliminary experimental studies, an improved scheme for cleaning of laundry water is offered which allows reuse of water and components of laundry solutions and produces low amounts of secondary radioactive waste. The principal feature of the proposed process is that waste water from rinsing (60-80% of the total volume) is processed by hyperfiltration, but waste water from the laundry (20-40% of the total volume) is treated by ultrafiltration. Concentrates after reverse osmosis desalination of waste liquids (after rinsing) contain a majority of laundry waste components, since a hyperfiltration membrane efficiently retains salts and surfactant molecules. Desalinated water (permeate) after hyperfiltration is reused, further reducing the volume of liquid wastes. (author)

  14. TRANSCRIPTOME DYNAMICS IN MANGO FRUIT PEEL REVEALS MECHANISMS OF CHILLING STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C and suboptimal (5°C cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during chilling injury by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit.

  15. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1991. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Restoration of aquatic ecosystems - science, technologies and public policy; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences; and Ground water models - scientific and regulatory applications. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  16. Technologies for climate change adaptation. The water sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T De [ed.; UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark); Elliott, M; Armstrong, A; Lobuglio, J; Bartram, J [The Water Institute at the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This guidebook aims to provide expert information on the technologies most relevant for climate change adaptation in the water sector in developing countries. It is meant to be a practical tool for use by a broad range of stakeholders, including those in governmental agencies, water utilities, community water boards, non-governmental organizations, and private sector companies. Adaptation is an essential element of human response to climate change. The adverse impacts of climate change on the water sector will be experienced worldwide and are often projected to be most severe in resource-poor countries. Therefore, it is necessary to have access to a diverse array of adaptation technologies and practices that are appropriate and affordable in various contexts. The scale of these adaptation technologies/practices should range from the individual household level (e.g. household water treatment), to the community scale (e.g. rainwater collection in small reservoirs), to large facilities that can benefit a city or region (e.g. a desalination plant). The guidebook first reviews the projected impacts of climate change on the water sector. It then addresses the role of adaptation in the water sector and six typologies under which available strategies are categorized. Eleven technologies and practices are given detailed treatment in this guidebook and four others are covered briefly. While these do not constitute all of the adaptation technologies available in the water sector, they do represent many of the most important adaptation technologies for developing countries. For each of the 11 adaptation technologies and practices, the following are addressed: basic description, contribution to climate change and development, institutional and capacity building requirements, costs, barriers and opportunities for implementation, and extensive reference to external resources and case studies. The practical steps and appropriate contexts for implementation are covered in the

  17. Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Protection Agency EPS Extra-cellular Polymeric Substances M&E Materials and Energy MF Microfiltration MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NASA...and bays. On a regional scale, therefore, desalination could aid in restoring the balance between fresh water needs and fresh water supplies that has... Microfiltration (MF) membranes—used for turbidity reduction, removal of suspended solids and bacteria • Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes—used for color, odor

  18. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  19. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  20. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  1. Differential responses of two rubber tree clones to chilling stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chilling stress is one of the most important environmental factors that limit the growth, distribution and yield of rubber tree in China. The effects of chilling stress on the grated plants of two rubber trees clones, GT1 and Wenchang217, were studied by physiological methods in controlled light chamber in order to explore the ...

  2. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  3. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  4. Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

  5. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Office Clean Water Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-03-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)’s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.

  7. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matadial, B.; Pauls, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2 degrees C but when cultures were transferred to 25 degree C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. 35 S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in 35 S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25 degrees C

  8. Socio-Economic Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologies in Rwanda: A case study of Nyaruguru ... ownership and maintenance of established RWH technologies. ... production towards food security. .... The overall average family size for the households ..... respondents are aware of these techniques but few implement them- only 1 .... Water productivity in Rain-.

  9. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  10. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mission will visit two cities: Bangalore and Mumbai, where participants will receive market briefings and... water technology show, as a platform for business meetings and networking with the option to exhibit... technologies. To explore these and other opportunities, the trade mission will visit two cities: Bangalore and...

  11. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  13. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  14. Economics of selected water control technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a production function, marginal productivity of farm inputs and benefit-cost analysis, we explore the economics of selected water control technologies. From the production function, all farm inputs, including irrigation water is found to have a significant and positive effect on yield. Marginal value products of farm inputs ...

  15. Water Mapping Technology Rebuilds Lives in Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Using NASA Landsat satellite and other remote sensing topographical data, Radar Technologies International developed an algorithm-based software program that can locate underground water sources. Working with international organizations and governments, the firm, which maintains an office in New Braunfels, Texas, is helping to provide water for refugees and other people in drought-stricken regions such as Kenya, Sudan, and Afghanistan.

  16. Water Reclamation Technology Development at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pickering, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Who We Are: A staff of approximately 14 BS, MS, and PhD-Level Engineers and Scientists with experience in Aerospace, Civil, Environmental, and Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Physical Science and Water Pollution Microbiology. Our Primary Objective: To develop the next generation water recovery system technologies that will support NASA's long duration missions beyond low-earth orbit.

  17. Alternate applications of heavy water in biological and technological fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaran, M.; Prakash, R.

    2005-01-01

    Deuterium and its various compounds like heavy water exhibit distinctly different properties when compared to hydrogen and its compounds. The differences in properties are due to the primary and secondary isotopic effects. Though heavy water has been used solely for nuclear applications so far, its applications in life sciences and high technology areas are fast emerging. Heavy Water Board has taken up development of alternate applications of heavy water. The study taken up has indicated superior thermal stability for oral polio vaccine prepared in heavy water. This study has revealed various opportunities for application of heavy water or deuterium in life sciences and the paper dwells on these possibilities. The higher stability of compounds with deuterium has also brought in its applications in various high technology areas. These are mainly in micro electronics. Use of deuterium in manufacture of high quality optical fibres has already been established. These are also included in the paper. (author)

  18. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1993-1994. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Alternatives for ground water cleanup; Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; and, Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  19. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1992. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; Ground water vulnerability assessment; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; and Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  20. Recent activities on water detritiation technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kubo, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Yusuke; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Junichi [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo K.K., Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Water detritiation technology has been developed for the Japanese fusion DEMO plant. • Durability of an ion exchange membrane was checked with concentrated tritiated water. • Hydrophobic catalyst of SiO{sub 2} substrate has been developed for water detritiation. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed the water detritiation technology for CECE process considering the escalation in quantity and tritium concentration of tritiated water to be processed toward realization of the Japanese fusion DEMO plant. A commercial ion exchange perfluoro-membrane for concentrated tritiated water electrolyzer is durable against irradiation up to 1500 kGy in view of mechanical strength and ion exchange capacity. Concerning hydrophobic catalyst for LPCE column, a new method of manufacturing catalysts involving hydrophobic processing with an inorganic substance base has been developed. The catalyst created with this method has achieved the highest exchange efficiency, equivalent to 1.3 times the previously most powerful efficiency.

  1. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  2. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  3. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  4. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  5. Observation technology for remote operation in contaminated turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Manabu; Mitsui, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Remote underwater work in contaminated tanks and pools is one of major decontamination and decommissioning works under high-dose radiation environment. Generally in this kind of work, visual information is limited due to turbid water caused by suspended sludge particles in the water and it makes remote underwater work difficult to be performed safely and efficiently. Therefore, some alternative observation methods to optical cameras have been required. In order to satisfy this requirement, the alternative observation technology which can obtain visual information in contaminated turbid water has been developed since 2014. It is a technology using an acoustic imaging system in a designated airtight container. It provides the visual information in real time regardless of turbidity without significant contamination of any parts of the system. This paper will present development details of this innovative observation technology and its effectiveness to various remote works in contaminated turbid water. (author)

  6. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  7. Water chemistry technology. One of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry should be simultaneously satisfied: (1) better reliability of reactor structures and fuel rods; (2) lower occupational exposure and (3) fewer radwaste sources. Various groups in academia have carried out basic research to support the technical bases of water chemistry in plants. The Research Committee on Water Chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ), which has now been reorganized as the Division of Water Chemistry (DWC) of AESJ, has played important roles to promote improvements in water chemistry control, to share knowledge about and experiences with water chemistry control among plant operators and manufacturers and to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation of plant workers engaged in water chemistry. Furthermore, the DWC has tried and succeeded arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through roadmap planning. In the paper, major achievements in plant technologies and in basic research studies of water chemistry in Japan are reviewed. The contributions of the DWC to the long-term safe management of the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant until their decommissioning are introduced. (author)

  8. Water Power Technologies Office 2017 Marine Energy Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water Power Technologies Office

    2018-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Technologies Office's marine and hydrokinetic portfolio has numerous projects that support industry advancement in wave, tidal, and ocean and river current technologies. In order to strengthen state-of-the-art technologies in these fields and bring them closer to commercialization, the Water Power Technologies Office funds industry, academia, and the national laboratories. A U.S. chapter on marine and hydrokinetic energy research and development was included in the Ocean Energy Systems' Technology Programme—an intergovernmental collaboration between countries, which operates under a framework established by the International Energy Agency. This brochure is an overview of the U.S. accomplishments and updates from that report.

  9. Interactions of energy technology development and new energy exploitation with water technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of energy policies with water technology development in China are investigated using a hybrid input-output model and scenario analysis. The implementation of energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. Water saving potential of energy technology development is much larger than that of new energy exploitation. From the viewpoint of proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. From the viewpoint of proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water technology development, water sector benefits the most. Moreover, economic sectors are classified into four categories concerning co-benefits on water saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in categories 1 and 2 have big direct co-benefits. Thus, they can take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. If China implements life cycle materials management, sectors in category 3 can also take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in category 4 have few co-benefits from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Thus, putting additional responsibility on sectors in category 4 might produce pressure for their economic development. -- Highlights: ► Energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. ► For proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. ► For proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water policy, water sector benefits the most. ► China’s economic sectors are classified into four categories for policy implementation at sector scale.

  10. A simple and proven technology for reclaiming acidic mine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Chris; Mack, Bernie

    2011-01-01

    The cost of water treatment is now more than ever a major consideration for maintaining an environmentally and economically sustainable mining operation. As an industry, we often have to consider water sources that are highly impure and difficult to treat. We are also discovering the value of our waste waters in this regard and using new and improved methods and technology to reclaim and reuse water. In many instances, the water or waste water to be treated is highly acidic and saturated in sparingly soluble salts. Conventional systems used to liberate this type of water typically involve high doses of lime with large volumes of waste sludge produced, and are comparatively complex to operate, to pretreat the water in order to reduce scaling tendency on the reverse osmosis stage. However, if the water is considered valuable for reuse, then why not avoid difficult and cumbersome pretreatment processes and treat the water at low pH to keep the sparingly soluble salts, metals and other dissolved species in solution. This paper describes a patented technology that uses and successfully proves this concept as a cost effective option for certain situations. Results from a treatability study on an Australian groundwater are discussed, along with an economic comparison to a conventional method and discussion on full-scale potential.

  11. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  12. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Ertsen, Maurits; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-05-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  13. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-11-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  14. Drainage treatment technology for water pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebise, Sen' ichi

    1988-03-01

    Drainage is purified either at terminal treatment plants or by septic tanks for sewage. At terminal treatment plants, sewage is purified by activated sludge prosessing or by biological treatment equipment. By the normal activated sludge processing, only 20 - 30 % of nitrogen and phosphur can be removed. To solve this problem, many advanced processing systems have been employed, representative systems being coagulating sedimentation, rapid filtration, recirculating nitro-denitrification, etc. The coagulating sedimentation is a treatment process in which such metallic salt coagulations as aluminum, iron, etc. are injected and mixed with sewage, and then phosphur and the like are sedimented in the form of grains. The rapid filtration requires no large space, and can reliably remove suspended matter. For large scale septic tank processing system, advance treatment processing is supplemented to improve the quality of treated water. Among other systems of sewage purification are oxidized channel, oxidized pond, soil treatment, etc. (2 figs, 2 refs)

  15. The applied technologies to access clean water for remote communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabindra, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    A lot of research is done to overcome the remote communities to access clean water, yet very little is utilized and implemented by the community. Various reasons can probably be made for, which is the application of research results is assessed less practical. The aims of this paper is seeking a practical approach, how to establish criteria for the design can be easier applied, at the proper locations, the simple construction, effectively producing a volume and quality of clean water designation. The methods used in this paper is a technological model assessment of treatment/filtering clean water produced a variety of previous research, to establish a model of appropriate technology for remote communities. Various research results collected from the study of literature, while the identification of opportunities and threats to its application is done using a SWOT analysis. This article discussion is looking for alternative models of clean water filtration technology from the previous research results, to be selected as appropriate technology, easily applied and bring of many benefits to the remote communities. The conclusions resulting from the discussion in this paper, expected to be used as the basic criteria of design model of clean water filtration technologies that can be accepted and applied effectively by the remote communities.

  16. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  17. Changes in water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of fruit juice-milk beverages as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or heat during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Morales-de la Peña, Mariana; Rojas-Graü, Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2011-09-28

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or thermal processes and refrigerated storage on water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of beverages containing fruit juices and whole (FJ-WM) or skim milk (FJ-SM) was assessed. Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation as well as color changes were also studied. High vitamin C retention was observed in HIPEF and thermally treated beverages, but a significant depletion of the vitamin during storage occurred, which was correlated with antioxidant capacity. HIPEF treatment did not affect the concentration of group B vitamins, which also remained constant over time, but thermally treated beverages showed lower riboflavin (vitamin B2) concentration. With regard to enzyme activity, thermal processing was more effective than HIPEF on POD and LOX inactivation. The color of the beverages was maintained after HIPEF processing and during storage. Consequently, HIPEF processing could be a feasible technology to attain beverages with fruit juices and milk with high vitamin content and antioxidant potential.

  18. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of the IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors, has been undertaken to document the major current activities and trends of technological improvement and development for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with Light Water Reactors (LWRs) was published in 1988 (IAEA-TECDOC-479). Part II of the report covers Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) and has now been prepared. This report is based largely upon submissions from Member States. It has been supplemented by material from the presentations at the IAEA Technical Committee and Workshop on Progress in Heavy Water Reactor Design and Technology held in Montreal, Canada, December 6-9, 1988. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced heavy water reactor technology up to 1988 and ongoing development programmes will aid in disseminating information to Member States and in stimulating international cooperation. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Overcoming technology - obsolescence: a case study in Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, O.P.; Sonde, R.R.; Wechalekar, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia based Heavy Water Plants in India are set up essentially in conjunction with fertiliser plants for the supply of feed synthesis gas. Earlier ammonia was being produced in fertiliser plants using high-pressure technology which was highly energy intensive. However with fast developments in the field of production of ammonia, fertiliser plants are switching over to low pressure technology. Ammonia based heavy water plants have to operate on pressures corresponding to that of fertiliser plants. Due to low pressures in production of ammonia, heavy water plants would also be required to operate at low pressures than the existing operating pressures. This problem was faced at Heavy Water Plant at Baroda where GSFC supplying synthesis gas switched over to low pressure technology making it imperative on the part of Heavy Water Board to carry out modification to the main plant for continued operation of Heavy Water Plant, Baroda. Anticipating similar problems due to production of ammonia at lower pressures in other fertiliser plants linked to existing Heavy Water Plants, it became necessary for HWB to develop water ammonia front end. The feed in such a case would be water instead of synthesis gas. This would enable HWB to dispense with dependence on fertiliser plants especially if grass-root ammonia based heavy water plants are to be set up. Incorporation of water ammonia front end would enable HWB to de link ammonia based heavy water plants with fertiliser plants. This paper discusses the advantage of de linking heavy water plant respective fertiliser plant by incorporating water ammonia front end and technical issues related to front end technology. A novel concept of ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) was considered for the process integration with the front end. The incorporation of AAR with water ammonia front-end configuration utilizes liquid ammonia refrigerant to generate refrigeration without additional energy input which otherwise would have been

  20. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  1. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  2. Proceedings of the Trombay symposium on desalination and water reuse: technology interventions in water purification and management - challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Saurabh; Tiwari, S.A.; Kaza, Saikiran

    2015-01-01

    This conference deals with the issues relevant to water security, desalination processes and water reuse. The topics covered in the symposium include: water scenario, integrated water resource management, innovative desalination technologies, nuclear and renewable energy based desalination, intake and out fall systems, advances in water purification technologies, advanced water treatment, nanotechnologies in water purification, innovations in desalination technologies, reject brine management, drinking water in rural and remote areas, water quality monitoring and assurance, emerging membrane technologies, spent membrane management, environment and health, techno-economic evaluation and financial models etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  4. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  5. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  6. Conflict of technologies for water and sanitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, R R

    2000-01-01

    Borehole water supplies, in basement rock aquifers in the West Africa Sub-region, face potential pollution hazards as a result of their close location within the same geological environments as indiscriminately sited latrines, rubbish dumps, farms and animal watering points in the communities. The heterogeneous nature of the overburden and fractures in the bedrock constitute relatively fast flow paths for surface water contaminated mainly by bacteria and nitrates which enhance the pollution of the groundwater and boreholes. To improve the drinking water quality, some measures have been taken to minimize the hazards. Further studies are required to understand better the nature and scale of the problem and to avoid the apparent conflict of technologies. It is necessary to incorporate improvements in sanitation into rural water supply projects, if the otherwise good drinking water source should not be lost to society's wastes.

  7. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  8. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also

  9. Improvement of water desalination technologies in reverse osmosis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskii, S. P.; Konoval'chik, M. V.; Gul'ko, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening of requirements for the protection of surface-water sources and increases in the cost of reagents lead to the necessity of using membrane (especially, reverse osmosis) technologies of water desalination as an alternative to ion-exchange technologies. The peculiarities of using reverse osmosis technologies in the desalination of waters with an increased salinity have been discussed. An analogy has been made between the dependence of the adsorptive capacity of ion-exchange resins on the reagent consumption during ion exchange and the dependence of the specific ion flux on the voltage in the electrodialysis and productivity of membrane elements on the excess of the pressure of source water over the osmotic pressure in reverse osmosis. It has been proposed to regulate the number of water desalination steps in reverse osmosis plants, which makes it possible to flexibly change the productivity of equipment and the level of desalinization, depending on the requirements for the technological process. It is shown that the selectivity of reverse osmotic membranes with respect to bivalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and sulfates) is approximately four times higher than the selectivity with respect to monovalent ions (sodium and chlorine). The process of desalination in reverse osmosis plants depends on operation factors, such as the salt content and ion composition of source water, the salt content of the concentrate, and the temperatures of solution and operating pressure, and the design features of devices, such as the length of the motion of the desalination water flux, the distance between membranes, and types of membranes and turbulators (spacers). To assess the influence of separate parameters on the process of reverse osmosis desalination of water solutions, we derived criteria equations by compiling problem solution matrices on the basis of the dimensional method, taking into account the Huntley complement. The operation of membrane elements was

  10. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  11. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  12. The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Peter K; Barton, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Cynthia A

    2005-04-01

    Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode. Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never become accepted as a 'mainstream' water treatment technology. The lack of a systematic approach to electrocoagulation reactor design/operation and the issue of electrode reliability (particularly passivation of the electrodes over time) have limited its implementation. However recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale decentralised water treatment facilities have led to a re-evaluation of electrocoagulation. Starting with a review of electrocoagulation reactor design/operation, this article examines and identifies a conceptual framework for electrocoagulation that focuses on the interactions between electrochemistry, coagulation and flotation. In addition detailed experimental data are provided from a batch reactor system removing suspended solids together with a mathematical analysis based on the 'white water' model for the dissolved air flotation process. Current density is identified as the key operational parameter influencing which pollutant removal mechanism dominates. The conclusion is drawn that electrocoagulation has a future as a decentralised water treatment technology. A conceptual framework is presented for future research directed towards a more mechanistic understanding of the process.

  13. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    C. Unilateral intrauterine ... conception rates to intrauterine insemination with chilled semen was relatively higher than Chios ewes. Key words: .... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the ...

  14. Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...

  15. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CHILL RADAR MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CHILL radar data for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) held in Oklahoma were collected while the NASA ER-2 aircraft conducted a...

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  18. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  19. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies...... which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...

  20. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  1. Chilling outweighs photoperiod in preventing precocious spring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H; Estrella, Nicole; Höfler, Josef; Ankerst, Donna P; Menzel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that increased spring temperatures cause earlier onset dates of leaf unfolding and flowering. However, a temperature increase in winter may be associated with delayed development when species' chilling requirements are not fulfilled. Furthermore, photosensitivity is supposed to interfere with temperature triggers. To date, neither the relative importance nor possible interactions of these three factors have been elucidated. In this study, we present a multispecies climate chamber experiment to test the effects of chilling and photoperiod on the spring phenology of 36 woody species. Several hypotheses regarding their variation with species traits (successional strategy, floristic status, climate of their native range) were tested. Long photoperiods advanced budburst for one-third of the studied species, but magnitudes of these effects were generally minor. In contrast to prior hypotheses, photosensitive responses were not restricted to climax or oceanic species. Increased chilling length advanced budburst for almost all species; its effect greatly exceeding that of photoperiod. Moreover, we suggest that photosensitivity and chilling effects have to be rigorously disentangled, as the response to photoperiod was restricted to individuals that had not been fully chilled. The results indicate that temperature requirements and successional strategy are linked, with climax species having higher chilling and forcing requirements than pioneer species. Temperature requirements of invasive species closely matched those of native species, suggesting that high phenological concordance is a prerequisite for successful establishment. Lack of chilling not only led to a considerable delay in budburst but also caused substantial changes in the chronological order of species' budburst. The results reveal that increased winter temperatures might impact forest ecosystems more than formerly assumed. Species with lower chilling requirements, such as pioneer or invasive

  2. Should Workers Avoid Consumption of Chilled Fluids in a Hot and Humid Climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt B. Brearley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite provision of drinking water as the most common method of occupational heat stress prevention, there remains confusion in hydration messaging to workers. During work site interactions in a hot and humid climate, workers commonly report being informed to consume tepid fluids to accelerate rehydration. When questioned on the evidence supporting such advice, workers typically cite that fluid absorption is delayed by ingestion of chilled beverages. Presumably, delayed absorption would be a product of fluid delivery from the gut to the intestines, otherwise known as gastric emptying. Regulation of gastric emptying is multifactorial, with gastric volume and beverage energy density the primary factors. If gastric emptying is temperature dependent, the impact of cooling is modest in both magnitude and duration (≤ 5 minutes due to the warming of fluids upon ingestion, particularly where workers have elevated core temperature. Given that chilled beverages are most preferred by workers, and result in greater consumption than warm fluids during and following physical activity, the resultant increased consumption of chilled fluids would promote gastric emptying through superior gastric volume. Hence, advising workers to avoid cool/cold fluids during rehydration appears to be a misinterpretation of the research. More appropriate messaging to workers would include the thermal benefits of cool/cold fluid consumption in hot and humid conditions, thereby promoting autonomy to trial chilled beverages and determine personal preference. In doing so, temperature-based palatability would be maximized and increase the likelihood of workers maintaining or restoring hydration status during and after their work shift. Keywords: Fluid consumption, gastric emptying, hot and humid conditions, hydration, occupational

  3. Strigolactones positively regulate chilling tolerance in pea and in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Hu, Yan; Beyyoudh, Leila; Yildiz Dasgan, H; Kunert, Karl; Beveridge, Christine A; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-01-17

    Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines. However, dark chilling treatments decreased biomass (dry weight) accumulation only in rms3 and rms5 shoots. Unlike the wild type plants, chilling-induced inhibition of photosynthetic carbon assimilation was observed in the rms lines and also in max3-9, max4-1, max2-1 mutants that are defective in SL synthesis or signalling. When grown on agar plates the max mutant rosettes accumulated less biomass than the wild type. The synthetic SL, GR24 decreased leaf area in the wild type, max3-9 and max4-1 mutants but not in max2-1 in the absence of stress. Moreover, a chilling-induced decrease in leaf area was observed in all the lines in the presence of GR24. We conclude that SL plays an important role in the control of dark chilling tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  5. Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

  6. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  7. Subtask 5.3 - Water and Energy Sustainability and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkedahl, Bruce; Martin, Christopher; Dunham, David

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of this Energy and Environmental Research Center project was to evaluate water capture technologies in a carbon capture and sequestration system and perform a complete systems analysis of the process to determine potential water minimization opportunities within the entire system. To achieve that goal, a pilot-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) was fabricated and tested in conjunction with a coal-fired combustion test furnace outfitted with CO 2 mitigation technologies, including the options of oxy-fired operation and postcombustion CO 2 capture using an amine scrubber. The process gas stream for these tests was a coal-derived flue gas that had undergone conventional pollutant control (particulates, SO 2 ) and CO 2 capture with an amine-based scrubber. The water balance data from the pilot-scale tests show that the packed-bed absorber design was very effective at capturing moisture down to levels that approach equilibrium conditions.

  8. Optimal purification technology of ultrapure water for instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Naoe

    2011-01-01

    Purified water is one of the most commonly utilized reagents in the laboratory. It is used throughout experimental protocols in virtually every type of laboratory application : as blanks, for the dissolution and dilution of samples, the dilution of standards, preparation of mobile phases and for media and buffer preparation. Contaminants present in purified water can therefore have a significant impact on results. Hence, it is important to ensure that the laboratory water-purification system contains a combination of purification technologies to target specific impurities related to each application. This article looks at some of these technologies and their relevance for specific applications, such as HPLC, LC/MS, and ion chromatography (IC). (author)

  9. Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications. Proceedings of the Conference on Water Jetting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications is the third international meeting of researchers, manufacturers, end-users, and all those interested in the technology of high-speed water jetting organized by the Department of material disintegration of the Institute of Geonics of the ASCR Ostrava. It provides a basis not only for exchange knowledge, ideas, information and experiences in areas of research, development and applications of water jets, as well as stimulating discussio...

  10. Effects of chilling and ABA on [3H]gibberellin A4 metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with [ 3 H]GA 4 (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10 19 becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26 0 C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free [ 3 H]GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26 0 C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble [ 3 H] metabolites formed at 26 0 C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA 12 aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with [ 3 H]GA 4 treatment at 26 0 C, reduced the uptake of [ 3 H] GA 4 but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26 0 C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs)

  11. ON A NEW TECHNOLOGY OF PREPARATION OF HOT DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Jalilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains information concerning the new Cl-anionization technology in the preparation of hot drinking water. In contrast with water softening, that replaces all the hardness salts by sodium cations in the cation exchanger, this new technology makes it possible to replace incrustating HCO3̄ and SO42--anions in a strong-base anion exchanger by Cl⁻-ions. As a result, the incrustation on the surfaces of heating hot water heaters is prevented. Thus, cations of hardness that are valuable for the human body remain in the water, the quality of the latter conforming to drinking water quality. Considering the important role of calcium and magnesium in the human body, in Germany and Turkey the minimum value of hardness cations in drinking water is limited to 2.85 and 7.50 mg-Eqv/l, respectively. According to the World Health Organization, in the composition of drinking water, the concentration of cations of magnesium and calcium is recommended, respectively, within 10–(20–30, and 20–50 mg/l; the minimum value of total hardness is 2–4 mg-Eqv/l. According to the developed technology drinking water is passed consistently in the downward direction through the mechanical and chlorineanionite exchanger filters. In the latter, the main part of HCO3̄ and SO42--water ions are exchanged for Cl-anions of anionite. Then the water is collected in the tank, from where it is pumped to the hot water heater through the ultraviolet disinfection unit. After the depletion of the anionite by HCO3̄ and SO42--anions, it is regenerated by a solution of 8–12 % NaCl. The results of research by the anion exchangers Purolite A200EMBCl and AB-17-8 are plotted. It is noted that when the specific consumption of salt for regeneration is of about 45–55 kg/m³, working exchange capacity of the A200EMBCl occurs to be in the range 300–370 g-Eqv/m³. For anionization of water, the residual concentration of HCO3̄-ions are changed from 0.5 to 3.2 mg

  12. RISK ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATERS ASSOCIATED WITH WATER CIRCULATION TECHNOLOGIES ON TROUT FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sidoruk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of aquaculture has led to an increasing impact on the status of surface waters. Fish production generates wastes that, at high concentrations, may present a serious risk to the aquatic environment. Studies on the assessment of the impact of water management technologies in trout production on the quality of surface waters were conducted in 2011. Six farms were selected for the studies and were divided into two groups based on water management solutions (n = 3: farms with a flow through system (FTS and farms with a recirculation aquaculture system (RAS. On all farms, water measurement points were set and they depicted the quality of inflow water, the quality of water in ponds and the quality of outflow water. The studies did not demonstrate any impact of applied technology on electrolyte conductivity or calcium and magnesium concentrations in outflow water from a trout operation. In addition, it was found that the use of water for production purposes resulted in a slight increase in phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in waste waters.

  13. A review of boiling water reactor water chemistry: Science, technology, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) water chemistry (science, technology, and performance) has been reviewed with an emphasis on the relationships between BWR water quality and corrosion fuel performance, and radiation buildup. A comparison of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.56, the Boiling Water Reactor Owners Group (BWROG) Water Chemistry Guidelines, and Plant Technical Specifications showed that the BWROG Guidelines are more stringent than the NRC Regulatory Guide, which is almost identical to Plant Technical Specifications. Plant performance with respect to BWR water chemistry has shown dramatic improvements in recent years. Up until 1979 BWRs experienced an average of 3.0 water chemistry incidents per reactor-year. Since 1979 the water chemistry technical specifications have been violated an average of only 0.2 times per reactor-year, with the most recent data from 1986-1987 showing only 0.05 violations per reactor-year. The data clearly demonstrate the industry-wide commitment to improving water quality in BWRs. In addition to improving water quality, domestic BWRs are beginning to switch to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), a remedy for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Three domestic BWRs are presently operating on HWC, and fourteen more have either performed HWC mini tests or are in various stages of HWC implementation. This report includes a detailed review of HWC science and technology as well as areas in which further research on BWR chemistry may be needed. 43 refs., 30 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  15. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlacek, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone, or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation. (author)

  16. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  17. Online chilling effects in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Townend

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open and free internet-based platforms are seen as an enabler of global free expression, releasing writers from commercial and space constraints. However, many are working without the assistance of an in-house lawyer, or other legal resources. This may lead to undue suppression of public interest material, with important implications for freedom of expression and the democratic function of media. Two online surveys among digital and online journalists in England and Wales in 2013 indicated that the majority of encounters with defamation and privacy law take place outside the courts, with few formally recorded legal actions. This was particularly evident in a sample of ‘hyperlocal’ and local community publishers. In light of the results, this paper calls for a reappraisal of overly simplistic judicial and media applications of the ‘chilling effect’ doctrine, in order to expose its subjectivities and complexities. Additionally, attention needs to be paid to global and cross-jurisdictional media-legal environments, in order to help develop better internet policy and legal frameworks for protecting legitimate expression.

  18. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  19. Integrated solar water-heater and solar water cooler performance during winter time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.U.; Siddiqui, M.A

    2012-01-01

    Solar powered water heater and water cooler is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumptions and harmful emissions to the environment. This study aims to harness the available solar potential of Pakistan and provide an option fulfilling the domestic hot and cold water demands during winter and summer seasons respectively. The system was designed for the tap-water temperature of 65 degree C (149 degree F) and the chilled drinking-water temperature of 14 degree C (57 degree F) that are the recommended temperatures by World Health Organization (WHO). The solar water heater serves one of the facilities of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NED University of Engineering and Technology whereas, the solar water cooler will provide drinking water to approximately 50 people including both faculty and students. A pair of single glazed flat plate solar collector was installed to convert solar radiations to heat. Hot water storage and supply system was carefully designed and fabricated to obtain the designed tap-water temperature. Vapour-absorption refrigeration system was designed to chill drinking water. Intensity of solar radiations falling on the solar collector, water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the solar collectors and the tap water temperature were measured and analyzed at different hours of the day and at different days of the month. The results show that the installed solar collector system has potential to feed hot water of temperatures ranging from 65 degree C (149 degree F) to 70 Degree C (158 degree F), that is the required hot water temperature to operate a vapour absorption chilled water production system. (author)

  20. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  1. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to set water prices that provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently. These new water pricing policies need to consider cost recovery of water services, including financial, environmental and resource cost. Prices were supposed to have been set by 2010. So far the record has been mixed. The European Commission has sent reasoned opinions to a number of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden) requesting them to adjust their national legislation to include all water services. Unbalanced water pricing may negatively affect the agricultural sector, especially in the southern EU countries, which are more dependent on irrigation water for production. The European Commission is funding several projects that aim to reduce the burden of increasing water prices on farmers by developing innovative technologies and decision support systems that will save water and increase productivity. The FP7 ENORASIS project (grant 282949) has developed a new integrated irrigation management decision support platform, which include high-resolution, ensemble weather forecasting, a GIS widget for the location of fields and sensors and a comprehensive decision support and database management software package to optimize irrigation water management. The field component includes wireless, solar-powered soil moisture sensors, small weather stations, and remotely controlled irrigation valves. A mobile App and a web-package are providing user-friendly interfaces for farmers, water companies and environmental consultants. In Cyprus, agricultural water prices have been set to achieve a cost recovery rate of 54% (2010). The pricing policy takes in consideration the social importance and financial viability of the agricultural sector, an important flexibility provided by the Water Framework Directive. The new price was set at 0.24 euro per m3 for water supply

  2. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  3. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In 1982, the National Research Council chose to recognize the importance of water resource issues by establishing the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). During the five years since its first meeting in November 1982, the WSTB has grown and matured. The WSTB has met 14 times to provide guidance and plan activities. Under the WSTB's direction, committees of experts have conducted approximately 30 studies on a broad array of topics, from dam safety to irrigation-induced water quality problems to ground water protection strategies. Studies have ranged in scope from the oversight of specific agency projects and programs to broader scientific reviews, such as a disciplinary assessment of the hydrologic sciences initiated in 1987. In all cases, studies have the general theme of ultimately improving the scientific and technological bases of programs of water management and environmental quality. This fifth annual report of the WSTB summarizes the Board's accomplishments during 1987, its current activities, and its plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program organizations, and the reports produced. The report should provide the reader with a basic understanding of the WSTB's interests, achievements, and capabilities. The WSTB welcomes inquiries and suggestions concerning its activities and will provide more detailed information on any aspects of its work to those interested.

  4. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  5. NASA Remote Sensing Technologies for Improved Integrated Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lee, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and international community to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. Key objectives of this talk will highlight NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs with their objective to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management in national and international applications. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. The presentation will also demonstrate how NASA is a major contributor to water tasks and activities in GEOSS (Global Earth Observing System of Systems) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations).

  6. Do water-saving technologies improve environmental flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Charles; Reddy, V. Ratna; Linstead, Conor; Dhar, Murli; Roy, Sumit; May, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Water saving and conservation technologies (WCTs) have been promoted widely in India as a practical means of improving the water use efficiency and freeing up water for other uses (e.g. for maintaining environmental flows in river systems). However, there is increasing evidence that, somewhat paradoxically, WCTs often contribute to intensification of water use by irrigated and rainfed farming systems. This occurs when: (1) Increased crop yields are coupled with increased consumptive water use and/or (2) Improved efficiency, productivity and profitability encourages farmers to increase the area cropped and/or to adopt multiple cropping systems. In both cases, the net effect is an increase in annual evapotranspiration that, particularly in areas of increasing water scarcity, can have the trade-off of reduced environmental flows. Recognition is also increasing that the claimed water savings of many WCTs may have been overstated. The root cause of this problem lies in confusion over what constitutes real water saving at the system or basin scales. The simple fact is that some of the water that is claimed to be ‘saved’ by WCTs would have percolated into the groundwater from where it can be and often is accessed and reused. Similarly, some of the “saved” runoff can be used downstream by, for example, farmers or freshwater ecosystems. This paper concludes that, particularly in areas facing increasing water scarcity, environmental flows will only be restored and maintained if they are given explicit (rather than theoretical or notional) attention. With this in mind, a simple methodology is proposed for deciding when and where WCTs may have detrimental impacts on environmental flows.

  7. R and D areas for next generation desalination and water purification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Rao, I.S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, desalination and water purification technologies are expected to contribute significantly to ensure a safe, sustainable, affordable and adequate water supply. The cost of producing water from the current generation desalination technologies has declined over time at a rate of only approximately 4% per year. So we need to accelerate our research and development (R and D) activities with a near and long term objective for evolution of current generation desalination technology and to create revolutionary next generation advanced desalination and water purification technologies which will offer a promise of step reduction in cost of producing water. There are five broad technological areas-thermal technologies, membrane technologies, alternate technologies, concentrate management technologies, reuse and recycle technologies that encompass the spectrum of desalination technology. In this paper high priority research areas in all the above technologies areas are discussed to make decision about research direction that will help to mitigate our nation's future water supply challenges. (author)

  8. Environmental Evaluation of Soil Salinity with Various Watering Technologies Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitkaziev, Adeubay; Shilibek, Kenzhegali; Fakhrudenova, Idiya; Salybayev, Satybaldy; Zhaparova, Sayagul; Duisenbayeva, Saule; Bayazitova, Zulfia; Aliya, Maimakova; Seitkazieva, Karlygash; Aubakirov, Hamit

    2018-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical tools for evaluating the level of environmental safety of various watering technologies. A set of indicators, was developed with regard to the natural factors, the nature of the man-induced load, degradation type, and characteristics of the disruption of humification conditions. Thermal and physical characteristics of the soil, the state of its surface, and meteorological factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, etc. were studied with a view to determining the heat and air exchange in the soil. An environmental evaluation of the methods for saline land development was conducted with regard to the heat and moisture supply. This tool can be used to determine the level of environmental safety of soil salinization during the environmental evaluation of the investigation of soil salinity with various watering technologies.

  9. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The meeting was attended by 20 participants from 12 countries who reviewed and discussed the status and progress of national programmes on advanced water-cooled reactors and recommended to the Scientific Secretary a comprehensive programme for 1991/1992 which would support technology development programmes in IWGATWR Member States. This summary report outlines the activities of IWGATWR since its Second Meeting in June 1988 and main results of the Third Meeting

  10. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The main purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status of national programmes, the progress achieved since the last meeting held in June 1988 in the field of advanced technologies and design trends for existing and future water cooled reactors. 24 specialists from 14 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting and 12 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) and its subgroups during 1989, it seventh year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1990, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is an introduction to the WSTB and its program for the year. 4 figs.

  12. Inhibition of chloroplast protein synthesis following light chilling of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, J.; Ort, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study we looked at the effects of a high light chill on the pulsed incorporation of 35 S methionine into total, stromal, and thylakoid proteins of lightly abraded leaflets of 18-21 day old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ca. Floramerica) seedlings. Based on gel fluorographic patterns of marker proteins that are indicative of the net rates of chloroplast and cytoplasmic protein synthesis, there appears to be a nearly complete cessation of chloroplastic protein synthesis. No labeling is observed for either the stromal large subunit of Rubisco or the thylakoid-bound alpha and beta subunits of the coupling factor. One notable exception, however, appears to be the 32 kd, D1 protein. Its net synthetic rate remains high despite the inhibition of other chloroplastically synthesized proteins. The small subunit of Rubicso, LHCP-II, as well as several other proteins of known cytoplasmic origin, were still synthesized, albeit, at lower than control rates. Light chilling of chill-insensitive spinach produced a similar, but less dramatic differential behavior between chloroplastic and cytoplasmic protein synthesis. It appears, in chilling-sensitive plants, that chloroplast protein synthesis exhibits a greater sensitivity to low temperature inhibition than does cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that recovery of chloroplast protein synthesis may play an important role in recovery of photosynthetic activity following chilling

  13. Heavy water technology and its contribution to energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDiarmid, H.; Alizadeh, A.; Hopwood, J.; Duffey, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: As the global nuclear industry expands several markets are exploring avenues and technologies to underpin energy security. Heavy water reactors are the most versatile power reactors in the world. They have the potential to extend resource utilization significantly, to allow countries with developing industrial infrastructures access to clean and abundant energy, and to destroy long-lived nuclear waste. These benefits are available by choosing from an array of possible fuel cycles. Several factors, including Canada's early focus on heavy-water technology, limited heavy-industry infrastructure at the time, and a desire for both technological autonomy and energy self-sufficiency, contributed to the creation of the first commercial heavy water reactor in 1962. With the maturation of the industry, the unique design features of the now-familiar product-on-power refuelling, high neutron economy, and simple fuel design-make possible the realization of its potential fuel-cycle versatility. As resource constrains apply pressure on world markets, the feasibility of these options have become more attractive and closer to entering widespread commercial application

  14. Tightening water quality regulations produces an innovative separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welther, P.B.; Broussard, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of the recent proposed changes in the water quality standards for offshore producing platforms is having a far reaching effect on the oil and gas industry. At a time when oil companies are cutting back their work forces and reducing capital outlays in order to stay competitive in the market, water treatment equipment manufacturing companies are aggressively seeking innovative and cost effective solutions to meet the environmental requirements. Necessity drives advancements in technology, so Monosep Corporation has accepted the challenge to improve induced gas flotation technology and to develop enhanced gravity separation. This system of improved gas flotation and enhanced gravity separation can be used to consistently meet the proposed new guideline of an ''oil and grease'' maximum monthly average of 29 mg/l (milligrams per liter) in the discharged water from offshore platforms. The results demonstrated in the field suggest that adding enhanced gravity separation upstream of existing gas flotation units can improve performance sufficient to meet the Proposed stricter discharge limits. For platforms that do not have efficient gas flotation units, the old units can be replaced or modified to include the new features improved gas flotation technology like the Veirsep. For those few platforms are having difficulty meeting the current discharge requirements, both a new improved gas flotation unit, as well as a more sophisticated upstream gravity separator like the Cyclosep, may need to be installed. Chemical additives are sometimes a required necessity, but must be used sparingly due to the potential for creating soluble oil problems

  15. Selection criteria for wastewater treatment technologies to protect drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water bodies used as sources for drinking water is intimately linked to the adoption of adequate technologies for the treatment of the wastewater generated in the catchment area. The paper presents a general overview of the main technologies used for the treatment of domestic sewage, with a special emphasis on developing countries, and focussing on the main parameters of interest, such as BOD, coliforms and nutrients. A series of tables, figures and charts that can be used for the preliminary selection of treatment technologies is presented. The systems analysed are: stabilisation ponds, activated sludge, trickling filters, anaerobic systems and land disposal. Within each system, the main process variants are covered. Two summary tables are presented, one for quantitative analysis, including easily usable information based on per capita values (US$/cap, Watts/cap, m2 area/cap, m3 sludge/cap), and another for a qualitative comparison among the technologies, based on a one-to-five-star scoring system. The recent trend in tropical countries in the use of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors is also discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanowska Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity. The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.

  17. HydroGrid: Technologies for Global Water Quality and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazarian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have been transforming planet Earth for millennia. We have recently come to understand that the collective impact of our decisions and actions has brought about severe water quality problems, which are likely to worsen in the light of rapid population growth to the projected nine billion by 2050. To sustainably manage our global water resources and possibly reverse these effects requires efforts in real-time monitoring of water contamination, analysis of monitoring data, and control of the state of water contamination. We develop technologies to address all three areas: monitoring, analysis and control. These efforts are carried out in the conceptual framework of the HydroGrid, an interconnected water system, which is (1) firmly rooted in the fundamental understanding of processes that govern microbial dynamics on multiple scales; and (2) used to develop watershed-specific management strategies. In the area of monitoring we are developing mobile autonomous sensors to detect surface water contamination, an effort supported by extensive materials research to provide multifunctional materials. We analyze environmental data within a stochastic modeling paradigm that bridges microscopic particle interactions to macroscopic manifestation of microbial population behavior in time and space in entire watersheds. These models are supported with laboratory and field experiments. Finally, we combine control and graph theories to derive controllability metrics of natural watersheds.

  18. Water Desalination Studies Using Forward Osmosis Technology, A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El-Nour, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water and energy shortage represent a great challenge facing the whole world now. To cover the global water demand, an energy-efficient approach is required to be applied in the suitable technology to achieve the shortage in the fresh water demand. Different techniques are used to solve this problem. A mong the different methods applied to desalinate seawater is the osmosis technologies . Although reversible osmosis (RO) is the most familiar method used for this purpose, forward osmosis (FO) represents a more suitable technique due to several arguments including low energy cost. The present study represents the use of FO technique for water desalination with adsorption regeneration. In this respect, a self-prepared granular active carbon produced from dates is to be used as an adsorbent agent. The physical characteristics of the active carbon are studied such as BET specific surface area, pore size, particle size and the structure using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different advanced apparatus are used for such measurements. In addition, the adsorption is otherms (Langmuier and Freundlich) are established to explain the adsorption mechanism of the process. Accordingly, the review includes essential information and sufficient backgrounds in the field of desalination using FO or simply direct osmosis, which overcome the different difficulties present in reversible RO

  19. Effect of irradiation on microbiological safety of chilled cooked dumpling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Chunfeng; Jia Yingmin; Gao Meixu; Sun Baozhong

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Dumplings are popular ethnic prepared meal in China. The effects of irradiation on the survival of Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, which are possible pathogenic bacteria in the chilled and cooked dumpling with vacuum package, were studied. The results showed that the D 10 values of Sal. enteritidis, Staph. aureus and L. monocytogenes were 0.31, 0.44 and 0.45 kGy, respectively. After 4 kGy irradiation, the hygienic and safe characters of the chilled and cooked dumpling were acceptable according to our national industrial standard. So the vacuum packaging and 4 kGy irradiation treatment might insure the safety of the chilled and cooked dumpling. (authors)

  20. Factors affecting the selection of a soil water sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hignett, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews of soil moisture measurement technologies are counterproductive in attempting to identify the single approach that has the best overall performance for a range of soil, crop and landscape conditions. Not only does such an approach preclude the addition of new technologies, but it also obscures the fact that we have available today sensors and technologies that cover most field conditions, are well understood in terms of technical capability and are mechanically and electronically reliable. This review defines decision-making processes for assessing the characteristics, good and bad, of technology in relation to project objectives. Two processes are needed. The first links soil texture and scale of variability with the nature of the project, single-plant to catchment scale, to the needs for soil water measurement. The second lists the capabilities of some devices and shows how they can be selected to accommodate necessary criteria. It is concluded that the 'best technology' is a function of the project and soil conditions. (author)

  1. Principle, function, experiences, hybrid chilled ceilings; Prinzip, Funktion, Erfahrungen. Hybrid-Kuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Uwe W. [Hochschule Luzern (Switzerland). Technik und Architektur

    2010-12-15

    Hybrid chilled ceilings combine a radiation chilled ceiling with thermal activations of a concrete ceiling. The activation permits the utilization of alternative and/or small cold generators for the efficient night cooling. The traditional chilled ceiling grants a speedy reaction to load variations as well as a reduction of the reverberation periods. In addition, the combination supplies a draught-free insertion of air. Beside established solutions, MWH Barcol-Air (Staefa, Switzerland) also offers project-specific hybrid chilled ceilings.

  2. The role of the IAEA in advanced technologies for water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the IAEA in advanced technologies for water-cooled reactors is described, including the following issues: international collaboration ways through international working group activities; IAEA coordinated research programmes; cooperative research in advanced water-cooled reactor technology

  3. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  4. Sunlight technologies for photochemical deactivation of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acher, A.; Fischer, E.; Tornheim, R. [The Volcani Center, Inst. of Soils and Water, Bet Dagan (Israel); Manor, Y. [Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Lab., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1997-12-31

    Sensitized-photochemical oxidation methods aimed at use in water treatment technologies for deactivation of biotic (microorganisms) and/or of xenobiotic (pesticides) pollutants in water were developed using global solar radiation or concentrated sunlight (up to 250 suns). The solar global radiation was used either for detoxification of industrial waste water from a pesticide factory to allow their discharge into the urban sewer, or for disinfection of domestric effluents to be used in crop irrigation. The disinfection process was eventually carried out in an experimental pilot-scale plant, capable of disinfection up to 50 m{sup 3}/h of effluent supplied by an activated sludge sewage treatment plant located in Tel-Aviv area. The treated effluents did not show any regrowth of the microorganisms during 7 days. The solar concentrated radiation experiments performed using facilities of the Sun Tower of The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot. The concentrated sunlight was provided by different combination of several computer controlled heliostates, up to 8, that track the sun and focus the received sunlight onto the target situated on the roof of the sun-tower. The sunlight intensities measured on the target reached up to 200 kW/m{sup 2}. The experiments were performed either batch- or continuous-wise. The water-samples exposed to disinfection were the above effluent, filtered and supplemented with vaccine strain poliovirus or with different concentrations of an industrial potential pollutant (bromacil), MB 2 mg/L and two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (8.0 or 40.0 mg O{sub 2}/L). An exposure time of 2-3 seconds at 150 kW/m{sup 2} was decreased the microorganisms alive (counts) by five orders of magnitude. A comparison between the two above water treatment technologies is presented. (orig./SR)

  5. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings. The buil...

  6. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway AGENCY: Import... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway SUMMARY: On August 5... antidumping order on fresh and chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway and preliminarily determined that Nordic...

  7. Informing water harvesting technology contract design using choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfasa, Solomon; Brouwer, Roy; Sheremet, Oleg; Bouma, Jetske

    2017-10-01

    Introducing water harvesting technology is expected to be more effective and last longer if farm households are involved in their design. The main objective of this study is to inform policymakers in Ethiopia about the most important terms and conditions to incentivize farmers to enter into a contractual agreement to invest in water harvesting on their land. In order to test the influence of the way the specific contractual terms and conditions are communicated to farm households, many of whom are illiterate, a split sample approach is applied with and without visual aids for technical, institutional, and economic contract characteristics. Both samples generate significantly different results, highlighting the importance of how information is conveyed to farm households. This pattern is confirmed when examining the self-reported importance attached to the various contract characteristics. Equality Constrained Latent Class models show that contract characteristics for which visual aids were developed are considered more attentively, emphasizing the importance of adequate communication tools in a developing country context where literacy rates are limited to increase water technology innovation uptake and reduce farm household vulnerability to droughts.

  8. Adoption of voluntary water-pollution reduction technologies and water quality perception among Danish farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of voluntary nutrient reduction technologies among Danish farmers is relatively low despite the introduction of a number of incentives to do so. With data from 267 farmers, this study analyzes the level of adoption of these technologies and the farmers’ perception of water quality......, existing regulatory measures and their implementation strategies. In general, farmers perceive the water quality to be above average and indicate a strong opposition to penalties for non-compliance. Results of two ordered probit models on adoption and perception show a significant importance of farm...... and soil types, farm size and slopes and information availability. These findings point to the need for increased information dissemination on water quality requirements both at national and regional levels and technical and institutional support for the existing and future incentives....

  9. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.

    1999-01-31

    The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely

  10. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) summarizes the activities of the Board and its subgroups during 1988, its sixth year of existence. Included are descriptions of current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1989, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is intended to provide an introduction to the WSTB and summary of its program for the year.

  11. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  12. Advanced technology heavy water monitors offering reduced implementation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.; Hippola, K.B.

    1984-10-01

    The development of second generation heavy water monitors for use at CANDU power stations and heavy water plants has been completed and the instruments brought to the stage of commercial availability. Applications of advanced technology and reduced utilization of custom manufactured components have together resulted in instruments that are less expensive to produce than the original monitors and do not require costly station services. The design has been tested on two prototypes and fully documented, including the inspection and test procedures required for manufacture to the CSA Z299.3 quality verfication program standard. Production of the new monitors by a commercial vendor (Barringer Research Ltd.) has begun and the first instrument is scheduled for delivery to CRNL's NRU reactor in late 1984

  13. Remote Mine Detection Technologies for Land and Water Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Eddie R.

    1999-05-11

    The detection of mines, both during and after hostilities, is a growing international problem. It limits military operations during wartime and unrecovered mines create tragic consequences for civilians. From a purely humanitarian standpoint an estimated 100 million or more unrecovered mines are located in over 60 countries worldwide. This paper presents an overview of some of the technologies currently being investigated by Sandia National Laboratories for the detection and monitoring of minefields in land and water environments. The three technical areas described in this paper are: 1) the development of new mathematical techniques for combining or fusing the data from multiple sources for enhanced decision-making; 2) an environmental fate and transport (EF&T) analysis approach that is central to improving trace chemical sensing technique; and 3) the investigation of an underwater range imaging device to aid in locating and characterizing mines and other obstacles in coastal waters.

  14. A global analysis of the comparability of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-05-01

    Many fruit and nut trees must fulfill a chilling requirement to break their winter dormancy and resume normal growth in spring. Several models exist for quantifying winter chill, and growers and researchers often tacitly assume that the choice of model is not important and estimates of species chilling requirements are valid across growing regions. To test this assumption, Safe Winter Chill (the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of years) was calculated for 5,078 weather stations around the world, using the Dynamic Model [in Chill Portions (CP)], the Chilling Hours (CH) Model and the Utah Model [Utah Chill Units (UCU)]. Distributions of the ratios between different winter chill metrics were mapped on a global scale. These ratios should be constant if the models were strictly proportional. Ratios between winter chill metrics varied substantially, with the CH/CP ratio ranging between 0 and 34, the UCU/CP ratio between -155 and +20 and the UCU/CH ratio between -10 and +5. The models are thus not proportional, and chilling requirements determined in a given location may not be valid elsewhere. The Utah Model produced negative winter chill totals in many Subtropical regions, where it does not seem to be useful. Mean annual temperature and daily temperature range influenced all winter chill ratios, but explained only between 12 and 27% of the variation. Data on chilling requirements should always be amended with information on the location and experimental conditions of the study in which they were determined, ideally including site-specific conversion factors between winter chill models. This would greatly facilitate the transfer of such information across growing regions, and help prepare growers for the impact of climate change.

  15. Raw-appearing Restructured fish models made with Sodium alginate or Microbial transglutaminase and effect of chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Moreno

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Restructuring by adding Sodium Alginate or Microbial Transglutaminase (MTGase using cold gelation technology make it possible to obtain many different raw products from minced and/or chopped fish muscle that are suitable for being used as the basis of new restructured products with different physicochemical properties and even different compositions. Special consideration must be given to their shelf-life and the changes that may take place during chilling, both in visual appearance and physicochemical properties. After chilled storage, the restructured models made with different muscular particle size and composition at low temperature (5 °C, it was observed that microbial growth limited the shelf-life to 7-14 days. Mechanical properties increased (p 0.05 was detected during storage.

  16. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide against Listeria monocytogenes in brine chilling solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, W B; Mills, E W; Cutter, C N

    2009-11-01

    Chilled brine solutions are used by the food industry to rapidly cool ready-to-eat meat products after cooking and before packaging. Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) was investigated as an antimicrobial additive to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes. Several experiments were performed using brine solutions made of sodium chloride (NaCl) and calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) inoculated with L. monocytogenes and/or treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2). First, 10 and 20% CaCl(2) and NaCl solutions (pH 7.0) were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes to obtain approximately 7 log CFU/ml and incubated 8 h at 0 degrees C. The results demonstrated that L. monocytogenes survived in 10% CaCl(2), 10 and 20% NaCl, and pure water. L. monocytogenes levels were reduced approximately 1.2 log CFU/ml in 20% CaCl(2). Second, inoculated ( approximately 7 log CFU/ml) brine solutions (10 and 20% NaCl and 10% CaCl(2)) treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2) resulted in a approximately 4-log reduction of the pathogen within 90 s. The same was not observed in a solution of 20% CaCl(2); further investigation demonstrated that high levels of divalent cations interfere with the disinfectant. Spent brine solutions from hot dog and ham chilling were treated with ClO(2) at concentrations of 3 or 30 ppm. At these concentrations, ClO(2) did not reduce L. monocytogenes. Removal of divalent cations and organic material in brine solutions prior to disinfection with ClO(2) should be investigated to improve the efficacy of the compound against L. monocytogenes. The information from this study may be useful to processing establishments and researchers who are investigating antimicrobials in chilling brine solutions.

  17. Tratamentos de pré-resfriamento e resfriamento sobre a qualidade de carne de peito de frango Pre-chilling and chilling treatments on poultry breast meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bressan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O total de 402 frangos foi processado em abatedouro comercial e submetido a seis tratamentos de resfriamento. Inicialmente as carcaças foram pré-resfriadas (PR por imersão em água e gelo, seguido de resfriamento (R a -35°C e estocagem a 4°C por 20 horas. Os tratamentos foram: a (0°C/30min, -35°C/3h e 15min, b (10°C/30min, 0°C/30min, -35°C/2h e 45 min, c (10°C/30min, -35°C/3h e 15min, d (20°C/30min, 0°C/30min, -35°C/2h e 45min, e (20°C/30min, -35°C/3h e 15min e F (20°C/30min, 0°C/3h e 15min. Temperaturas baixas utilizadas após a evisceração aceleraram a instalação do rigor em músculos pectoralis major (PM. Aos 45min post mortem carcaças sem PR (A ou PR a 10°C (B tiveram músculo PM com menor (PA total of 402 poultry was processed in a commercial poultry processing plant and submitted to six chilling treatments. Initially, the carcasses were chilled by immersion in water and ice, followed by cooling at -35°C or storage at 4°C for 20 hours. The treatments were: A (0°C/30min, -35°C/3h and 15min, B (10°C/30min, 0°C/30min, -35°C/2h and 45min, C (10°C/30min, -35°C/3h and 15min, D (20°C/30min, 0°C/30min, -35°C/2h and 45min, E (20°C/30min, -35°C/3h and 15min and F (20°C/30min, 0°C/3h and 15min. Low temperatures used after evisceration, accelerated the onset and resolution of rigor in pectoralis major (PM muscles. Up to 45 minutes post mortem, carcasses without pre-chilling (A or pre-chilled at 10°C (B, showed lower (P<0.001 pH values of 5.75 and 5.81, while in carcasses pre-chilled at 20°C (D, the values were higher, reaching 5.95. After 4h post mortem, the R values found in treatments A and B, with averages of 1.51 and 1.44, were higher (P<0.05 than the value of 1.32 found in treatment D. The luminescence (L* was influenced (P<0.001 by the treatments (in treatments A, B and C, the averages were 48.2, 47.7 and 47.6, while in treatments D and E, they were 45.5 and 45.7, respectively. The greater values for

  18. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed

  19. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  20. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  1. Effect of Heat Shock Treatment and Aloe Vera Coating to Chilling Injury Symptom in Tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to determine the effect of length in heat shock and edible coating as pre-storage treatment to Chilling Injury (CI symptom reflected by ion leakage induced and quality properties in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.. Heat Shock Treatment (HST was conducted at three different levels of length, which were, 20; 40 and 60 min. Edible coating was conducted using aloe vera gel. The result showed that HST and Aloe Vera Coating (AVC were more effective to reduce CI symptom at lower chilling storage. Prolong exposure to heated water may delay climacteric peak. The length of heat shock, AVC treatment and low temperature storage significantly affected the tomato quality parameter but not significantly different for each treatment except weight loss. HST for 20 min at ambient temperature was significantly different to other treatment.

  2. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  3. Improvements on heavy water separation technology by isotopic water-hydrogen sulfide exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of possible variance is presented for the heavy water separation technology by isotopic H 2 O-H 2 S exchange at dual temperatures. The critical study of these variants, which are considered as characteristic quantities for the isotopes transport (production) and the extraction level is related to a dual temperature plant fed by liquid and cold column, which is the up-to-date technology employed in all heavy water production plants as variants of following plants are studied: dual temperature plant with double feeding; dual-temperature plant with equilibrium column (booster); dual-temperature-dual-pressure plant. Attention is paid to the variant with equilibration column (booster), executed and tested at the State Committee for Nuclear Energy and to the dual-temperature-dual pressure plant which presents the highest efficiency. (author)

  4. Immersed membrane technology for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkies, J.W. [Zenon Municipal Systems Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The use of membrane technology for both municipal water purification and wastewater/sewage treatment was discussed. Membranes are available in a wide range of forms and configurations. Their primary characteristics are pore size and molecular weight separation which classifies then as either microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis membranes. Ultrafiltration can separate soluble organics and insoluble solids such as bacteria, viruses, colloids and suspended particles. Microfiltration can separate most suspended solids including bacteria, many viruses and other suspended solids. It is not, however a complete barrier to viruses and is best used in conjunction with an ultra-violet disinfecting process. Different membrane configurations currently available were described along with their performance and efficiency. The ZenoGem{sup R} process which operates at high organic loadings, meets surface water discharge criteria. This membrane bioreactor makes wastewater reuse an achievable and cost-effective option, particularly when it is combined with carbon filtration and ultra-violet disinfection. The Cycle-Let{sup R} system produces a treated stream that is suitable for re-use in non-potable applications such as toilet flush water or for irrigation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough point were carried out to determine the influence of these parameters on the adsorption capacity of the arsenic from water. Results: Adsorption capacities of single wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes were about 148 mg/g and 95 mg/g respectively. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and equilibrium data indicate the best fit obtained with Langmuir isotherm model. Conclusions: Carbon nanotubes can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from large volume of aqueous solutions. References: 1. Lomaquahu ES, Smith AH. Feasibility of new epidemiology studies on arsenic exposures at low levels. AWWA Inorganic Contaminants Workshop. San Antonio; 1998. 2. Burkel RS, Stoll RC. Naturally occurring arsenic in sandstone aquifer water supply wells of North Eastern Wisconsin. Ground Water Monit Remediat 1999;19(2:114-21. 3. Mondal P, Majumder CB, Mohanty B. Laboratory based approaches for arsenic remediation from contaminated water: recent developments. J Hazard Mater 2006;137(1: 464-79. 4. Meenakshi RCM. Arsenic removal from water: a review. Asian J Water Environ Pollut 2006;3(1:133-9. 5. Wickramasinghe SR, Binbing H, Zimbron J, Shen Z, Karim MN. Arsenic removal by coagulation and filtration: comparison of ground waters from United States and Bangladesh. Desalination 2004;169:231-44. 6. Hossain MF. Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-an overview. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2006;113(1-4:1-16. 7. USEPA, Arsenic. Final

  6. Effects of chilling temperatures on photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stress is an inescapable reality for most plants growing in natural settings. Conditions of sub or supra-optimal temperatures, water deficit, water logging, salinity, and pollution can have dramatic effects on plant growth and development, and in agricultural settings, yield. In cotton...

  7. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  8. Global particle accelerator gets the big chill

    CERN Multimedia

    Sherriff, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Scientists at an international symposium in Beijing have recommended that a new global particle accelerator should be based on "cold" or superconducting technology, bringing the construction of the multi-billion dollar facility one step closer to reality (½ page)

  9. The Role of Water Governance and Irrigation Technologies in Regional-Scale Water Use and Consumption in the US West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Grogan, D. S.; Frolking, S. E.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Zuidema, S.; Fowler, L.; Caccese, R. T.; Peklak, D. L.; Fisher-Vanden, K.

    2017-12-01

    Water management in the Western USA is challenged by the demands of an increased population, ecological needs and changing values for water use, and a broadening of variability in climate, which together have created physical limits on water availability. The management of scarce water resources in this region is strictly constrained by the current legal structure (prior appropriation water rights) on one hand, and on the other assisted by the development of new, efficient water delivery and application technologies. Therefore, critical components for a complete understanding of the hydrological landscape include the institutions governing water rights, the technologies used for the highly water consumptive agricultural sector, and the role institutions and technologies play in altering when and where water is used and consumed by humans or reserved for the environment. To explore the sensitivities of water availability within the human-physical system, we present a method to incorporate water rights allocated under the prior appropriation doctrine for the western U.S. into the University of New Hampshire macro-scale Water Balance Model to capture the essential structure of these rights and their impacts on different economic sectors in Idaho and across the US West. In addition to legal structures, new irrigation technologies also alter the efficiency and timing of water use. We assess the impacts of a variety of technologies for both the delivery of water to the agricultural fields and the application methods for bringing water to the crops on consumptive and non-consumptive agricultural water use. We explore the impacts relative to natural climate variability, investigate the role that return flows from different agricultural technologies have on regional water balance, and examine the sensitivity of the entire system to extremes such as extended drought. These methods are sufficiently generalizable to be used by other hydrological models.

  10. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Contemporary pressurized water reactor technology in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1991-01-01

    The recent political events enabled Czechoslovak industrial companies to come into direct contact with leading western companies involved in pressurized water ractor technology. A survey is presented of the present situation at the world market of PWR type nuclear power plant suppliers and suppliers of fuel cycle services. Information is given on the potential bids for the next Czechoslovak nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. Economic aspects of the potential bids are presented including some considerations about the participation of the Czechoslovak nuclear industry as a supplier of the reactor for the future power plants. Main technical parameters are listed of PWR units with an output about 1000 MW supplied by Westinghouse EC, ABB -Combustion Engineering and Siemens AG. At present, the bids for new Czechoslovak nuclear power plants are being evaluated. No information on terms of the bids actually coming from foreign companies is used in the article. (Z.S.). 9 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Tracking air and water: Technology drives oil patch environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, G.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation used in monitoring air and water quality in the oilpatch is discussed. One of these instruments is the oscillating micro-balance, a tool that enables continuous real-time measurement of potentially harmful particulates from gas plants. Similarly, testing for hydrogen sulfides is also done electronically: gas passes by an ultra violet light chamber which uses a calibrated filter to measure wavelengths of light that are specific to hydrogen sulfide. Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), one of the recent technologies to hit the market, enables the identification of a range of gases with one instrument. It also permits measurement from a distance. Still other instruments involve sensors that are fitted with chemical chambers whose contents react with hydrogen sulfide to produce a micro-volt of electricity. Data from this is digitized, and a reading of hydrogen sulfide, measured in parts per million, is obtained from a laptop computer

  13. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe : State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources

  14. Water assessment for the Lower Colorado River region-emerging energy technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Water supply availability for two hypothetical levels of emerging energy technology development are assessed. The water and related land resources implications of such hypothetical developments are evaluated. Water requirement, the effects on water quality, costs of water supplies, costs of disposal of wastewaters, and the environmental, economic and social impacts are determined, providing information for the development of non-nuclear energy research.

  15. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE MAGELLANIC PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) USING CHILLED-STORED SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-03-01

    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate.

  16. Study for improvement of light water reactor technology, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Morita, Terumichi; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Tabata, Hiroaki

    1991-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company has performed some studies, which are referred to as 'some feasibility studies of LWR technology', in order to help improve and up-grade the light water reactor technology. We would like to show the key results of the above studies in an orderly fashion in this document. As the third issue, this paper describes the study of the feasibility of applying a suppression pool system in a 4-loop PWR plant in order to reduce containment volume and evaluates the merits of such a system. The results confirmed the feasibility of such a plant consisting of a 4-loop plant with a suppression pool system. The expected merits of a suppression pool type PWR are as follows: (1) The volume within the containment boundary is half of that for the conventional plant. This reduces the material quantity substantially. (2) A wider layout space is obtained since the operating floor is located outside the containment are. And this improves the maneuverability of plant outage. (3) Low center of gravity of the plant contributes to improving the ability to withstand seismic activity. Although there are some open items left that should be confirmed, we consider that PWR with small CV is an appealing plant in the light of further sales points such as relaxing siting conditions, extending the use of robotics and so on. (author)

  17. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    regional water resources; As an evaluation tool for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for reclaiming water; and As an assessment tool for determining the effectiveness of implementing the remediation technologies. We have included a discussion on the appropriate strategy for LLNL to integrate its technical tools into the global business, geopolitical, and academic communities, whereby LLNL can form partnerships with technology proponents in the commercial, industrial, and public sectors.

  18. Technology for Peace - Science for Mankind. Water and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium volume contents articles with the following topics regarding water and energy: water management, energy, water and energy systems and waste water treatment. Environmental aspects are considered and technical solutions are presented. (Suda)

  19. Technology for Peace - Science for Mankind. Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutmann, H [ed.

    1994-12-31

    This symposium volume contents articles with the following topics regarding water and energy: water management, energy, water and energy systems and waste water treatment. Environmental aspects are considered and technical solutions are presented. (Suda).

  20. Effects of chilled-then-frozen storage (up to 52weeks) on lamb M. longissimus lumborum quality and safety parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassius E O; Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chilled followed by frozen storage on lamb quality and safety parameters. Experimental (n=360) M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were randomly sampled from the boning room of a commercial Australian abattoir, at 24 h post-mortem, and assigned to five chilled storage periods (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks) and six subsequent frozen storage periods (0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 52 weeks). Upon completion of each storage treatment combination, corresponding LL were sub-sectioned and analysed for colour stability (0, 1, 2 and 3 days), shear force, fluid losses (purge, thaw and cooking losses), intramuscular fat content, sarcomere length, water activity and microbial load (lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli). LL stored chilled for 2-4 weeks prior to freezing presented superior results for shear force, display colour and low levels of spoilage microbes, correlating with good eating quality and safety following more than one year of frozen storage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Constance A; Gould, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2-5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier.

  2. Control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. tolerance to chilling stress – evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Lukatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures (1-10 ºC are known to disturb cellular physiology, cause oxidative stress via creating imbalance between generation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS leading finally to cell and/or plant death. Owing to known significance of low molecular antioxidants - ascorbic acid (AsA and glutathione (GSH in plant stress-tolerance, this work analyzes the role of exogenously applied AsA and GSH in the alleviation of chilling stress (3°C-impact in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Vjaznikowskij 37 plants. Results revealed AsA and GSH concentration dependent metabolism of ROS such as superoxide (O2•‾ and the mitigation of ROS-effects such as lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as membrane permeability (measured as electrolyte leakage in C. sativus leaf discs. AsA concentration (750 µM and GSH (100 µM exhibited maximum reduction in O2•‾ generation, LPO intensity as well as electrolyte leakage, all of these were increased in cold water (3°C and 25°C-treated leaf discs. However, AsA, in particular, had a pronounced antioxidative effect, more expressed in case of leaf discs during chilling (3°C; whereas, at temperature 25°C, some AsA concentrations (such as 50 and 100 mM AsA exhibited a prooxidative effect that requires molecular-genetic studies. Overall, it is inferred that AsA and GSH have high potential for sustainably increasing chilling-resistance in plants.

  3. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  4. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. Previous research was focused on combining PV with additional total volume air distribution, i.e. mixing ventilation or displacement ventilation......, the use of radiant ceiling cooling will provide operative temperature lower than the air temperature and will improve further occupants’ thermal comfort at warm environment. Therefore combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at temperature higher than...... temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min...

  5. Poster Puzzler Solution: Chill Out | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A winner has emerged in the most recent Poster Puzzler contest! Congratulations are in order for Rose Bradley, secretary III, Cancer Research Technology Program. The current Poster Puzzler image shows the refrigerant condensers for the two story freezers in the Building 1073 repository, which are used to store samples at -20°C. Put simply, the condensers act like the outdoor

  6. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  7. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  8. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  9. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior.

  10. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknick, J; Newmark, R; Heath, G; Hallett, K C

    2012-01-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research. (letter)

  11. The research of new type stratified water injection process intelligent measurement technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin

    2017-10-01

    To meet the needs of injection and development of Daqing Oilfield, the injection of oil from the early stage of general water injection to the subdivision of water is the purpose of improving the utilization degree and the qualified rate of water injection, improving the performance of water injection column and the matching process. Sets of suitable for high water content of the effective water injection technology supporting technology. New layered water injection technology intelligent measurement technology will be more information testing and flow control combined into a unified whole, long-term automatic monitoring of the work of the various sections, in the custom The process has the characteristics of "multi-layer synchronous measurement, continuous monitoring of process parameters, centralized admission data", which can meet the requirement of subdivision water injection, but also realize the automatic synchronization measurement of each interval, greatly improve the efficiency of tiered injection wells to provide a new means for the remaining oil potential.

  12. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation or in industry sector for cooling ... The water samples were collected from sewage water treatment .... to be irrigated, soil conditions and the irrigation system.

  13. Pre-symptomatic transcriptome changes during cold storage of chilling sensitive and resistant peach cultivars to elucidate chilling injury mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Clara Pons; Dagar, Anurag; Marti Ibanez, Cristina; Singh, Vikram; Crisosto, Carlos H; Friedman, Haya; Lurie, Susan; Granell, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cold storage induces chilling injury (CI) disorders in peach fruit (woolliness/mealiness, flesh browning and reddening/bleeding) manifested when ripened at shelf life. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying CI, we analyzed the transcriptome of 'Oded' (high tolerant) and 'Hermoza' (relatively tolerant to woolliness, but sensitive to browning and bleeding) peach cultivars at pre-symptomatic stages. The expression profiles were compared and validated with two previously analy...

  14. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Ambient Benzene Vapor Concentrations on Product Water of Condensation Water from Air Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    by a sediment filter; or a combination of 8 water treatment technologies. Water treatment type is chosen by the manufacture and is diverse...the water treatment module was comprised of a sediment , charcoal and ultra-fine membrane and Halo Pure cartridge. Other components such as the... water was calculated. This study used the EPA site assessment calculator for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Method to

  16. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Prevention of Chilling Injury of Cherry Tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. Messina(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanifeh seyed hajizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables play a major role in providing vitamins and minerals that are essential in the metabolism. In addition to providing vitamins and minerals compounds, they are called secondary metabolites. Tomatoes are one of the most vegetables in diets of people around the world. Low temperature stress associated with the production of reactive oxygen species causing damage can occur before or after harvest, farm, transportation, storage and marketing. Today, a greater emphasis is placed on post-harvest storage of agricultural products to increase productivity and make better use of labor resources, worker, energy and money, rather than an increase in production. One of the most promising treatments is the use of salicylic acid for prevention of the frost damage of post-harvest fruits and vegetables with different mechanisms such as increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system activity. Salicylic acid is known as a signal molecule in the induction defense mechanisms in plants. SA is a well-known phenol that can prevent ACO activity that is the direct precursor of ethylene and decreases Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS with increasing enzyme antioxidant activity. Salicylic acid is a natural phenolic compound known as a plant hormone having positive effect on storage life and quality of fruits. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre- and post-harvest application of salicylic acid on antioxidant properties and quality of tomato and its effect was evaluated on prevention of chilling injury of cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Material and Methods: This research was conducted in a greenhouse of Horticulture Department of University of Maragheh. Treatments were included before harvest at fruit set stage with the control (distilled water and 0.75 mM salicylic acid spraying and after harvest, red ripened fruits were used for treatments control and immersion in 0.75 mM salicylic acid. Then all the treated fruits

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF AQUAFIX AND SAPS PASSIVE MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT SUMMITVILLE MINE SITE, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated two passive water treatment (PWT) technologies for metals removal from acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site in southern Colorado...

  18. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees--a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package ('chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. 'Payne') at Davis, California.

  19. SSWR Water Systems Project 2: Next Steps – Technology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for protecting America’s water resources under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and for ensuring that the Nation’s drinking water is safe under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Further, it is the responsibility of EPA to conduct research and analyses t...

  20. Comparison of tissue deterioration of ripening banana fruit (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) under chilling and non-chilling temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, Carlos E

    2018-03-08

    In fleshy fruits, induced programmed cell death (PCD) has been observed in heat-treated tomato, and in ethylene-treated and low-temperature exposure in immature cucumber. No other fleshy fruit has been evaluated for chilling-injury-induced PCD, especially mature fruit with full ripening capacity. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate the presence of PCD processes during the development of low-temperature-induced physiopathy of banana fruit. Exposure of fruit to 5 °C for 4 days induced degradative processes similar to those occurring during ripening and overripening of non-chilled fruit. Nuclease from banana peel showed activity in both DNA substrates and RNA substrates. No exclusive low-temperature-induced proteases and nucleases were observed. DNA of chilled peel showed earlier signs of degradation and higher levels of DNA tailing during overripening. This study shows that exposure to low temperatures did not induce a pattern of degradative processes that differed from that occurring during ripening and overripening of non-chilled fruit. DNA showed earlier signs of degradation and higher levels of DNA tailing. Nuclease activity analysis showed bifunctionality in both chilled and non-chilled tissue and no chilling-exclusive protease and nuclease. Fleshy fruit might use their available resources on degradative processes and adjust them depending on environmental conditions. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. FY1995 generic supercritical water technology; 1995 nendo generic technology to shite no chorinkai riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the establishment of the basis of supercritical fluid technology, we perform elucidation of the specific feature of the supercritical fluid as a reaction media and development of some new process. In this study, we first studied the fluid structure of SCF through in-situ spectroscopy and MD simulation. As a result, significant hydrogen bonding amongst water molecules and a solvation structure around the solute were observed in the supercritical state. This fluid structure has new features different from that of high temperature steam or liquid water. We found that this is closely related to the difference of bulk properties of SCF and local one around the solute. On the basis of these fundamental findings and with the better understanding of the specific features of SCF as a reaction media, development of some new process had been conducted more efficiently and successfully. The processes being developed in this study include 1) waste biomass and plastic conversion to recover chemicals, 2) hydrogenation of heavy oil for desulphurization through partial oxidation 1 and 3) hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide fine particles. (NEDO)

  2. Application of BIM Technology in Building Water Supply and Drainage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Junde

    2017-12-01

    Through the application of BIM technology, the idea of building water supply and drainage designers can be related to the model, the various influencing factors to affect water supply and drainage design can be considered more comprehensively. BIM(Building information model) technology assist in improving the design process of building water supply and drainage, promoting the building water supply and drainage planning, enriching the building water supply and drainage design method, improving the water supply and drainage system design level and building quality. Combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the advantages of BIM technology in building water supply and drainage design. Therefore, application prospects of BIM technology are very worthy of promotion.

  3. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Jovanović; Milana Popović

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor...

  4. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  5. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  6. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rodgers, John H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Alley, Bethany [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Beebe, Alex [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Coffey, Ruthanne [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Jurinko, Kristen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Pardue, Michael [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Ritter, Tina [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Spacil, Michael M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  7. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  8. Braving the chill of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.

    1993-01-01

    The first nuclear powered icebreaker - the Lenin - was operated in its first version between 1959 and 1966 by the Murmansk Arctic Shipping Company (MSC). From 1970 the Soviet icebreaker programme was based on a second generation of standardised equipment. Power is from one or two KLT-40 reactors, and other standard equipment includes primary turbines rated at 27.5 MWe, auxiliary turbines rated at 2MWe, main feedpumps, generators and motors. Icebreakers using this basic design and its more recent variants have now been in operation for more than 110 000h -amassing a total of 125 reactor years - and have been built on a production line basis. Operating experience has been good; the power systems have a high reliability with minimal maintenance. The icebreakers have been able to operate continuously for as long as 400 days in the Arctic. Icebreaker availability has averaged 76-79%. Reactor scrams have averaged one event per reactor per year and they have mainly been during startup. No scram has resulted in personnel overexposure. Future developments for the icebreaker fleet are examined in this article. They include a floating nuclear plant based on icebreaker technology and supplying power to remote arctic communities. (author)

  9. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  10. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  11. Economics of Selected Water Control Technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management, water for multiple use systems and all relevant aspects of ... would add to our understanding of adoption decisions (Doss, 2006). ... Methodology .... International Water Management Institute (IWMI) with support from United States.

  12. WEST AFRICAN TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND RECIPROCITY (WATER) FOR BENIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Songhai Center has produced and tested over 300 fully functional point-of-use drinking water filters. The holistic approach of incorporated water treatment, waste reduction, economic development and promoted environmental and health awareness in the community. The ...

  13. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water

  14. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief.

  15. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  16. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of Alternative Technologies to Supply Drinking Water to Marines in Forward Deployed Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan.” 2009. http://www.coleparmer.com/techinfo/techinfo.asp?htmlfile= water - afghanistan.htm&ID=964. Christ- wasser . “RO, EDI and optional UF...Cover, Single-Author Thesis EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER TO MARINES IN FORWARD DEPLOYED...AFIT/GES/ENV/10-M02 EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER TO MARINES IN FORWARD DEPLOYED

  18. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  19. Repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean and radish seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Latiful; Sugiyama, Jun; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on the seeds prior to sprouting. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments with various chemicals to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 populations inoculated onto mung bean and radish seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. The treatment time was 20 sec for quick hot and 20 sec for quick chilling in one repeat. Likewise up to five repeats were done throughout the experiments. The chemicals used for this study were electrolyzed acidic (EO) water, phytic acid (0.05%), oxalic acid (3%), surfcera(R), and alpha-torino water(R), and distilled water was used as control. The quick hot treatment was done with 75 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, and the chilling temperature was 0 degrees C. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of this treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments on germination yield. It was found that repeating treatment at 75 degrees C for two or three repeats with phytic acid and oxalic acid could reduce 4.38-log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g of E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. EO water and distilled water were found equally effective at 75 degrees C for four or five repeats to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. However, alpha-torino water(R) and surfcera(R) were not found effective in comparison to other sanitizers used in this experiment. Irrespective of sanitizer used, the germination yield of the mung bean seed was not affected significantly. On the other hand, distilled water, EO water, and alpha-torino water(R) at 75 degrees C for five repeats were found effective in reducing 5.80-log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in radish seeds; however, the

  20. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  1. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  2. Hydrogeological considerations in northern pipeline development. [Permafrost affected by hot or chilled pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan, R L

    1974-11-01

    Some of the hydrogeological implications of construction and operation of oil and gas pipelines in northern regions of Canada are considered in relation to their potential environmental impacts and those factors affecting the security of the pipeline itself. Although the extent to which water in permafrost participates in the subsurface flow regime has not been fully demonstrated, the role of liquid as well as vapor transport in frozen earth materials can be shown from theory to be highly significant; water movement rates in frozen soil are on the same order as those in unsaturated, unfrozen soil. Below 0/sup 0/C, the unfrozen water content in a fine-grained porous medium is dependent on temperature but independent of the total water content. The thermal gradient controls the rate and direction of water movement in permafrost. The groundwater stabilizes the streamflow and in the absence of large lakes provides the main source of flow during the winter. As groundwater is frequently confined by the permafrost, degradation of the permafrost can have significant consequences. The thaw bulb formed around a hot oil pipeline can induce liquefactioned flow of the thawed material. A chilled pipeline could restrict groundwater movement, resulting in buildup of artesian conditions and icings. The liberation and absorption of latent heat on freezing and thawing affects the thermal regime in the ground surface. Recommendations are given for pipeline construction and areas for further study pointed out. (DLC)

  3. Water chemistry - one of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Otoha, K.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry, a) better reliability of reactor structures and fuels, b) lower occupational exposure, and c) fewer radwaste sources, should be simultaneously satisfied. The research committee related to water chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has played important roles to enhance improvement in water chemistry control, to share knowledge and experience with water chemistry among plant operators and manufacturers, to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation related to water chemistry. Furthermore, the committee has tried to contribute to arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through road map planning

  4. 9 CFR 381.66 - Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. 381.66 Section 381.66 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Procedures § 381.66 Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. (a) General. Temperatures and...

  5. Response of spring type wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars to different chilling treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late sowing of wheat in autumn due to environmental conditions or late harvesting of cotton crop results in substantial yield loss. It may be attributed to non-fulfillment of chilling requirements. The present study was conducted to identify the chilling requirement of autumn sown cultivars of wheat...

  6. Regulation of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in maize leaves at optimal and chilling temperatures : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyer, C.H.; VanAcker, H.; Gomez, L.D.; Harbinson, J.

    2002-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a chilling (below 15 °C) sensitive plant that shows little capacity to acclimate to low growth temperatures. Maize leaves are extremely sensitive to chilling injury, which usually results in premature leaf senescence. Leaves exposed to temperatures below 10 °C in the light

  7. Physiological girdling of pine trees via phloem chilling: proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Chris Maier; Felipe Sanchez; Peter Anderson; John Butnor; Richard Waring; Sune Linder

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying below-ground carbon (C) allocation is particularly difficult as methods usually disturb the root– mycorrhizal–soil continuum. We reduced C allocation below ground of loblolly pine trees by: (1) physically girdling trees and (2) physiologically girdling pine trees by chilling the phloem. Chilling reduced cambium temperatures by approximately 18 °C. Both...

  8. Chemical Changes of Short-Bodied Mackerel (Rastrelliger Brachysoma) Muscle at Chilled and Frozen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emilia Azrina Mohd Bakri; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Seng, C.C.; Anida Yusoff; Fazilah Fazilin Juhari

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical changes in short-bodied mackerel during chilled (4 degree Celcius) and frozen (-18 degree Celicus) storage for 18 days. The chemical changes were monitored at three days interval using Peroxide Value (PV), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), Total Volatile Base Nitrogen (TVBN) and Trimethylamine (TMA) tests. The PV of both chilled and frozen mackerel significantly increased (p<0.05) with storage time and the rate was significantly higher in chilled than frozen mackerel. Based on the results, the chilled and frozen mackerel started to become rancid at day 15 and day 18, respectively. Similar trend was observed for TBA value, where the malonaldehyde content significantly increased (p<0.05) for both chilled and frozen mackerel with storage time, and the rate of increase was higher in chilled than frozen mackerel. The TVBN and TMA of chilled mackerel increased significantly during storage time, but the values declined in frozen mackerel which might be due to inhibitory effects of freezing on the bacterial activities and hence avoid accumulation of TMA. Based on the chemical analyses, chilled mackerel spoiled rapidly compared to frozen mackerel. (author)

  9. Re-use of laundry rinsing water by low cost adsorption technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, N.

    2009-01-01

    Shortage of water is a growing global problem. One way of dealing with this problem is the development of technologies for wastewater clean-up and re-use. Laundry accounts often for more than half of the daily domestic water consumption in countries like India. The major part of laundry water is

  10. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, C; Freeman, G [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States); Ballew, B [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Dames and Moore, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  11. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.; Freeman, G.; Ballew, B.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  12. Effect of Nitric Oxide Application on Reduction of Undesirable Effects of Chilling on Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ghorbani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chilling injury (CI is the primary postharvest problem of orange (Citrus sinensis L. and many other horticultural crops during storage. Washington Navel orange fruits are susceptible to CI during storage below 5°C, and the main CI symptoms are surface pitting, browning, discoloration and decay. Several promising methods have been developed to alleviate CI symptoms of orange fruit. These include postharvest physical treatments with UV-C, modified atmosphere packaging, temperature conditioning, and chemical treatments with plant growth regulators. Oxidative stress from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS has been associated with appearance of chilling damage in fruits. The oxidation of ROS is due to their reaction with numerous cell components coursing a cascade of oxidative reactions and consequent inactivation of enzymes, lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, and DNA damage. Aerobic organisms have evolved well-developed defense systems to establish a fine-tuned balance between ROS production and removal plants are protected against ROS effects by a complex antioxidant system. This involved both lipid soluble antioxidant (α- tocopherol and carotenoids and water soluble reductants (glutathion and ascorbate and enzymes, such as catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD. Previous studies have shown that there is a positive relationship between the antioxidant enzymes activity and the chilling tolerance in harvested fruits. Nitric oxide (NO is an important signaling molecule involved in many plant physiological processes. It has also been indicated that NO protects plant cells against oxidative stress by reducing ROS accumulation. When exogenously applied, NO has been shown to result in an improved chilling tolerance and reduced incidence of chilling injury in several fruits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of NO on chilling injury, lipid peroxidation

  13. Advanced Materials, Technologies, and Complex Systems Analyses: Emerging Opportunities to Enhance Urban Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Li, Qilin; Buono, Regina M; Chen, Wei; Daigger, Glen; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Elimelech, Menachem; Huang, Xia; Jiang, Guibin; Kim, Jae-Hong; Logan, Bruce E; Sedlak, David L; Westerhoff, Paul; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2017-09-19

    Innovation in urban water systems is required to address the increasing demand for clean water due to population growth and aggravated water stress caused by water pollution, aging infrastructure, and climate change. Advances in materials science, modular water treatment technologies, and complex systems analyses, coupled with the drive to minimize the energy and environmental footprints of cities, provide new opportunities to ensure a resilient and safe water supply. We present a vision for enhancing efficiency and resiliency of urban water systems and discuss approaches and research needs for overcoming associated implementation challenges.

  14. Investigation on processing technology for tritiated water in glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Deli; Meng Daqiao

    2002-01-01

    A 0.5 nm molecular sieve absorption column and a hot decomposing magnesium bed was found to be one of the effective means to collect and decompose HTO in glove box atmosphere. The absorption characteristics of the 0.5 nm molecular sieve column and water decomposing characteristics of the hot Mg bed were obtained. The results showed that the column absorbs water vapour from air with efficiency up to 99.99%. Water in tested gases was between 3.4 x 10 3 to 4.2 x 10 3 μg·g -1 and the total water absorbed on the column was up to 162 g, under this condition no water was detected in output gases. Using the hot magnesium bed more than 99.9% desorption water from the column was decomposed

  15. An Integrated Business and Technology Curriculum: Oil and Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Hillary Jean

    2011-01-01

    Technology in every form has become an important part of everyday life. In business, it is a necessity for success and survival. Many authors (Kotrlik & Redmann, 2009; Ma & Runyon (2004), among others) in the arena of higher education have pointed out the need for truly integrated business and technology programs at the graduate level, but…

  16. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahara, A.; Kirihara, S.; Kakinohana, H.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  17. Influence of the ventilation system on thermal comfort of the chilled panel system in heating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhe; Ding, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Yin, Xinglei; Wang, Menglei [Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In heating mode, fresh air is still essential for a chilled panel system in order to ensure the indoor air quality. In this paper, a chilled ceiling panel system was designed and built in a typical office room. The thermal environment and thermal comfort in the room were fully measured and evaluated by using the Fanger's PMV-PPD model and the standard of ISO 7730 respectively, when room was heated in two modes, one of which is the chilled panel heating mode and the other of which is the combined heating mode of chilled panel and supply air. The research results indicate that in the combined mode, ceiling ventilation improves the general thermal comfort and reduces the risk of local discomfort. Under the condition of same general thermal comfort, the heating supply upper limit of chilled panel can be increased by 12.3% because of air mixing effect caused by introduction of air ventilation. (author)

  18. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  19. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  20. WATER SPRAY-CHILLING OF BEEF CARCASSES AND MEAT AGEING ON WEIGHT LOSS, COLOR AND LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM ACCEPTANCE ASPERSÃO DE ÁGUA FRIA NO INÍCIO DO RESFRIAMENTO DE CARCAÇAS BOVINAS E MATURAÇÃO DA CARNE SOBRE O PESO, COR E ACEITAÇÃO DO MÚSCULO LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO EDUARDO DE FELÍCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  1. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sumpf

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG, predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion.The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection.These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values. The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder.

  2. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpf, Maria; Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG), predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion. The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection. These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values). The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder.

  3. Chilled beams. A versatile solution; Plafondconvectoren. Trendy en tochtvrij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, G. [Swegon AB, Tomelila (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    When carefully selected and installed chilled beams provide a comfortable indoor climate. However, draught should always be avoided. Computer programs for calculating the required cooling and heating capacity are very useful. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is often used for large and complicated projects in order to predict the air currents, air flow and room temperatures. Chilled beams can flexibly be applied in open offices. Furthermore, they can easily be installed and serviced, and are very energy efficient. [Dutch] Plafondconvectoren zorgen voor een aangenaam en comfortabel binnenklimaat indien de selectie en de situering ervan in de te conditioneren ruimten zorgvuldig wordt uitgevoerd. Tochtverschijnselen moeten echter altijd worden voorkomen. Computerprogramma's voor het berekenen van het benodigde koel- en verwarmingsvermogen zijn hierbij een uitstekend hulpmiddel. Voor grote en complexe projecten wordt vaak gebruikgemaakt van CFD-simulatieprogramma's om de luchtstromen, de luchtsnelheid en de temperaturen van tevoren te kunnen voorspellen. Plafondconvectoren kunnen ook bij open kantoren flexibel worden toegepast. Ze kunnen voor alle toepassingen gemakkelijk worden gemonteerd, zijn onderhoudsvriendelijk en zorgen tevens voor een hoge mate van energie-efficiency.

  4. Climate change affects winter chill for temperate fruit and nut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Girvetz, Evan H; Semenov, Mikhail A; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-01-01

    Temperate fruit and nut trees require adequate winter chill to produce economically viable yields. Global warming has the potential to reduce available winter chill and greatly impact crop yields. We estimated winter chill for two past (1975 and 2000) and 18 future scenarios (mid and end 21st century; 3 Global Climate Models [GCMs]; 3 greenhouse gas emissions [GHG] scenarios). For 4,293 weather stations around the world and GCM projections, Safe Winter Chill (SWC), the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of all years, was estimated for all scenarios using the "Dynamic Model" and interpolated globally. We found that SWC ranged between 0 and about 170 Chill Portions (CP) for all climate scenarios, but that the global distribution varied across scenarios. Warm regions are likely to experience severe reductions in available winter chill, potentially threatening production there. In contrast, SWC in most temperate growing regions is likely to remain relatively unchanged, and cold regions may even see an increase in SWC. Climate change impacts on SWC differed quantitatively among GCMs and GHG scenarios, with the highest GHG leading to losses up to 40 CP in warm regions, compared to 20 CP for the lowest GHG. The extent of projected changes in winter chill in many major growing regions of fruits and nuts indicates that growers of these commodities will likely experience problems in the future. Mitigation of climate change through reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can help reduce the impacts, however, adaption to changes will have to occur. To better prepare for likely impacts of climate change, efforts should be undertaken to breed tree cultivars for lower chilling requirements, to develop tools to cope with insufficient winter chill, and to better understand the temperature responses of tree crops.

  5. New potentional of high-speed water jet technology for renovating concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnárová, L.; Sitek, L.; Hela, R.; Foldyna, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses the background and results of research focused on the action of a high-speed water jet on concrete with different qualities. The sufficient and careful removal of degraded concrete layers is very important for the renovation of concrete structures. High-speed water jet technology is one of the most common methods used for removing degraded concrete layers. Different types of high-speed water jets were tested in the experimental part. The classical technology of a single continuous water jet generated with one nozzle was tested as well as the technology of revolving water jets generated by multiple nozzles (used mainly for the renovation of larger areas). A continuous flat water jet and pulsating flat water jet were tested the first time, because the connection of a water jet with the acoustic generator of a pulsating jet offers new possibilities for the use of a water jet (see [1] and [2]). A water jet with such a modification is capable of efficient action and can even be used for cutting solid concrete with a relatively low consumption of energy. A flat pulsating water jet which can be newly used for renovation seems to be a promising technology.

  6. Research and Development Roadmap for Water Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Gagne, Claire [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Lutz, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2011-10-01

    Although water heating is an important energy end-use in residential and commercial buildings, efficiency improvements in recent years have been relatively modest. However, significant advancements related to higher efficiency equipment, as well as improved distribution systems, are now viable. DOE support for water heating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) could provide the impetus for commercialization of these advancements.

  7. Technological features of contamination and purification of drilling waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striletskiy, I V

    1981-01-01

    The most efficient solution to the problem of preventing contamination of the reservoirs with waste water is their reuse for water supply of the borehole. Requirements are presented which the purified waste water must meet. As a result of the conducted studies it has been established that in reservoirs, only coarsely dispersed mixture, weighting compounds and floating petroleum products are removed from the water. Finely dispersed suspension and colloid particles have a sedimentation stability and do not settle out under the influence of the gravity force. For drilling waste water there is a characteristic inconsistency in the degree of contamination both at the different boreholes and at one borehole with the passage of time. Physical-chemical characteristics of the waste waters are presented. The greatest degree of contamination of water is observed when such operations are performed as replacement of the drilling fluid, lifting of the drilling tool, cementing as well as the development of emergencies. Studies on the purification of drilling water were conducted on an experimental-industrial unit.

  8. Check experiment of the high pressure water washing technology used to the decommissioning of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jianping; Hou Yongming; Fu Yunshan

    2004-01-01

    High pressure water washing technology has been widely applied in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and it is used to wash the sump for craft conveyance, the craft workshop, the hermetic sump, and some other nuclear equipment as well. The authors have got a set of technical data correlated with high pressure water washing technology by comparing the situations between the test before and after the washing work. At the same time, authors also improve the technique on some special cases, which made the high pressure water washing technology more perfect in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (authors)

  9. High-level water purifying technology. Kodo josui shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H; Tsukiashi, K [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Research and development have been carried out on a high-level water purifying system using ozone and activated charcoals to supply drinking water free of carcinogenic matters and odors. This system comprises a system to utilize ozone by using silent discharge and oxygen enriching device, and a living organism/activated charcoal treatment system. The latter system utilizes living organisms deposited on activated charcoal surfaces to remove polluting substances including ammonia. The treatment experimenting equipment comprises an ozone generating system, an ozone treating column, an activated charcoal treating column, an ozone/activated charcoal control device, and a water amount and quality measuring system. An experiment was carried out using an experimental plant with a capacity of 20 m[sup 3]/day on water taken from the sedimentation process at an actual water purifying plant. As a result, trihalomethane formation potential was removed at about 40% in the ozone treatment, and at 70% in the whole treatment combining the ozone and living organism/activated charcoal treatments. For parameterization of palatability of water, a method is being studied that utilizes nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate degrees of water cluster. The method is regarded promising. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  10. WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE SULPHUROUS WASTEWATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil refining industries there is a high water consumption, which influences the high production costs and impacts the environment due to the discharge of their wastes. It is known that there are no technological conditions for the reuse of industrial water at the oil refineries, based on hydroskimming processes. The objective of this study is to implement the process integration methodology, Water Pinch, to a sour water stripper unit, as a unitary process of an oil refinery, to minimize the amount of sulphurous waste water and reduce contamination of the bay that receives these wastes. The technology is applied to evaluate the volume of sulphurous wastewater generated in the Cienfuegos oil refinery. This technology allows identifying opportunities for recovery and reuse of water, based on concentration ranges of contaminants. To achieve this purpose, a sour water stripper tower was assessed with the help of Water Pinch software, which provided an optimized distribution network, as a proposed technological improvement. This facilitated to recover and reuse 667 757, 28 m3 of water per year, and 1 035 023, 78 CUC were saved, at the same time the amount of polluting effluents decreased in approximately 2 % of non-reusable treated water.

  11. Nuclear water desalination technology as a tool for achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S. O. A.; Ala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Potable water is regarded as one of the essential needs for the attainment of the target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but every year new countries are affected by growing water problems and Climate change is likely to further stress regions already facing dire water shortages. Recent statistics also shown that 2.3 billion people currently live in water-stressed areas and among them 1.7 billion live in water-scarce areas where the water availability per person is less than 1000 m 3 /year. Only large-scale commercially available desalination processes will be a solution to the menace of this water shortage. This paper therefore focuses on the results and applications of results of research and development in water desalination using nuclear technology which is evolving as an important option for safe, economic and sustainable supply of large amounts of portable water to meet the ever-increasing worldwide water demand.

  12. Phytoremediation technologies for Ni ++ by water hyacinth | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water hyacinth) is promising. The study was conducted to compare the phytoremoval of Ni++ from soil and wastewater. For the measurement of phytoremoval from soil, E. crassipes was used in a pot experiment. Results showed the removal of ...

  13. Water cooled reactor technology: Safety research abstracts no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD publish these Nuclear Safety Research Abstracts within the framework of their efforts to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants and to promote the exchange of research information. The abstracts are of nuclear safety related research projects for: pressurized light water cooled and moderated reactors (PWRs); boiling light water cooled and moderated reactors (BWRs); light water cooled and graphite moderated reactors (LWGRs); pressurized heavy water cooled and moderated reactors (PHWRs); gas cooled graphite moderated reactors (GCRs). Abstracts of nuclear safety research projects for fast breeder reactors are published independently by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and are not included in this joint publication. The intention of the collaborating international organizations is to publish such a document biannually. Work has been undertaken to develop a common computerized system with on-line access to the stored information

  14. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  15. Assessment of Suitable Areas for Home Gardens for Irrigation Potential, Water Availability, and Water-Lifting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Assefa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin of Ethiopia to assess potentially irrigable areas for home gardens, water availability, and feasibility of water-lifting technologies. A GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE technique was applied to access the potential of surface and groundwater sources for irrigation. The factors affecting irrigation practice were identified and feasibility of water-lifting technologies was evaluated. Pairwise method and expert’s opinion were used to assign weights for each factor. The result showed that about 345,000 ha and 135,000 ha of land were found suitable for irrigation from the surface and groundwater sources, respectively. The rivers could address about 1–1.2% of the irrigable land during dry season without water storage structure whereas groundwater could address about 2.2–2.4% of the irrigable land, both using conventional irrigation techniques. If the seven major dams within the basin were considered, surface water potential would be increased and satisfy about 21% of the irrigable land. If rainwater harvesting techniques were used, about 76% of the basin would be suitable for irrigation. The potential of surface and groundwater was evaluated with respect to water requirements of dominant crops in the region. On the other hand, rope pump and deep well piston hand pump were found with relatively the most (26% and the least (9% applicable low-cost water-lifting technologies in the basin.

  16. Pilot demonstrations of arsenic treatment technologies in U.S. Department of Energy Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Aragon, Alicia R.; Siegal Malcolm D.; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program is a multi-year program funded by a congressional appropriation through the Department of Energy. The program is designed to move technologies from benchscale tests to field demonstrations. It will enable water utilities, particularly those serving small, rural communities and Indian tribes, to implement the most cost-effective solutions to their arsenic treatment needs. As part of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, Sandia National Laboratories is carrying out field demonstration testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. The scope for this work includes: (1) Selection of sites and identification of technologies for pilot demonstrations; (2) Laboratory studies to develop rapid small-scale test methods; and (3) Pilot-scale studies at community sites involving side-by-side tests of innovative technologies. The goal of site selection is to identify sites that allow examination of treatment processes and systems under conditions that are relevant to different geochemical settings throughout the country. A number of candidate sites have been identified through reviews of groundwater quality databases, conference proceedings and discussions with state and local officials. These include sites in New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Michigan, and California. Candidate technologies for the pilot tests are being reviewed through vendor forums, proof-of-principle benchscale studies managed by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and the WERC design contest. The review considers as many potential technologies as possible and screens out unsuitable ones by considering data from past performance testing, expected costs, complexity of operation and maturity of the technology. The pilot test configurations will depend on the site-specific conditions such as access, power availability

  17. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings.......In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...

  18. Enhancing the ecological and operational characteristics of water treatment units at TPPs based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Filimonova, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The innovative baromembrane technologies for water demineralization were introduced at Russian TPPs more than 25 years ago. While being used in the power engineering industry of Russia, these technologies demonstrated certain advantages over the traditional ion-exchange and thermal technologies of makeup water treatment for steam boilers. Water treatment units based on the baromembrane technology are compact, easy to operate, and highly automated. The experience gained from the use of these units shows that their reliability depends directly on preliminary water treatment. The popular water pretreatment technology with coagulation by aluminum oxychloride proved to be inefficient during the seasonal changes of source water quality that occurs at some stations. The use of aluminum coagulant at pH 8 and higher does not ensure the stable and qualitative pretreatment regime: soluble aluminum forms slip on membranes of the ultrafiltration unit, thereby causing pollution and intoxication as well as leading to structural damages or worsening of mechanical properties of the membranes. The problem of increased pH and seasonal changes of the source water quality can be solved by substitution of the traditional coagulant into a new one. To find the most successful coagulant for water pretreatment, experiments have been performed on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of natural organic matters in the Volga water and their structure. We have developed a software program and measured the concentrations of soluble aluminum and iron salts at different pH values of the source water. The analysis of the obtained results has indicated that iron sulfate at pH 6.0-10.2, in contrast to aluminum oxychloride, is not characterized by increased solubility. Thus, the basic process diagrams of water pretreatment based on baromembrane technologies with pretreatment through coagulation by iron salts and wastewater amount reducing from 60-40 to 5-2% have been introduced for

  19. Development of design technology for advanced pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Si Hwan; Chang, Moon Hee; Lee, Jong Chul

    1991-08-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of the domestic passive reactor development, the analysis and evaluation on the development status, technical characteristics, and the safety and economy for the overseas passive reactors were carried out based on the vendor's information. Also the domestic nuclear technology basis was surveyed. The analysis and evaluation of the development status and technical characteristics were performed mainly for the AP-600 developed by Westing house and the SIR of UKAEA. The new design concepts and system characteristics have been evaluated by utilizing EPRI Utility Requirement Documents and Lahmeyer evaluation criteria. Based on this evaluation the recommendable design concepts in each major system were selected. The feasibility for the domestic passive reactor development has focused on the safety, technology and economy aspects, and on the applicability of the existing domestic technology to the design of the passive reactor. And the development plan for the domestic passive reactor was recommended in a step by step way. (Author)

  20. How might renewable energy technologies fit in the food-water-energy nexus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Heath, G.; Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Roberts, B.

    2011-12-01

    Feeding the growing population in the U.S. will require additional land for crop and livestock production. Similarly, a growing population will require additional sources of energy. Renewable energy is likely to play an increased role in meeting the new demands of electricity consumers. Renewable energy technologies can differ from conventional technologies in their operation and their siting locations. Many renewable energy technologies have a lower energy density than conventional technologies and can also have large land use requirements. Much of the prime area suitable for renewable energy development in the U.S. has historically been used for agricultural production, and there is some concern that renewable energy installations could displace land currently producing food crops. In addition to requiring vast expanses of land, both agriculture and renewable energy can require water. The agriculture and energy sectors are responsible for the majority of water withdrawals in the U.S. Increases in both agricultural and energy demand can lead to increases in water demands, depending on crop management and energy technologies employed. Water is utilized in the energy industry primarily for power plant cooling, but it is also required for steam cycle processes and cleaning. Recent characterizations of water use by different energy and cooling system technologies demonstrate the choice of fuel and cooling system technologies can greatly impact the withdrawals and the consumptive use of water in the energy industry. While some renewable and conventional technology configurations can utilize more water per unit of land than irrigation-grown crops, other renewable technology configurations utilize no water during operations and could lead to reduced stress on water resources. Additionally, co-locating agriculture and renewable energy production is also possible with many renewable technologies, avoiding many concerns about reductions in domestic food production. Various

  1. Effect of ageing time on suckling lamb meat quality resulting from different carcass chilling regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C; Fernández, A M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ageing on suckling lamb carcasses subjected to three chilling treatments was studied: Conventional (2 °C for 24h), ultra-fast (-20 °C for 3.5h then 2 °C until 24h post mortem) and slow chilling (12 °C for 7h then 2 °C until 24h post mortem) treatments. Meat quality measurements were carried out in carcasses at 24h post mortem and also after 5 days of ageing. Carcass chilling losses were not affected by a chilling regime. Aged meat showed higher cooking losses than non-aged meat (p<0.05). Sarcomere length of ultra-fast t was shorter (p<0.05) than conventional and conventional was shorter than slow chilling treatment (p<0.05), at 24h and after 5 days of ageing. Conventional and ultra-fast chilling treatments resulted in higher shear force values at 24h post mortem (p<0.05) compared to slow treatment. All treatments improved sensory scores with ageing (p<0.05), but ultra-fast chilling treatment did not attain higher values as the other two treatments. © 2013.

  2. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response. PMID:28387335

  3. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, María T; Establés-Ortíz, Beatriz; González-Candelas, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI), which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  4. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-04-07

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.

  5. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI, which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  6. A chilling sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis with altered steryl-ester metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugly, S.; McCourt, P.; Somerville, C.; Browse, J.; Patterson, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A chilling-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and subjected to genetic, physiological, and biochemical analysis. The chilling-sensitive nature of the mutant line is due to a single recessive nuclear mutation at a locus designated chs1. In contrast to wild-type plants, which are not adversely affected by low temperatures, the chs1 mutant is killed by several days of exposure to temperatures below 18 degree C. Following exposure to chilling temperatures, the mutant displays two common symptoms of chilling injury - leaf chlorosis and electrolyte leakage. In these respects, the physiological response of the mutant to low temperatures mimics the response observed in some naturally occurring chilling sensitive species. The biochemical basis of chilling sensitivity was explored by examining the pattern of incorporation of 14 CO 2 into soluble metabolites and lipids in wild-type and mutant plants. The only difference observed between the mutant and wild type was that following low temperature treatment, the mutant accumulated 10-fold more radioactivity in a specific class of neutral lipids which were identified by a variety of criteria to be steryl-esters. The accumulation of radioactivity in the steryl-ester fraction occurs 24 hours before there is any visible evidence of chilling injury

  7. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  8. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  9. Satellite Technology Contribution to Water and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of supplies of food, the relationship to food security, the ability of all people to attain sufficient food for an active and healthy life, and the ability to use satellite technology and remote sensing to assist with planning and act as an early warning system.

  10. Effect of a previous high hydrostatic pressure treatment on lipid damage in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maluenda, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid damage evolution was analyzed in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi previously treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP technology. Different pressure levels and pressure holding times were tested. In addition, fish corresponding to pre- and post-rigor mortis (RM stages were comparatively studied. Previous HHP treatment led to a marked lipid hydrolysis inhibition in chilled fish. Increasing the pressure level and pressure holding time led to a lower free fatty acid content, with the effect of pressure being more relevant. According to the analysis of different types of lipid oxidation indexes, no effect of the previous HHP treatment on the lipid oxidation development could be determined in chilled jack mackerel. Concerning the effect of the RM stage of raw fish, a higher primary and secondary lipid oxidation development was observed in fish corresponding to the post-RM condition throughout the chilled storage; although a definite effect on lipid hydrolysis could not be found.Se estudió la evolución de la alteración lipídica en jurel chileno (Trachurus murphyi refrigerado previamente tratado a altas presiones hidrostáticas (HHP. Se aplicaron distintos valores de presión y tiempo de presurización; asimismo, se analizó de forma comparativa la respuesta al proceso del pescado inicial en estados pre- y post-rigor mortis (RM. El tratamiento previo por HHP produjo inhibición de la hidrólisis lipídica en pescado refrigerado, siendo más intenso el efecto de la presión que el del tiempo de presurización. De acuerdo con el análisis de distintos índices de oxidación, no se concluyó un efecto determinante sobre la oxidación lipídica por parte del tratamiento previo de HHP. En relación al efecto del estado de RM del pescado inicial, se observó una oxidación primaria y secundaria mayor en jurel correspondiente a la condición post-RM durante la conservación en refrigeración; sin embargo, no se detectó un efecto

  11. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  12. Remote Water Lance Technology for Cleaning Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, R.M.; Owen, J.R.; Mangold, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of remote water lances for cleaning sludge or solidified heel materials from waste tanks. S.A.Robotics has developed a long arm retrieval system to deploy ultra-high pressure water lances and vacuum recovery systems for tank cleanup operations. This system uses remote-operated telescoping long arms with light weight, high strength materials, innovative high capacity joint designs, and multiple degrees of freedom to deploy tank cleaning heads to all areas within the tanks. Arm designs can be scaled and adjusted to suit even the largest tanks. (authors)

  13. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 2 : a review of emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    This review was conducted to identify candidate treatment technologies for treating oil sands process water. The oil sands industry in Canada uses large volumes of fresh water in order to extract bitumen deposits. The development of process water treatment technologies has become a critical issue for the industry, particularly as oil sand production is expected to triple in the next decade. However, treatment technologies must be adapted to consider the fouling potential of bitumens and fine clays as well as the effect of alkaline process water on treatment performance. The review included developments in chemical modifications to membranes and adsorbents designed to improve pollutant removal and reduce fouling; hybridization technologies designed to enhance the biological treatment of toxic feedwaters; recent advances in photocatalytic oxidation technologies for organic compounds; and new designs for large-scale treatment wetlands for polluted waste waters. It was concluded that major knowledge gaps must be optimized and preliminary studies must be conducted in order to understand how the treatment technologies will be affected by the chemical and physical characteristics of oil sands process water. 188 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Arsenic removal methods for drinking water in the developing countries: technological developments and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Fayzul; Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2017-11-01

    Arsenic pollution of drinking water is a concern, particularly in the developing countries. Removal of arsenic from drinking water is strongly recommended. Despite the availability of efficient technologies for arsenic removal, the small and rural communities in the developing countries are not capable of employing most of these technologies due to their high cost and technical complexity. There is a need for the "low-cost" and "easy to use" technologies to protect the humans in the arsenic affected developing countries. In this study, arsenic removal technologies were summarized and the low-cost technologies were reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies were identified and their scopes of applications and improvements were investigated. The costs were compared in context to the capacity of the low-income populations in the developing countries. Finally, future research directions were proposed to protect the low-income populations in the developing countries.

  15. The effect of the method of application and concentration of asahi sl on the response of cucumber plants to chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments conducted on cucumber cv. Śremski F1, the effect was studied of short-term chilling stress on plants which had grown from seeds germinating in the solution of Asahi SL or treated with this biostimulator during the early growth period. The plants were grown in a phytotron at an air temperature of 27/22°C (day/night, using fluorescent light with FAR flux density of 220 μmol x m-2 x s-1 and with a photoperiod of 16/8. The biostimulator was applied using the following methods: a germination of seeds in 0.01% and 0.05% solution, b watering of plants twice with 0.01% or 0.05% solution, c spraying leaves with 0.3% or 0.5% solution. Plants sprayed with distilled water were the control. After 24 hours from foliar or root application of Asahi SL, one half of the plants from each experimental series was treated for a period of 3 days at a temperature of 12/6°C, with all the other growth conditions unchanged. The obtained results show that short-term chilling stress caused a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, free proline content and in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in leaves, but a decrease in the content of chlorophyll, its maximum fluorescence (Fm and quantum yield (Fv/Fm, carotenoid content, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf biomass and in the activity of catalase in leaves. Foliar or root application of Asahi SL in the pre-stress period decreased the values of the traits which increased as a result of chilling or increased those which decreased. Higher concentrations of the biostimulator solutions, applied using this method, were more effective. The application of the biostimulator during seed germination did not result in significant changes in the response of plants to chilling stress.

  16. Problems of reliability and economy work of thermal power plants water treatment based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-11-01

    The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.

  17. Application of gis - technology for modelling motion water in the open channels

    OpenAIRE

    Venherskyi, Petro; Kokovska, Yaryna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper technology that would be allowed to use ArcGIS-Extension, that is GIS-components for Webapplications based on ArcGIS Server'a. Such technologies provide simple and easy integration and use of GIS-component on the WEB-site, where a separate layer provided opportunities modeling and solving applied problems of moving water flow in rivers.

  18. A critical evaluation of two point-of-use water treatment technologies: can they provide water that meets WHO drinking water guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    Point-of-use (POU) technologies have been proposed as solutions for meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe water. They reduce the risk of contamination between the water source and the home, by providing treatment at the household level. This study examined two POU technologies commonly used around the world: BioSand and ceramic filters. While the health benefits in terms of diarrhoeal disease reduction have been fairly well documented for both technologies, little research has focused on the ability of these technologies to treat other contaminants that pose health concerns, including the potential for formation of contaminants as a result of POU treatment. These technologies have not been rigorously tested to see if they meet World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines. A study was developed to evaluate POU BioSand and ceramic filters in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The following parameters were monitored on filters in rural Cambodia over a six-month period: iron, manganese, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that these technologies are not capable of consistently meeting all of the WHO drinking water guidelines for these parameters.

  19. Safety of light water reactors. Risks of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veser, Anke; Schlueter, Franz-Hermann; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Paesler-Sauer, Juergen; Kessler, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    The book on the safety of light-water reactors includes the following chapters: Part I: Physical and technical safety concept of actual German and future European light-water reactors: (1) Worldwide operated nuclear power plants in 2011, (2) Some reactor physical fundamentals. (3) Nuclear power plants in Germany. (4) Radioactive exposure due to nuclear power plants. (5) Safety concept of light-water reactors. (6) Probabilistic analyses and risk studies. (7) Design of light-water reactors against external incidents. (8) Risk comparison of nuclear power plants and other energy systems. (9) Evaluation of risk studies using the improved (new) safety concept for LWR. (19) The severe reactor accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Part II: Safety of German LWR in case of a postulated aircraft impact. (11) Literature. (12) Review of requirements and actual design. (13) Incident scenarios. (14) Load approach for aircraft impact. (15) Demonstration of the structural behavior in case of aircraft impact. (16) Special considerations. (17) Evaluation of the safety state of German and foreign nuclear power plants. Part III: ROSOS as example for a computer-based decision making support system for the severe accident management. (19) Literature. (20) Radiological fundamentals, accident management, modeling of the radiological situation. (21) The decision making support system RODOS. (22) RODOS and the Fukushima accident. (23) Recent developments in the radiological emergency management in the European frame.

  20. Preparation of Water-Selective Polybutadiene Membranes and Their Use in Drying Alcohols by Pervaporation and Vapor Permeation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separating azeotrope-forming solvent-water mixtures by conventional distillation poses technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Membrane technology using water-permselective membranes provides an efficient alternative for water removal from solvents. We present here a n...

  1. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung; Li, Xue; Ong, Rui Chin; Ge, Qingchun; Wang, Honglei; Han, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing Extension Programs by Discussing Water Conservation Technology Adoption with Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Warner, Laura A.; Martin, Emmett T.; White, Sarah A.; Fisher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Nursery growers are one of the largest agricultural users of water. Researchers have been developing new water treatment techniques and technologies for nursery growers to assist in preserving this precious resource, yet adoption within the industry has been limited. Extension professionals need to work closely with nursery growers to encourage…

  4. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  5. Discussion on Construction Technology of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Pipeline of Municipal Water Supply and Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    Prestressed reinforced concrete pipe has the advantages of good bending resistance, good anti-corrosion, anti-seepage, low price and so on. It is very common in municipal water supply and drainage engineering. This paper mainly explore the analyze the construction technology of the prestressed reinforced concrete pipe in municipal water supply and drainage engineering.

  6. Sino-US cooperation in water saving technologies: essential international problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and China share many agricultural problems, but one of great importance is the need to produce more crop yield in the face of water scarcity. Common recognition of this problem led to the development of a joint Sino-US Water Saving Technologies Flagship project within the larger US...

  7. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  8. Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Zhao, R.; Wal, van der A.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon electrodes have significant potential for energy-efficient water desalination using a promising technology called Capacitive Deionization (CDI). In CDI, salt ions are removed from brackish water upon applying an electrical voltage difference between two porous electrodes, in which the

  9. [Complex technology for water and wastewater disinfection and its industrial realization in prototype unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, E N; Brunman, V E; Brunman, M V; Konyashin, A V; Dyachenko, V A; Petkova, A P

    Usage of complex automated electrolysis unit for drinking water disinfection and wastewater oxidation and coagulation is scoped, its ecological and energy efficiency is shown. Properties of technological process of anolyte production using membrane electrolysis of brine for water disinfection in municipal pipelines and potassium ferrate production using electrochemical dissolution of iron anode in NaOH solution for usage in purification plants are listed. Construction of modules of industrial prototype for anolyte and ferrate production and applied aspects of automation of complex electrolysis unit are proved. Results of approbation of electrolytic potassium ferrate for drinking water disinfection and wastewater, rain water and environmental water oxidation and coagulation are shown.

  10. New Water Disinfection Technology for Earth and Space Applications as Part of the NPP Fellowship Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    SilvestryRodriquez, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    There is the need for a safe, low energy consuming and compact water disinfection technology to maintain water quality for human consumption. The design of the reactor should present no overheating and a constant temperature, with good electrical and optical performance for a UV water treatment system. The study assessed the use of UVA-LEDs to disinfectant water for MS2 Bacteriophage. The log reduction was sufficient to meet US EPA standards as a secondary disinfectant for maintaining water quality control. The study also explored possible inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli.

  11. Reducing Volatile Disinfection By-Products in Treated Drinking Water Using Aeration Technologies (WaterRF Report 4441)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  12. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the selection of an appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water which depends primarily upon percent removal; capital and operating and maintenance costs; safety; raw water quality with respect to parameters such as Fe, Mn, bacteria, and organics. The radon removal efficiency of the diffused bubble and packed tower aeration exceeded 99% at A:W ratios of 15:1 and 5:1, respectively; the GAC system averaged 81 ± 7.7%. Though our field evaluations indicated that GAC systems may not be as efficient as aeration systems, the system tested was operated above design requirements for most of the study period. Other researchers have found removals of greater than 99% with GAC point-of-entry applications. Therefore, each of these processes has the potential to consistently remove 99% of the radon applied. However, even this percent removal may not be sufficient to meet an MCL in the range of 200 to 1000 pCi/L if the raw water contained more than 20,000 to 100,000 pCi/L, respectively

  13. The importance of heavy water in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to similarities of chemical and almost physical properties in H 2 O and D 2 O but differences in nuclear and particle peculiarities provide valuable application for D 2 O. To sustain a controlled chain reaction, the energy of neutrons produced by fission must be reduced through collisions with other nuclei, a process called moderation. A good moderator has a mass close to that of the neutron to maximize energy loss per collision and a very small neutron capture cross section to minimize unwanted nuclear reactions. Deuterium is far the best moderator, more than 80 times better than hydrogen and 30 times better than 12 C ir 18 O. Heavy water is almost as good as deuterium and has the distinct advantage of being a nonflammable liquid. Heavy water is also an excellent neutron reflector, and thus decreases the number of neutrons that escape the reactor core without participating in fission reactions. For this reason a feasibility study and subsequently a technical survey was carried out on engineering of a pilot scale plant. As the result of this studies, the know-how of heavy water production on basis of selected method including dual temperature isotopic exchange and distillation techniques developed. Subsequently the primary and almost detail engineering documents prepared on best knowledge of our own engineers without external contribution

  14. Waste water processing technology for Space Station Freedom - Comparative test data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Shah, Burt H.; Mcgriff, Cindy F.

    1991-01-01

    Comparative tests were conducted to choose the optimum technology for waste water processing on SSF. A thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation (TIMES) subsystem and a vapor compression distillation subsystem (VCD) were built and tested to compare urine processing capability. Water quality, performance, and specific energy were compared for conceptual designs intended to function as part of the water recovery and management system of SSF. The VCD is considered the most mature and efficient technology and was selected to replace the TIMES as the baseline urine processor for SSF.

  15. Overview of technologies for removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Irina; Bhatnagar, Amit; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-04-01

    Wide use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as fuel oxygenates leads to worldwide environment contamination with this compound basically due to fuel leaks from storage or pipelines. Presence of MTBE in drinking water is of high environmental and social concern. Existing methods for MTBE removal from water have a number of limitations which can be possibly overcome in the future with use of emerging technologies. This work aims to provide an updated overview of recent developments in technologies for MTBE removal from water. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Development of water demand coefficients for power generation from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for renewable power generation were developed. • Six renewable energy sources (biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal) were studied. • Life cycle water footprints for 60 electricity generation pathways were considered. • Impact of cooling systems for some power generation pathways was assessed. - Abstract: Renewable energy technology-based power generation is considered to be environmentally friendly and to have a low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions footprint. However, the life cycle water footprint of renewable energy technology-based power generation needs to be assessed. The objective of this study is to develop life cycle water footprints for renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways. Water demand is evaluated through consumption and withdrawals coefficients developed in this study. Sixty renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways were developed for a comprehensive comparative assessment of water footprints. The pathways were based on the use of biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal as the source of energy. During the complete life cycle, power generation from bio-oil extracted from wood chips, a biomass source, was found to have the highest water demand footprint and wind power the lowest. During the complete life cycle, the water demand coefficients for biomass-based power generation pathways range from 260 to 1289 l of water per kilowatt hour and for nuclear energy pathways from 0.48 to 179 l of water per kilowatt hour. The water demand for power generation from solar energy-based pathways ranges from 0.02 to 4.39 l of water per kilowatt hour, for geothermal pathways from 0.04 to 1.94 l of water per kilowatt hour, and for wind from 0.005 to 0.104 l of water per kilowatt hour. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with varying conversion efficiencies to evaluate the impact of power plant performance on

  17. Potential of Solar-driven CDI Technology for Water Desalination in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Seleym

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity is one of the most challenging problems facing the world today. Rivers, lakes, and surface ice represent only 1.2% of the fresh water sources on earth, while ground water represent over 30% of the potential fresh water. The Egyptian quota from the Nile River is limited to 55 billion m3/yr, and expected to decrease due to increasing demand of water by other Nile basin countries. According to an Egyptian government report, the total population of Egypt increased from 22 million in 1950 to around 85 million in 2010. This increase in population growth will continue for decades and it is likely to increase to between 120-150 million by 2050. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national economic development.  As indication of water scarcity, Egypt passed the international threshold value of 1000 m3/capita/year in the nineties, and it is expected to cross the threshold of absolute water scarcity of 500 m3/capita/yr by 2025. Capacitive de-ionization (CDI is a relatively new technology that was developed as recently as the late 1960s. In CDI systems, saline water is made to pass between a pair of electrodes connected to a voltage source. Ions are stored inside the pores of electrodes in CDI via the applied electric field strength. CDI is a membrane less technology, and the problems of membrane fouling in the Reverse Osmosis technology is not present in CDI. It has the potential to be energy efficient compared with other related techniques, robust technology for water desalination. This paper explores low cost and efficient desalination technologies for brackish water for irrigation and drinking purposes using the abundant solar energy in Egypt.

  18. Potential of Solar-driven CDI Technology for Water Desalination in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El Shafei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity is one of the most challenging problems facing the world today. Rivers, lakes, and surface ice represent only 1.2% of the fresh water sources on earth, while ground water represents over 30% of the potential fresh water. The Egyptian quota from the River Nile is limited to 55 billion m/yr, and expected to decrease due to increasing demand of water by other Nile basin countries. According to an Egyptian government report, the total population of Egypt increased from 22 million in 1950 to around 85 million in 2010. This increase in population will continue for decades and it is likely to increase to between 120-150 million by 2050. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national economic development. As indication of water scarcity, Egypt passed the international threshold value of 1000 m3/capita/year in the nineties, and it is expected to cross the threshold of absolute water scarcity of 500 m3/capita/yr by 2025. Capacitive deionization (CDI is a relatively new technology that was developed as recently as the late 1960s. In CDI systems, saline water is made to pass between a pair of electrodes connected to a voltage source. Ions are stored inside the pores of electrodes in CDI via the applied electric field strength. CDI is a membrane less technology and the problems of membrane fouling in the Reverse Osmosis technology are not present in CDI. It has the potential to be energy efficient compared with other related techniques and robust technology for water desalination. This paper explores low cost and efficient desalination technologies for brackish water for irrigation and drinking purposes using the abundant solar energy in Egypt.

  19. Humidification of unwrapped chilled meat on retail display using an ultrasonic fogging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Corry, Janet E L; Evans, Judith A

    2007-12-01

    The effects of an ultrasonic humidification system on unwrapped meat in a chilled retail display cabinet were assessed. Humidification raised the relative humidity of the cabinet air from a mean of 76.7% to just below saturation at 98.8%. This reduced the mean evaporative weight loss from whole samples of meat after 14h from 1.68% to 0.62% of their initial weight. The rate of deterioration in the appearance of the meat due to dehydration was reduced to the extent that while the unhumidified trial was terminated after 14h because all samples were judged to be unacceptable, the humidified trial was continued for 24h without any major changes in appearance. Levels of presumptive pseudomonas bacteria were relatively high in water samples taken from the humidification system and defrost water during the humidified trial, but Legionella spp. were not isolated. Significant increases in the numbers of bacteria on the meat during either trial were only found in one case, that of humidified minced beef. However, some of the samples had high counts even before display, and this may have masked any effect due to humidification. Differences in levels of air-borne contamination were small and inconsistent. Air temperatures were raised by humidification by between 1 and 2°C and this was reflected in similarly raised product temperatures. Temperatures of air leaving the evaporator indicated that this was due to icing of the evaporator in the periods leading up to defrosts.

  20. Effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in monochloramine on lipid oxidation and halogenated residual compound formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtell, Stephen P; Russell, Scott M; Berman, Elliot

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in tap water (TAP) or TAP containing 50 ppm of monochloramine (MON) with respect to chloroform formation, total chlorine content, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, and fatty acid profiles. Ten broiler chicken carcasses were chilled in TAP or MON for 6 h. After exposure, the carcasses were removed and cut in half along the median plane into right and left halves. After roasting the left halves, samples of the breast, thigh, and skin (with fat) were collected, subjected to fatty acid profiling, and assayed for chloroform, total chlorine, and TBA. The uncooked right halves of each carcass were stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days and then roasted. After roasting these right halves, samples of breast, thigh, and skin (with fat) were collected from each carcass half, subjected to fatty acid profiling, and assayed for chloroform, total chlorine, and TBA. There were no statistical differences between TAP- and MON-treated fresh or stored products with regard to chloroform levels, total chlorine content, TBA values, or fatty acid profiles.

  1. A Review of Water Mist Technology for Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    TATEM Navy Technology Center for Safeny and Survivability Chemistry Division C. L. BEYLER P. J. DINENNO E. K. BUDNICK G. G. BACK S.E. YOUNIS Hughes ...Institute, Boris, Sweden, 91 R30189A, April 30, 1992. 32. Jackman , L.A., "Mathematical Model of the Interact’i- of Sprinkler Spray Drops with Fire Gases...of Phase II Energy Fields for Fire Extinguishment," prepared for the U.S. Air Force, Hughes Associates, Irc., Columbia, MD, January 1993. 53. Evans

  2. [Research of aeration with bio-film technology to treat urban landscape water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying-Wei; Nie, Zhi-Dan; Nian, Yue-Gang; Huang, Min-Sheng; Huang, Jian-Jun; Yan, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Research of the aeration with bio-film technology was carried out to treat scenic water of a sanatorium in Beijing. The aim of the research was improving the water habitat by increasing the transparency and reducing the concentration of N and P. The equipments were set in a 5,000 m2 water area, which combined the plug flow jet aerator with the elastic biological filler. The research indicated that the transparency increased from 25 cm to 120 cm by the technology. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and TP were 86.6% , 90% and 73.3%, but there was only 22.4% for TN. The concentration of DO increased from 4.3 mg/L to 7 mg/L. In a word, the aeration with bio-film technology was an effective measure to improve the water habitat by increasing the transparency.

  3. Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusa-Idaman-Said

    2000-01-01

    Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

  4. FLASH Technology: Full-Scale Hospital Waste Water Treatments Adopted in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame; Tridecima, Adeodata; Pranoto, Hadi; Moesliem; Miftahuddin

    2018-02-01

    A Hospital waste water contains a complex mixture of hazardous chemicals and harmful microbes, which can pose a threat to the environment and public health. Some efforts have been carried out in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh), Indonesia with the objective of treating hospital waste water effluents on-site before its discharge. Flash technology uses physical and biological pre-treatment, followed by advanced oxidation process based on catalytic ozonation and followed by GAC and PAC filtration. Flash Full-Scale Hospital waste water Treatments in Aceh from different district have been adopted and investigated. Referring to the removal efficiency of macro-pollutants, the collected data demonstrate good removal efficiency of macro-pollutants using Flash technologies. In general, Flash technologies could be considered a solution to the problem of managing hospital waste water.

  5. Demonstration test on decontamination of contaminated pool water using liquid-solid settling technology with flocculants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Tagawa, Akihiro; Hosobuchi, Shigeki; Takanashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying agricultural water, a stationary purification system for contaminated water had been developed on the basis of the liquid-solid settling technology using flocculants. Two kinds of flocculants had been developed on the basis of preliminary tests: one that compounds iron ferrocyanide and the other that does not. With the use of this system and flocculants, a demonstration test was conducted to apply the decontamination technology on contaminated water in two swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is proved from the results that both the developed purification system and the flocculants can be established as a practicable decontamination technology for contaminated water: the treatment rate was 10 m 3 /hour and the elimination factor of radioactive materials was higher than 99%. (author)

  6. α spectrum analysis technology research on uranium in environmental water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yongmei; Yang, Yong; Ma, Junge

    2009-04-01

    In order to measure the nuclide abundance ratio of uranium in environmental water, the method of '717 anion exchanging resin' is discussed. The dis- traction circuit is determined by 717 anion exchange leaching curve, recovery ratio of anion exchaging, recovery ratio of former disposal and recovery ratio of electrodeposit. The circuit has good result in distracting and enriching uranium by using '717 anion exchanging resin', the resolution of uranium in the spectrum is perfect. The activities and the nuclide abundance ratios of 238 U, 235 U, 234 U in the different reach of some location of INPC have been gained. (authors)

  7. Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Tellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF.

  8. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  9. Aesthetic chills: Knowledge-acquisition, meaning-making and aesthetic emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation, and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research.

  10. Process for nondestructively testing with radioactive gas using a chill set sealant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    An article surface is nondestructively tested for substantially invisible surface voids by absorbing a radioactive gas thereon. The adsorbed radioactive gas is disproportionately retained on those surfaces presented by the substantially invisible surface voids as compared to the remaining surfaces of the article contacted by the radioactive gas. The radiation released by the radioactive gas remaining adsorbed is used to identify the substantially invisible voids. To immobilize the radioactive gas adjacent or within the surface voids, a sealant composition is provided which is capable of being chill set. The temperatures of the article surface to be tested and the sealant composition are then related so that the article surface is at a temperature below the chill set temperature of the sealant composition and the sealant composition is at a temperature above its chill set temperature. The article portion to be tested is then coated with sealant composition to form a chill set coating thereon of substantially uniform thickness. (U.S.)

  11. Neutrino oscillation provides clues to dark matter and signals from the chilled universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The new verification that oscillations exists and neutrinos have mass though not detectible easy provides the first clue to extra dimensions, dark matter, hyperspace and chilled universe acting as a platform below it. (1/2 page)

  12. Determination of Chilling and Heat Requirement of Four Apricot Cultivars of Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh hoshyar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Dormancy is one of the most important stages in the life cycle of temperate plants and plants are required to exit from it with supply of chill unit. Flowering is defined with chilling and heat requirement. Owing to low chilling requirement, blooming happens too early and cold temperatures produce an important loss of yield by frost. In temperate fruits, awareness of the need buds to avoid winter frost is one of the main objectives in breeding programs. Studies concerning chilling and heat requirements are thus of special interest in these species, being very important for the choice of parents in breeding programs to create superior varieties of winter and spring frost (late flowering and resistant cold provide. Utah is one of the most important model was introduced in 1974 by Richardson and colleagues. Effective temperature on cold storage in Utah model is 1/9-5/2. This is 6/1-9/12 in North Carolina and 8/1-9/13 in low chilling. Temperatures above 16 have negative effect on accumulation in Utah model. Later models were developed according to the Utah model that the Low chilling requirement (18 and the North Carolina (31 models are among them. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. is belonging to warm temperate regions and due to the lack of compatibility and apricot spring frost in Khorasan Razavi province, the identification of varieties and genotypes with high compatibility and high thermal and cooling requirements to reduce the risk of early frost and increase production efficiency, seems important. The purpose of this study was to determine the need for chilling and heat requirement in apricot cultivars. Material and methods: In this research, chilling and heating requirements of four local cultivars of apricot were evaluated under field and laboratory conditions. This experiment was conducted at agricultural research station Golmakan. A factorial (two-factor experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with tree

  13. GENERAL ALGORITHMIC SCHEMA OF THE PROCESS OF THE CHILL AUXILIARIES PROJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The general algorithmic diagram of systematization of the existing approaches to the process of projection is offered and the foundation of computer system of the chill mold arming construction is laid.

  14. Human response to individually controlled micro environment generated with localized chilled beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Simon C.; Nygaard, Linette; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment in a single-office room created by a localised chilled beam with individual control of the primary air flow was studied. Response of 24 human subjects when exposed to the environment generated by the chilled beam was collected via questionnaires under a 2-hour exposure including...... and local thermal sensation reported by the subjects with the two systems. Both systems were equally acceptable. At 26°C the individual control of the localised chilled beam lead to higher acceptability of the work environment. At 28°C the acceptability decreased with the two systems. It was not acceptable...... different work tasks at three locations in the room. Response of the subjects to the environment generated with a chilled ceiling combined with mixing air distribution was used for comparison. The air temperature in the room was kept at 26 or 28 °C. Results show no significant difference in the overall...

  15. Generic supercritical water technology; Generic technology to shite no chorinkaisui riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K; Ajiri, M; Inomata, H; Smith, R; Hakuta, Y [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokoyama, C [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). The Institute forChemical Reaction Science; Chin, L [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the measurement and analysis for clarifying solution structure of supercritical water and exhibition mechanism of solvent functions. It also describes the development of new processes using supercritical water as reaction solvent. The PVT measurements were conducted in the supercritical region using pure water and NaCl aqueous solution, to confirm the reduction of molar volume of the electrolyte solution. The hydration structure was examined in the supercritical aqueous solution by the molecular dynamic simulation. As a result, presence of hydrogen bond structure, where the contribution of two branching hydrogen bond can not be ignored, was suggested under the supercritical condition. Characteristics of supercritical aqueous solutions are analyzed through in-situ Raman and scattered X-ray spectral measurements. Moreover, this paper introduces developments of some processes in the supercritical water, such as decomposition of wasted polymers, recovery of chemical materials, reforming of heavy hydrocarbons by contact hydrogenation, and synthesis of fine powders of metal oxide by reaction crystallization.

  16. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochar-based water treatment systems as a potential low-cost and sustainable technology for clean water provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chaukura, Nhamo; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Mukome, Fungai N D

    2017-07-15

    Approximately 600 million people lack access to safe drinking water, hence achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030) calls for rapid translation of recent research into practical and frugal solutions within the remaining 13 years. Biochars, with excellent capacity to remove several contaminants from aqueous solutions, constitute an untapped technology for drinking water treatment. Biochar water treatment has several potential merits compared to existing low-cost methods (i.e., sand filtration, boiling, solar disinfection, chlorination): (1) biochar is a low-cost and renewable adsorbent made using readily available biomaterials and skills, making it appropriate for low-income communities; (2) existing methods predominantly remove pathogens, but biochars remove chemical, biological and physical contaminants; (3) biochars maintain organoleptic properties of water, while existing methods generate carcinogenic by-products (e.g., chlorination) and/or increase concentrations of chemical contaminants (e.g., boiling). Biochars have co-benefits including provision of clean energy for household heating and cooking, and soil application of spent biochar improves soil quality and crop yields. Integrating biochar into the water and sanitation system transforms linear material flows into looped material cycles, consistent with terra preta sanitation. Lack of design information on biochar water treatment, and environmental and public health risks constrain the biochar technology. Seven hypotheses for future research are highlighted under three themes: (1) design and optimization of biochar water treatment; (2) ecotoxicology and human health risks associated with contaminant transfer along the biochar-soil-food-human pathway, and (3) life cycle analyses of carbon and energy footprints of biochar water treatment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Climatic changes lead to declining winter chill for fruit and nut trees in California during 1950-2099.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Zhang, Minghua; Girvetz, Evan H

    2009-07-16

    Winter chill is one of the defining characteristics of a location's suitability for the production of many tree crops. We mapped and investigated observed historic and projected future changes in winter chill in California, quantified with two different chilling models (Chilling Hours, Dynamic Model). Based on hourly and daily temperature records, winter chill was modeled for two past temperature scenarios (1950 and 2000), and 18 future scenarios (average conditions during 2041-2060 and 2080-2099 under each of the B1, A1B and A2 IPCC greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, for the CSIRO-MK3, HadCM3 and MIROC climate models). For each scenario, 100 replications of the yearly temperature record were produced, using a stochastic weather generator. We then introduced and mapped a novel climatic statistic, "safe winter chill", the 10% quantile of the resulting chilling distributions. This metric can be interpreted as the amount of chilling that growers can safely expect under each scenario. Winter chill declined substantially for all emissions scenarios, with the area of safe winter chill for many tree species or cultivars decreasing 50-75% by mid-21st century, and 90-100% by late century. Both chilling models consistently projected climatic conditions by the middle to end of the 21st century that will no longer support some of the main tree crops currently grown in California, with the Chilling Hours Model projecting greater changes than the Dynamic Model. The tree crop industry in California will likely need to develop agricultural adaptation measures (e.g. low-chill varieties and dormancy-breaking chemicals) to cope with these projected changes. For some crops, production might no longer be possible.

  19. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  20. Proposal and technological breakthrough of an integrated system for the complete usage of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakao, Shin-ichi; Kato, Shigeru; Tsuji, Masamichi; Sugi, Jiro.

    1996-01-01

    Serious troubles regarding scale formation may occur when the amount of recovered water from sea water increases. The main constituents of the scale are CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, all of which are salts of alkaline earth metals. Therefore, if a key technology is developed with which the main constituents of the scale, alkaline earth metal ions such as CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, can be removed and/or separated from sea water the recovery of desalted water from raw sea water using high-pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) can be increased up to 75-80%, the solubility limit of the remaining scale components. Then it will be possible to make use of all valuable materials that exist in sea water, using an integrated system that combines conventional recovery technologies with a set of the proposed technologies such as HPRO, an alkaline earth metal ions removal process, inorganic ion exchangers for recovering trace elements and so on. Furthermore, almost complete utilization of sea water may be accomplished by using of the brackish water by product for salt-resistant plants such as mangrove, salt bush and, if possible, gene-recombinated plants. (author)

  1. Operational Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Electricity Generation Technology in China—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As two indispensable resources for human development, energy and water are closely related. China, as the world’s largest consumer of electricity, is also experiencing very serious water shortages. Understanding the water consumption intensity in various types of electric power production technologies according to China’s national conditions is a prerequisite for understanding the potential impact of electrical power production on water resources. Therefore, following the steps of a meta-analysis, this paper provides a literature review on operational water withdrawal and consumption factors for electricity generation technology in China. We observed that 50% of water consumption for electricity generation was for coal power, whereas there was no research on the water consumption intensity of natural gas power generation, and a shortage of studies on water intake during electrical power production. The average water consumption intensity of hydropower is the largest. The results indicate that compared with other fuel types, hydropower is not a sustainable energy with respect to water conservation, and the study of hydropower applications should be improved in China.

  2. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  3. Research and Development Opportunities for Technologies to Influence Water Consumption Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In April 2015, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a two-day workshop that convened water experts and stakeholders from across industry, government, and academia to undertake three primary tasks: 1) identify technology characteristics that are favorable for motivating behavioral change, 2) identify barriers that have prevented the development and market adoption of technologies with these characteristics in the water sector, and 3) identify concrete research and development pathways that could be undertaken to overcome these barriers, increase the penetration of technologies that influence water consumption behavior, and ultimately reduce domestic water consumption. While efforts to reduce water consumption have gained momentum in recent years, there are a number of key barriers that have limited the effectiveness of such efforts. Chief among these is the fact that many consumers have limited awareness of their water consumption patterns because of poor data availability, and/or are unmotivated to reduce their consumption because of low costs and split incentives. Without improved data availability and stronger price signals, it will be difficult to effect true transformative behavioral change. This report also reviews a number of technology characteristics that have successfully motivated behavioral change in other sectors, as well as several technologies that could be developed specifically for the water sector. Workshop participants discussed how technologies that provide active feedback and promote measurable goals and social accountability have successfully influenced changes in other types of behavior. A range of regulatory and policy actions that could be implemented to support such efforts are also presented. These include institutional aggregation, revenue decoupling, and price structure reforms. Finally, several R&D pathways were proposed, including efforts to identify optimal communication strategies and to better understand consumer perceptions and

  4. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descour, J.

    2001-01-01

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment

  5. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  6. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  7. Chemical evaluation and treatment of ground water for university town Peshawar, Pakistan by reverse osmosis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddique, M.; Gilani, S.N.; Ishaq, M.; Gul, F.

    2012-01-01

    Present study is focused on the ground water treatment for the University Town Peshawar by reverse osmosis technology, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis pure water and ultra pure water filtration. Water collected from three locations was analyzed. The results showed that the first two water samples were neutral having pH 7.09 and 7.16 comparable with the range (6.50-8.50), while the pH for the water sample getting purified and passed from RO process was 5.33 i.e. slightly acidic. The ionic content of the water sample was low, whereas the conductivity ranged from 624-634 micro S/cm for the first two samples and reduced to 1.37 muS/cm. The parameters investigated are below the safety baseline levels of the national and international standards with the exception of Pb. (author)

  8. The Use of Irradiation Technology in Improving Water and Wastewater Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amro, H.; Tuffaha, R.; Zinati, S.; Juneidi, M.; Masaadeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the use of irradiation technology in improving the water quality. A Cobalt- 60 gamma radiation source was used in studying the removal of trihalo methane (THM) compounds from drinking water, which forms as a result of using chlorine for water disinfection. The study also includes the use of irradiation processing for water disinfection as a substitute of water chlorination. The results show that a dose of 1000 Gy is efficient in removing 100 μg/l of THM compounds from drinking water. The same dose is also found efficient for disinfecting and controlling the microbiological content of contaminated surface water. The highly contaminated raw municipal wastewater found to require a radiation dose in the range of 1000 to 5000 Gy. (authors)

  9. In-situ remediation of contaminated ground water using the MAG*SEPSM technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading a project for demonstration of in-situ remediation of contaminated ground water utilizing MAG*SEP SM technology developed by Bradtec. This technology is being considered for eventual application at sites involving groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and/or radionuclides, such as the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Berkeley Pit. The MAG*SEP SM technology uses specially coated magnetic particles to selectively adsorb contaminants from ground water. Particles are mixed with ground water, contaminants are adsorbed onto the particles, and the particles are removed by magnetic filtration. The technology can recover low levels of radioactive and/or inorganic hazardous contamination (in the ppm range), leaving nonradioactive/nonhazardous species essentially unaffected. The first phase of this project has involved the optimization of MAG*SEP SM process chemistry for a selected site at SRS. To date this work has identified a candidate adsorber material (the amino form of iminodicarboxylic acid) for selective removal of lead, cadmium, and mercury from this site's ground water. Decontamination factors of 170, 270, and 235, respective, for each contaminant have been achieved. Further process chemistry optimization work for this adsorber material is planned. The project will eventually lead to an in-situ demonstration of the MAG*SEP SM technology, integrated with the EnviroWall trademark barrier technology developed by Barrier Member Containment Corporation (BMC)

  10. Impact of Methyl Jasmonate on Enhancing Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saydpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a warm season crop that suffers from chilling injury at temperatures below 10°C. In recent years, jasmonates have been used for reduction of chilling injuries in plants. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test whether methyl jasmonate (MeJA application at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mM through seed soaking or foliar spray would protect cucumber seedlings, subjected to chilling stress. Results showed that MeJA application decreased chilling index, ion leakage, malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxide free radical and increased growth parameters, proline contents, chlorophylls contents and antioxidant activity. Although, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method, the highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.15mM MeJA application in both application methods that caused low level of chilling index (1.67, malondialdehyde content (0.11 nm g-1 FW, hydrogen peroxide free radical (0.22 nm g-1 FW and ion leakage (32.87%. In general, it may be concluded that MeJA could be used effectively to protect cucumber seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  11. Aquifer thermal-energy-storage costs with a seasonal-chill source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) ystem from a seasonal chill source was investigated. Costs were estimated for point demand and residential development ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR. AQUASTOR was developed at PNL specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on the costs of ATES delivered chill were: system size; well flow rate; transmission distance; source temperature; well depth; and cost of capital. The effects of each parameter are discussed. Two primary constraints of ATES chill systems are the extremely low energy density of the storage fluid and the prohibitive costs of lengthly pipelines for delivering chill to residential users. This economic analysis concludes that ATES-delivered chill will not be competitive for residential cooling applications. The otherwise marginal attractiveness of ATES chill systems vanishes under the extremely low load factors characteristic of residential cooling systems. (LCL)

  12. Microstructure of gross chill-mark defect in a glass-ceramic preform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The microstructure of a vacuum tube glass-ceramic preform containing gross chill-marks on the top and bottom surfaces as well as on the sides was analyzed. The preform was ceramed in a graphite mold and examined using SEM. The glass-ceramic had an extremely dense and fine crystalline structure except where the chill-marks were located. In those areas of matrix glass following the chill-mark plane were evident. It is concluded that gross chill-marks will affect the microstructure by disrupting the chemistry or nucleating characteristics in such a way that a chill-mark regon would appear to be depleted of crystallites. Although the crystallites in this region are larger, the quantity is lower than in the base glass-ceramic. The affected area caused by the chill-mark left a band of matrix glass approximately 100 μ wide. It is believed that planar defects of this size will degrade the mechanical and permeation properties of the glass-ceramic

  13. Evaluation of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) monitor well sampling technology at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the complex issues surrounding Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at SRS, the Environmental Restoration Division has been exploring new technologies to deal with the purge water generated during monitoring well sampling. Standard procedures for sampling generates copious amounts of purge water that must be managed as hazardous waste, when containing hazardous and/or radiological contaminants exceeding certain threshold levels. SRS has obtained Regulator approval to field test an innovative surface release prevention mechanism to manage purge water. This mechanism is referred to as the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) and consists of a collapsible bladder situated within a rigid metal tank

  14. Water Chemistry Control Technology to Improve the Performance of Nuclear Power Plants for Extended Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Na, J. W.; Lee, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Ο To Develop the technology to manage the problems of AOA and radiation, corrosion as long term PWR operation. Ο To Establish the advanced water chemical operating systems. - Development of the proper water chemistry guidelines for long term PWR operation. AOA(Axial Offest Anomaly) has been reported in many PWR plants in the world, including Korea, especially in the plants of higher burn-up and longer cycle operation or power up-rate. A test loop has been designed and made by KAERI, in order to investigate and mitigate AOA problems in Korea. This project included the study of hydrodynamic simulation and the modeling about AOA. The analysis of radioactive crud was performed to investigate of NPPs primary water chemical effect on AOA and to reduce the radioactive dose rate. The high temperature measurement system was developed to on-line monitor of water chemistry in nuclear power plants. The effects of various environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate on YSZ-based pH electrode were evaluated for ensuring the accuracy of high-temperature pH measurement. The inhibition technology for fouling and SCC of SG tube was evaluated to establish the water chemistry technology of corrosion control of nuclear system. The high temperature and high pressure crevice chemistry analysis test loop was manufactured to develop the water chemistry technology of crevice chemistry control

  15. Combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE) technology - an economical alternative for heavy water upgraders using water distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryland, D.K.; Sadhankar, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Heavy water upgrading is a unique and crucial part of a CANDU power station. Water distillation (DW) systems are used for heavy water upgrading in all CANDU stations. The DW upgrader is designed to take advantage of the difference in relative volatility (a measure of separation of isotopes) between H 2 O and D 2 O. However, the low relative volatility of the H 2 O/D 2 O system requires large number of stages (long columns) and large reflux ratios (large reboiler loads) - thus resulting in significant capital and operating costs. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) technology as an economical alternative to the DW system. CECE-based upgraders have been demonstrated in pilot scale facilities at AECL Chalk River Laboratories and in Hamilton, Ontario. This design is based on catalytic hydrogen isotope exchange between water and hydrogen gas. (author)

  16. Development of design technology for an advanced pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Chang, Won Pyo; Park, Koon Chul

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the project is to localize technology for the improvement of the reactor coolant system through a multidimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis for the steam generator and the pressurizer. Flow distribution analysis has been done for the YGN 3/4 steam generators when steady-state output conditions were varied in the ranges such as 100, 75, 50, and 25 using three-dimensional ATHOS 3 code. The results of the thermal-hydraulic analysis have been used for flow-induced vibration analysis for the YGN 3/4 steam generators. ATHOS 3 code has been modified for YGN 3/4 steam generator tube lane region using the cartesian geometry and the local porosity in the boundaries of the two adjacent cells. Stability ratio for the tube vibration has been calculated the modified ATHOS 3 and ANSYS code. A sensitivity study for the pressurizer volume change has been analyzed using LTC code which is for the performance analysis to predict an optimistic pressurizer volume. (Author)

  17. Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Khor Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-ε Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

  18. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  19. Use of the spray chilling method to deliver hydrophobic components: physical characterization of microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food industry has been developing products to meet the demands of increasing number of consumers who are concerned with their health and who seek food products that satisfy their needs. Therefore, the development of processed foods that contain functional components has become important for this industry. Microencapsulation can be used to reduce the effects of processing on functional components and preserve their bioactivity. The present study investigated the production of lipid microparticles containing phytosterols by spray chilling. The matrices comprised mixtures of stearic acid and hydrogenated vegetable fat, and the ratio of the matrix components to phytosterols was defined by an experimental design using the mean diameters of the microparticles as the response variable. The melting point of the matrices ranged from 44.5 and 53.4 ºC. The process yield was melting point dependent; the particles that exhibited lower melting point had greater losses than those with higher melting point. The microparticles' mean diameters ranged from 13.8 and 32.2 µm and were influenced by the amount of phytosterols and stearic acid. The microparticles exhibited spherical shape and typical polydispersity of atomized products. From a technological and practical (handling, yield, and agglomeration points of view, lipid microparticles with higher melting point proved promising as phytosterol carriers.

  20. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in the chemical factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dyecollection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind, and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind, and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, thepolluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits.

  1. Development of Technology for Effective Removal of Arsenic and Cyanides from Drinking Water and Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jae

    2008-02-09

    The purpose of the project was to perform a joint research and development effort focused upon the development of methods and the prototype facility for effective removal of arsenic and cyanides from drinking water and wastewater, based on the UPEC patented technology. The goals of this project were to validate UPEC technology, to manufacture a prototype facility meeting the market requirements, and to introduce it to both industry and municipalities which deal with the water quality. The project involved design and fabrication of one experimental unit and one prototypical industrial unit, and tests at industrial and mining sites. The project used sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) as the media to remove arsenic in drinking water and convert arsenic into non-hazardous form. The work consisted of distinct phases ending with specific deliverables in development, design, fabrication and testing of prototype systems and eventually producing validation data to support commercial introduction of technology and its successful implementation.

  2. Seeking parsimony in hydrology and water resources technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-04-01

    systems to single numbers (a probability or an expected value), and statistics provides the empirical basis of summarizing data, making inference from them, and supporting decision making in water resource management. Unfortunately, the current state of the art in probability, statistics and their union, often called stochastics, is not fully satisfactory for the needs of modelling of hydrological and water resource systems. A first problem is that stochastic modelling has traditionally relied on classical statistics, which is based on the independent "coin-tossing" prototype, rather than on the study of real-world systems whose behaviour is very different from the classical prototype. A second problem is that the stochastic models (particularly the multivariate ones) are often not parsimonious themselves. Therefore, substantial advancement of stochastics is necessary in a new paradigm of parsimonious hydrological modelling. These ideas are illustrated using several examples, namely: (a) hydrological modelling of a karst system in Bosnia and Herzegovina using three different approaches ranging from parsimonious to detailed "physically-based"; (b) parsimonious modelling of a peculiar modified catchment in Greece; (c) a stochastic approach that can replace parameter-excessive ARMA-type models with a generalized algorithm that produces any shape of autocorrelation function (consistent with the accuracy provided by the data) using a couple of parameters; (d) a multivariate stochastic approach which replaces a huge number of parameters estimated from data with coefficients estimated by the principle of maximum entropy; and (e) a parsimonious approach for decision making in multi-reservoir systems using a handful of parameters instead of thousands of decision variables.

  3. Highly purified water production technology. The influence of water purity on steam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, J.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental question related to high-pressure steam generation, intended for powering steam turbines, concerns steam production conditions based on constant quality standards. The characteristics of water (salinity, silica concentration) are indicated for a given steam quality as a function of the pressure. Two processes for the purification of feedwater for high pressure boilers are described: a treatment using precoated cellulose or resin filters and a treatment using mixed-bed ion exchangers. When ultrapure water is required, the demineralized water is filtred using microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes [fr

  4. Candidate for solar power: a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Allan; Hanley, Charles; Hightower, Michael; Wright, Emily; Wallace, Sam; Pohl, Phillip; Donahe, Ryan; Andelman, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U>S> as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared Figure 1: Candidate remote well sites for planned field implementation of new PV-powered desalination process: (a) Raton Basin and (b) San Juan Basin, New Mexico to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness of this technology and of the attender energy requirements of this technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to drive the design of integrated PV-powered desalination systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Earlier laboratory (and very recent laboratory) studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise at common CBM salinity levels. The technology may require less energy. be less susceptible to fouling and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduced the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the

  5. On numerical modeling of low-head direct chill ingot caster for magnesium alloy AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive 3D turbulent CFD study has been carried out to simulate a Low-Head (LH vertical Direct Chill (DC rolling ingot caster for the common magnesium alloy AZ31. The model used in this study takes into account the coupled laminar/turbulent melt flow and solidification aspects of the process and is based on the control-volume finite-difference approach. Following the aluminum/magnesium DC casting industrial practices, the LH mold is taken as 30 mm with a hot top of 60 mm. The previously verified in-house code has been modified to model the present casting process. Important quantitative results are obtained for four casting speeds, for three inlet melt pouring temperatures (superheats and for three metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficients for the steady state operational phase of the caster. The variable cooling water temperatures reported by the industry are considered for the primary and secondary cooling zones during the simulations. Specifically, the temperature and velocity fields, sump depth and sump profiles, mushy region thickness, solid shell thickness at the exit of the mold and axial temperature profiles at the center and at three strategic locations at the surface of the slab are presented and discussed.

  6. Effect of a traditional marinating on properties of rainbow trout fillet during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktabi, Siavash; Zarei, Mehdi; Chadorbaf, Milad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using food additives from natural sources to improve taste and also extend the shelf-life of semi-preserved foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to examine the chemical and microbiological changes promoted by a local marinating process in rainbow trout fillets during chilled storage. Fish fillets were immersed in marinades and stored at 4 ˚C for 10 days and were analyzed for total volatile basic nitrogen (TVN), thiobarbitoric acid (TBA), water holding capacity (WHC), pH, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacterial count every two days. Variations in TBA and WHC were not statistically significant between marinated and control groups. The values of TVN, pH, total psychrophilic bacteria count (TPC) and total mesophilic bacteria count (TMC) in marinated samples were significantly lower than controls. The most obvious finding of this study was that traditional marinated rainbow trout fillet stored in 4 ˚C had no undesirable changes at least for eight days.

  7. Subsea innovative boosting technologies on deep water scenarios -- Impacts and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano, E.F.; Mendonca, J.E.; Pagot, P.R.; Cotrim, M.L.; Camargo, R.M.T.; Assayag, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the importance of deep water scenario for Brazil, the PETROBRAS Deep and Ultra-Deep Water R and D Program (PROCAP-2000) and the candidate fields for the deployment of subsea innovative boosting technologies (ESPS -- electrical submersible pump in subsea wells, SSS -- subsea separation systems and SBMS -- subsea multiphase flow pumping system) as well as the problems associated with the flow assurance in such conditions. The impact of those innovative systems, their technological stage and remaining demands to make them available for deployment in offshore subsea areas, mainly in giant deepwater fields, are discussed and predicted

  8. Methods and technologies for cost reduction in the design of water cooled reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Specialists Meeting was organized in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors. Its purpose was to provide an international forum for review and discussion on recent results in research and development on different methods and technologies of current and advanced water-cooled reactor power plants, which can lead to reduced investment and operation, maintenance and fuel-cycle costs of the plants. 27 specialists representing 10 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting. 10 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  10. Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.; Deng, Shuguang; Mitchell, Martha C.; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) adsorption technology has the potential to support point of use (POU) based treatment approach for removal of bacterial pathogens, natural organic matter (NOM), and cyanobacterial toxins from water systems. Unlike many microporous adsorbents, CNTs possess fibrous shape with high aspect ratio, large accessible external surface area, and well developed mesopores, all contribute to the superior removal capacities of these macromolecular biomolecules and microorganisms. This article provides a comprehensive review on application of CNTs as adsorbent media to concentrate and remove pathogens, NOM, and cyanobacterial (microcystin derivatives) toxins from water systems. The paper also surveys on consideration of CNT based adsorption filters for removal of these contaminants from cost, operational and safety standpoint. Based on the studied literature it appears that POU based CNT technology looks promising, that can possibly avoid difficulties of treating biological contaminants in conventional water treatment plants, and thereby remove the burden of maintaining the biostability of treated water in the distribution systems.

  11. Start of the big chill for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The cooling of Sector 7-8 of the LHC, the first to undergo the process, is under way to the 1.9 K necessary for superconductivity. During the night of 14 to 15 March, an important milestone was reached when the entire sector was cooled to 4.5 K, the temperature of liquid helium. The two graphs above show the progression of cooling in Sector 7-8. The first gives the status of the sector on Tuesday 6 March at 4:00 pm, the second on Wednesday 7 March at 10:00 am. Each square represents a magnet.It's the start of the big chill for the LHC. Since the middle of January, the teams from the Accelerator Cryogenics group have been working to cool down the first sector of the machine. Three kilometres of magnets between Point 7 (Ferney-Voltaire) and Point 8 (Prévessin) are to be cooled to 1.9 Kelvin (-271°C), colder than outer space. The first step in the process was to cool the sector to 80 K. Following mechanical and electrical integrity tests at this temperature, it was then further cooled to 20 K for additional e...

  12. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kempner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Drawing on interview (n = 30 and survey data (n = 82, this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  13. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  14. Running Club Warm Up Staves Off Winter's Chill

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Not deterred by winter's chill, over 900 runners met at the CERN Prévesin site for Escalade training. Think the sudden cold snap is a reason to stay indoors? Think again! The CERN running club has just recently had the honour of holding the November 11th Escalade training session, and with over 900 runners present at the Prévessin site it was clear that the chilly temperatures were no barrier whatsoever. The story behind Escalade training starts back in 1977 when a group of running enthusiasts from the Stade Genève club decided to organize a running race in the Old Town in conjunction with the Escalade festivities. They were told that no normal people would think of organizing a running race in the month of December, but fortunately they ignored the advice! From the initial 50 or so runners, these Escalade races have grown into an institution and now attract upwards of 15,000 people of all ages from 5 to over 80 each year. And with over 30% of each year's runners participat...

  15. Use of methanol as cryoprotectant and its effect on sox genes and proteins in chilled zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kunjan; Spikings, Emma; Zhang, Tiantian

    2015-08-01

    Methanol is a widely used cryoprotectant (CPA) in cryopreservation of fish embryos, however little is known about its effect at the molecular level. This study investigated the effect of methanol on sox gene and protein expression in zebrafish embryos (50% epiboly) when they were chilled for 3 h and subsequently warmed and cultured to the hatching stages. Initial experiments were carried out to evaluate the chilling tolerance of 50% epiboly embryos which showed no significant differences in hatching rates for up to 6 h chilling in methanol (0.2-, 0.5- and 1 M). Subsequent experiments in embryos that had been chilled for 3 h in 1 M methanol and warmed and cultured up to the hatching stages found that sox2 and sox3 gene expression were increased significantly in hatched embryos that had been chilled compared to non-chilled controls. Sox19a gene expression also remained above control levels in the chilled embryos at all developmental stages tested. Whilst stable sox2 protein expression was observed between non-chilled controls and embryos chilled for 3 h with or without MeOH, a surge in sox19a protein expression was observed in embryos chilled for 3 h in the presence of 1 M MeOH compared to non-chilled controls and then returned to control levels by the hatching stage. The protective effect of MeOH was increased with increasing concentrations. Effect of methanol at molecular level during chilling was reported here first time which could add new parameter in selection of cryoprotectant while designing cryopreservation protocol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ricci Nicomel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested.

  17. Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicomel, Nina Ricci; Leus, Karen; Folens, Karel; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Du Laing, Gijs

    2015-12-22

    This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested.

  18. Choosing and Using Safe Water Technologies: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Luoto, Jill Emily

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the decision-making of poor rural Kenyan households with respect to the adoption of point-of-use (POU) safe water technologies designed to expand access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Low-cost POU products such as chlorine and filters substantially reduce diarrhea, which kills two million children in poor countries each year. Nevertheless, POU products remain little used in many parts of the developing world, even when they are widely available at s...

  19. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  20. Effect of electromagnetic vibration on the microstructure of direct chill cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Y; Fu, X; Zhu, Q; Li, L; Wang, P; Cui, J

    2016-01-01

    An electromagnetic vibration was achieved by the combined application of an alternating magnetic field and a stationary magnetic field during direct chill (DC) casting process. The ingots with 200 mm in diameter were prepared under the influence of electromagnetic vibration. The effect of electromagnetic vibration on the microstructure of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The results showed that electromagnetic vibration has a significant effect on the solidification behaviour, under the influence of electromagnetic vibration during DC casting process, the microstructure is significantly refined and the uniformity of microstructure is evidently improved. This paper introduces the DC casting technology with the application of electromagnetic vibration, presents these results and gives corresponding discussions. (paper)

  1. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2011-02-01

    Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil sands production, explaining the evolving regulatory framework associated with produced water, Utah water law and produced water regulation

  2. Changes in visual quality, physiological and biochemical parameters assessed during the postharvest storage at chilling or non-chilling temperatures of three sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Cozzolino, Rosaria; De Giulio, Beatrice; Cozzolino, Autilia; d'Acierno, Antonio; Coppola, Raffaele; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2017-08-15

    Leaves of three different sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars (Italico a foglia larga, Cammeo, and Italiano classico) packed in macro-perforated polyethylene bags were stored at chilling (4°C) or non-chilling temperature (12°C) for 9days. During storage, visual quality, physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production, ammonium content) and chemical (antioxidant activity, total polyphenols and polyphenol profile) parameters were measured. Detached leaves stored at chilling temperature showed visual symptoms related to chilling injury, while ethylene production and ammonium content resulted associated to cultivar sensibility to damage at low temperature. Storage at 4°C caused a depletion in polyphenols content and antioxidant capability, which was preserved at 12°C. Regarding the polyphenols profile, stressful storage conditions did not enhance the phenolic metabolism. However, leaves stored at 12°C did not loss a significant amount of metabolites respect to fresh leaves, suggesting the possibility to extend the storability after the expiration date, for a possible recovery of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures, and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance.

  4. Influence of mist-chilling on post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries Cv. Mara des Bois and Gariguette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, Irene [Cemagref, UMR Genial, 24, avenue des Landais B.P. 50085, 63172 Aubiere Cedex (France); Letang, Guy [Cemagref, UMR Genial, Parc de Tourvoie, B.P. 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mist-chilling on high-grade strawberry post-harvest quality (Cultivars ''Gariguette'' and ''Mara des Bois''). Strawberries were chilled at 2 C using three processes: air blast chilling at 0.3 m s{sup -1} or 1 m s{sup -1} and mist-chilling at 1 m s{sup -1}. After chilling, fruits were submitted to different distribution chains characterised by different handling conditions and storage temperatures (2 C or 7 C) and by a 12 h retailing step at 20 C. Strawberry quality was assessed by measuring 7 parameters: weight loss, commercial loss, firmness, sugar content, acidity, colour and sensory quality. Compared to air-chilling, mist-chilling did not reduce chilling time but it reduced weight loss by 20-40%. Mist-chilling had no detrimental effect on commercial loss defined as the percentage of fruit more than 1/3 of surface affected. It did not induce any major changes on strawberry quality. Temperature fluctuations undergone during cold storage and retailing had a detrimental effect on weight loss. The beneficial effect of packaging on weight loss was confirmed. (author)

  5. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  6. Modeling and Optimization of Direct Chill Casting to Reduce Ingot Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Ningileri, S.; Long, Z.; Saito, K.; Khraisheh, M.; Hassan, M.H.; Kuwana, K.; Han, Q.; Viswanathan, S.; Sabau, A.S.; Clark, J.; Hyrn, J. (ANL)

    2006-08-15

    Approximately 68% of the aluminum produced in the United States is first cast into ingots prior to further processing into sheet, plate, extrusions, or foil. The direct chill (DC) semi-continuous casting process has been the mainstay of the aluminum industry for the production of ingots due largely to its robust nature and relative simplicity. Though the basic process of DC casting is in principle straightforward, the interaction of process parameters with heat extraction, microstructural evolution, and development of solidification stresses is too complex to analyze by intuition or practical experience. One issue in DC casting is the formation of stress cracks [1-15]. In particular, the move toward larger ingot cross-sections, the use of higher casting speeds, and an ever-increasing array of mold technologies have increased industry efficiencies but have made it more difficult to predict the occurrence of stress crack defects. The Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap [16] has recognized the challenges inherent in the DC casting process and the control of stress cracks and selected the development of 'fundamental information on solidification of alloys to predict microstructure, surface properties, and stresses and strains' as a high-priority research need, and the 'lack of understanding of mechanisms of cracking as a function of alloy' and 'insufficient understanding of the aluminum solidification process', which is 'difficult to model', as technology barriers in aluminum casting processes. The goal of this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project was to assist the aluminum industry in reducing the incidence of stress cracks from the current level of 5% to 2%. Decreasing stress crack incidence is important for improving product quality and consistency as well as for saving resources and energy, since considerable amounts of cast metal could be saved by eliminating ingot cracking, by reducing the scalping thickness of

  7. The Role of Technology Spillovers in the Process of Water Pollution Abatement for Large International Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aldieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of technology externalities stemming from different technological sectors for international firms engaged both in water pollution abatement and in dirty activities. We present a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis based upon a dataset composed of worldwide R&D-intensive firms. In order to identify the technological proximity between the firms, we construct an original Mahalanobis environmental industry weight matrix, based on the construction of technological vectors for each firm, with European ecological patents distributed across more technology classes. Opportune econometric techniques that deal with the firms’ unobserved heterogeneity and the weak exogeneity of the explanatory variables are implemented. The findings show significant spillover effects on the productivity and environmental performance of the firms.

  8. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  9. Political Economy and Irrigation Technology Adoption Implications of Water Pricing under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dridi, Chokri; Khanna, Madhu

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the design of water pricing rules emerging from farmers' lobbying and their implications for the size of the lobby, water use, profits and social welfare. The lobbying groups are the adopters of modern irrigation technology and the non-adopters. The pricing rules are designed to meet budget balance of water provision; we considered (i) a two-part tariff composed of a mandatory per-acre fee plus a volumetric charge and (ii) a nonlinear pricing schedule. Our results show that under e...

  10. A prototype for communitising technology: Development of a smart salt water desalination device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharuddin, F. M.; Fatchurrohman, N.; Puteh, S.; Puteri, H. M. A. R.

    2018-04-01

    Desalination is defined as the process that removes minerals from saline water or commonly known as salt water. Seawater desalination is becoming an attractive source of drinking water in coastal states as the costs for desalination declines. The purpose of this study is to develop a small scale desalination device and able to do an analysis of the process flow by using suitable sensors. Thermal technology was used to aid the desalination process. A graphical user interface (GUI) for the interface was made to enable the real time data analysis of the desalination device. ArduinoTM microcontroller was used in this device in order to develop an automatic device.

  11. ICEMENERG technologies of water treatment applied at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanca, Angela; Bolma, Aurelia; Serbanescu, Agnes; Raducanu, Alice

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the ICEMENERG technologies for water treatment applied at Cernavoda Unit 1, the treatment of the additional water for power steam generators and the chemical treatment of cooling system water. The requirements for quality of water totally demineralized as imposed by the AECL-ANSALDO consortium are as following: electrical conductivity, < 0.2 mS/cm; total silicon, <0.02 mg/L; ionic silicon, <0.01 mg/L; sodium, < 0.05 mg/L; TOC, <0.300 mg/L. These requirements raise rather difficult problems to be solved because the raw water source in case of Cernavoda NPP is Danube River which presents a raising trend of organic and inorganic contamination. Accordingly, experiments at laboratory scale reproducing the entire technological flow were conducted. The following operations were studied: pretreatment with limewash, ferric chloride (with and without coagulation additives); demineralization with ion exchangers of Purolite and Amberlite types. The system consisted of a cationic stage, formed of an strongly acid step with countercurrent recovery and an anionic stage formed of two steps, namely, a weakly basic step and a strongly basic step with recovery inserted; finishing on mixed bed. The paper presents also the chemical treatment/conditioning of the cooling loop of turbine condenser. The Cernavoda NPP cooling system is an open system with a single flow of cooling water comprising two systems, namely, the circulation water system ensuring the steam condenser cooling and the servicing water system ensuring the cooling of heat exchangers in the recirculated water circuit (RCWS), the turbine oil coolants, the coolants of auxiliary steam as well as the emergency core cooling system. Studies were conducted to ensure the chemical conditioning of the raw water from Danube River, particularly, to destroy and remove the shells, the algae and other components. Finally, the following four steps of conditioning the water of the cooling system are summarized: 1

  12. Factors Affecting Chinese Farmers' Decisions to Adopt a Water-Saving Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, B.

    2008-01-01

    Chinese farm households (N = 240) were interviewed to understand some of the factors affecting their adoption of a water-saving technology called the Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). A logit model was established on the basis of a survey to estimate the determinants of adoption and to

  13. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  14. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) of paddy fields: A water-saving technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M.; Shehzad, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rice productivity in Pakistan is lower than in various rice-producing countries of the World. One of the major reasons of low productivity is the shortage of water. It is, therefore, imperative to increase water-use efficiency. Various studies in China and elsewhere have revealed that continuous flooding is not necessary for getting high yield of rice. In China, lot of effort has been made to develop water- saving rice-production technologies. The most important of these is alternate wetting and drying (AWD) of rice-fields, instead of keeping them continuously flooded or submerged. In the present article, salient advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. The advantages include less water-use for paddy-production, high paddy-productivity, and improvement in the environment, with enhanced efficiency of nutrient-use, better utilization of rainwater, less infestation/ population of insect pests. The technology may affect the grain-quality of Basmati rice in Pakistan. It is suggested that studies. on various aspects of the technology should be carried out, in various ecological zones and in different soil-types. The adoption of the technology may prove helpful to enhance rice-productivity and improve the rural economy in Pakistan. (author)

  15. TRENDS IN THE U.S. WATER MARKET SHAPING TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US water market—and the new technologies that will increasingly define its growth—are entering a new era. Increased scarcity, new regulatory imperatives, public discontent over caustic treatments and practices, and the decline of the design-bid-build model (through which maj...

  16. Water recycling from mixed chromic acid waste effluents by membrane technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, I.; Frenzel, I.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Approaching zero discharge waste on site requires economical treatment technologies for the plating industry, recovering high quality rinse water for reuse. The combination of membranes and evaporation could be an efficient way to downsize the cost and the energy intensive evaporation equipment. In

  17. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  18. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  19. Limitations to postfire seedling establishment: The role of seeding technology, water availability, and invasive plant abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony Svejcar

    2010-01-01

    Seeding rangeland following wildfire is a central tool managers use to stabilize soils and inhibit the spread of invasive plants. Rates of successful seeding on arid rangeland, however, are low. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which water availability, invasive plant abundance, and seeding technology influence postfire seedling establishment...

  20. Building a Database for Life Cycle Performance Assessment of Water and Wastewater Rehabilitation Technologies - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe rehabilitation and trenchless pipe replacement technologies have seen a steady increase in use over the past 30 to 40 years and represent an increasing proportion of the approximately $25 billion annual expenditure on operations and maintenance of the nation’s water and wast...

  1. Building a Database for Life Cycle Performance Assessment of Water and Wastewater Rehabilitation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deployment of trenchless pipe rehabilitation technologies steadily increased over the past 30 to 40 years and continue to represent a growing proportion of the approximately $25 billion annual expenditure on operations and maintenance of the nation’s water and wastewater infr...

  2. Empty pockets, empty ponds? Disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia where the average disadiption rate in the sample areas is as high as 42%. Given that Ethiopia is a drought-prone country with 95% of its crop production being rain-fed, such a high disadoption rate for irrigation

  3. Applicability of water-jet cutting technology to nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tadashi; Nisizaki, Tadashi; Matumura, Hiroyuki; Ikemoto, Yosikazu; Simizu, Hideki

    1991-01-01

    In nuclear facilities there exist, besides relatively simple components, such as vessels and piping, numerous complex components including the multilayered plate with water layer in between, a bunch of thin tubes and composite lamination of dissimilar materials like metal/non-metal. In conventional development of reactor dismantling technology, the technology development has been made mainly for remote cutting of thick-walled structures like the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor internals. These techniques, however, are not always suitable in cutting the above-mentioned structures. As means of cutting such structures efficiently, these is available the abrasion water-jet cutting technology. This technology is now drawing attention for cutting or shaping new materials like composite material and ceramics in high precision and high efficiency. In the present report by way of its feasibility in nuclear facilities decommissioning the following are described. Principle and features of the water-jet cutting technology, system con-figuration, cutting or shaping performance, and some examples of the cutting and shaping. (author)

  4. Controlling Bacterial Pathogens in Water for Reuse: Treatment Technologies for Water Recirculation in the Blue Diversion Autarky Toilet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi T. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HighlightBacterial growth in fecally-contaminated water is highly variable and dependent on several factors.Regrowth occurs after chlorination (low doses, no residual.Indigenous microbial communities variably impact bacterial growth.A combination of treatments can both inactivate and inhibit growth.The Blue Diversion AUTARKY Toilet is a urine-diverting toilet with on-site treatment. The toilet is being developed to provide a safe and affordable sanitation technology for people who lack access to sewer-based sanitation. Water used for personal hygiene, hand washing, and flushing to rinse urine- and feces-collection bowls is treated, stored, and recycled for reuse to reduce reliance on external water supplies. The system provides an opportunity to investigate hygiene of water for reuse following treatment. Treatment in the toilet includes a Biologically Activated Membrane Bioreactor (BAMBi followed by a secondary treatment technology. To identify effective secondary treatment, three options, including granular activated carbon (GAC only, GAC+chlorine (sodium hypochlorite, and GAC+electrolysis are considered based on the bacterial inactivation and growth inhibition efficiency. Four different hygiene-relevant bacteria are tested: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium. Our evaluation demonstrates that—despite treatment of water with the BAMBi—E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhimurium have the potential to grow during storage in the absence of microbial competition. Including the indigenous microbial community influences bacterial growth in different ways: E. coli growth decreases but P. aeruginosa growth increases relative to no competition. The addition of the secondary treatment options considerably improves water quality. A column of GAC after the BAMBi reduces E. coli growth potential by 2 log10, likely due to the reduction of carbon sources. Additional treatments including chlorination

  5. Cook and Chill: Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Nonequilibrated Blood Glucose Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Sherine; Steele, Dominic; Clarke, Sarah; Gribben, Cathryn; Bexley, Anne-Marie; Laan, Remmert; Kerr, David

    2015-08-20

    Exposure to extreme temperature can affect the performance of blood glucose monitoring systems. The aim was to determine the non-equilibrated performance of these systems at extreme high and low temperatures that can occur in daily life. The performances of 5 test systems, (1) Abbott FreeStyle Freedom Lite, (2) Roche AccuChek Aviva, (3) Bayer Contour, (4) LifeScan OneTouch Verio, and (5) Sanofi BG Star, were compared after "cooking" (50°C for 1 hour) or "chilling" (-5°C for 1 hour) with room temperature controls (23°C) using whole blood with glucose concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/dl. The equilibration period (time from the end of incubation to when the test system is operational) was between 1 and 8 minutes, and each test system took between 15 and 30 minutes after incubation to obtain stable measurements at room temperature. Incubating the strips at -5°C or 50°C had little effect on the glucose measurement, whereas incubating the meters introduced bias in performance between 0 and 15 minutes but not subsequently, compared to room temperature controls and at all 3 glucose levels. Compensating technologies embedded within blood glucose monitoring systems studied here perform well at extreme temperatures. People with diabetes need to be alerted to this feature to avoid perceptions of malperformance of their devices and the possible inability to get blood glucose readings on short notice (eg, during time of suspected rapid change or before an unplanned meal). © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Morphological structure and water status in tulip bulbs from dormancy to active growth : visualization by NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der A.; Zemah, H.; As, van H.; Bendel, P.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. ‘Apeldoorn’) during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 °C (non-chilled) or 4 °C (chilled) and

  7. Internet surveillance, regulation, and chilling effects online: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon W. Penney

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With internet regulation and censorship on the rise, states increasingly engaging in online surveillance, and state cyber-policing capabilities rapidly evolving globally, concerns about regulatory “chilling effects” online—the idea that laws, regulations, or state surveillance can deter people from exercising their freedoms or engaging in legal activities on the internet have taken on greater urgency and public importance. But just as notions of “chilling effects” are not new, neither is skepticism about their legal, theoretical, and empirical basis; in fact, the concept remains largely un-interrogated with significant gaps in understanding, particularly with respect to chilling effects online. This work helps fill this void with a first-of-its-kind online survey that examines multiple dimensions of chilling effects online by comparing and analyzing responses to hypothetical scenarios involving different kinds of regulatory actions—including an anti-cyberbullying law, public/private sector surveillance, and an online regulatory scheme, based on the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA, enforced through personally received legal threats/notices. The results suggest not only the existence and significance of regulatory chilling effects online across these different scenarios but also evidence a differential impact—with personally received legal notices and government surveillance online consistently having the greatest chilling effect on people’s activities online—and certain online activities like speech, search, and personal sharing also impacted differently. The results also offer, for the first time, insights based on demographics and other similar factors about how certain people and groups may be more affected than others, including findings that younger people and women are more likely to be chilled; younger people and women are less likely to take steps to resist regulatory actions and defend themselves; and anti

  8. Study on the integration of layered water injection technology and subdivision adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancui

    2018-06-01

    With oil many infillings, thin and poor reservoir exploitation changes gradually to low permeability, thin and poor reservoir development characteristics of multiple layers thickness, low permeability, in the actual development process, the General Department of oil layers of encryption perforation long thin and poor mining, interlayer contradiction more prominent, by conventional layered water injection that can alleviate the contradiction between layers to a certain extent, by the injection interval and other factors can not fundamentally solve the problem, leading to the potential well area key strata or layers is difficult to determine, the layering test and slicing technology is difficult to adapt to the need of tap water control block. This paper through numerical simulation using the conceptual model and the actual block, it has a great influence on the low permeability reservoir of different stratified water permeability combination of permeability technology and application limits, profit and loss balance principle, low oil prices on the lower series of subdivision technical and economic limit, so the reservoir subdivision reorganization, narrow wells mining, reduce the interference between layers, from the maximum fundamental improvement of layered water injection efficiency. At the same time, in order to meet the needs of reservoir subdivision adjustment, subdividing distance with water, a small interlayer wells subdivision technology for further research in the pickup, solved using two ordinary bridge eccentric water regulator with injection of two layers, by throwing exercise distance limit card from the larger problem, the water distribution card size from 7.0m to 1.0m, and the testing efficiency is improved, and provide technical support for further subdivision water injection wells.

  9. Development of technological modes for preparation of mineral water for sports drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kovalenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Conducted research study is devoted to development of technological modes of desalination of natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water for water treatment technologies in the production of beverages for athletes. Materials and methods. Samples of initial water and water that has been desalinated using the experimental installation with different modes were investigated. Measuring of temperature mode of crystallizer was carried out using temperature sensors and digital thermometer. Quality indicators of the water samples using Photometer Palintest 7500 and standard techniques weredetermined. Resultsand discussion.The influence of different factors of the process of freezing on the quality of desalinated natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water "Kuyalnik" was investigated. The patterns of distribution of components of initial water between the frozen solid phase, and a concentrated solution in the process of freezing are identified. For the majority of the investigated factors order of traffic was such: Ca 2+ >HCO -3 >(Na+>Cl- >(Mg2+>SO2-4 >K+, and with a decrease in water salinity so: Ca2+>SO2-4 >(Na+>Cl- >(HCO-3 >Mg2+>K+. Summary of the study results allowed to recommend the following technological parameters of the carrying out the process of desalination of natural mineral sodium chloride water by freeze: operating temperature mode of crystallizer, which is changing in the process from -2 to -4 ° C, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water at the beginning of the process of freezing - 3,7 g/dm 3, duration of the desalination process (process without cooling - 60 minutes, one step of freezing, melting of solid phase under ambient conditions without prior separation of the frozen solid phase. With such technological modes of the carrying out the process of freezing it is possible to obtain water with mineral composition, mainly with existing relevant recommendations to the mineral composition of

  10. IAEA activities in technology development for advanced water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, Poong Eil; Kupitz, Juergen; Cleveland, John; Lyon, Robert; Park, Je Won

    2003-01-01

    As part of its Nuclear Power Programme, the IAEA conducts activities that support international information exchange, co-operative research and technology assessments and advancements with the goal of improving the reliability, safety and economics of advanced water-cooled nuclear power plants. These activities are conducted based on the advice, and with the support, of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs). Assessments of projected electricity generation costs for new nuclear plants have shown that design organizations are challenged to develop advanced designs with lower capital costs and short construction times, and sizes, including not only large evolutionary plants but also small and medium size plants, appropriate to grid capacity and owner financial investment capability. To achieve competitive costs, both proven means and new approaches should be implemented. The IAEA conducts activities in technology development that support achievement of improved economics of water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPPs). These include fostering information sharing and cooperative research in thermo-hydraulics code validation; examination of natural circulation phenomena, modelling and the reliability of passive systems that utilize natural circulation; establishment of a thermo-physical properties data base; improved inspection and diagnostic techniques for pressure tubes of HWRs; and collection and balanced reporting from recent construction and commissioning experiences with evolutionary water-cooled NPPs. The IAEA also periodically publishes Status Reports on global development of advanced designs. (author)

  11. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  12. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  13. Method and equipment for treating waste water resulting from the technological testing processes of NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M. C.; Valeca, S.; Iorga, C.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods and technologies coupled together with advanced equipment for treating residual substances resulted from technological processes are mandatory measures for all industrial facilities. The correct management of the used working agents and of the all wastes resulted from the different technological process (preparation, use, collection, neutralization, discharge) is intended to reduce up to removal of their potential negative impact on the environment. The high pressure and temperature testing stands from INR intended for functional testing of nuclear components (fuel bundles, fuelling machines, etc.) were included in these measures since the use of oils, demineralized water chemically treated, greases, etc. This paper is focused on the method and equipment used at INR Pitesti in the chemical treatment of demineralized waters, as well as the equipment for collecting, neutralizing and discharging them after use. (authors)

  14. Experience with water treatment and restoration technologies during and after uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, V.; Mitas, J.; Rihak, I.

    2002-01-01

    DIAMO, state owned enterprise, has a wide experience in uranium mining with the use of classical deep mining, acid in situ leaching and uranium ore processing. The sandstone deposits in Straz block have been exploited since 1968. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the deposits and the short distance between the deep mine and ISL wellfields requires pumping huge amounts of fresh and/or acid mine water, their treatment and subsequent discharge into streams. DIAMO developed and applied several technologies for different types of wastewater treatment from the start of mining. Practically all of these technologies are used in the current phase of uranium deposit restoration after mining. It is possible to apply these technologies both in the production phase and during the restoration of underground water. In some cases, it is very desirable to combine two or several of them. (author)

  15. Amelioration of chilling effects by CO/sub 2/ enrichment. [Echinochloa crus-galli; Eleusine indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potvin, C.

    1985-01-01

    To analyze the effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment on the chilling-sensitivity of C/sub 4/ plants from contrasting habitats, plants of Echinochloa crus-galli from Quebec, North Carolina and Mississippi and Eleusine indica from Mississippi were grown for 4 weeks under three thermoperiods (28/22, 24/18 and 21/15/sup 0/C) and two atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations (350 and 675 ..mu..l l/sup -1/). They were then submitted to 1 night chilling at 7/sup 0/C. Photosynthetic carbon uptake, stomatal conductances, and internal CO/sub 2/ concentration were measured using an infra-red gas analyzer in an open system before and after the chilling and during the recovery. Chilling induces a decrease in photosynthesis and conductance and, at 350 ..mu..l l/sup -1/, in internal CO/sub 2/. The decrease in photosynthesis is less important for high CO/sub 2/ grown plants at 28/22/sup 0/C. Chilling generates chlorotic bands on leaf blades but less chlorosis is observed in enriched CO/sub 2/. 17 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  17. Comparative transcriptome profiling of chilling stress responsiveness in grafted watermelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Man; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping; Hou, Xilin

    2016-12-01

    Rootstock grafting may improve the resistance of watermelon plants to low temperatures. However, information regarding the molecular responses of rootstock grafted plants to chilling stress is limited. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chilling tolerance in grafted plants, the transcriptomic responses of grafted watermelon under chilling stress were analyzed using RNA-seq analysis. Sequencing data were used for digital gene expression (DGE) analysis to characterize the transcriptomic responses in grafted watermelon seedlings. A total of 702 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were found in rootstock grafted (RG) watermelon relative to self-grafted (SG) watermelon; among these genes, 522 genes were up-regulated and 180 were down-regulated. Additionally, 164 and 953 genes were found to specifically expressed in RG and SG seedlings under chilling stress, respectively. Functional annotations revealed that up-regulated DEGs are involved in protein processing, plant-pathogen interaction and the spliceosome, whereas down-regulated DEGs are associated with photosynthesis. Moreover, 13 DEGs were randomly selected for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression profiles of these 13 DEGs were consistent with those detected by the DGE analysis, supporting the reliability of the DGE data. This work provides additional insight into the molecular basis of grafted watermelon responses to chilling stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. The correlation between heat-shock protein accumulation and persistence and chilling tolerance in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabehat, A.; Weiss, D.; Lurie, S.

    1996-01-01

    Heating tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 48 h at 38 degrees C prevented chilling injury from developing after 21 d at 2 degrees C, whereas unheated fruit developed high levels of injury. Although the overall protein pattern as seen by Coomassie blue staining was similar from heated and unheated fruit, some high- and many low-molecular-mass proteins were observed in the heated fruit that were absent or present in reduced amounts in unheated fruit. When fruit were injected with [35S]methionine at harvest and then heated, they accumulated high levels of specific radiolabeled proteins that could still be detected after 21 d at 2 degrees C. If the fruit were held at 20 degrees C after heating, the label in the proteins declined rapidly and these fruit were also sensitive to chilling injury. Hsp70 antibody reacted more strongly with proteins from heated and chilled fruit than with proteins from chilled fruit. Hsp18.1 antibody reacted strongly with proteins from heated fruit but not with those from unheated fruit. A 23-kD protein, highly labeled in heated fruit but not in unheated fruit, had its amino terminus sequenced. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a relationship between the persistence of heat-shock proteins and chilling tolerance in a plant tissue

  19. Application of information technologies to water monitoring: Features and sectoral trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, E; Pesaro, G [Bocconi Univ., Milan (Italy). Ist. di Economia delle Fonti di Energia

    1991-04-01

    Social attention to water pollution is increasing. Because of the complexity of the natural, institutional, technological and economical aspects involved, an efficient policy for prevention and intervention needs to consider many variables. A good knowledge of the environmental situation and evolution is the basis for any action by both public and private acting agencies. Water monitoring allows the collection and elaboration of information through a process which goes from raw environmental data to public decisions. Monitoring can also present business opportunities for firms. The large Italian and multinational companies are entering the market and making agreements with small engineering firms with strong technological capabilities. In particular, the elaboration and automation of monitoring procedures represent important tendencies towards the improvement of environmental services. The institutional framework is very relevant in the definition of public and private choices, links and opportunities. A systematic approach to water monitoring can provide a better support to public decision makers.

  20. Discussion on runoff purification technology of highway bridge deck based on water quality safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sheng-guang; Liu, Xue-xin; Zou, Guo-ping; Xiong, Xin-zhu; Tao, Shuang-cheng

    2018-06-01

    Aiming at the actual problems existing, including a poor purification effect of highway bridge runoff collection and treatment system across sensitive water and necessary manual emergency operation, three kinds of technology, three pools system of bridge runoff purification, the integral pool of bridge runoff purification and ecological planting tank, are put forward by optimizing the structure of purification unit and system setting. At the same time, we come up with an emergency strategy for hazardous material leakage basing on automatic identification and remote control of traffic accidents. On the basis of combining these with the optimized pool structure, sensitive water safety can be guaranteed and water pollution, from directly discharging of bridge runoff, can be decreased. For making up for the shortages of green highway construction technology, the technique has important reference value.