WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology by-product characteristics

  1. Task 1.13 -- Data collection and database development for clean coal technology by-product characteristics and management practices. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-08-01

    Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification is the focus of this task by the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The primary goal of this task is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on CCT (Clean Coal Technology) by-products to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Supporting objectives are (1) to fully utilize information from previous DOE projects, (2) to coordinate with industry and other research groups, (3) to focus on by-products from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification, and (4) to provide information relevant to the EPA evaluation criteria for the Phase 2 decision.

  2. Phenolic compounds recovered from agro-food by-products using membrane technologies: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñoz, Roberto; Yáñez-Fernández, Jorge; Fíla, Vlastimil

    2016-12-15

    Typically, the various agro-food by-products of the food industry are treated by standard membrane processes, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, in order to prepare them for final disposal. Recently, however, new membrane technologies have been developed. The recovery, separation and fractionation of high-added-value compounds, such as phenolic compounds from food processing waste, are major current research challenges. The goal of this paper is to provide a critical review of the main agro-food by-products treated by membrane technologies for the recovery of nutraceuticals. State-of-the-art of developments in the field are described. Particular attention is paid to experimental results reported for the recovery of polyphenols and their derivatives of different molecular weight. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation processes, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and other interesting phenomena that occur during their recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  4. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  5. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  6. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  7. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  8. The trapping characteristic of low density polyethylene in the presence of crosslinking by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Nuriziani; Chen, George

    2009-08-01

    The by-products of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) from the crosslinking process such as acetophenone, cumyl alcohol and α-methylstyrene are said to be the sources of space charge formation in XLPE cable due to deep traps in the chemicals. However, by using space-charge-experimental approach, it appeared that these chemicals show a different trapping nature. This paper is intended to present this approach. Additive-free low density polyethylene (LDPE) was used as base material so that each chemical can be tested individually. Space charge measurement was done using the pulse electroacoustic (PEA) method. All results were compared to the clean LDPE to identify the contribution of the chemicals to the trapping characteristic. The data collected supported that although the chemicals introduce charge in the insulator, the charge decay is extremely fast especially in the presence of α-methylstyrene. It is believed that the chemicals modify the trapping characteristic of LDPE so that more shallow traps are formed in the insulator.

  9. The trapping characteristic of low density polyethylene in the presence of crosslinking by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussin, Nuriziani; Chen, George, E-mail: nh07r@ecs.soton.ac.u [School of Electronics and Computer Science University Of Southampton, SO16 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    The by-products of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) from the crosslinking process such as acetophenone, cumyl alcohol and {alpha}-methylstyrene are said to be the sources of space charge formation in XLPE cable due to deep traps in the chemicals. However, by using space-charge-experimental approach, it appeared that these chemicals show a different trapping nature. This paper is intended to present this approach. Additive-free low density polyethylene (LDPE) was used as base material so that each chemical can be tested individually. Space charge measurement was done using the pulse electroacoustic (PEA) method. All results were compared to the clean LDPE to identify the contribution of the chemicals to the trapping characteristic. The data collected supported that although the chemicals introduce charge in the insulator, the charge decay is extremely fast especially in the presence of {alpha}-methylstyrene. It is believed that the chemicals modify the trapping characteristic of LDPE so that more shallow traps are formed in the insulator.

  10. THE EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF BY-PRODUCTS AND PLANT COMPONENTS IN THE TECHNOLOGY OF DOUGH HALF-STUFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabova A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the estimation of effectiveness in the use of by-products, cameline-seed oil and amaranth flour in the meat by-products in the dough. By-products were used for the purpose of the expansion of the assortment of the meat semi-finished products in the dough. Amaranth flour was introduced for the purpose of an improvement in the organoleptic and functional- technological characteristics of the stuffing and an increase in the quantity of protein. Cameline-seed oil was added for the purpose of the enrichment of product by omega- acids. As the experimental models we have made pelmeni (ravioli, the relationship of dough and stuffing in which comprised 1:1. In the prototypes the flour from the amaranth was introduced in quantity 5, 10 and 15%. Cameline-seed oil was introduced in quantity 2%. Models with the amaranth flour in quantity 5% had the smaller output of product and the insufficient moisture-binding ability. Models with the content of flour from the amaranth in quantity 15% had the strong smell of plant component. Experimental model with a quantity of amaranth flour 10% on the organoleptic characteristic proved to be best, and there composition was acknowledged most optimum. The studies of the experimental models of meat semi-finished products in the dough showed that the use of amaranth flour contributes to an increase in the moisture-binding ability of stuffing, to an increase in the output of product, to an increase in the content of protein and irreplaceable amino acids. According to the results of all conducted studies is made the conclusion that flour amaranth can be used as the moisture-binding component for making of meat semi-finished products in the dough

  11. Ensiling Characteristics and the Nutrient Degradability of a By-product Feed-based Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP, and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (p<0.01 the chemical composition to a small extent, increased (p<0.05 the lactic acid and NH3-N content, and decreased (p<0.05 both the total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts from 109 to 108 cfu/g when compared to that before ensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (p<0.05 water-soluble and filterable fraction, a lower insoluble degradable DM and CP fraction (p<0.05, a lower digestible NDF (p<0.05 fraction, a higher (p<0.05 DM and CP disappearance and degradability rate, and a lower (p<0.05 NDF disappearance and degradability rate. These results indicated that cheap, good-quality BF-based roughage could be produced by ensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw.

  12. Canna edulis Ker by-product: chemical composition and characteristics of the dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Zhang; Wang, Zheng-Wu; Shi, Xian-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Canna edulis Ker by-product was recycled and utilized after starch extraction. The chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activity of the by-product were investigated. The by-product was mainly composed of dietary fiber (54.84% measured by AOAC method), and the insoluble dietary fiber constituted the major fraction. Then, the chemical composition of dietary fiber was tested using modified AOAC and Englyst methods. The results showed that dietary fiber was comprised of cellulose, hemicelluloses (including xyloglucans, arabinoxylans and glucuronoxylans), pectin and lignin. Moreover, the by-product contained relatively high content of phenolic compounds and exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity. In addition, the by-product showed both high water-holding capacity (12.5 mL/g) and oil-holding capacity (14 mL/g), and its suspension exhibited controllable viscosity. Therefore, the by-product from C. edulis is not only a source of dietary fiber but also a functional ingredient for food industry.

  13. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  14. Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Sutton, P.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-03-01

    Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.

  15. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  16. Supercritical Technologies for the Valorization of Wine Industry By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Duba, Kurabachew Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study aim at the valorization of wine industry by products; particularly on the extraction and characterization of grape seeds oil using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and polyphenols from grape skins and defatted grape seeds using subcritical water (SW) and then, modeling of the kinetics of extractions and process economic analysis. The overall objective of the work is to develop recovery strategies for wine-making wastes in order to reduce their environmental impact and to valorize them in...

  17. Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Retention of Madura Cattle Fed Complete Rations Containing Soybean Pod and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Gede Wiryawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of complete rations containing soybean pod and soybean by-products (soybean meal and tofu waste on rumen microbial population, fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen retention of Madura cattle. Twelve Madura cattle of 1.5 years of age were given 4 feeding treatments in triplicates in randomized block design experiment. The treatments included T0 (100% native grass as a negative control, T1 (concentrate: grass (60:40 as a positive control, T2 (complete ration containing 15% soybean pods, and T3 (complete ration containing 30% soybean pods. The treatments were based on feeding practices commonly applied by farmers in the village. The results showed that the use of concentrate rations or complete rations containing soybean pod and by-product did not affect protozoa population, ammonia concentration, and total VFA production compared to cattle fed 100% native grass. In contrast, the use of concentrate rations or complete rations containing soybean pod and by-products reduced acetate and increased butyrate proportion compared to native grass. The use of a concentrate ration resulted the highest propionate proportion. Methane estimation increased with the use of concentrate ration or complete ration containing 15% soybean pod, but it decreased when the level of soybean pod was increased to 30%. It can be concluded that soybean pod has a potential to be used as a fiber source in beef cattle ration to substitute native grass.

  18. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  19. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  20. STUDIES ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME FEED INGREDIENTS IN NIGERIA 1: PROTEIN SOURCES AND INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. OMEDE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical characteristics such as particle size (PS, bulk density (BD, water holding capacity (WHC and specific gravity (SG of eight feed raw materials grouped into protein sources (groundnut cake (GNC, soybean meal (SBM, foreign fishmeal (FFM and local fishmeal (LFM and industrial by-products (wheat offal (WO, brewers’ dried grains (BDG, palm kernel cake (PKC and rice husk (RH were studied. The effects of different PS (unmodified, ≥1.00 mm and <1.00 mm on BD, WHC and SG of the experimental materials were studied using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD. Particle size effect was significant for BD, WHC and SG characteristics of the feed ingredients studied. SBM and PKC consistently recorded higher BD values across PS than other feed raw materials in their individual groups. Among the protein sources, decreasing the particle size, (≥1.00 mm and <1.00 mm increased the BD values of GNC and SBM and then FFM and LFM respectively. SBM proved to hold more water than the other protein feedstuffs across all PS. At <1.00 mm PS, RH had the lowest capacity to absorb water. Again, GNC and SBM SG values increased at ≥1.00 mm PS and subsequently decreased at <1.00 mm PS. FFM and LFM also had increased SG value up to the <1.00 mm PS. Industrial by-products (WO, BDG, PKC and RH did not follow similar pattern in their PS-SG effects. Type of machines used and processing methods applied on these industrial by-products may be an explanation to that observation.

  1. Re-use of clean coal technology by-products in construction of low permeability liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.E.; Butalia, T.S.; Whitlatch, E.E.; Mitsch, W.

    2000-12-01

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10{sup -7} cm/sec (3 x 10{sup -9} ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio's non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Construction FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorus retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favourably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  2. Development and quality characteristics of shelf-stable soy-agushie: a residual by-product of soymilk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nti, Christina A; Plahar, Wisdom A; Annan, Nana T

    2016-03-01

    A process was developed for the production of a high-protein food ingredient, soy-agushie, from the residual by-product of soymilk production. The product, with a moisture content of about 6%, was evaluated for its quality characteristics and performance in traditional dishes. The protein content was about 26% with similar amino acids content as that of the whole soybean. Lysine remained high in the dehydrated product (6.57 g/16 g N). While over 60% of the original B vitamins content in the beans was extracted with the milk, high proportions of the minerals were found to be retained in the residual by-product. The process adequately reduced the trypsin inhibitor levels in the beans from 25 to 1.5 mg/g. High sensory scores were obtained for recipes developed with soy-agushie in traditional dishes. The scope of utilization of the soy-agushie could be widened to include several traditional foods and bakery products for maximum nutritional benefits.

  3. Ensiling Characteristics and the In situ Nutrient Degradability of a By-product Feed-based Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, K. K.; Kwak, W. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF)-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP), and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (p<0.01) the chemical composition to a small extent, increased (p<0.05) the lactic acid and NH3-N content, and decreased (p<0.05) both the total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts from 109 to 108 cfu/g when compared to that before ensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (p<0.05) water-soluble and filterable fraction, a lower insoluble degradable DM and CP fraction (p<0.05), a lower digestible NDF (p<0.05) fraction, a higher (p<0.05) DM and CP disappearance and degradability rate, and a lower (p<0.05) NDF disappearance and degradability rate. These results indicated that cheap, good-quality BF-based roughage could be produced by ensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw. PMID:25049944

  4. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, M; Bahkali, Ali H

    2013-04-01

    The date palm Phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. Today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. Tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. Wastes such as date pits represent an average of 10% of the date fruits. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable applications for this waste. In spite of several studies on date palm cultivation, their utilization and scope for utilizing date fruit in therapeutic applications, very few reviews are available and they are limited to the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits and phytochemical composition, nutritional significance and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption. In this context, in the present review the prospects of valorization of these date fruit processing by-products and wastes' employing fermentation and enzyme processing technologies towards total utilization of this valuable commodity for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, biosurfactants, organic acids, antibiotics, industrial enzymes and other possible industrial chemicals are discussed.

  5. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, March 30, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Neufeld, R.D.; Blachere, J.R. [and others

    1998-04-01

    Progress is described on the use of by-products form clean coal technologies for the treatment of hazardous wastes. During the third quarter of Phase 2, work continued on evaluating Phase 1 samples (including evaluation of a seventh waste), conducting scholarly work, preparing for field work, preparing and delivering presentations, and making additional outside contacts.

  6. Effects of feeding pistachio by-products silage on growth performance, serum metabolites and urine characteristics in Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M; Fazaeli, H; Ghorbani, G R

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated physiological effects of pistachio by-products silage (PBPS) substituted in Holstein male calves diets and its effects on the growth performance. Twenty-four Holstein male calves (4-5 months of age and 155.6 ± 13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets (n = 6); contained 0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of PBPS (DM basis) respectively. During a 6-month experiment, dry matter intake (DMI) and weight gain were recorded and blood and urine samples were collected at different times. Results showed that mean DMI was not affected by different levels of PBPS in diets. But the calves fed 6% PBPS had the highest average daily gain (p  0.05) on pH, specific gravity, the number of white and red blood cells and epithelial cells count in urine. The animals did not show any symptom of illness or toxicity during the experimental period and all of the blood and urine parameters were in a normal range. It was concluded that substitution of PBPS up to 18% of the total diet that provide up to 18.2 g/kg DM total tannin had no adverse effects for Holstein male calves.

  7. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  8. Relationships between Teacher Characteristics and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Kurt Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Too often, teachers are using educational technology resources for administrative purposes instead of using these resources in a constructivist manner to enhance student learning. The study site was well behind the national average in overall educational technology use categories. The purpose of this explanatory correlational research was to…

  9. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P Carcass fat (P carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  10. Reducing Volatile Disinfection By-Products in Treated Drinking Water Using Aeration Technologies (WaterRF Report 4441)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  11. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, November 1994--February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This second quarterly report describes work during the second three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR). The report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the acquisition of by-product samples and their initial analysis. Other efforts during the second quarter have been directed toward identifying the first hazardous waste samples and preparing for their treatment and analysis. Relatively little data has yet been collected. Major presentation of technical details and data will appear for the first time in the third quarterly report. The activity on the project during the second quarter of Phase One, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into seven areas: (1) Acquiring by-products, (2) Analyzing by-products, (3) Identifying, analyzing and treating suitable hazardous wastes, (4) Carrying out the quality assurance/quality control program, (5) Developing background, and (6) Initiating public relations

  12. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  13. [Importance of interfacial characteristics in pharmaceutical technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredán, Judit; Csóka, Gabriella; Marton, Sylvia; Antal, István

    2003-01-01

    Since drug release from the dosage forms has priority to absorption from the gastrointestinal system, physico-chemical characterisation of pharmaceutical systems is essential during the development of an optimal formulation with high efficacy and quality. Interfacial parameters of several pharmaceutical excipients were studied regarding their possible modifying effect on drug release from the dosage form. These inactive ingredients may influence the interfacial phenomena of the drug carrier system, which behaviour determines both the efficacy and the quality of the pharmaceutical preparation In this work authors deal mainly with the two introducing steps of the LADME model influenced by interfacial parameters on them, namely with the liberation of drug from the dosage form and with the characteristics influencing the absorption through biological membranes, respectively. The objective of the present work was to study modifying effects of excipients on drug liberation in connection with their physical and chemical characteristics such as interfacial tension of solid and liquid phases, wetting contact angle of solid phase and--a calculated quantity,--adhesion tension of the solid particles.

  14. The Characteristics of a Model Technology Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Andrew R.; Warner, Scott A.; Buechele, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    The things that make the quality of a teacher stand out can cover a wide range of characteristics, actions, words, and experiences. The mark left on a student by a teacher, for good or bad, is written in an ink that will last a lifetime. This article describes a study that identifies the characteristics of exceptional technology education…

  15. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture......, salt and urea. Both hay and concentrate were fed ad libitum and with free access to drinking water for 90 days. Feed intake, body weights and carcass characteristics were recorded. The daily total dry matter intake (DMI, kg/day) was greater (P

  16. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/nonconventional processes/technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-12-21

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. In addition, nonconventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  17. The Nutrient Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill’s By-product Processed with Amofer Technology as Ruminant Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE By-product derived from palm oil plantation and mill is very potential for energy and protein source for ruminant feed. However, it is still underutilized due to low content of crude protein (CP with high crude fiber (CF. Ammoniation or fermentation technology could optimize the quality of by-product by increasing digestibility, reducing CF and increasing CP content. The objective of this research was to determine the nutrient and potency value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product applied with amofer technology for ruminant feed. Sample was prepared in two methods: 1 sample without amofer application, 2 sample with amofer application under anaerobic method and incubated for 18 days. Ammoniation was carried out by adding urea of 3% from the total material and then incubated for nine days. At the ninth day, some microorganisms starter i.e. cellulolytic, amillolytic and proteolytic were added by 1% of the total material. Proximate analysis was carried out in laboratory to examine the nutrient value. The crude protein content at each part of feed material before and after amofer treatment was follow: palm midrib: 3.16%:17%; palm leaves 6.53%:26.51%; empty fruit bunch 7.01%:1673%; palm pressed fiber 5.56%:16.00%. While the crude fiber at each part of feed material was: palm midrib 37.85%:30.86%; palm leaves 30.39%:24.41%; EFB 40.22%:34.98%; PPF 50.39%: 41.70%. The application of amofer could increase the amount of feed material (ton/ha/y: dry matter (DM 14.82:15.89; CP 0.79:2.87; total digestible nutrient (TDN 7.63:8.5. Moreover, amofer application could also increase the nutrient content of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product by increasing CP and reducing CF. This increasing was also followed by the increasing of DM, CP, and TDN which indicated that those feed sources were recommended as ruminant feed material /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal

  18. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, May 1995--August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This fourth quarterly report describes work done during the fourth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh`s project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quote} Participating with the university on this project are Dravo Lime Company, Mill Service, Inc., and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research. This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the production of six sets of samples with high water content for solidification testing and the mixing of five dry samples for solidification testing by the Proctor method. Twenty-eight day compressive strengths are reported for five of the six sets of samples with high water content. The report also discusses completion of the format of the database and the inclusion in it of all data collected to date. Special reports presented during the quarter include the Continuation Application, a News Release, and modification to the Test Plan. Work is progressing on the NEPA report and the Topical Report. The activity on the project during the fourth quarter of Phase one, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into six major areas: (1) Completion of by-product evaluations, (2) Completion of analyses of six wastes, (3) Initiation of eleven solidification tests, (4) Continued extraction and extract analysis of solidified samples, (5) Development of the database, and (6) Production of reports.

  19. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests that the p...

  20. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  1. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1, 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2, 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05 for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05 for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05 for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05 for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers.

  2. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Guan, Le Luo; Ahn, S. K.; Cho, K. W.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB) supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR) on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg) were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age) and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1), 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2), 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05) for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580440

  3. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  4. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Park, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, M.; Choi, D. Y.; Kwak, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  5. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, Ryan S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  6. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  7. Agronomic by-products use from olive oil extraction: legislative, technological aspects and experimental results; Utilizzazione agronomica dei sottoprodotti dell`estrazione olearia: aspetti legislativi, tecnologici e risultati sperimentali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R. [Campobasso, Univ. del Molise (Italy). Dipt. Scienze Animali, Vegetali e dell`Ambiente

    1998-01-01

    The state of the art in the olive oil extraction plants is presented in this paper. These plants allow the removal or reduction of water emission by extraction process with decanter, changing the by-products characteristics of the olive oil industry. The different waste water re-use possibilities are analyzed, in relation to the new Italian law about the discharge of the olive mills effluents. Then, new technologies for the substances-mix composting from agronomic industries and some different lay-out for the specific plants in the by-products transformation are presented. Experimental test of olive pomace composting, depleted olive pomace, waste water concentrate, and directed in field distribution of the olive pomace, are given in this paper. At last, interesting results can be achieved composting the waste waters and/or their concentrate, or the olive pomace or depleted olive pomace with organic and nitrogen products, obtaining good fertilizers. [Italiano] In questa memoria si illustra lo stato attuale della evoluzione degli impianti per l`estrazione olearia che tendono ad eliminare o comunque a ridurre l`immissione di acqua di processo nella estrazione centrifuga, modificando cosi` le caratteristiche dei sottoprodotti della industria olearia. Vengono, di seguito, analizzate le possibili destinazioni d`uso delle acque di vegetazione (A.V.) alla luce della nuova legislazione italiana in materia della possibile utilizzazione degli scarichi dei frantoi oleari. Si illustrano, quindi, nuove tecnologie per il compostaggio di sostanze derivate dall`agroindustria miscelate con altre matrici organiche e alcuni criteri costruttivi di impianti specifici per il trattamento dei suddetti sottoprodotti. Si riferisce, infine, su prove sperimentali di compostaggio di sanse vergini, sanse esauste e di concentrati delle A.V., nonche` sulla distribuzione diretta in campo delle sanse vergini. L`autore conclude affermando che sia le acque di vegetazione e i relativi concentrati di

  8. Influence of technology on magnetic tape storage device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewek, John J.; Vogel, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    There are available today many data storage devices that serve the diverse application requirements of the consumer, professional entertainment, and computer data processing industries. Storage technologies include semiconductors, several varieties of optical disk, optical tape, magnetic disk, and many varieties of magnetic tape. In some cases, devices are developed with specific characteristics to meet specification requirements. In other cases, an existing storage device is modified and adapted to a different application. For magnetic tape storage devices, examples of the former case are 3480/3490 and QIC device types developed for the high end and low end segments of the data processing industry respectively, VHS, Beta, and 8 mm formats developed for consumer video applications, and D-1, D-2, D-3 formats developed for professional video applications. Examples of modified and adapted devices include 4 mm, 8 mm, 12.7 mm and 19 mm computer data storage devices derived from consumer and professional audio and video applications. With the conversion of the consumer and professional entertainment industries from analog to digital storage and signal processing, there have been increasing references to the 'convergence' of the computer data processing and entertainment industry technologies. There has yet to be seen, however, any evidence of convergence of data storage device types. There are several reasons for this. The diversity of application requirements results in varying degrees of importance for each of the tape storage characteristics.

  9. Comparative Characteristics of Technology Transfer in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Palii

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research into innovation transfer in the global economy is a very urgent issue under the modern conditions of development of any country. Comparative characteristics of technology transfer in such countries and regions as the USA, EU, Asia, presented in the article, permit us to detect certain patterns of this process inherent both in developed and developing countries. The analysis made in the article can be useful for developing technology transfer processes in the Danube countries’ economy. The analytical method used in this research allowed us to determine the factor that is crucial for the growth of the world market of high-technology products and services. The analysis was conducted on several criteria such as the level of expenditure on R&D in the whole global economy, as well as in individual countries and regions. Besides, there were taken into account the added value of high-tech industries and the share of expenditure on R&D in total production costs. The conclusions regarding the effectiveness of funds allocated for scientific research and experimental development in the U.S. can be drawn on the basis of data presented in the paper on the amount of added value of the U.S. high-tech industries.

  10. Technological characteristics of rabbit meat with raised n-3 PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cavani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary use of linseed in animal feeding has been proposed by many authors as a vegetable way (in alternative to fish oil or fish meal to raise meat PUFA and mainly α- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 (Bernardini et al., 1999; Mattews et al., 2000; Riley et al., 2000; Rey et al., 2001. However, increasing amounts of PUFA could impair the technological characteristics of the meat for further processing (Enser, 1999. Main problems are concerned with lipid stability and meat colour changes over time which are related with both the out coming of rancid flavour and detrimental effects on the appearance of packaged further processed meat products...

  11. Technological characteristics of glauconite rocks in Bakchar deposit (Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudmin M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glauconite-containing rocks found within the boundaries of the Bakchar deposit includethe following: glauconite ores (glauconitolite, glauconite sandstone, hydrogoethite-chlorite, iron ores with glauconite. Glauconite content in glauconite ores is 50…70 %, in glauconite sandstone – 20…40 %, in hydrogoethite-chlorite ores- 10…20 %. This paper describes the technological characteristics of glauconite rocks. The authors proposed the optimal technological scheme of producing glauconite concentrate. It has been defined that the most highly-qualified product with commercial components 90…100 % is recovered from glauconite ores. It has been evaluated that Bakchar glauconite is applicable as a favorable mineral fertilizer based on the concentrate produced from enriched hydrogoethite-chlorite ores. Experimentally, it has been proved that this concentrate has a positive effect on the growth of oats (Avéna satíva. This is a direct indicator of its practical applicability. Obtained results indicate the fact that the extraction and application of Bakchar glauconite could be widely used in agriculture.

  12. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  13. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  14. Physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid profiles of muscle tissues from Hanwoo steers fed a total mixed ration supplied with medicinal plant by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Ja; Kim, Do Hyung; Yang, Han Sul; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Lee, Sung Sill

    2017-10-01

    Using medicinal plant by-products (MPBP) as feed additives may be an eco-friendly option as substitutes for feedstuffs and may assist in reducing the improper disposal of MPBP. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the influences of MPBP on the meat quality of Hanwoo steers fed a total mixed ration (TMR). Twenty seven steers (body weight = 573±57 kg) were randomly divided into three treatments with a control group and two tested groups as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (MPBP30), 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPBP; treatment 2 (MPBP50), 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPBP. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L* of muscle were improved (p<0.05, respectively) by MPBP30. Stearic acid (C18:0) was decreased (linear effect, p = 0.012), while oleic acid (C18:1) was increased (linear effect, p = 0.055) by MPBP level. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were decreased for MPBP50 while unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) were increased for MPBP 50. USFA and SFA ratio was increased for MPBP50 as well. These results indicated that MPBP supplementation in Hanwoo steers fed a TMR increased feed efficiency and meat color (lightness) with altering fatty acid proportions. Therefore, MPBP may be successfully used in ruminant feeding.

  15. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, PPasta increased (quadratic, PPasta decreased (linear, Ppasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs.

  16. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  17. Quality and Characteristics of Recent Research in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott D.; Daugherty, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    The focus of research in technology education has evolved throughout its history as the field changed from industrial arts to technology education (Spencer & Rogers, 2006). With the move to technology education, the field has begun to broaden its focus to better understand the teaching, learning, curriculum, and policy implications of preparing…

  18. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  19. Technological Innovation Characteristics and Capacity Enhancement Ways for the Agricultural Science and Technology Enterprises in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Ruimei WANG; Xun ZHENG

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of innovation mechanism,capital,personnel,achievements and conversion,this study analyzes the current situation of technological innovation in Beijing agricultural science and technology enterprises,and summarizes the characteristics including single financing channel of R&D funds,low conversion rate of innovative products,unbalanced distribution of technology and innovative talents,the underestimated position of enterprises as the main body of technological innovation,the large gap of innovation achievements between developed provinces and Beijing.At last,this study puts forward the ways to improve technological innovation ability in Beijing agricultural science and technology enterprises as follows:developing technological innovation strategies;improving the R&D expenditure and expanding the financing channels;perfecting the mechanism of professional personnel training in agricultural technology innovation;enhancing the level of innovation performance management;establishing and improving the corporate culture of innovation and cultivating technology innovation spirit.

  20. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  1. AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM AND MONITORING BY TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES BY PRODUCTION OF POLYMERIC AND BITUMINOUS TAPES ON THE BASIS OF APPLICATION OF SCADA OF SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kirienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expediency of use of a control system and monitoring of technological processes of production is proved in article that will allow to lower work expenses, and also to increase productivity due to the best production process.The main objective of system, remote monitoring is that gives the chance far off and to quickly give an assessment to the current situation on production, to accept reasonable and timely administrative decisions.

  2. 饲用乳制品及其副产品的加工技术与营养价值%Processing technology and nutritional value of feeding dairy products and by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何武顺; 李爱科; 苏从毅; 张晓琳; 温琦; 王四维; 貟婷婷

    2012-01-01

    介绍了饲用乳制品及其加工副产品的加工技术,以及乳粉、酪蛋白、乳清粉、乳清蛋白、代乳粉等产品的营养成分和营养价值。%The processing technology of feeding dairy and its by-products were introduced,including the nutritional constitution and value of milk powder,cheese albumen,whey powder,whey protein concentrate,milk replacer and other products.

  3. The Effects of Absorptive Capacity and Recipient Collaborativeness as Technology Recipient Characteristics on Degree of Inter-Firm Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Sazali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As an efficient means to increase global competitiveness, technological capabilities and potential for local innovation, organizations in the developing countries are working hard to collaborate, learn and internalize their foreign partner’s technological knowledge by forming strategic alliances or International Joint Ventures (IJVs. Technology recipient characteristics, as one of the important actors/facilitators of inter-firm technology transfer, have increasingly become crucial factors in determining the success or failure of inter-firm technology transfer within IJVs. Since the current issue on inter-firm Technology Transfer (TT in the developing countries is centered on the efficiency and effectiveness of the transfer process by the Multinationals (MNCs therefore the success is often associated with or measured by degree of technology transferred to local partners. Based on the underlying knowledge-based view and organizational learning perspective, this study aims to empirically examine the effects of two critical elements of technology recipient characteristics: Absorptive Capacity (ACAP and Recipient Collaborativeness (RCOL on degree of technology transfer: Degree of tacit and explicit knowledge in IJVs. Approach: Using the quantitative analytical approach, the theoretical model and hypotheses in this study were tested based on empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies Of Malaysia (ROC. Data obtained from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using the correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: The results revealed that recipient collaborativeness as the critical element of technology recipient characteristics has strong significant effects on both degrees of tacit and explicit knowledge. Although absorptive capacity has been strongly emphasized of its significance effect, however, the results are not statistically significant

  4. Development of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for detection and quantification of urea thermal decomposition by-products in emission from diesel engine employing selective catalytic reduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Mahmoud M; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona

    2012-03-16

    The use of urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the reduction of NOx from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles has the potential to emit at least six thermal decomposition by-products, ammonia, and unreacted urea from the tailpipe. These compounds may include: biuret, dicyandiamine, cyanuric acid, ammelide, ammeline and melamine. In the present study, a simple, sensitive and reliable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)/mass spectrometry (MS) method without complex sample pre-treatment was developed for identification and determination of urea decomposition by-products in diesel exhaust. Gradient separation was performed on a SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column with a highly polar zwitterionic stationary phase, and using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (eluent A) and 15 mM ammonium formate (pH 6; eluent B). Detection and quantification were performed using a quadrupole ESI/MS operated simultaneously in negative and positive mode. With 10 μL injection volume, LODs for all target analytes were in the range of 0.2-3 μg/L. The method showed a good inter-day precision of retention time (RSDfilter (DPF) and urea based SCR technology showed the presence of five target analytes with cyanuric acid and ammelide the most abundant compounds in the exhaust.

  5. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    that the professional venture-capital-funded start-up firm will generally reflect the practices of perceptive management regarding: style, team approach, structure of the firm, market definition, culture, vision, and a formal strategy. Nevertheless, there are some questions about differences those characteristics...

  6. Características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola = Carcass characteristics in lambs fed with grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi estudar a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola em dietas para cordeiros. Para a avaliação das características quantitativas da carcaça, foram utilizadas 24 carcaças de cordeiros, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As dietas com média de 15,4% de PB na MS e 80,2% de NDT foram compostas por 40% de feno de capim-Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, canola em grão integral, farelo de canola, torta de canola e mistura mineral. A utilização de grãos e subprodutos da canola na dieta de borregos terminados em confinamento não influenciou (p > 0,05 as características quantitativas da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, não houve efeito dos tratamentos para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. Assim, a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola possibilitaram bons resultados podendo ser recomendados nas formulações de dietas para cordeiros.The aim of this work was to evaluate the introduction of 8% grains and by-products (meal or cake of canola in the diets of lambs. To evaluate quantitative carcass characteristics, 24 Santa Ines lambs were used in a completely randomized design. Diets with averages of 15.4% of CP in DM and 80.2% of TDN were composed for 40% Tifton hay and 60% concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. The use of whole grains and by-products of canola in the diet of lambs finished in feedlot did not influence (p > 0.05 quantitative carcass characteristics. For cut dressing in relation to the CCW, no effect was observed for the analyzed variables among treatments. It was concluded that the introduction of grains and by-products of canola allow for satisfactory results, and could be recommended in the formulations of lamb diets.

  7. Characteristics of rockburst and its mining technology in mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to resolve how to mine under the condition of high stress with rockburst, this paper analyzes the law of rockburst, and considers that most of the rockbursts occur in the high stress area of stope. A method of rockburst forecast and its steps are given, and three different stages of rockburst are identified. Furthermore, this paper considers that blasting energy can effectively control rockburst by changing the characteristics of rock mass, which decreases the probability of rockburst happening. According to characteristics of rockburst, two feasible mining techniques under rockburst conditions are put forward, that is stoping-and-filling method, and sublevel caving method of mining without any sills in hanging wall.

  8. Characteristics and applications of advanced technology microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jerry R.; Tasker, G. William; Fijol, John J.

    1990-10-01

    A method for fabrication of novel thin-filrn continuous dynode electron multipliers is described. We have shown the feasibility of crucial manufacturing steps, including anisotropic dry etching of substrates into photolithographically-defined arrays of high-aspect-ratio channels, and the formation of thin-film continuous dynodes by chemical vapor deposition. We discuss potential performance and design advantages of this advanced technology microchannel plate (AT-MCP) over the conven tional reduced lead silicate glass inicrochannel plate (RLSG-'MCP) and implications for new applications.

  9. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ZLATÁ BAŇA ORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košuth Marián

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The main processing interest of examined Zlatá Baňa polymetalic ores was focused on copper-lead-zinc minerals with precious metals and trace elements. Gold occurrin a native form or as an isomorphism in pyrite. The role of inclusions of own Ag-minerals was inflated by geologist, but a prevailing amount of silver is isomorphous in galena and argentotetrahedrite. Almost no possibility to concentrating discrete silver minerals was proved technologically. In galena, an interesting content of Se and Te was registered. Among trace elements, a higher content of cadmium folows exclusively the content of zinc in blende.

  11. Research of Technological Characteristics of Dispersed Molding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Kulikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of science and practice is to increase the productivity of manufacturing products from dispersed materials through the modernization of existing equipment and the introduction of new technological processes. The mathematical models of formation of disperse systems, applied to pressed and heated mixtures, are insufficiently developed so far.. The introduction of new mathematical models of formation of disperse mixtures and method s of manufacture of pressed products will increase the productivity, improve the quality of manufactured products, reduce production costs and increase the competitiveness of the products.

  12. Characteristic test technology for PWR fuel and its components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Chan Bock; Bang, Je Gun; Jung, Yeon Ho; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyeng Ho; Nam, Cheol; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Myung Ho; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Song, Kun Woo; Kang, Ki Won; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Young Min; Yang, Jae Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic tests of fuel assembly and its components being developed in the Advanced LWR Fuel Development Project supported by the mid-long term nuclear R and D program are described in this report. Performance verification of fuel and its components by the characteristic tests are essential to their development. Fuel components being developed in the Advanced LWR Fuel Development Project are zirconium alloy cladding, UO{sub 2} and burnable absorber pellets, spacer grid and top and bottom end pieces. Detailed test plans for those fuel components are described in this report, and test procedures of cladding and pellet are also described in the Appendix. Examples of the described tests are in- and out-of- pile corrosion and mechanical tests such as creep and burst tests for the cladding, in-pile capsule and ramp tests for the pellet, mechanical tests such as strength and vibration, and thermal-hydraulic tests such as pressure drop and critical heat flux for the spacer grid and top and bottom end pieces. It is expected that this report could be used as the standard reference for the performance verification tests in the development of LWR fuel and its components. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  13. Microwave plasma: its characteristics and applications in thin film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J.

    Microwave plasmas differ significantly from other plasmas, exhibit many interesting properties and so offer new possibilities for the plasma processing of thin films. Plasma properties strongly depend on the conditions and methods used to excite the gas. Due to the existence of a direct connection between the properties of plasma-prepared thin films and plasma micro-parameters a perfect knowledge of the plasma generation is a basic requirement for mastering a plasma deposition process. Therefore, different methods of generating microwave isotropic and anisotropic plasmas are discussed. Special attention is devoted to the mechanisms of plasma excitation and to the generation of a dense and homogeneous plasma in thin film technology are also presented.

  14. Study on Fractal Characteristics of Cracks and Pore Structure of Concrete based on Digital Image Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Xianyu Jin; Bei Li; Ye Tian; Nanguo Jin; An Duan

    2013-01-01

    Based on the fractal theory, this study presents a numerical analysis on the fractal characteristics of cracks and pore structure of concrete with the help of digital image technology. The results show that concrete cracks and the micro pore distribution of concrete are of fractal characteristics and the fractal dimension ranges from 1 to 2. The fractal characteristics of pores in cracked concrete and un-cracked concrete is similar and the former fractal dimension of the micro pore structure ...

  15. Bromatological and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silages with the addition of annato by-product Características bromatológicas e fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante contendo subproduto do urucum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles Rêgo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. silages with the addition of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of the by-product from SPU annato (Bixa orellana, L. based on natural matter. A complete random design was used with four replications. The nutritional composition, pH, ammonical nitrogen and lactic, acetic, propyonic and butyric acids were determined. Levels of annato by-product had an increasingly linear effect on contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fibrous carbohydrates, propionic acid and ammonical nitrogen. The insoluble nitrogen contents in detergent and acid detergent, calculated on the percentage of total nitrogen and lactic, acetic and butyric acids were not altered by adding the annato by product. The annatto by-product improves the bromatological characteristics of the silages and it can be added in levels up to 16% of the natural matter at the moment of elephant grass ensilage.O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de subproduto do processamento do urucum (Bixa orellana, L. SPU, com base na matéria natural. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Determinaram-se a composição nutricional, valores de pH, nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, acético, propiônico e butírico. Os níveis do subproduto de urucum tiveran efeito linear crescente sobre os teores de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, carboidratos não-fibrosos, ácido propiônico e nitrogênio amonical. Os teores nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente e em detergente ácido, calculados em porcentagem de nitrogênio total e os ácidos lático, acético e butírico não foram alterados com a adição do subproduto do urucum. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em

  16. Neonates and Infants Discharged Home Dependent on Medical Technology: Characteristics and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Bieda, Amy; Barnett, Kimberly; Dowling, Donna A; Sattar, Abdus

    2016-10-01

    Preterm neonates and neonates with complex conditions admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may require medical technology (eg, supplemental oxygen, feeding tubes) for their continued survival at hospital discharge. Medical technology introduces another layer of complexity for parents, including specialized education about neonatal assessment and operation of technology. The transition home presents a challenge for parents and has been linked with greater healthcare utilization. To determine incidence, characteristics, and healthcare utilization outcomes (emergency room visits, rehospitalizations) of technology-dependent neonates and infants following initial discharge from the hospital. This descriptive, correlational study used retrospective medical record review to examine technology-dependent neonates (N = 71) upon discharge home. Study variables included demographic characteristics, hospital length of stay, and type of medical technology used. Analysis of neonates (n = 22) with 1-year postdischarge data was conducted to identify relationships with healthcare utilization. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. Approximately 40% of the technology-dependent neonates were between 23 and 26 weeks' gestation, with birth weight of less than 1000 g. Technologies used most frequently were supplemental oxygen (66%) and feeding tubes (46.5%). The mean total hospital length of stay for technology-dependent versus nontechnology-dependent neonates was 108.6 and 25.7 days, respectively. Technology-dependent neonates who were female, with a gastrostomy tube, or with longer initial hospital length of stay were at greater risk for rehospitalization. Assessment and support of families, particularly mothers of technology-dependent neonates following initial hospital discharge, are vital. Longitudinal studies to determine factors affecting long-term outcomes of technology-dependent infants are needed.

  17. Effect of the Technological Procedures on the Compatibility Characteristics of the W-Na

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the accelerator driven system(ADS), tungsten and fast reactor may be the one of the options as thetarget and the subcritical reactor, so it is important to research the compatibility characteristics betweenthe tungsten and sodium. Because the compatibility characteristics of the materials and medium will beeffected by many factors, such as technological procedures, the main purpose of this job is to research thecompatibility of the forging tungsten and polishing tungsten with the sodium, compare their differences,

  18. Characteristics of the Creative Development Technologies Applying during the Work with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, Anastasiya Vyacheslavovna; Nikitin, Oleg Denisovich; Boyakova, Ekaterina Vyacheslavovna

    2016-01-01

    Present article explores the characteristics of the influence of creative influence technologies for school and college students on their professional and personal self-identification. The aim of the study is students' creative development, which represents the process of integration of mental, emotional and physical personality components, which…

  19. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  20. Complex health care interventions: Characteristics relevant for ethical analysis in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Complexity entails methodological challenges in assessing health care interventions. In order to address these challenges, a series of characteristics of complexity have been identified in the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) literature. These characteristics are primarily identified and developed to facilitate effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis. However, ethics is also a constitutive part of HTA, and it is not given that the conceptions of complexity that appears relevant for effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis are also relevant and directly applicable for ethical analysis in HTA. The objective of this article is therefore to identify and elaborate a set of key characteristics of complex health care interventions relevant for addressing ethical aspects in HTA. We start by investigating the relevance of the characteristics of complex interventions, as defined in the HTA literature. Most aspects of complexity found to be important when assessing effectiveness, safety, and efficiency turn out also to be relevant when assessing ethical issues of a given health technology. However, the importance and relevance of the complexity characteristics may differ when addressing ethical issues rather than effectiveness. Moreover, the moral challenges of a health care intervention may themselves contribute to the complexity. After identifying and analysing existing conceptions of complexity, we synthesise a set of five key characteristics of complexity for addressing ethical aspects in HTA: 1) multiple and changing perspectives, 2) indeterminate phenomena, 3) uncertain causality, 4) unpredictable outcome, and 5) ethical complexity. This may serve as an analytic tool in addressing ethical issues in HTA of complex interventions.

  1. The Characteristics of Modern Technology Risk%现代技术风险的特质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧庭高; 巩红新

    2014-01-01

    从不同的角度来考察现代社会的风险“丛林”,会有许多不同的理解,但这些理解或多或少地都指向这个风险“丛林”背后隐藏着的现代技术风险特质。从本质到现象、从产生到治理两个维度来考察现代技术风险的特质,这是一个带有根本性的独特视角。由此出发,现代技术风险特质应该包括根源特质、建构特质、表面特质和治理特质的四个方面内涵,这四个方面彼此相互作用,构成一个有机统一的特质整体。%From different angles to study the risk “jungle”of modern social,we have many different un-derstandings.But these understandings more or less point to the characteristics of Modern technology risk behind the risk “jungle”.This is a unique perspective of fundamental,from the essence to the phe-nomenon and from production to management to study the characteristic of modern technology risk. From this point of view,the characteristics of modern technology risk include four aspects of connota-tion:root characteristic,construction characteristic,surface characteristic and governance characteris-tic,which interact with each other and form an organic unified of characteristic whole.

  2. Characteristics modeling for supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicki, Adrian; Bartela, Łukasz

    2014-06-01

    Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emission, mainly carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of `zeroemission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper the results of analyses of the influence of changing two quantities, namely oxygen share in oxidant produced in the air separation unit, and oxygen share in oxidant supplied to the furnace chamber on the selected characteristics of a steam boiler including the degree of exhaust gas recirculation, boiler efficiency and adiabatic flame temperature, was examined. Due to the possibility of the integration of boiler model with carbon dioxide capture, separation and storage installation, the subject of the analysis was also to determine composition of the flue gas at the outlet of a moisture condensation installation. Required calculations were made using a model of a supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology, which was built in a commercial software and in-house codes.

  3. Effects of Critical Knowledge Characteristics on Degree of Inter-Firm Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Sazali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current issue on inter-firm technology transfer in the developing countries is centered on the efficiency and effectiveness of the transfer process by the Multinationals (MNCs. Thus, organizations in the developing countries are striving hard to collaborate, learn and internalize their foreign partner’s technological knowledge by forming strategic alliances or International Joint Ventures (IJVs as an efficient mean to increase their competitiveness, technological capabilities and potential for local innovation. Knowledge as the critical element underlying technology has become one of the main factors that affects the success and failure of inter-firm technology transfer within IJVs which is measured by the degree of technology transferred. Based on the underlying knowledge-based view perspective, this paper aims to empirically examine the effect of three critical knowledge characteristics: Tacitness, complexity and specificity on degree of technology transfer and its two dimensions: Degree of tacit and explicit knowledge. Approach: The theoretical model and hypotheses in this study were tested using empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies of Malaysia. Data obtained from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using the correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: The results revealed that tacitness and complexity as two critical elements of knowledge characteristics have significant effects on both degrees of tacit and explicit knowledge; with complexity recording slightly stronger effect than tacitness. However, although specificity has a strong theoretical foundation, it did not record significant effect. Conclusion: The study has bridged the literature gaps in such that it provides empirical evidence on the effects of three generic knowledge attributes: Tacitness, complexity and specificity on degree of inter-firm technology

  4. Serial Correlation Characteristics of Hydrology and Water Quality From Stormwater Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, T. P.; Watts, A. W.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Natural stream system state variables (flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, etc.) possess varied stochastic properties from site to site. The majority of land development occurs on smaller order streams (first, second). Because stormwater management is often required with development, yet specific strategies are not prescribed, often the selected technologies may solve one problem (for example flood peaks) yet cause another (for example, retention ponds increasing summer temperatures). In small order streams, the effluent from stormwater management technologies can dramatically affect the background stochastic characteristics receiving stream. This study selected variables measured in real time (flow, temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen), over a three year period, and determined the serial correlation characteristics of these variables in the influent and effluent from the following stormwater management technologies: grass swale, rip rap swale, retention pond, sand filter, bioretention cell, and gravel wetland. The results underscore the differences that these technologies imprint on their effluent. Ultimately, this information should lead to improved decision-making in the selection of stormwater management technologies that flow into small order streams.

  5. Analysis of Characteristics Extension Workers to Utilization of Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronice Veronice

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The science and technology is developing rapidly with the demands of changing times. The development of information and communication technology, especially since the advent of internet technology has led to major changes in society. Information technology products are relatively cheap and affordable facilitate access to information beyond the national borders and cultural boundaries. This condition has penetrated to all levels of human life, including farmers in the villages. Therefore, the extension becomes important role as a facilitator in developing the potential of farmers. Consequently extension is required to adjust to the changes and demands of the growing community. The objectives of the research is the analysis of characteristics extension workers to utilization of information and communication technology in Limapuluh Kota regency West Sumatera. This study is a descriptive-correlational survey-based study with the sample consisting of government employee as well as freelance extension workers in 8 Extension Agency of Agriculture  Fisheries and Forestry Extension (BP3K in Limapuluh Kota regency, West Sumatera province. Based on the results obtained, the results of different test (t-test is known that there are significant differences between the characteristics of the civil servants and THL-TBPP especially in the aspect of age and length of employment.

  6. Explaining Intention to Use an Information Technology Innovation: an empirical comparison of the perceived characteristics of innovating and technology acceptance models

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Jebeile; Robert Reeve

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the issue of technology acceptance in a multi-campus secondary college in Sydney, Australia. Seventy-five teachers across two campuses were surveyed as to their perceptions regarding technology acceptance. Regression analysis was used to compare the explanatory power of the perceived characteristics of innovating model (PCIM), and the technology acceptance model (TAM). Both models explained a substantial amount of variation in technology acceptance. However, our findings...

  7. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  8. Technological Factors, User Characteristics and Didactic Strategies in Educational Virtual Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natsis, Antonios; Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos

    2012-01-01

    Technological factors, user characteristics and didactic strategies do not function consistently across Educational Virtual Environments. This study investigates the impact of viewing condition and didactic strategy on attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, spatial presence, and learning...... outcomes in an Educational Virtual Environment concerning ancient Greek pottery. Our results show that the viewing condition does not affect attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, and spatial presence. Learning outcomes are better in the monoscopic viewing condition. Didactic strategy has an impact...... Virtual Environments....

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRIVING SUPPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi DOI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving support and cruise assist systems are of growing importance in achieving both road traffic safety and convenience. Such driver support seeks to achieve, with the highest possible quality, nothing less than “driver-vehicle symbiosis under all conditions.” At the same time, many traffic accidents result from improper driver behavior. The author focuses on driver behavior under various driving conditions, conducting detailed measurement and analysis of visual perception and attention characteristics as well as perceptual characteristics involved in driving. The aim in doing so is to support research on driving support systems and driving workload reduction technologies that function as human-vehicle systems and take such characteristics into account.

  10. Complex health care interventions: Characteristics relevant for ethical analysis in health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity entails methodological challenges in assessing health care interventions. In order to address these challenges, a series of characteristics of complexity have been identified in the Health Technology Assessment (HTA literature. These characteristics are primarily identified and developed to facilitate effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis. However, ethics is also a constitutive part of HTA, and it is not given that the conceptions of complexity that appears relevant for effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis are also relevant and directly applicable for ethical analysis in HTA. The objective of this article is therefore to identify and elaborate a set of key characteristics of complex health care interventions relevant for addressing ethical aspects in HTA. We start by investigating the relevance of the characteristics of complex interventions, as defined in the HTA literature. Most aspects of complexity found to be important when assessing effectiveness, safety, and efficiency turn out also to be relevant when assessing ethical issues of a given health technology. However, the importance and relevance of the complexity characteristics may differ when addressing ethical issues rather than effectiveness. Moreover, the moral challenges of a health care intervention may themselves contribute to the complexity. After identifying and analysing existing conceptions of complexity, we synthesise a set of five key characteristics of complexity for addressing ethical aspects in HTA: 1 multiple and changing perspectives, 2 indeterminate phenomena, 3 uncertain causality, 4 unpredictable outcome, and 5 ethical complexity. This may serve as an analytic tool in addressing ethical issues in HTA of complex interventions.

  11. Microencapsulation by spray drying of Lannea microcarpa extract: Technological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sansone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A functional extract from Lannea microcarpa (Lm, possess interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the unprocessed dried extract occurs as sticky and low-water-soluble material showing critical properties for industrial applications. The unprocessed dried extract is not always enough stable to preserve its functional properties, also giving practical difficulties for the manufacturing. Aims: This research aimed to produce Lm extract microparticles with enhanced functional stability and technological characteristics by spray-drying. Methods: Lm extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying using a sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC based matrix. Physicochemical and technological characteristics (determined by UV, HPLC, LLS, SEM, DSC, and in vitro dissolution tests, as well as antioxidant properties (DPPH-test of the resulting powder (LmC were examined. Results: The produced spray dried microparticles showed satisfying encapsulation efficiency, good functional stability and enhanced technological properties. The selected carrier and process conditions led to a stable and handling microencapsulated powder form with improved water dissolution rate. Moreover, the matrix was also able to preserve the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds-rich extract. Conclusions: The made-up powder resulted in a functional component that can be used with great potential in cosmetics, foods or nutraceutical products.

  12. An Overview of Performance Characteristics, Experiences and Trends of Aerospace Engine Bearings Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebert Franz-Josef

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the operating conditions, technical requirements, performance characteristics, design ideas, application experiences and development trends of aerospace engine bearings, including material technology, integration design and reliability, are reviewed. The development history of aerospace engine bearing is recalled briefly at first. Then today's material technologies and the high bearing performances of the bearings obtained through the new materials are introduced, which play important rolls in the aeroengine bearing developments. The integration design ideas and practices are explained to indicate its significant advantages and importance to the aerospace engine bearings. And the reliability of the shaft-bearing system is pointed out and treated as the key requirement with goals for both engine and bearing. Finally, as it is believed that the correct design comes from practice, the pre-qualification rig testing conducted by FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG is briefly illustrated as an example. All these lead to the development trends of aerospace engine bearings from different aspects.

  13. Characteristics and Preparation Technologies of Nb/Nb5Si3 Microlaminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MU Rende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nb/Nb5Si3 superalloy has the most potential in the application of future high temperature structures. Realization of microstructure lamination for this material is a new material design and preparation method. Characteristics and prevailing preparation technologies of Nb/Nb5Si3 microlaminate, including hot pressing, plasma spaying, magnetic sputtering and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD are reviewed. It is pointed out that EB-PVD is a promising technology for producing Nb/Nb5Si3 microlaminate from the engineering application point of view. Structure and function compound, nano-laminating and toughening are the developing directions in the future electron beam physical vapor deposited Nb/Nb5Si3 microlaminate field.

  14. Characteristics modeling for supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emission, mainly carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of ‘zeroemission’ technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper the results of analyses of the influence of changing two quantities, namely oxygen share in oxidant produced in the air separation unit, and oxygen share in oxidant supplied to the furnace chamber on the selected characteristics of a steam boiler including the degree of exhaust gas recirculation, boiler efficiency and adiabatic flame temperature, was examined. Due to the possibility of the integration of boiler model with carbon dioxide capture, separation and storage installation, the subject of the analysis was also to determine composition of the flue gas at the outlet of a moisture condensation installation. Required calculations were made using a model of a supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology, which was built in a commercial software and in-house codes.

  15. Path creation in Nordic energy and road transport systems – The role of technological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Klitkou, Antje; Borup, Mads;

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews path-creation processes in road transport systems in the Nordic countries: e-mobility in Denmark, hydrogen and fuel-cell electrical vehicles in Norway, and advanced biofuels in Finland and Sweden. The study builds on the path creation literature, which seeks to explain the emer......This paper reviews path-creation processes in road transport systems in the Nordic countries: e-mobility in Denmark, hydrogen and fuel-cell electrical vehicles in Norway, and advanced biofuels in Finland and Sweden. The study builds on the path creation literature, which seeks to explain...... characteristics seem to have greater influence on the content of activities in the later phase rather than the early phase of path creation processes. The analysis also emphasises that barriers to path creation processes differ depending on technological characteristics. This highlights the importance...

  16. Regional characteristics of individual housing units in Serbia from the aspect of applied building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual housing units in Serbia have been studied from the aspect of applied technical solutions. Analyzed data have been collected during a field research in accordance with the current administrative regional division, and they represent a basis for definition of regional typology of individual housing units. Characteristic types of objects of each region’s typology have been further analyzed. Upon these analyses regional characteristics of individual housing units regarding applied construction types, building technologies and materials have been defined and presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36034: Investigation and Systematization of Serbian Housing in Context of Globalization and European Integration in the Framework of Quality and Living-Standard Improvement

  17. Performance Characteristics and Temperature Compensation Method of Fluid Property Sensor Based on Tuning-Fork Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid property sensor (FPS based on tuning-fork technology is applied to the measurement of the contaminant level of lubricant oil. The measuring principle of FPS sensor is derived and proved together with its resolution. The performance characteristics of the FPS sensor, such as sensitivity coefficient, resolution, and quality factor, are analyzed. A temperature compensation method is proposed to eliminate the temperature-dependence of the measuring parameters, and its validity is investigated by numerical simulation of sensitivity, oscillating frequency, and dielectric constant. The values of purification efficiency obtained using microwave and without microwave are compared experimentally.

  18. ORGANISATIONAL-TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLASTING WORKS ON THE GRIČ TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Deković

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes organisational-technological characteristics of blasting works during the excavation of the Grič Tunnel. The significance of blasting works during the excavation of the tunnel is shown through adjustment of blasting parameters taking into consideration the dynamics of the works, cost-effectiveness and influence of geological circumstances. Successfulness of blasting directly influences the subsequent tunnel excavation cycle both in terms of duration as well as eventually in terms of influence on the entire tunnel investment. Comparison of changes of basic blasting parameters during tunnel excavation ensured optimal excavation progress with minimal price per meter of tunnel progress.

  19. Valorization of rapeseed grain by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormanjos Sandor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After technological processing of rapeseed significant amounts of useful and useless waste products stand out. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, content of glucosinolates, microbiological safety, and presence of mycotoxins and heavy element contents of useful rapeseed by-products which are intended for animal nutrition. Feed components as well as complete mixtures for animal feed must be safe and in accordance with the requirements of the current national regulation. The investigated useful by-products contained significant amounts of proteins (21.80% and fat (33.78%. As a part of the research, extrusion of the mixture containing rapeseed by-products and maize in the ratio of 50:50% was performed. The process of extrusion was carried out at 130 °C. Based on the obtained results it was noticed that the investigated extruded mixture is a convenient protein-energy supplement suitable for animal feed production with significantly reduced glucosinolate content (from 10.30 to 7.82 µmol/g. It was also observed that the extrusion of feed mixture led to the reduction of the number of microorganisms which ensures safe feedstuff for animal feed production.

  20. Satisfaction with Online Commercial Group Chat: The Influence of Perceived Technology Attributes, Chat Group Characteristics, and Advisor Communication Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dolen, W.M.; Dabholkar, P.A.; de Ruyter, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines online commercial group chat from a structuration theory perspective. The findings support the influence of perceived technology attributes (control, enjoyment, reliability, speed, and ease of use) and chat group characteristics (group involvement, similarity, and receptivity) on

  1. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    . In the case of large scale, interest has shifted from electricity generation to biofuel production, primarily due to the failed demonstration projects of the technology coupled with combined cycle for electricity generation. On the other hand, in small scale projects, cogeneration applications have gained interest over heat production. However, there are fewer actors involved in small scale experimentation than in large scale. Once the specific situation of each country has been analyzed, and the main characteristics of the development process have been identified, one of the causes which have hindered the technology to reach the expected commercial stage has been the lack of resources to demonstrate its competitiveness. So far, a significant number of experimentation activities, based on demonstration projects and pilot plants, have proved the future potential of the technology. Nonetheless, the uncertainty, shown by the great majority of actors, about integrating the biomass gasification in their industrial process has hindered the demonstration of its operational feasibility. Following this, further efforts should focus on the creation of incentives for the construction of new plants which integrate this technology in an industrial process already consolidated in the market. An approximation of the number of new plants needed, could be a good indicator of the economical resources required in order to acquire enough experience to make biomass gasification a competitive technology in the short-term. After simulating various future evolutions for small scale cogeneration applications, the learning rate obtained through the learning curves model predict that, building roughly forty plants in six years, the technology can be consolidated firmly in the market. Considering the decrease in the number of new plants built since 2002, the expectancies are not really optimistic. Nevertheless, it is not an unachievable objective if incentives are created by all administrative

  2. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  3. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The

  4. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The

  5. Faculty and organizational characteristics associated with informatics/health information technology adoption in DNP programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Cathy R; Meek, Julie A; Walker, Patricia Hinton

    2014-01-01

    Nursing informatics/health information technology are key components of graduate nursing education and an accreditation requirement, yet little is known about the extent to which doctor of nursing practice (DNP) curricula include these content domains. The purpose of this descriptive study was to elicit perceptions of DNP program directors relative to (a) whether and how the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN's) Essential IV standard has been met in their DNP programs; (b) whether the Technology Informatics Guiding Educational Reform Initiative Foundation's Phase II competencies have been integrated in their programs; and (c) the faculty and organizational characteristics associated with the adoption of the AACN's Essential IV. In 2011, an electronic survey was sent to all 138 DNP program directors identified on the AACN Web site with an 81.2% response rate. Findings include variation in whether and how programs have integrated informatics/health information technology content, a lack of informatics-certified and/or master's-prepared faculty, and a perceived lack of faculty awareness of informatics curricular guidelines. DNP program director and dean awareness and support of faculty informatics education, use of informatics competency guidelines, and national policy and stimulus funding support are recommended to promote curricular inclusion and the engagement of nurses in strong informatics practices.

  6. Computer-based technology for elaboration of morphometric characteristics of Volga reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, E.

    2009-04-01

    There are nine biggest Russian reservoirs in Volga basin. Total capacity is about 168 km3, effective capacity - 80 km3, total square is equal 24 000 km2 and total length - 3 500 km. Water resources are used in hydroenergetic, navigation, water supply, fishing industry, etc. It is important to know current morphometric characteristics of all reservoirs. For getting all morphometric characteristics we need bottom and coastal zone digital elevation model (DEM) for each reservoir. In 2008 in State Oceanographic Institute methodology and computer-based technology of creating DEM were developed and evaluated on Uglichsky reservoir. The information base includes field survey data, remote sensing data and large-scale maps. Bathymetric survey was made by crosslines with intervals 500 m or 250 m. Expedition team of State Oceanographic Institute made survey using special complex of echo sounder, GPS and specialized computer. This complex allows to determine X, Y, Z coordinates in a moment and display this information. 370 crosslines were measured and they included 416 000 survey data. Large-scale maps were used for vectorization of coastline and relief data. For elaboration coastline in the most difficult zones were used remote sensing data. All received polygonal and line objects were transformed into point's data type with point's frequency 2.5-3 m. The total amount of points was 1 400 000. Water area was breaked up on small zones including 4 crosslines. For each zone grid was created (cell 5x5m) using method Natural Neighbor. Anisotropy depends on channel orientation. Further middle part of grid was clipped. DEM is the result of mosaic of small grids. This technology allows to create bottom and coastline DEM for evaluation of actual morphometric characteristics of reservoirs that is useful for effective water management. Next year State Oceanographic Institute plans to continue works on Gorkovsky, Volgogradsky reservoirs and several reservoirs of Moscow region.

  7. Effluent characteristics of advanced treatment for biotreated coking wastewater by electrochemical technology using BDD anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunrong; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Wei; Ye, Min; Su, Fujin

    2015-05-01

    Effluent of biotreated coking wastewater comprises hundreds of organic and inorganic pollutants and has the characteristics of high toxicity and difficult biodegradation; thus, its chemical oxygen demand cannot meet drainage standards in China. A boron-doped diamond anode was selected for advanced treatment of biotreated coking wastewater, and considering the efficiency of the removal of total organic carbon and energy consumption, optimal conditions were obtained as current density of 75 mA cm(-2), electrolysis time of 1.5 h, and an electrode gap of 1.0 cm in an orthogonal test. Effluent characteristics were investigated at different electrolysis times. The ratio of the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to the chemical oxygen demand increased from an initial value of 0.05 to 0.65 at 90 min. Fluorescence spectra were used to evaluate the evolution of refractory organics. Two fluorescence peaks for raw wastewater, corresponding to an aromatic protein-like substance II and humic acid-like substance, weakened at 30 and at 90 min, only the former was detected. The specific oxygen uptake rate was used to assess effluent toxicity, and an obvious inhibition effect was found at 15 min; then, it was significantly faded at 30 and 45 min. The BOD5/NO3 (-)-N ratio increased from an initial value of 0.48 to 1.25 at 45 min and then gradually dropped to 0.69 at 90 min. According to the above effluent characteristics, it is strongly suggested that electrochemical technology using boron-doped diamond anodes is combined with biological denitrification technology for the advanced treatment of biotreated coking wastewater.

  8. Quantifying characteristics of information technology applications for oestrus and mastitis detection in dairys cows based on expert knowledge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Expert opinions were elicited about the characteristics at the commercial-farm level of on-line information technology (IT) applications that are able to detect oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows. Since actual data of these characteristics are not available, judgmental data provided an alternative m

  9. Life characteristics assessment of the communications technology satellite transmitter experiment package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J.; Curren, A. N.

    1979-01-01

    The performance characteristics of the transmitter experiment package (TEP) aboard the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) measured during its first 2 years in orbit are presented. The TEP consists of a nominal 200 watt output stage tube (OST), a supporting power processing system (PPS), and a variable conductance heat pipe system (VCHPS). The OST, a traveling wave tube augmented with a 10 stage depressed collector has an overall saturated average efficiency of 51.5 percent and an average saturated radio frequency (rf) output power at center band frequency of 240 watts. The PPS operated with a measured efficiency of 86.5 to 88.5 percent. The VCHPS, using three pipes to conduct heat from the PPS and the OST to a 52 by 124 centimeter radiator fin, maintained the PPS baseplate temperature below 50 C for all operating conditions. The TEP performance characteristics presented include frequency response, rf output power, thermal performance, and efficiency. Communications characteristics were evaluated by using both video and audio modulated signals. On four occasions, the TEP experienced temporary thermal control system malfunctions. The anomalies were terminated safely, and the problem was investigated because of the potential for TEP damage due to the signficant temperature increases. Safe TEP operating procedures were established.

  10. Investigation of the characteristics of GIDL current in 90nm CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hai-Feng; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Li Kang; Cao Yan-Rong; Zhang Jin-Feng; Zhou Peng-Ju

    2006-01-01

    A specially designed experiment is performed for investigating gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current in 90nm CMOS technology using lightly-doped drain (LDD) NMOSFET. This paper shows that the drain bias VD has a strong effect on GIDL current as compared with the gate bias VG at the same drain-gate voltage VDG-It is found that the difference between ID in the off-state ID-VG characteristics and the corresponding one in the off-state ID-VD characteristics, which is defined as /DIFF, versus VDG shows a peak. The difference between the influences of VD and VG on GIDL current is shown quantitatively by /DIFF, especially in 90nm scale. The difference is due to different hole tunnellings. Furthermore, the maximum /DIFF(IDIFF.MAX) varies linearly with VDG in logarithmic coordinates and also VDG at IDIFF.MAX with VF which is the characteristic voltage of /DIFF- The relations are studied and some related expressions are given.

  11. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ADDITIVES AND INGREDIENTS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMAL PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Drozdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we focus on the features of the collagen structure. In particular, we report the correlation between the amount of proline and hydroxyproline and the temperature of denaturation, as well as the changes of collagen structure after thermal treatment. After cooling, denaturated collagen forms dense jellies which may absorb a large amount of water. The influence of pH on the denaturalion temperature, solubility andthe strength characteristics of collagen-containing proteins are described. The review also describes the data on the influence of various food additives and chemicals (acids, alkalis, salts i.a. phosphates, hydrocolloids on the collagen protein structure and technological properties. The effect of acids, alkalis, salts on the properties of collagen dependson the nature and strength of the ions and their affinity for the collagen ions. The interactions between the collagen proteins and hydrocolloids result in the synergetic effect. Phosphates and collagen form solid structures.

  12. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p < 0.05 for all technological functional properties studied (emulsification capacity, emulsion stability, protein solubility, and water hold capacity than those of okara flour B. The A and B okara flours were used in a frankfurter sausage formulation as substitution of 1.5% and 4% of meat. The results showed that the sausages containing okara flours A and B, as well as the control sausage, were accepted by the sensory panel. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p < 0.05 in the physical (color, objective texture, and emulsion stability and chemical (pH and proximate composition measurements of the sausages with and without the okara flour.

  13. Effects of age and sex on the structural, chemical and technological characteristics of mule duck meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age.

  14. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  15. Technological characteristics of yeast-containing cakes production using waxy wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iorgachova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the feasibility of using waxy wheat flour, the starch of which doesn`t contain amylose, in order to stabilize the quality of yeast-containing cakes. The influence of the waxy wheat flour mass fraction and the stage of its adding on the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the products are studied. According to the technological properties of a new type of wheat flour, two methods of its adding are proposed ‒ adding the maximum amount of waxy wheat flour at dough kneading stage or using the mixture of waxy and bakery wheat flours for kneading sourdough and dough. It is shown that the replacement of 60 % bakery wheat flour with waxy wheat flour in the recipe of yeast-containing cakes at the dough kneading stage contributes to the production of products with higher quality and organoleptic characteristics compared to both the control and cakes based on a mixture of different types of wheat flour. These samples are characterized by increased by 1.7 – 11.3 % specific volume, porosity – 2.6 – 5.5 % and the total deformation of the crumb – 6.5 – 41.4 %.

  16. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  17. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  18. Mobile technology use and desired technology-based intervention characteristics among HIV+ Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A; Carey, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    HIV positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are retained in HIV medical care at suboptimal rates. Interventions targeted to Black MSM are needed to help to improve their retention in care. The purposes of this study were to investigate the use of mobile technology among HIV+ Black MSM and to explore participants' thoughts about the use of mobile technology for HIV retention in care interventions. Twenty-two HIV+ Black MSM completed a technology use survey and participated in a qualitative interview regarding technology-based interventions. The majority of participants (95%) had access to a cell phone, and used their phones frequently (median 3 hours/day). Men preferred interventions that would allow for anonymous participation and that would provide individually tailored support. Mobile technology is a promising approach to intervention delivery for both younger and older HIV+ Black MSM. These interventions should incorporate features that are desirable to men (i.e., anonymous participation and individual tailoring).

  19. Manufacturing the Technology of Xenon-Containing Drinking Water and its Influence on Some Psychophysiological Characteristics of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhovskaya Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to describe the technology of making xenoncontaining drinking water and its impact on health and psychophysiological characteristics of 26 volunteers after regular admission. Testing conducted after 2 months of daily use such water showed significant improvement of emotional state and health of volunteers. This technology allows obtaining a large amount of drinking water saturated with xenon, which can be used in therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.

  20. Physical and chemical clay binder characteristics from various locality and their influence on some technological properties of bentonite mouling mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vasková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the complex physical – chemical characteristics of bentonite of slovak provenance and to compare with non-slovak, which is considered as European highest quality standard in foundry and to compare from the point of foundry application. These characteristics of raw material have direct relationship with technological properties of bentonite sand mixtures and mainly with the quality of castings poured into these mixtures. To compare technological properties of bentonite forming mixtures with use of various clay types point of view application in foundry industry.

  1. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY PASTA INCORPORATED WITH MICRONIZED CORN PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO RENATO DE JESUS JUNQUEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  2. Fabrication and characteristic analysis of a poly(propylene fumarate) scaffold using micro-stereolithography technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lan, Phung Xuan; Kim, Byung; Lim, Geunbae; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2008-10-01

    Scaffold fabrication for regenerating functional human tissues has an important role in tissue engineering, and there has been much progress in research on scaffold fabrication. However, current methods are limited by the mechanical properties of existing biodegradable materials and the irregular structures that they produce. Recently, several promising biodegradable materials have been introduced, including poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). The development of micro-stereolithography allows the fabrication of free-form 3D microstructures as designed. Since this technology requires a low-viscosity resin to fabricate fine structures, we reduced the viscosity of PPF by adding diethyl fumarate. Using our system, the curing characteristics and material properties of the resin were analyzed experimentally. Then, we fabricated waffle shape and 3D scaffolds containing several hundred regular micro pores. This method controlled the pore size, porosity, interconnectivity, and pore distribution. The results show that micro-stereolithography has big advantages over conventional fabrication methods. In addition, the ultimate strength and elastic modulus of the fabricated scaffolds were measured, and cell adhesion to the fabricated scaffold was observed by growing seeded cells on it. These results showed that the PPF/DEF scaffold is a potential bone scaffold for tissue engineering.

  3. On the use of computation optimization opportunities in computer technologies for applied and computational mathematics problems with prescribed quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, M. D.; Zadiraka, V. K.; Lyudvichenko, V. A.; Sergienko, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    The use of various opportunities for computation optimization in computer technologies for applied and computational mathematics problems with prescribed quality characteristics is investigated. More precisely, the choice and determination of computational resources and methods of their efficient use for finding an approximate solution of problems up to prescribed accuracy in a limited amount of processor time are investigated.

  4. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant

  5. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto, quantitative…

  6. Understanding technology adoption through individual and context characteristics: the case of HDTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaren, Eva; Wijngaert, van de Lidwien; Huizer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Technology adoption research has a tradition of using and improving Davis' (1989) “Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM) and extended versions of it. This article suggests a break with this tradition by showing that the TAM is limited in its understanding of technology adoption. Two alternative approac

  7. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  8. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto,…

  9. Maximizing Utilization of Energy from Crop By-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of crop by-products is huge during harvesting times as related to the vast agricultural land area; however, their utilization is still limited due to lack of knowledge and handling problem. Seasonal effect is obvious especially during wet season when high rainfall hinders proper management of crop by-products. Crop by-products are energy rich feedstuffs in the form of chemical substance such as cellulose and hemicellulose. The utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose as sources of energy can be maximized by the application of technologies to increase the digestibility. Cellulose is polymer of glucose while hemicellulose is polymer of xylose which both can be converted to volatile fatty acids by rumen microbial enzyme activities and subsequently used by the host animal as source of energy. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose can also be used as substrates for bioethanol production leaving behind residual matter with higher concentration of protein which is also appropriate for ruminant feeds. The fat content of crop by-products such as those in rice bran and corn germ can be extracted for oil production that can be used for human consumption with concomitant production of high nutritive value of residues for ruminant feeds. The oil extraction technologies are available; however the high cost of ethanol and oil production should obtain high attention to make the technologies more applicable at farmers’ level.

  10. Study of the Performance and Characteristics of U.S. Academic Research Institution Technology Commercialization (ARITC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to provide a better understanding of the technology licensing practices of academic research institutions. The study identifies time durations in licensing and incorporates these into a model to evaluate licensing performance. Performance is measured by the efficiency of an institution's technology licensing process and…

  11. Performance and touch characteristics of disabled and non-disabled participants during a reciprocal tapping task using touch screen technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E

    2012-11-01

    Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (ptouch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology.

  12. Technology and First Electrical Characteristics of Complementary NPN and PNP InAlAs/InGaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Delong; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Sawdai, Donald; Chin, Patrick; Block, Tom

    2002-02-01

    A selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth approach is presented and applied in the demonstration of complementary InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology for monolithic integration of NPN and PNP HBTs. State-of-art performance has been observed: The DC gain was 35 for both integrated NPN and PNP HBTs. fT of 79.6 GHz and fmax of 109 GHz were achieved for NPN devices while fT of 11.6 GHz and fmax of 22.6 GHz were achieved for PNP devices. Little performance degradation has been observed compared with same design NPN or PNP HBT layers grown on individual substrates. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) based on complementary InP HBT technology have been studied for the first time using this technology and their electrical characteristics are presented.

  13. CHARACTERISTIC OF EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES AND WAYS OF STORING OF TOPINAMBUR TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovoy V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the existing technologies and methods of storage of tubers of topinambur. We have analyzed the traditional methods of storage of tubers of topinambur - in containers, boxes or bags in storage or in the ground clamps. Russian and foreign topinambur tubers storage technologies in modified atmosphere, with use of easily removable wax coating, with plant extracts treatment, at different storage temperatures are studied. We have also carried out analysis of scientific and patent sources led to the conclusion that existing technologies and methods of storing topinambur tubers, which do not allow reducing to the maximum extent the weight loss and the inulin hydrolysis during storage. A reasonable conclusion was made about the advisability of further studies in the field of innovative technologies and methods of preparation for storage and storage of topinambur tubers, ensuring minimal weight loss, as well as maximum preservation in their structure of inulin, vitamin C and other biologically active substances during storage

  14. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE WATER AFTER HYDRAULIC UNLOADING FISH AT PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Janiszewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study characterization of sensory and physical-chemical properties of representative samples of technological waste water after hydraulic unloading fish from fishing vessels, including fishing boats equipped with RSW (Refrigerated Sea Water System or CSW (Chilling Sea Water System system was described. Sensory quality and analytical determinations in technological waste water samples was analyzed. They demonstrated that their sensory quality attributes and physical-chemical properties were different and depending on the destination of fish caught (consumption or industrial fishing, contact time-caught fish with seawater and water temperature (winter or summer season. Because technological waste water has a lot of substance content of protein, fat, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorine compounds it is a threat to the natural environment. In connection with such a broad problem of utilization of technological waste water from fishing boats for Baltic fish is one of the most important issues to solve for fishermen and environmentalists.

  15. Information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios the impact of task, technology and individual characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The growing amount of information provided via web-based information technologies forces the users of these technologies to stop seeking for information before having acquired all available information. This stopping decision is either made actively following clear guidelines or subconsciously based on the seeker's intuition. This book analyzes the aforementioned duality by developing and testing a multi-theoretical research model dealing with information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios. Thus, by delivering insights into the mechanisms that influence information seeking activitie

  16. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  17. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza virus vaccine (IVV is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  18. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions......Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...

  20. Improved Switching Characteristics of Fast Power MOSFETs Applying Solder Bump Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Dieckerhoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a reduced package stray inductance on the switching performance of fast power MOSFETs is discussed applying advanced 3D packaging technologies. Starting from an overview over new packaging approaches, a solder bump technology using a flexible PI substrate is exemplarily chosen for the evaluation. Measurement techniques to determine the stray inductance are discussed and compared with a numerical solution based on the PEEC method. Experimental results show the improvement of the voltage utilization while there is only a slight impact on total switching losses.

  1. Technological characteristics of digital video broadcasting: Handheld standard DVB-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja B. Samčović

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld standard DVB-H, as a part of the DVB Project. This standard is based on the previous standard DVB-T, which was developed for the terrestrial digital television. The ways of DVB-H signal transmission are also described. Development of advanced technology enabled the digital video broadcasting over wireless portable terminals. This paper discusses the key technological features of the DVB-H standard, such as: time slicing, forward error correction, 4K mode and in-depth interleavers.

  2. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit

    2003-01-01

    Planar silicon chips with 1-2-microm etched holes (average resistance: 2.04 +/- 0.02 MOmega in physiological buffer, n = 274) have been developed for patch-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from cells in suspension. An automated 16-channel parallel screening system, QPatch 16, has been...... developed using this technology. A single-channel prototype of the QPatch system was used for validation of the patch-clamp chip technology. We present here data on the quality of patch-clamp recordings and from actual drug screening studies of human potassium channels expressed in cultured cell lines...

  3. Characterization of Humic Acid in the Chemical Oxidation Technology (II) - Characteristics by Ozonation -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Jung, Y.R. [Kangwon National University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, ozonation of humic acid in water was characterized using UV{sub 254} absorbance, TOC, Ultra Filtration and {sup 13}C-NMR. Also, carbonyl compounds in ozonated water were analyzed by GC/MS using PFBOA method. Ozonation by-products of water containing humic acid were determined as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Results of UV{sub 254} absorbance and TOC with ozonation time at humic acid 20, 100 ppm represent that decrease rate of 80% within ozonation time is 20 min and TOC removal rate of 40-50% within ozonation time is 30 min. Results for {sup 13}C-NMR and Ultra Filtration, humic acid of high molecular weight by ozonation are oxidated and decomposed so that it was conversed low molecular weight such as aldehydes, carboxylic acid. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Evaluating the Influence of University Organizational Characteristics and Attributes on Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation project seeks to make a contribution to the growing body of literature on academic technology commercialization and the entrepreneurial efforts of faculty and students at US research universities. The academic environment across the United States has seen an increased emphasis on moving the results of academic research into the…

  5. Evaluating the Influence of University Organizational Characteristics and Attributes on Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation project seeks to make a contribution to the growing body of literature on academic technology commercialization and the entrepreneurial efforts of faculty and students at US research universities. The academic environment across the United States has seen an increased emphasis on moving the results of academic research into the…

  6. Graduate Programs in Instructional Technology: Their Characteristics and Involvement in Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Shirl S.; Gansneder, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews survey of graduate programs in instructional technology which was conducted to determine (1) the similarities and differences among programs, and (2) their involvement in teacher education and school systems. Faculty specialization is discussed, placement of graduates is examined, and future research possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

  7. Quantification of aggregate grain shape characteristics using 3-D laser scanning technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available scanner technology. A sample of coarse aggregate andesite particles passing 19.0 mm and retained on 13.2 mm sieve was used for the study. The 3-D images from the laser scanning device were fully utilized in quantifying the shape descriptors in order...

  8. Predicting Personal Healthcare Management: Impact of Individual Characteristics on Patient Use of Health Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefer, Ryan Heath

    2017-01-01

    The use of health information and health information technology by consumers is a major factor in the current healthcare systems' effort to address issues related to quality, cost, and access. Patient engagement in the healthcare process through access to information related to diagnoses, procedures, and treatment has the potential to improve…

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN COOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTS USING SONOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yevtushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the features of formation of sausage product structure in the process of cooking. It is shown that the viscosity of sausage meat varies in a complex manner and has three characteristic areas. The characteristic parameters that determine the formation of the structure of sausages for each area were found. It is established that the use of the cavitation brine gives the finished product a gentle consistence, elasticity and distinct taste that makes it more preferable for the consumer.

  10. Typical Characteristics and Key Technologies of Microgrid%微电网典型特征及关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艺玮; 杨苹; 王月武; 赵卓立

    2015-01-01

    The features of microgrid technology in operation mode,capacity and voltage level,structure mode,connection mode are overall analyzed and summarized.Furthermore,the researching method and thinking of various key technologies about optimization design,operation control,security,economic operation of microgrid are introduced.This paper summarizes the typical characteristics and key technologies of actual microgrids around the world,and makes a prospect of various new technologies and research orientation of microgrid,as well as meaningful suggestions for the future research and development of microgrids in China.%总结了微电网的运行模式、容量与电压等级和结构模式等典型特征,详细阐述了微电网的优化设计、运行控制、保护和经济运行等关键技术的研究方法和思路;分析了当前国内外典型微电网系统的重要特征及关键技术、微电网未来的发展方向和新型技术,并给出了对国内微电网研究和建设的相关建议。

  11. Characteristics of “Abstracts of Science and Technology in Japan, Agro-Industries” and Related Agricultural Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Shukuko; Sasaki, Toshio

    Japan Agricultural Library Council has cooperated with JICST in making abstracts of “Abstracts of Science and Technology in Japan, Agro-Industries” published by JICST over these five years. Taking this opportunity of starting computerized edition of the Title and changing the coverage the author and others reviewed the abstracting work so far. The outline of the Title is first described. Then the number of journals and citations covered in it by subject are compared with those of Japan Agriculture Literature Article Index of which main users are agricultural scientists and researchers and which is used as reference tool of selecting papers to be included in English titles. The characteristics and points to be improved are explained. Characteristics of agriculture literature, which are seen through making English abstracts are also described.

  12. Using Information Systems to Leverage Knowledge Management Processes: The Role of Work Context, Job Characteristics and Task-Technology Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çev.: Nazlı Alkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focus on how an individual's particular work context, job characteristics and knowledge-related job requirements affect the relationship between task-technology fit (TTF and the use of information systems (IS in knowledge management activities. The literature on Knowledge Management (KM and Knowledge Management Systems (KMS is reviewed to identify relevant constructs and their dimensions. Based on this analysis, a model is proposed and tested. Our findings suggest that providing appropriate IT tools that fit tasks alone is no guarantee that they will be employed to leverage the acquisition, transfer and reuse of knowledge. Certain characteristics of jobs, driven by particular work contexts, generate greater need and opportunity for knowledge use. These latter factors moderate the relationship between TTF and actual use of IS for KM purposes: the greater the need and opportunity to conduct knowledgerelated activities, the stronger the relationship between TTF and actual IS use.

  13. Technology characteristics and concerns arising in the design and fabrication of an entire signal processor using gallium arsenide integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naused, Barbara A.; Samson, Mark L.; Schwab, Daniel J.; Gilbert, Barry K.

    Various GaAs transistor and gate technologies that have been developed since 1980 are analyzed. The characteristics of GaAs logic gates and ICs and the buffered FET logic, Shottky diode FET logic, direct coupled FET logic, and heterojunction integrated injection logic used to implement GaAs gate arrays of LSI complexity are described. The use of digital GaAs in a complex target signal processor, the Advanced Onboard Signal Processor (AOSP), is studied. Data from the testing of GaAs components for the AOSP at the wafer probe, package, and assembled circuit board levels are examined.

  14. THE RAW MINERAL SALTS USE IN COSMETICS FORMULATIONS: ASSORTMENT, MINERAL RAW MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS AND COSMETICS FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Evseeva; B. B. Sysuev

    2016-01-01

    The application of mineral raw materials (brine lakes, thermal springs, sea water, bischofite) in cosmetics is presented in this article. The assortment of cosmetics that contain mineral salts is presented. The technological characteristics of production of these cosmetic formulations, in particular the ability of mineral salts to influence the stability of formulation and the sensory properties of products are given. The main approaches of that formulation development are described.

  15. THE RAW MINERAL SALTS USE IN COSMETICS FORMULATIONS: ASSORTMENT, MINERAL RAW MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS AND COSMETICS FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of mineral raw materials (brine lakes, thermal springs, sea water, bischofite in cosmetics is presented in this article. The assortment of cosmetics that contain mineral salts is presented. The technological characteristics of production of these cosmetic formulations, in particular the ability of mineral salts to influence the stability of formulation and the sensory properties of products are given. The main approaches of that formulation development are described.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE STYLE AND HEALTH-STATUS OF MALE STUDENTS AT A NATIONAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    池本, 幸雄; 出村, 慎一; 長澤, 吉則; 山次, 俊介; 島田, 茂; 南, 雅樹

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of life style and health-status of male students at a National College of Technology. A questionnaire consisting of 75 items on life style and health-status was administered to 581 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. The frequencies and proportions for each item were computed, and the proportion-differences were examined using one-way analysis of variance. Quite a few students have some exercise habit, and they exercise more than...

  17. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  18. Irradiation characteristics examination technology development of irradiated nuclear material and high burn-up fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choo, Y. S.; Oh, Y. W. [and others

    2002-12-01

    The research and development for the first year of the project are performed through specialization of researchers, information from aborad and international cooperation, securement of advanced nuclear technology, development and installation of test equipment, application of external man-power, establishment of advanced test techniques, and certified test method. 1. Absolute efficiency measurement examination technology development of gamma scanning system 2. Sample preparation technology development of SEM and EPMA for micro-structural observation and chemical composition analysis 3. Irradiated high burn-up nuclear fuel transportation and test for PWR 4. Development of hot cell examination techniques and equipment 5. Acquirement of KOLAS system. In addition to the project, the following activities are carried out as follows; - PIE of Hanaro fuel(KH99H-001) - PIE of U-Mo advanced nuclear fuel irradiated at Hanaro - PIE of Hi-MET advanced nuclear fuel irradiated at Hanaro - PIE of DUPIC project - Hot cell examination of Hanaro irradiated capsule - Leaching test of PWR fuels - Surveillance test of PWR vessels - Mechanical test of CANDU pressure tubes.

  19. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  20. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ADDITIVES AND INGREDIENTS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMAL PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Drozdova; V. V. Nasonova

    2016-01-01

    In the present review, we focus on the features of the collagen structure. In particular, we report the correlation between the amount of proline and hydroxyproline and the temperature of denaturation, as well as the changes of collagen structure after thermal treatment. After cooling, denaturated collagen forms dense jellies which may absorb a large amount of water. The influence of pH on the denaturalion temperature, solubility andthe strength characteristics of collagen-containing proteins...

  1. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  3. Cements containing by-product gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensted, J. [University of Greenwich, London (United Kingdom). School of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Chemical by-product gypsum can readily replace natural gypsum in Portland cements and in blended cements like Portland pfa cement and Portland blast furnace cement without technical detriment in many instances. Indeed, sometimes the technical performance of the cement can be enhanced. The hydration chemistry is often changed, in that where there is at least some retardation of setting, more AFT phase (ettringite) is formed during early hydration at the expense of calcium silicate hydrates. By-product gypsum can also replace natural gypsum in speciality products like calcium aluminate cement-Portland cement mixes for producing quick setting cements and in calcium sulphoaluminate-type expansive cements. However, by-products gypsum have proved to be less successful for utilization in API Classes of oilwell cements, because of the greater difficulty in obtaining batch-to-batch consistency in properties like thickening time and slurry rheology. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. A survey of characteristic engine features for technology-sustained pervasive games

    CERN Document Server

    Nevelsteen, Kim JL

    2015-01-01

    This book scrutinizes pervasive games from a technological perspective, focusing on the sub-domain of games that satisfy the criteria that they make use of virtual game elements. In the computer game industry, the use of a game engine to build games is common, but current game engines do not support pervasive games. Since the computer game industry is already rich with game engines, this book investigates: (i) if a game engine can be repurposed to stage pervasive games; (ii) if features describing a would-be pervasive game engine can be identified; (iii) using those features, if an architectu

  5. E-Learning – Using XML technologies to meet the special characteristics of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kanovsky

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we claim that the current approach to learning objects and metadata standards is counter productive for the integration of e-learning in higher education. We explain why higher education is different with regard to E-learning and we suggest an approach that avoids the use of global standards and favors an approach of an evolving set of metadata tags for an evolving community of practice. We demonstrate how XML technologies and some minimal technical help for the participating teachers can provide the required foundation for a productive process of integrating E-learning in higher education.

  6. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-08-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  7. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit; Taboryski, Rafael; Pedersen, Simon; Vestergaard, Ras K; Jacobsen, Rasmus B; Krzywkowski, Karen; Schrøder, Rikke L; Ljungstrøm, Trine; Hélix, Nathalie; Sørensen, Claus B; Bech, Morten; Willumsen, Niels J

    2003-10-01

    Planar silicon chips with 1-2-microm etched holes (average resistance: 2.04 +/- 0.02 MOmega in physiological buffer, n = 274) have been developed for patch-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from cells in suspension. An automated 16-channel parallel screening system, QPatch 16, has been developed using this technology. A single-channel prototype of the QPatch system was used for validation of the patch-clamp chip technology. We present here data on the quality of patch-clamp recordings and from actual drug screening studies of human potassium channels expressed in cultured cell lines. Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), gigaseals of 4.1 +/- 0.4 GOmega (n = 146) and high-quality whole-cell current recordings were obtained from hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Success rates for gigaseal recordings varied from 40 to 95%, and 67% of the whole-cell configurations lasted for >20 min. Cells were maintained in suspension up to 4 h in a cell storage facility that is integrated in the QPatch 16. No decline in patchability was observed during this time course. A series of screens was conducted with known inhibitors of the hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Dose-response relationship characterizations of verapamil and rBeKm-1 blockage of hERG currents provided IC(50) values similar to values reported in the literature.

  8. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  9. Farm, household, and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Ugoretz, Sarah Janes; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Wattiaux, Michel André

    2015-02-01

    This study explored whether technology adoption and changes in management practices were associated with farm structure, household, and farmer characteristics and to identify processes that may foster productivity and sustainability of small-scale dairy farming in the central highlands of Mexico. Factor analysis of survey data from 44 smallholders identified three factors-related to farm size, farmer's engagement, and household structure-that explained 70 % of cumulative variance. The subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 included the most senior farmers with fewest years of education but greatest years of experience. Cluster 2 included farmers who reported access to extension, cooperative services, and more management changes. Cluster 2 obtained 25 and 35 % more milk than farmers in clusters 1 and 3, respectively. Cluster 3 included the youngest farmers, with most years of education and greatest availability of family labor. Access to a network and membership in a community of peers appeared as important contributors to success. Smallholders gravitated towards easy to implement technologies that have immediate benefits. Nonusers of high investment technologies found them unaffordable because of cost, insufficient farm size, and lack of knowledge or reliable electricity. Multivariate analysis may be a useful tool in planning extension activities and organizing channels of communication to effectively target farmers with varying needs, constraints, and motivations for change and in identifying farmers who may exemplify models of change for others who manage farms that are structurally similar but performing at a lower level.

  10. Growth and characteristics of tantalum oxide thin films deposited using thermionic vacuum arc technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, Rodica; Ciupina, Victor; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Prodan, Madalina; Musa, Geavit

    2010-11-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films were synthesized using thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technology. TVA is an original deposition method using a combination of anodic arc and electron gun system for the growth of thin films from solid precursors under vacuum of 10-6 Torr. The properties of the deposited Ta2O5 thin films were investigated in terms of wettability, refractive index, morphology, and structure. The surface free energy was determined by means of surface energy evaluation system indicating a hydrophilic character and the refractive index was measured by Filmetrics F20 device. The morphology was determined from bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image performed by Philips CM 120 ST TEM system. It exhibits nanoparticles of 3-6 nm diameter smoothly distributed. Selected area electron diffraction pattern revealed the contrast fringes given by complex polycrystalline particles included in the amorphous film. The measured fringes could be indexed using monoclinic structure of Ta2O5.

  11. Transcriptome characteristics of filamentous fungi deduced using high-throughput analytical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijueiro, Martha Lucía; Santoyo, Francisco; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G

    2014-11-01

    Transcriptomes are the complete set of genome sequences transcribed at a given time point by a given organism, organ, tissue or cell. The availability of high-throughput analytical techniques and, especially, the democratization of the use of RNA sequencing using new platforms have made it possible to transform transcriptome analysis into a common study affordable by most laboratories. In many cases, however, there is a certain level of prevention toward the use of these technologies because of the lack of knowledge about what has been done, what can be done and how high-throughput sequencing can help us solve specific scientific questions. Here, we will try to answer some initial questions about fungal transcriptome analysis, provide some examples of fungal biology questions that have been addressed using this approach and extract some general conclusions about the transcriptome structure and dynamics in fungal systems.

  12. Assessment of Corrosion Characteristics and Development of Remedial Technologies in Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Lim, Y. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    In general, materials having superior resistance to corrosion are used for main components and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) to improve their safety. During long-term operations in the high temperature and pressure environment, however, localized-corrosion related degradations occur frequently in those materials, leading to unexpected shutdown of the plants. The unexpected shutdowns may lower the operating efficiency of the power generation and expand the repair period, which results in a huge economical loss. Moreover, since the damages may cause a leakage of the primary coolant that brings about a contamination by radioactive substances, the corrosion related degradations of structural materials have become a menace to the safety of NPPs. The steam generator tubes forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs are one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion. Therefore, it is strongly required to verify the degradation mechanisms of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 materials used in the steam generator tubes and primary systems, to establish remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, (1) the assessment techniques of corrosion damages were improved and the database of the obtained results were established. (2) The basic technologies of the management of corrosion damages were developed for the practical use. (3) The fundamental technologies for inhibition and repair of corrosion damages were also developed. The results of this project are applicable to the assessment, failure analysis and life estimation of the materials against corrosion damages. The assessment data obtained in this work are available for the technical references of the corrosion failures of components in NPPs during operation. Furthermore, it is applicable to establish materials design requirements, to establish the optimum operation condition and to

  13. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefaction of biomass involves heating at 200°C-300°C under inert atmosphere to remove volatiles and produce materials with higher energy values and low moisture. Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at differ...

  14. Effects of Job Characteristics on Performance of Advanced Manufacturing Technology:an Empirical Examination to Equipment-manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Dashuang; WANG Dongbo; SONG Jinbo

    2006-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) is pivotal for firms to gain manufacturing performance and competitive advantage. Job characteristics, as a kind of important factors affecting the implementation effects of AMT, have become the focus in the field of academy. Based on a literature review, this study refines the implementation effects of AMT into operational performance, satisfaction and competitive performance, and reclassifies the job characteristics of AMT into job autonomy, job responsibility, job complexity and job significance. With a large sample of 307 equipment-manufacturing firms selected from the 2005 China International Equipment and Manufacturing Exposition, linear structural equation analysis (LIEREL) is performed to examine the relationships between job characteristics and the implementation effects of AMT. The results show that job responsibility and job significance have positive effects on satisfaction; satisfaction is positively correlated with operational performance; operational performance positively affects competitive performance. The findings provide the guide for firms to improve satisfaction, achieve higher operational performance and further gain higher competitive by reasonable job redesign.

  15. [Research on flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump based on CFD technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunzhang; Luo, Binhai; Wu, Wenquan; Jiang, Lei

    2010-10-01

    The problem of thrombus and hemolysis in blood pump has always been an important topic to study in the development of the blood pump. Numbers of research results show that it is the complicated flow and the high shear stress of the mechanical movement that result in the thrombus and hemolysis. In this study, with the cooperation of Shanghai Children's Medical Center, we have used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial software FLUENT to compute and analyze the flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump. The results figure out that this pump has a reasonable flow distribution and the shear stress distribution is under the critical broken state of red blood cell; meanwhile, there is less thrombus and hemolysis in this pump. So it is in the foreground for clinical use.

  16. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  17. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  18. Efeito de dietas semi-simplificadas formuladas com subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de coelhos = Effect of half-simplified diets formulated with cassava by-product ensiled or not on performance and carcass characteristics of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fróes Galuci Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o desempenho da desmama ao abate e as características de carcaça de 144 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, oriundos de matrizes alimentadas com dietas referência ou semi-simplificada com 79,83% de subprodutos de mandioca, distribuídos em gaiolas, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (duas rações fornecidas às matrizes e láparos até a desmama versus três rações fornecidas aos animais da desmama até o abate com 12 repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas fornecidas, após a desmama, consistiram de umareferência e duas semi-simplificadas com 81,63% de subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não antes da sua incorporação. Coelhos cujas mães foram alimentadas com dieta semi-simplificadas se apresentaram mais leves à desmama que os desmamados com dieta-referência. Observou-se menor consumo de ração para os coelhos que receberam a dieta maternidade semi-simplificada até a desmama, resultando em melhor conversão alimentar. Os pesos da carcaça e dos cortes comerciais foram maiores nos animais alimentados com as rações referência maternidade e referência crescimento. O uso de dietas semi-simplificadas com subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não, da desmama ao abate, reduziu o ganho de peso diário e o consumo de ração,porém melhorou a conversão alimentar e diminuiu o custo de ração. A utilização das rações semi-simplificadas apresenta-se como alternativa interessante para a produção de coelhos.This study evaluated the performance from weaning to slaughter and carcass characteristics of 144 New Zealand White rabbits, from does fed with a reference diet or half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava by-product, allocated in iron cages, in a 2 x 3 factorialarrangement (two diets used for does and litters until weaning versus three diets supplied for animals from weaning to slaughter with 12 replications and two animals per experimental unit. The supplied diets after weaning consisted

  19. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  20. Development technology of rigidity-drain pile and numerical analysis of its anti-liquefaction characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉龙; 陈育民; 赵楠

    2008-01-01

    Pile foundation is widely used in the offshore engineering. The pile can be seriously destroyed by the soil liquefaction during strong earthquakes. The potentials of liquefaction and damages of pile foundation due to the liquefaction can be reduced by the implementation of the drainage in the liquefiable foundation. A patented pile technology, named rigidity-drain pile, was introduced. The partial section of the pile body was filled by materials with higher penetrability which forms some effective drainage channels in the pile. The principles and construction methods were presented. 3D models for both rigidity-drain pile and ordinary pile were built in FLAC3D code. The dynamic loadings were applied on the bottom of the model. According to the numerical results, in the case of the rigidity-drain pile, the water in the relevant distance range around the pile flows toward the pile drainage, the contour of the pore pressure shows a funnel form. Contrast to the ordinary pile, the rigidity-drain pile can dissipate the accumulated excess pore water, maintain effective stress and obviously reduce the possibility of surrounding soil liquefaction.

  1. Biological technologies for the removal of sulfur containing compounds from waste streams: bioreactors and microbial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Jian; Liu, Junxin

    2015-10-01

    Waste gases containing sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, thioethers, and mercaptan, produced and emitted from industrial processes, wastewater treatment, and landfill waste may cause undesirable issues in adjacent areas and contribute to atmospheric pollution. Their control has been an area of concern and research for many years. As alternative to conventional physicochemical air pollution control technologies, biological treatment processes which can transform sulfur compounds to harmless products by microbial activity, have gained in popularity due to their efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental acceptability. This paper provides an overview of the current biological techniques used for the treatment of air streams contaminated with sulfur compounds as well as the advances made in the past year. The discussion focuses on bioreactor configuration and design, mechanism of operation, insights into the overall biological treatment process, and the characterization of the microbial species present in bioreactors, their populations and their interactions with the environment. Some bioreactor case studies are also introduced. Finally, the perspectives on future research and development needs in this research area were also highlighted.

  2. Acoustic Characteristics of Various Treatment Panel Designs for HSCT Ejector Liner Acoustic Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salikuddin, M.; Kraft, R. E.; Syed, A. a.; Vu, D. D.; Mungur, P.; Langenbrunner, L. E.; Majjigi, R. K.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the initial effort (Phase I) of HSR Liner Technology Program, the selection of promising liner concepts, design and fabrication of these concepts for laboratory tests, testing these liners in the laboratory by using impedance tube and flow ducts, and developing empirical impedance/suppression correlation, are successfully completed. Acoustic and aerodynamic criteria for the liner design are established. Based on these criteria several liners are designed. The liner concepts designed and fabricated include Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF), Two-Degree-of-Freedom (2DOF), and Bulk Absorber. Two types of SDOF treatment are fabricated, one with a perforated type face plate and the other with a wiremesh (woven) type faceplate. In addition, special configurations of these concepts are also included in the design. Several treatment panels are designed for parametric study. In these panels the facesheets of different porosity, hole diameter, and sheet thickness are utilized. Several deep panels (i.e., 1 in. deep) are designed and instrumented to measure DC flow resistance and insitu impedance in the presence of grazing flow. Basic components of these panels (i.e., facesheets, bulk materials, etc.) are also procured and tested. The results include DC flow resistance, normal impedance, and insertion loss.

  3. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  4. Study of heat transfer characteristics in PCFG fabrication technology using heat method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefeng Qi; Hanping Qiao; Weihong Bi

    2011-01-01

    @@ The fiber gratings fabrication technology with the heating method in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based on structural change is examined. The principle of photonic crystal fiber gratings (PCFGs) is analyzed in theory. The heat transfer theory and finite element method are used to examine the thermal field distribution in the fiber and the influence of the air hole structure in the cladding, and the parameters of the laser beam in the process of grating fabrication are discussed. The results show that gratings can be formed by the periodic collapse of air holes in the cladding of PCFs. Under double-point heating condition, the energy is uniformly distributed in the radial direction and is approximate to Gaussian distribution in the axial direction. With the same size of the luminous spot, as the layers and radius of the air holes increase, the laser power needed to make the air holes collapse decreases. With the same laser power, as the luminous spot radius increases, the needed heating time increases. Moreover, the relationship between the laser power needed and the air filling rate is obtained as the number of layers of the air holes changes from 1 to 7. This kind of PCFG can overcome the long-term thermal instability of conventional gratings in substance and thus has great potential applications in the related field of optical fiber sensors.%The fiber gratings fabrication technology with the heating method in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based on structural change is examined. The principle of photonic crystal fiber gratings (PCFGs) is analyzed in theory. The heat transfer theory and finite element method are used to examine the thermal field distribution in the fiber and the influence of the air hole structure in the cladding, and the parameters of the laser beam in the process of grating fabrication are discussed. The results show that gratings can be formed by the periodic collapse of air holes in the cladding of PCFs. Under double-point heating

  5. INFLUENCE OF MELAPHEN ON AGROBIOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SAVINION WHITE GRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchevskiy P. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereby we present the results of the research devoted to study of influence of growth modulator called melaphen on the technical brand of gapes such as Sovinion White and its agro-biological characteristics. The research was conducted in 2014-2015 using fruitful grape Sovinion White of 2004 planting as a subject in agro farm “Yuzhnaya” of Temruk in the Krasnodar Region. Melaphen is a type of melamine salt of bioximethilphosphin acid. It evokes complex influence on the energetic complex of vegetation cell in all three stages of vegetation. The chemical was applied mechanically by a tractor sprinkling. The square of tested patch is 2 hectares. Melaphen usage was 6,7 ml to 1 hectare . Norm of liquid applied was 700 liters to 1 hectare. Three times the chemical was applied during vegetation: before blossoming, grape growth phase (grapes the size of a pea and before the grapes ripen. As a result it was estimated that three times chemical application of melaphen to Sovinion White in dose 1. 10-9 in period after blossoming of grapes and before the grapes ripen led to more saturated accumulation of sugar in juice of the grapes and also to faster ripening and harvesting, larger mass of grape bunch amount of harvesting from a bush. Besides, in the tested option growing processes are accelerated and pigmentation agents are accumulated faster in the leaves and embryo infestation in winter sleeping core is boosted at larger scale. Better harvest quality leads to better wine materials quality. Application of melaphen provides higher economical efficiency

  6. Learning characteristics of veterinary technology students in a distance-education and an on-campus program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Connie K; Wright, David L

    2008-01-01

    Distance-education programs have the potential to greatly increase the number of veterinary technicians. The demographic characteristics, readiness for independent and online learning, learning styles, and academic locus of control of a group of distance-education and on-campus veterinary technology students were examined. Distance-education students preferred independent learning and were more internally motivated to learn. Distance-education students with greater degrees of independence and internal motivation participated more fully, were more satisfied with their learning, and achieved higher grades. Students who preferred problem solving and active experimentation were particularly successful in distance education. These findings could have important implications for advising students interested in distance-education programs.

  7. Property Characteristics of a TiB2P/AI Composite Fabricated by Squeeze Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min ZHAO; Gaohui WU; Zuoyong DOU; Longtao JIANG

    2006-01-01

    TiB2P/Al composite was successfully fabricated by squeeze casting technology. Its mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated. The elimination of Ti-Al intermetallic compound was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. At 45% volume fraction, the bending strength at ambient temperature was 934 MPa. And the fracture modes included ductile failure of Al matrix and brittle fracture of TiB2 particles. In dry sliding wear mode, severe plastic deformation and adhesive wear were found on the worn surfaces of the SiCP/Alcomposite. But no obvious characteristics of adhesion or abrasion wear were observed on that of the TiB2P/Al composites. At the steady stage, the friction coefficient of the SiCP/Al composite was about 0.6. While that of TiB2P/Al composite was only about 0.16~0.17.

  8. The effect of time gaining on chemical composition and technological characteristics of mechanically separated turkey meat (MSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Cegiełka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically separated meat (MSM of poultry is a raw material widely used in the meat industry in Poland and most European Union countries. The manner and conditions for the production of this raw material cause, however, that it has limited technological usefulness. In this study the effect of time of obtaining turkey MSM produced by pressure separation on selected quality characteristics of this raw material: basic chemical composition, pH, thermal loss, water binding capacity and colour was determined. The experimental material consisted of MSM, which was collected directly from the machine after 1, 2 and 3 h of operation. The content of water, protein and fat in MSM was determined using a near infrared spectrometer. The instrumental measurement of colour parameters was performed in the CIE L*a*b* (1976 system. Determination of ash content in MSM and pH measurement were performed according to the requirements of Polish standards, and to determine other technological quality characteristics the methods described in the literature were used. It was found that the extension of working time of the pressure separator from 1 to 3 h resulted in a significant increase in the water content in turkey MSM. Furthermore, the MSM sample obtained after 3 h of operation of the device was characterized by a significantly lower thermal loss and higher water binding capacity than a similar material, but obtained after 1 and 2 h of operation of the device. Time of obtaining of turkey MOM had no significant effect on the content of protein, fat and ash, pH value and colour parameters (L*, a*, b* of the raw material.

  9. Transforming beef by-products into valuable ingredients: which spell/recipe to use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Mary Henchion

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance. It also highlights the impact of life experiences, linked to demographic characteristics, on interpretations and evaluations of products and processes. Ideational influences, i.e. knowledge of the nature or origin of the substance, are reasons for rejecting some concepts, with misalignment between nature of processing and the product resulting in rejection of others. Lack of perceived necessity also results in rejection. Alignment of ingredients with existing culinary practices and routines, communication of potential sensory or other benefits as well as naturalness are factors likely to promote acceptance, and generate repeat purchase, in some consumer segments. Trust in oversight that the products are safe is a prerequisite for acceptance in all cases. These findings have implications for pathways to increase sustainability of beef production and consumption through increased use of beef by-products.

  10. A Hybrid MCDM Approach for Strategic Project Portfolio Selection of Agro By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Debnath

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing size of the population, society faces several challenges for sustainable and adequate agricultural production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the strategic project portfolio selection (SPPS. The initial adaptation of strategic portfolio management of genetically modified (GM Agro by-products (Ab-Ps is a huge challenge in terms of processing the agro food product supply-chain practices in an environmentally nonthreatening way. As a solution to the challenges, the socio-economic characteristics for SPPS of GM food purchasing scenarios are studied. Evaluation and selection of the GM agro portfolio management are the dynamic issues due to physical and immaterial criteria involving a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM approach, combining modified grey Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, Multi-Attributive Border Approximation area Comparison (MABAC and sensitivity analysis. Evaluation criteria are grouped into social, differential and beneficial clusters, and the modified DEMATEL procedure is used to derive the criteria weights. The MABAC method is applied to rank the strategic project portfolios according to the aggregated preferences of decision makers (DMs. The usefulness of the proposed research framework is validated with a case study. The GM by-products are found to be the best portfolio. Moreover, this framework can unify the policies of agro technological improvement, corporate social responsibility (CSR and agro export promotion.

  11. Transforming Beef By-products into Valuable Ingredients: Which Spell/Recipe to Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; O’Callaghan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing, and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance. It also highlights the impact of life experiences, linked to demographic characteristics, on interpretations and evaluations of products and processes. Ideational influences, i.e., knowledge of the nature or origin of the substance, are reasons for rejecting some concepts, with misalignment between nature of processing and the product resulting in rejection of others. Lack of perceived necessity also results in rejection. Alignment of ingredients with existing culinary practices and routines, communication of potential sensory, or other benefits as well as naturalness are factors likely to promote acceptance, and generate repeat purchase, in some consumer segments. Trust in oversight that the products are safe is a prerequisite for acceptance in all cases. These findings have implications for pathways to increase sustainability of beef production and consumption through increased use of beef by-products. PMID:27965963

  12. Characteristics of neurovascular compression in facial neuralgia patients by 3D high-resolution MRI and fusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zi-Yi; Chen, Jing; Yang, Guang; Tang, Qian-Yu; Chen, Cai-Xiang; Fu, Shui-Xi; Yu, Dan

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the anatomical characteristics and patterns of neurovascular compression in patients suffering trigeminal neuralgia, using 3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging methods and fusion technologies. The analysis of the anatomy of the facial nerve, brain stem and the vascular structures related to this nerve was made in 100 consecutive patients for TN. 3D high resolution MRI studies (3D SPGR, T1 enhanced 3D MP-RAGE and T2/T1 3D FIESTA) simultaneous visualization were used to assessed using the software 3D DOCTOR. In 93 patients (93%), there were one or several locals of neurovascular compression (NVC). The superior cerebellar artery was involved in 71 cases (76%), the other vessels including the antero-inferior cerebellar artery, the basilar artery, the vertebral artery, and some venous structures. The mean distance between NVC and nerve origin site in the brainstem was (3.76 ± 2.90) mm). In 39 patients (42%), the vascular compression was located proximally and in 42 (45%) the compression was located distally. Nerve dislocation or distortion by the vessel was observed in 30 cases (32%). This 3D high resolution MRI and image fusion technology could be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in TN. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parameters for quantity calculations of poultry by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant group of inedible by-products from industrial slaughterhouses that can be used as a raw material for processing into quality feed for pigs and pets are byproducts of slaughtered poultry. The poultry industry yields a large amount of inedible byproducts of which the removal or processing requires hygienic and economic solutions. These activities primarily include the protection of the environmental from degradation processes and biological pollution, as well as securing high-protein animal feed. The incorporation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products into food for animals involves the application of various technological processes. These processes should be simple and feasible for investments where it is necessary to obtain a quality product. At the same time, it must be taken into account that the production process does not create new secondary products or waste gases that could contaminate the environment. Scientific knowledge in the field of exploitation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products provides the necessary basis for calculating the amount of certain types of raw materials.

  14. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrog

  15. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  16. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  17. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  18. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of various technological parameters on the C-Vg and the G-Vg characteristics of MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejaiba, Omar; Braña, Alejandro F.; Matoussi, Adel

    2016-08-01

    This paper was devoted to study the effects of some technological parameters (gate, oxide and doping density N a on the electrical properties of MOS structures. The conductance and capacitance were determined from a proposed admittance model. Results showed a frequency dispersion of C- V g and G- V g curves in inversion regime. This modeling takes into account the influence of series and parallel resistances ( R s, R p), thickness of oxide layer, the work function of gate electrode and the doping density ( N a). The C- V g and G- V g characteristics have been simulated at high frequency (100 kHz-1 MHz).With increasing frequency, the inversion capacitance is decreased whereas the conductance is strongly increased. A degradation of their shapes is shown in the operating accumulation and depletion modes. The accumulation capacitance seems to be strong for titanium oxide (TiO2) and for the oxide thickness is very small. Interestingly, the change of metal gate causes C- V g shifting and variation of the values of the flat band and threshold voltages. In the inversion mode, the C - V g and G- V g decreases with the increase of the doping density ( N a). There is a shift of the flat-band and threshold voltage ( V fb, V th) when N a increase. Excellent agreement was observed between the calculated and the measured C- V g curves obtained at high frequency.

  20. Student and high-school characteristics related to completing a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) major in college

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.

  1. Fabrication Technology and Characteristics of a Magnetic Sensitive Transistor with nc-Si:H/c-Si Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Li, Baozeng; Wen, Dianzhong

    2017-01-22

    This paper presents a magnetically sensitive transistor using a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction. By adopting micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, the nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction silicon magnetically sensitive transistor (HSMST) chips were designed and fabricated on a p-type orientation double-side polished silicon wafer with high resistivity. In addition, a collector load resistor ( R L ) was integrated on the chip, and the resistor converted the collector current ( I C ) to a collector output voltage ( V out ). When I B = 8.0 mA, V DD = 10.0 V, and R L = 4.1 kΩ, the magnetic sensitivity ( S V ) at room temperature and temperature coefficient ( α C ) of the collector current for HSMST were 181 mV/T and -0.11%/°C, respectively. The experimental results show that the magnetic sensitivity and temperature characteristics of the proposed transistor can be obviously improved by the use of a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction.

  2. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  3. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.;

    2007-01-01

    Finishing feeding was evaluated as a way to improve carcass-, meat- and eating quality of culled dairy cows. In total, 125 Danish Friesian cows were purchased from commercial dairy herds. Cows were culled for various typical reasons at different stages of lactation, were non-pregnant and had milk...... and better technological as well as sensory quality characteristics....

  4. BY PRODUCT TERNAK. Teknologi dan Aplikasinya

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    DAFTAR PUSTAKA Adventini, N., Muhayatun, D. D. Lestiani dan W.Y.N. Syahfitri. 2012. Analisis Mikronutrien dalam Daging, Limpa, dan Hati Sapi. Jurnal Medika. 38 (8), 580???586. Angelidaki, I., and B. K. Ahring. 2000. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure. Water Science Technology. 41 (3), 189-194. Anonim. 1974. Gelita-Instant-Gelatins Type 800 A Type 800 B. Gelatine-Information-Service. Deutsche Gelatine-Febrike...

  5. DISSCUSS ON CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CONTENT OF BROMATE FROM OZONATION DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT IN DRINKING WATER%饮用水中臭氧消毒副产物溴酸盐含量的控制技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书芬; 王全林; 沈坚; 钟雄华

    2011-01-01

    The paper described the formation mechanism of bromate in the process of ozonation, and then studied control method to limit the bromated content in drinking water in the steps of pretreatment of raw water, controlment of bromate formation and removal of bromated.It is a feasible approach to adopt membrane separation technology (control of raw water conductivity and microbial content), ammonia treatment, combination of various disinfectants and using new disinfectant, optimization of ozone disinfection process and activated carbon adsorption technology to control the bromate content in drinking water.In order to get the balance of ozone, microorganisms and bromate, water characteristic, production capacity,enterprise size and running cost should be concerned.%在阐述臭氧化过程中溴酸盐的生成机理的前提下,从原水预处理、溴酸盐形成过程控制、溴酸盐形成后消除3个阶段来分析研究控制饮用水中溴酸盐含量的方法.经过探讨和实践表明,采用膜分离技术(控制原水电导率和微生物含量)、加氨、采用新型消毒剂和多种消毒剂组合使用、优化臭氧消毒工艺和活性炭吸附技术等是较为可行的控制途径.饮用水生产企业根据水源特点,生产能力,企业规模、运行成本等条件进行选择尝试,从而实现臭氧,微生物和溴酸盐之间的平衡.

  6. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingue, Armando Abel; Torres Filho, Robledo de Almeida; Fontes, Paulo Rogerio; Ramos, Alcinéia de Souza; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Olalquiaga Perez, Juan Ramon; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0, 30% and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, TBA reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (P < 0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (P < 0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C* and lower h°) and darker (lower L*) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (P < 0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  7. 先进制造技术特点及发展趋势%The characteristics of advanced manufacturing technology and its development trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced manufacturing technology progress, elaborated the development trend of advanced manufacturing technology, system ana lysis of the development of advanced manufacturing technology content, method, characteristic and direction. Only the advanced manufacturing technology has the world advanced level, the production of products can have global competition.%  本文介绍了先进制造技术发展的概况特点,阐述了先进制造技术的发展趋势,系统的分析了先进制造技术发展的内容、方法、特点以及方向。只有先进制造技术具有世界先进水平,生产产品才能具有全球竞争性。

  8. Nutritional diversity of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.G. Azevêdo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven by-products were collected from regions throughout Brazil. Chemical composition, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were determined with the objective of grouping by-products with similar nutritional characteristics. The by-products belonging to group one (G1 presented the highest content of neutral detergent fiber exclusive of ash and nitrogenous compounds [aNDFom(n] and lowest energy content, with 42.5% and 38.8% of IVNDFD and TDN, respectively. A new cluster analysis was carried in order to better characterize G2 by-products, six subgroups (SGs were established (SG1 to SG6. SG1 by-products had the highest and the lowest values for lignin and TDN, respectively. SG2 by-products had the highest aNDFom(n value, with TDN and IVNDFD values greater than 600 and 700g/kg, respectively, and crude protein (CP value below 200g/kg in dry matter (DM. Among all the subgroups, SG3 had the highest TDN (772g/kg and IVNDFD (934g/kg values and the lowest lignin (23g/kg in DM value. The ether extract was what most influenced the hierarchical establishment of residual grouping in SG4. SG5 by-products had the highest concentration of non-fibrous carbohydrate. Different from the other subgroups, SG6 by-products had the highest value of available CP.

  9. Running of hydrogen chloride synthesis furnace with by-product steam%副产蒸汽氯化氢合成炉运行探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雄堂; 刘延安; 王贵珍

    2013-01-01

    介绍副产蒸汽氯化氢合成炉的结构、特点及工艺流程,总结出运行过程中安全操作注意事项,分析了采用该合成炉的经济效益。%The structure , characteristics and technological process of hydrogen chloride synthesis fur-nace with by-product steam are introduced .The matters needing attention on safe operation are summa-rized .The economic benefits brought by the synthesis furnace are analyzed .

  10. 丝尾鳠生物学特性及人工养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Artificial Breeding Technology of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正兴; 张正雄; 薛晨江; 王文玉

    2014-01-01

    Morphological characteristics,life habits and breeding habits of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang were expounded. Through the system discussion of aquarium construction,artificial reproduction technology,fish breeding technology,disease prevention and control technology of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang,biological characteristics of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang such as feeding habits,dissolved oxygen demand,temperature adaptability,salinity tolerance were verified,reproduction and fish cultivation measures of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang were pointed out,pond farming required supporting technology and common disease control technology were also put forward.%阐述了丝尾鳠的形态特征、生活习性、繁殖习性。通过对丝尾鳠的养鱼池建造、人工繁殖技术、成鱼养殖技术、病害防治技术的系统论述,探明了丝尾鳠的食性、溶氧需求、温度适应性、盐度耐受性等生物学特性,指出了丝尾鳠繁殖与苗种培育措施,提出了池塘养殖所需配套技术及常见病害防治技术。

  11. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare

    1997-12-31

    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  13. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  14. Strategy of Utilization of Locally Available Crop Residues and By-Products for Livestock Feeding in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Moujahed-Raach, A.; Moujahed, N.; Kayouli, C

    2001-01-01

    Important quantifies of crops residues and by-products are yearly available in North African countries. This paper presents the screening of the most important by-products in Tunisia, their nutritional characteristics and the appropriate strategies to use most of them in order to improve ruminants feeding systems. One or several by-products are specifie of each region of the country, but most of them are localised in the northern region. Some of the agricultural wastes are available in import...

  15. 论P2P技术特点与网络安全%Characteristics and Network Security of P2P Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尔谦

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of P2P technology, technical characteristics and safety issues faced by P2P networks and to solve those problems.%本文介绍了P2P技术的概念、技术的特点以及P2P网络面临安全问题和解决这些问题的方案。

  16. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  17. Digital by-product data in web 2.0 exploring mass collaboration of Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zeyi

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), every action on the Internet nowadays is recorded by digital by-product data: online purchases, tagging friends' photos, browsing webpages, etc. This unprecedented technological revolution has empowered us with unique abilities to understand not only people's behaviours, but also online platforms. Business corporates and academic researchers alike have both embarked on actively mining such information to stay ahead of the game in th...

  18. An Overview of Linearity Correction Technology for Tuning Characteristics of VCO%VCO电调特性的线性校正技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷建伟; 齐晓辉

    2012-01-01

    VCO电调特性的线性校正技术是决定线性调频连续波雷达系统性能的关键技术之一.给出了VCO电调线性度的基本定义.VCO电调特性的线性校正技术主要包括电抗补偿线性校正、开环线性校正和闭环线性校正三种基本校正方案.详细分析了各种校正方案的基本原理,并对各种校正方案的优缺点进行了对比分析;同时,详细介绍了VCO线性校正技术的最新研究进展.%Linearity correction technology for tuning characteristics of VCO is the key to performance of linear frequency modulation continuous wave (LFMCW) radar system. Basic definition of VCO tuning linearity was described. Linearity correction technology for VCO tuning characteristics mainly includes three basic schemes; reactance compensation, open loop and closed loop linearity corrections. Basic principles of each correction schemes were analyzed in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. At the same time, the latest development in research on linearity correction technology for VCO tuning characteristics were described in particular.

  19. Farm and socio-economic characteristics of smallholder milk producers and their influence on technology adoption in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos Galdino Martínez; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    In order to identify the factors influencing adoption of technologies promoted by government to small-scale dairy farmers in the highlands of central Mexico, a field survey was conducted. A total of 115 farmers were grouped through cluster analysis (CA) and divided into three wealth status categories (high, medium and low) using wealth ranking. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the association of wealth status with technology adoption. Four groups of farms were differentiated in terms of farms' dimensions, farmers' education, sources of incomes, wealth status, management of herd, monetary support by government and technological availability. Statistical differences (p technologies identified, six of which focused on crop or forage production and 11 of which were related to animal husbandry. Relatives and other farmers played an important role in knowledge diffusion and technology adoption. Although wealth status had a significant association (p technology to farmers, usefulness and productive benefits of innovations together with farmers' knowledge of them, were important. It is concluded that the analysis of the information per group and wealth status was useful to identify suitable crop or forage related and animal husbandry technologies per group and wealth status of farmers. Therefore the characterizations of farmers could provide a useful starting point for the design and delivery of more appropriate and effective extension.

  20. Effect of farming system and cheesemaking technology on the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile, and sensory properties of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; De Pasquale, C; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Di Grigoli, A

    2013-01-01

    Caciocavallo Palermitano is a typical stretched-curd cheese that has been produced over the centuries in Sicily according to traditional cheesemaking technology and using raw milk from autochthonous cow breeds reared at pasture. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of the farming system and processing technology on the characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese, with particular regard to the fatty acid profile. The farming system was either extensive, using autochthonous cows fed a pasture-based diet, or intensive, with specialized dairy cow breeds fed mainly hay and concentrate. The cheese-processing technology was either artisanal, using traditional wooden tools and endemic lactic bacteria, or advanced, using modern steel equipment and selected lactic bacteria. Twelve Caciocavallo Palermitano cheeses, 3 from each of the 4 experimental theses (2 farming systems × 2 cheesemaking technologies), were obtained and aged for 1, 30, 60, and 120 d. Milk of origin and cheeses were analyzed for the main chemical and rheological parameters. Fatty acids were methylated in lyophilized cheese and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis was carried out by trained panelists. The PROC GLM of SAS 9.1.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NY) was used for the statistical analysis. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese were influenced more by the farming system than by the cheesemaking technology. Compared with cheese produced through intensive farming, cheese from extensive farming was richer in polyunsaturated, n-3, and odd- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as in conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), with accompanying improved human health benefits. The cheesemaking technology produced variation in the evolution of proteolysis during aging, due presumably to the different active microflora, which influenced the sensory profile of the resulting cheese. Indeed, cheese produced by

  1. I. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, and allometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diode (LED), cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL), and incandescent lamps on broiler performance. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 black-out modified large colony houses, under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested included CCFL and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Live performance for each technology was evaluated using live broiler body weight (BW), weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality. Birds were removed from each house at 7, 14, 35, and 42 d to be humanely euthanized, weighed, and necropsied for allometric tissue sample analysis. Relative to the technologies tested, results indicate that birds raised under incandescent lamps had significantly higher BW by 42 d, compared to birds raised under CCFL lamps, which had poorer BW performance (P=0.03). Birds raised under both LED technologies grew to final BWs similar to those raised under incandescent light, with significant differences in neither feed conversion nor mortality.

  2. Characteristics of neurovascular compression in facial neuralgia patients by 3D high-resolution MRI and fusion technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zi-Yi Guo Jing Chen Guang Yang Qian-Yu Tang Cai-Xiang Chen Shui-Xi Fu Dan Yu

    2012-01-01

    <正>Objective:To evaluate the anatomical characteristics and patterns of neurovascular compression in patients suffering trigeminal neuralgia,using 3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging methods and fusion...

  3. Optimization of extrusion variables for the production of snacks from by-products of rice and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairy Silva Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to define the process conditions to obtain snacks from the by-products of rice and soybean with physical characteristics suitable for marketing. Therefore, the effects of moisture and extrusion temperature on the expansion and color of the products obtained experimentally obtained were evaluated, and the proximate composition of the by-products and that of the snack with greater desirability were determined. Response surface methodology and rotational central composite design were used, and desirability test based on the regression models adjusted was applied. The most desirable snack, with the highest expansion index (3.39, specific volume (13.5 mL.g-1, and the chromaticity coordinate a* (2.79, was obtained under 12 g.100 g-1 moisture and 85ºC of temperature in the third zone of the extruder. The snack produced under these conditions attained content of protein and lipid content 41 and 64% higher than that of the traditional corn snack. It can be concluded that producing extruded snack made form a mixture of broken grains, rice bran, and soybean okara (81:9:10 is technologically feasible, enabling the development of a new product with good nutritional value that can improve the diet of children, the main consumers of this type of food.

  4. Disinfection by-product formation during seawater desalination: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daekyun; Amy, Gary L; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    Due to increased freshwater demand across the globe, seawater desalination has become the technology of choice in augmenting water supplies in many parts of the world. The use of chemical disinfection is necessary in desalination plants for pre-treatment to control both biofouling as well as the post-disinfection of desalinated water. Although chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant in desalination plants, its reaction with organic matter produces various disinfection by-products (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes [THMs], haloacetic acids [HAAs], and haloacetonitriles [HANs]), and some DBPs are regulated in many countries due to their potential risks to public health. To reduce the formation of chlorinated DBPs, alternative oxidants (disinfectants) such as chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone can be considered, but they also produce other types of DBPs. In addition, due to high levels of bromide and iodide concentrations in seawater, highly cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP species (i.e., brominated and iodinated DBPs) may form in distribution systems, especially when desalinated water is blended with other source waters having higher levels of organic matter. This article reviews the knowledge accumulated in the last few decades on DBP formation during seawater desalination, and summarizes in detail, the occurrence of DBPs in various thermal and membrane plants involving different desalination processes. The review also identifies the current challenges and future research needs for controlling DBP formation in seawater desalination plants and to reduce the potential toxicity of desalinated water.

  5. 关于数字广播技术的特点及其应用探讨%Characteristics and its Application on Digital Broadcasting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇

    2014-01-01

    随着社会经济的发展进步与科学技术的迅猛发展,许多技术都得到了一定程度的快速发展,尤其是广播技术更是发生了巨大变化,导致出现了数字广播技术,深受广播电视行业的普遍欢迎。该文对数字音频广播、数字多媒体广播、数字调幅广播、数字卫星声音广播、网上(数字)广播等几种数字广播技术及其特点进行了详细介绍,并进一步阐释了数字广播技术的应用前景,以期能够进一步扩展数字广播技术的应用范围。%With the rapid development of science and technology and social economy, many technology has been rapid develop-ment to a certain extent, especially radio technology is produced tremendous change, leading to the emergence of digital broad-casting technology, widely welcomed by the radio and TV industry. In this paper, the digital audio broadcasting, digital multime-dia broadcasting, digital AM broadcasting, digital satellite sound broadcasting, Internet (digital) broadcast several digital broadcast-ing technology and its characteristics are introduced in detail, and further illustrates the application prospect of digital broadcasting technology, in order to further expand the scope of application of the digital broadcasting technology.

  6. TMT特征与企业技术创新关系研究%The relationship between TMT characteristics and technological innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德应; 刘渐和

    2011-01-01

    Based on the Top Management Team(TMT) limited rationality theory, an analysis model on the relationship between top management team characteristics and corporate technological innovation is constructed. Then using a sample of 350 SMEs which have disclosed innovation expenditure in annual reports of 2007 and 2008, the relationship between top management team characteristics and corporate technological innovation is empirically tested. It is found that top management team characteristics is a core variable in technological innovation analysis; but SMEs' research differs from the former research, for example, SMEs technological innovation closely relates to top management team size, education status, tenure, and share holding status, while the relation with heterogeneity, but technical background is insignificant; the relationship between top management team characteristics and corporate technological innovation changes in different ownership enterprises and different industry enterprises.%文章从TMT有限理性出发,构建TMT特征与企业技术创新关系分析模型,然后以2007、2008两年披露创新投入的350家中小企业板上市公司为样本,实证检验了TMT特征与企业技术创新的关系。研究结果表明TMT特征是影响企业技术创新的重要变量;但中小企业的研究结论与以往其他样本的研究结论有差异,表现为企业技术创新投入同TMT规模、教育水平、年龄、任期、持股显著相关,而与异质性、技术背景关系不显著;TMT特征对企业技术创新的影响受企业所有制性质和所属行业影响显著。

  7. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  8. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  9. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  10. Substituição do milho pelo resíduo de fecularia de mandioca sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade e características de carcaça de novilhos confinados = Replacing corn with cassava starch by-products on the performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of bulls in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de substituição do milho pelo resíduo desidratado de fecularia de mandioca (0; 12,5; 22,8 e 32,7% foi avaliado sobre o desempenho, a digestibilidade e características de carcaça e 32 bovinos mestiços (½ Nelore x ½ Angus de aproximadamente 18 meses de idade e 380 kg de peso vivo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Foram analisados o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, espessura de gordura de cobertura (EGC, área de olho de lombo (AOL, comprimento de perna (CP, espessura de coxão (EC, ingestãode matéria seca (IMS, conversão alimentar (CA, digestibilidade total aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, energia bruta (DAEB, fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA e fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN. O experimento foidesenvolvido durante um período de 56 dias, após 14 dias de adaptação. Os resultados de GMD, RC, CA, EGC, AOL, CP e EC não apresentaram diferenças (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos. A IMS apresentou redução linear quando o milho foi substituído pelo resíduodesidratado de fecularia de mandioca. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO, PB, EB, FDN e FDA não variaram entre as rações experimentais.The effects of replacing corn with different levels of cassava starch by-products (0; 12.5; 22.8; and 32.7% were evaluated on performance, digestibility and carcass traits of feedlot bulls. Thirty-twocrossbred bulls (½ Nelore x ½ Angus around 18 months of age and 380 kg of body weight were used. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments and 8 replicates. Evaluated traits were: average daily gain (ADG, carcass dressing (CD, backfat thickness (BT, Longissimus area (LDA, leg length (LL and cushion thickness (CT, dry matter intake (DMI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DMDC, organic matter (OMDC, crude protein (CPDC, crude energy (CEDC

  11. 台湾常见火龙果产期调节技术%Biological characteristics and maturity regulating technology of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 翁武斌

    2015-01-01

    Maturity regulating is one of the key technologies in fruit production. Biological characteristics of pitaya and several maturity regulating technology measures commonly used in Taiwan pitaya production were introduced in this paper,including training and pruning,light treatment during the night,hydrophobic treatment and drug treatment,etc.%产期调节是果树生产上的关键技术之一。该文介绍火龙果的生物学特性及台湾生产上常见的几种火龙果产期调节技术措施,包括整枝修剪、夜间灯照、疏花处理及药剂处理等。

  12. The characteristics and construction technology of rotary digging bored piles%旋挖钻孔灌注桩特性及施工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成全

    2015-01-01

    论述了旋挖钻孔灌注桩的技术特性,从土层性质、运行成本、工程量等方面,分析了旋挖桩在工程应用中的局限性,并以湿作业旋挖成孔为例,介绍了旋挖钻孔灌注桩的施工工艺,为类似工程施工积累了经验。%This paper discussed the technology characteristics of rotary digging bored piles,from the soil properties,operation cost,volume and other aspects,analyzed the limitations of rotary digging pile in engineering application,and taking the wet homework rotary digging pore forming for example,introduced the construction technology of rotary digging bored piles,accumulated experience for similar engineering construction.

  13. Film coated tablets (ColoPulse technology) for targeted delivery in the lower intestinal tract: influence of the core composition on release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Baltink, Jan H; Woesthuis, Ellen M; Stellaard, Frans; Kosterink, Jos G W; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2012-01-01

    The design of a film coating technology which allows a tablet to deliver the drug in the ileocolonic segment would offer new treatment possibilities. The objective is to develop a platform technology that is suitable for a broad range of drug compounds. We developed a coated tablet with a delayed, pulsatile release profile based on a pH-sensitive coating technology (ColoPulse). The production process was validated, and the effect of core composition on the in vitro release and water uptake investigated. The release profile of the standard tablet core composition, based on the use of cellulose as a filler, was independent of the coat thickness in a range of 9.0-13.2 mg/cm(2). The release profile of a coated tablet was strongly influenced when cellulose was partly replaced by the model substance glucose (loss of sigmoidal release), citric acid (stabilization), sodium bicarbonate (destabilization) or sodium benzoate (destabilization). The film coating takes up water when below the pH-threshold. However, this did not cause early disintegration of the coating. The ColoPulse technology is successfully applied on tablets. The in vitro release characteristics of the coated tablets are influenced by the composition of the core.

  14. 浅论光纤通信技术的特点与应用%On the Characteristics and Applications of Optical Fiber Communication Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐澜涛; 姜其政

    2015-01-01

    At present, optical fiber communication technology has been integrated into power, military and other industries. China's optical fiber communications industry has achieved fruitful results, but it does not explain China has fully mastered the optical fiber communication technology; it still needs careful analysis of the relevant characteristics of optical fiber communication technology so as to make optical fiber communication technology better play its role.%目前,光纤通信技术已经融入到电力、军事等多种行业中。我国光纤通信行业已取得丰硕成果,但并不能说明我国已经完全掌握了光纤通信技术,仍需认真分析光纤通信技术的相关特点,让光纤通信技术更好的发挥其作用。

  15. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Luehea divaricata, Carya illinoinensis AND Platanus x acerifolia WHEN SUBMITTED TO BENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted with the purpose of investigating bending characteristics of the wood of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc and Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch. Such species were collected from non-managed forests located in Depressão Central and Encosta Superior do Nordeste, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Five representative adult trees from each species per studied area were cut down, corresponding to a total of thirty trees. From the trunk, a 2.5 m long log was taken and, afterwards, transported to a sawmill for processing. A central 8 cm thick plank was sawn, from which samples for bending were manufactured. The samples were conditioned in standard room to a moisture content of approximately 14%. Then, the samples were placed in boiling water during 35 minutes and bended in rays of 16 and 21cm. For the qualification of the bending defects, the methodology presented by Vorreiter (1958 was used. Results showed that the wood of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch had the best bending characteristics when compared to the other two species, independently of the ray bending tested. It seems that the ring porosity, characteristic of the Carya illinoinensis wood, contributed to the result. On the other hand, the wood of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd. and Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc, with diffuse porosity and larger parenchyma proportion, presented more defective pieces.

  17. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.

  18. 污水中溶解性有机氮类化合物的氯化反应特性及其消毒副产物生成潜能%Chlorination Characteristic and Disinfection By-product Formation Potential of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Compounds in Municipal Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 于鑫; 余国忠; 古励; 赵承美; 翟慧敏; 李清飞

    2013-01-01

    为探讨城市污水厂二级出水中溶解性有机氮(dissolved organic nitrogen,DON)类化合物的氯化消毒副产物生成潜能及其化学结构变化,首先测定DON、溶解性有机炭(dissolved organic carbon,DOC)、NH4+-N和UV254等指标以及与氯反应前后DON相对分子质量分布,并采用气相色谱测定消毒副产物(disinfection by-products,DBPs)质量浓度,最后应用红外光谱和三维荧光光谱对与氯反应前后的水样进行表征.结果表明,城市污水厂二级出水中DON、DOC、UV254和NH4+-N分别为2.47mg·L-1、14.45 mg·L-1、15.88 m-1和5.42 mg·L-1,DOC与DON比值[m(DOC)/m(DON)]为5.85 mg·mg-1,SUVA为1.09L·(m·mg)-1;与氯反应后,小相对分子质量(Mr<6 000) DON所占比例由70%提高到78%,大相对分子质量(Mr>20 000)DON所占比例从21%降到14%,占较小比例的中等相对分子质量(Mr6 000 ~ 20 000)DON基本不变;氯化消毒副产物生成潜能中一氯一溴乙腈(BCAN)质量浓度最大为6.887 μg·L-1,三氯乙腈(TCAN)质量浓度最小仅为0.217 μg· L-1;与氯反应前,水样的红外光谱出现6个主要吸收区域分别在3 500 ~3 400、2 260 ~2 200、1 700~1 640、1 500 ~1 450、1 150 ~1 100和850~ 800 cm-;与氯反应后水样的红外光谱在1 380 ~1 350 cm-1“和600 ~ 550 cm-增加两个吸收区域;三维荧光光谱证实,与氯反应前后水样中变化与3个主要特征峰有关,分别代表色氨酸类蛋白质、芳香族类蛋白质和富里酸类等物质.%In order to explore the chlorinated disinfection by-product formation potential and chemical structure of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater,the water quality parameters,such as DON,DOC,NH4+-N and UV254 etc,were determined in the secondary effluent and the molecular weight distribution of the DON was investigated before and after the reaction with chlorine.DBPs were determined by gas chromatography,and the changes of DON were characterized

  19. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  20. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  1. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  2. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Mariana B.; Judis, María A.; Romero, Ana M.; Avallone, Carmen M.; Bertola, Nora C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA) profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran) and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF), soybeans flour (SF), or wheat bran (WB) was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF) in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile. PMID:25478592

  3. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons between the Particulate and the Gas Phase of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Relation to Cigarette Technological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaitzoglou M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Particulate- and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in the mainstream smoke (MSS of 59 manufactured cigarette brands (commercially available brands of unknown tobacco and blend type with variable ‘tar’ yields and physical/technological characteristics. Depending on the existence/absence of filter, the ‘tar’ yield indicated on the packet, and the cigarette length and diameter, the examined cigarette brands were classified into 15 groups: non filter (NF, high (H, medium (M, light (L, super light (SL, ultra light (UL, one-tar yields (O, 100 mm long cigarettes (H-100, L-100, SL-100, UL-100, O-100, and slim cigarettes (SL-SLIM, UL-SLIM, O-SLIM. Cigarettes were smoked in a reference smoking machine equipped with glass fibre filters for collection of PAHs bound to total particulate matter (TPM, and polyurethane foam plugs (PUF for collection of gas-phase PAHs. The relationships of gas- and particulate-phase concentrations of PAHs (ng/cig with the contents of typical MSS components, such as TPM, ‘tar’, nicotine and carbon monoxide were investigated. In addition, the phase partitioning of PAHs in MSS was evaluated in relation to the technological characteristics of cigarettes.

  4. Influence of the technological parameters of growth on the characteristics of double tunnel-coupled InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazanova, S. V., E-mail: khazanova@phys.unn.ru; Degtyarev, V. E.; Malekhonova, N. V.; Pavlov, D. A. [Nizhni Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Baidus, N. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physical Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    A comprehensive analysis of double tunnel-coupled InGaAs/GaAs quantum well heterostructures is carried out. The real composition profiles of the structures are obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. The resultant profiles are compared with the profile obtained by computer simulation. By solving the Schrödinger equation in combination with the Poisson equation, the energy states for quantum-confined heterostructures with initially specified and real composition profiles are calculated. The influence of a number of factors, such as the well width, barrier thickness, and the background doping level on the properties of the heterostructure is thoroughly analyzed. In this manner, the optical characteristics and their dependence on the growth technology and geometric parameters of the structures are studied. Such an approach makes it possible to refine the real geometric parameters of wells and barriers and to correct the parameters of the structure and growth technology in order to improve the optical characteristics.

  5. Analysis on Characteristics of Offshore Wind Technology%海上风电技术特性对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦; 时志刚; 胡颖; 张婷

    2012-01-01

    In view of technologies for development and utilization of offshore wind, including the construction of wind farms (wind turbine arrangement, installation and transportation, operation monitoring etc.), wind turbine design, grid (high voltage system, undersea cables, onshore input facility etc.), the article compares and analyzes the technology differences between offshore and onshore wind. The result shows that the offshore wind is more difficult and has higher requirements than the onshore wind in aspects of foundation installation, operation and maintenance etc. It gives reference for further development of the offshore wind.%从海上风能开发利用的技术包括所涉及风电场建设(机组排列、安装及运输、运行监控等)、风电机组设计、并网(海上高压系统、海底电缆、岸上接入设施等)等方面,对比分析海上风电与陆上风电的技术差异,结果表明海上风电在基础安装、运营维护等方面较陆上风电要求更高、难度更大.为进一步发展海上风电提供了参考.

  6. Impact of Information Technology, Clinical Resource Constraints, and Patient-Centered Practice Characteristics on Quality of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongDeuk Baek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Factors in the practice environment, such as health information technology (IT infrastructure, availability of other clinical resources, and financial incentives, may influence whether practices are able to successfully implement the patient-centered medical home (PCMH model and realize its benefits. This study investigates the impacts of those PCMH-related elements on primary care physicians’ perception of quality of care. Methods: A multiple logistic regression model was estimated using the 2004 to 2005 CTS Physician Survey, a national sample of salaried primary care physicians (n = 1733. Results: The patient-centered practice environment and availability of clinical resources increased physicians’ perceived quality of care. Although IT use for clinical information access did enhance physicians’ ability to provide high quality of care, a similar positive impact of IT use was not found for e-prescribing or the exchange of clinical patient information. Lack of resources was negatively associated with physician perception of quality of care. Conclusion: Since health IT is an important foundation of PCMH, patient-centered practices are more likely to have health IT in place to support care delivery. However, despite its potential to enhance delivery of primary care, simply making health IT available does not necessarily translate into physicians’ perceptions that it enhances the quality of care they provide. It is critical for health-care managers and policy makers to ensure that primary care physicians fully recognize and embrace the use of new technology to improve both the quality of care provided and the patient outcomes.

  7. Water-flushing toilets: Systemic development and path-dependent characteristics and their bearing on technological alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2007-01-01

    In this study, I analyse the historical process that led to embedding water-flushing toilets in the Western world, then I explore innovative developments connected to alternative toilet solutions that use less water. The core argument is that path-dependent characteristics are found both...... at the systemic level and the level of daily practices. Systemic development and its embedding into daily practices changed and contributed to a lock-in. Then current attempts to introduce alternative toilet solutions are analysed. I conclude by suggesting that established water-flushing routines impede...

  8. Water-flushing toilets: Systemic development and path-dependent characteristics and their bearing on technological alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2007-01-01

    In this study, I analyse the historical process that led to embedding water-flushing toilets in the Western world, then I explore innovative developments connected to alternative toilet solutions that use less water. The core argument is that path-dependent characteristics are found both...... at the systemic level and the level of daily practices. Systemic development and its embedding into daily practices changed and contributed to a lock-in. Then current attempts to introduce alternative toilet solutions are analysed. I conclude by suggesting that established water-flushing routines impede...

  9. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  10. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  11. The Development Mechanism and the Technical Characteristics of the Modern Cutting Technology%现代切削技术的发展机制及技术特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炳桢

    2006-01-01

    The development mechanism and mode and the new technical characteristics of the modern cutting technology are studied and analyzed. It is presented that to speed up the development of cutting technology and fully use the good-quality technical resource of cutting tool have the significant meaning for construction of powerful manufacturing industry of China.

  12. Investigation and Analysis on the Dynamic Characteristics of the Core Journals of Science and Technology in China%我国科技核心期刊动态性调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何荣利; 李戈

    2001-01-01

    Based on the 2nd and 3rd editions of A Guide to Core Journals of China, this article makes an investigation on the change of the number, the variety and the ranking of the core journals of science and technology which are on the same subject. The basic dynamic characteristics of the core journals of science and technology in China are described.

  13. The Development and Characteristics of Science and Technology Diplomacy in Japan%日本科技外交的发展历程与特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼燕; 刘润生

    2016-01-01

    The concept of science and technology (S&T) diplomacy is formally put forward by Japan’s Council for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP) in 2008, and in 2011, the S&T diplomacy is promoted to national importance in “the Fourth Science and Technology Basic Plan”. This paper introduced the development of Japan’s S&T diplomacy, S&T diplomacy layout and its characteristics. According to the experience of Japan, some suggestions are put forward for the development of China’s S&T diplomacy.%2008年日本综合科学技术会议正式提出科技外交概念,2011年《第4期科学技术基本计划》将科技外交上升到国家战略高度。本文介绍了日本科技外交的发展历程,科技外交的布局和特点,结合日本的相关经验,对我国的科技外交发展提出建议。

  14. 仿古建筑的特点分析及新技术的应用%The characteristics analysis and application new technology of antique building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛世鑫

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzed the characteristics of antique buildings in modern design,elaborated the meanings and its advantages of the 3D printing technology,from high precision recovery,virtual simulation recovery,antiquities dynamic simulation recovery and other aspects intro-duced the method use of 3D printing technology restoration of cultural relics and buildings,was advantageous to the widely application of 3D printing technology in building design and construction,so as to promote the development of ancient buildings.%分析了现代设计中仿古建筑的特点,阐述了3D打印技术的含义及其优势,从高精确度复原、虚拟仿真复原、古物动态仿真复原等方面入手,介绍了运用3D打印技术修复文物和建筑的手段,有利于3D打印技术在建筑设计与施工中的广泛应用,从而推动古建筑的发展。

  15. Unique Charge Storage Characteristics of FEP/THV/FEP Sandwich Electret Membrane Polarized by Thermally Charging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang-Jin; Lei, Ming-Feng; Xiao, Hui-Ming; Wu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Utilizing the synergy of three processes (space charge injection, dipole orientation and interfacial polarization) which determine the electret properties, a sandwich electret membrane FEP/THV/FEP (FEP: fluorinated ethylene propylene, THV: tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene-vinylidene) is prepared by the laminating method and the thermal charging technology. The surface potential measurement indicates that the sandwich electret membrane exhibits excellent charge storage stability. When washing the sample surface with alcohol, its surface potential first undergoes decay to zero, and then quickly restores to a high value. The surface potential value is associated with the charging electric field and temperature. The best charging condition is 18.75 MV·m-1 and 130°C. A charge storage profile is proposed, and the experimental results are in good agreement with this profile.

  16. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  17. Advances in physical study of high enthalpy plasma jets of technological interest: emission spectra and plasma characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevtsev, A. A.; Chinnov, V. F.; Isakaev, E. Kh.; Markin, A. V.; Tazikova, T. F.; Tereshkin, S. A.

    1998-10-01

    Offers a comprehensive study of the emission spectra and plasma characteristics of high enthalpy atmospheric pressure argon and nitrogen jets produced by a high- current industrially important arc plasmatron with a vortex stabilized channel-anode (I4g/s, jet diameter at a minimum-6mm). The spectra are taken at different distances from the cathode in the 200-950nm region with a spectral resolution=3D0.01nm allowing a fine structure of vibronic bands to be essentially resolved except that due to the dublet (spin) splitting and Λ-doubling. Also derived (through the Abel inversion) are radial distributions of plasma components. The spectra obtained have been used for determining plasma composition, the electron component parameters (by atomic/ionic Stark half-widths and intensities) and the assessment of rotational and vibrational temperatures by simulating molecular bands.

  18. Long-term indigenous soil conservation technology in the Chencha area, southern Ethiopia: origin, characteristics, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

  20. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  1. Formation and Occurrence of Disinfection By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, or chloramines react with naturally occurring organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants, bromide, and iodide during the production of drinking water. There is concern about D...

  2. ANALYSIS OF BY-PRODUCTS MARKET IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keniyz N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changing style of life, its rhythm and tendencies dictate their own conditions. The deficit of time makes us economize it on all, including the time for cooking. Among the main trends of the domestic meat market - switching consumers from frozen meat products to fresh cooled products. In connection with it the amount of consumers of meat semi-finished products grows. In the work there was considered the results of research of the Russian market of by-products. The market of frozen meat by-products is actively developed in large cities, where it has its own production. The participants of the market state that consumers have started to buy more frozen by-products by weight and the analysis of meat by-products assortment in retailing trade for 2014 testifies it. Trying to fasten their positions, operators of the market not only develop the production powers but work out new products and the analysis of dynamics of production volumes of meat by-products and shares of federal districts – producers of meat by-products testify it. The main players in this segment see the future market for complex, receipt, combined products and ready dishes that will lead to change of structure of meat semi-finished products sales

  3. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH4(+)-N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm(-1)) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm(-1)) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by-products

  4. Atributos físicos de um Hapludox em função de sistemas de produção integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP, sob plantio direto = Soil physical characteristics of an Oxisol as affected by production systems lay farming, under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alguns atributos físicos do solo foram avaliados, após oito anos da instalação do experimento (1995 a 2003, num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Coxilha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em seis sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens anuais de inverno e deverão: sistema I (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-milho; sistema II (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-milho; sistema III (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-pastagem de milheto; sistema IV (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-pastagem de milheto; sistema V (trigo-soja / aveia branca-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-pastagem de milheto; e sistema VI (trigo-soja / aveia branca-soja /pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-pastagem de milheto. A densidade de solo e resistência à penetração foram maior na camada 10-15 cm do que na camada 0-5 cm. Nos sistemas I, V e VI, houve diminuição da porosidade total e aumento da densidade e da resistência à penetração de solo, na camada 10-15 cm, em relação à camada 0-5 cm, devido maior intensidade das atividades agropastoris. Após oito anos, os sistemas de manejo com integração lavoura pecuárianão provocaram degradação, em níveis limitantes, nas propriedades físicas do solo manejado sob sistema plantio direto. Soil physical characteristics were evaluated, after eight years (1995 to 2003, on a typic Hapludox located in Coxilha, Rio Grande do SulState, Brazil. Six crop production systems were evaluated: system I (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-corn; system II (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch + annual ryegrass pasture-corn; system III (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-pearl millet pasture; system IV (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch + annual ryegrass pasture-pearl millet pasture; system V (wheat-soybean, white oat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-pearl millet pasture

  5. Structural and electrical characteristics of lanthanum oxide gate dielectric film on GaAs pHEMT technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chia-Song; Liu Hsing-Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using a lanthanum oxide thin film (La_2O_3) with a high dielectric constant as a gate dielectric on GaAs pHEMTs to reduce gate leakage current and improve the gate to drain breakdown voltage relative to the conventional GaAs pHEMT. An E/D mode pHEMT in a single chip was realized by selecting the appropriate La_2O_3 thickness. The thin La_2O_3 film was characterized: its chemical composition and crystalline structure were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively.La_2O_3 exhibited good thermal stability after post-deposition annealing at 200, 400 and 600 ℃ because of its high binding-energy (835.6 eV). Experimental results clearly demonstrated that the La_2O_3 thin film was thermally stable.The DC and RF characteristics of Pt/La_2O_3/Ti/Au gate and conventional Pt/Ti/Au gate pHEMTs were examined.The measurements indicated that the transistor with the Pt/La_2O_3/Ti/Au gate had a higher breakdown voltage and lower gate leakage current. Accordingly, the La_2O_3 thin film is a potential high-k material for use as a gate dielectric to improve electrical performance and the thermal effect in high-power applications.

  6. Coffee dietary fiber contents and structural characteristics as influenced by coffee type and technological and brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniechwitz, Diana; Brueckel, Birgit; Reichardt, Nicole; Blaut, Michael; Steinhart, Hans; Bunzel, Mirko

    2007-12-26

    Coffee brews contain considerable amounts of soluble dietary fiber, mainly low substituted galactomannans and type II arabinogalactans. Factors possibly influencing the content and structures of dietary fiber in coffee brews, such as type of coffee, roasting and grinding degree, and brewing procedure, were studied. In addition, several commercial samples such as instant espresso, instant coffee, instant cappuccino, decaffeinated coffees, and coffee pads were analyzed. The dietary fiber contents of the coffee brews ranged from 0.14 to 0.65 g/100 mL (enzymatic-gravimetric methodology), proving an influence of the factors investigated. For example, the drip brew of an arabica coffee contained significantly more soluble dietary fiber than the drip brew of a comparable robusta coffee, and depending on the brewing procedure, the soluble dietary fiber content of beverages obtained from the same coffee sample ranged from 0.26 to 0.38 g/100 mL. Dietary fiber contents of coffee brews were enhanced only up to a certain degree of roast. Drip brews of decaffeinated arabica coffees (commercial samples) contained significantly less dietary fiber than any non-decaffeinated drip brew investigated in this study. The observed differences in the dietary fiber contents were accompanied by changes in the structural characteristics of fiber polysaccharides, such as galactomannan/arabinogalactan ratio, galactose substitution degree of mannans, or galactose/arabinose ratio of arabinogalactans as analyzed by methylation analysis.

  7. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  8. Characteristics of spatio-temporal evolution in Beijing land subsidence, 2003-2009, using PS-InSAR technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Z.; Gong, H.; Lu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, B.; Liu, H.; Wang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Two thirds of water supply in Beijing city has come from groundwater, surveyed by Beijing Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology. During the past several years, Beijing city has suffers severe groundwater decline and land subsidence, induced by continuous over-exploitation of groundwater for nearly 60 years. The maximum of subsidence has reached up to 1096mm since 60 decades, and the rates in these subsidence bowls is between 10 mm/yr to 20 mm/yr, and The cumulative subsidence greater than 300mm is up to 1300km2, which pose a great challenge to public infrastructure and mitigate hazard in Beijing municipal. Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (PS-InSAR) can quickly obtain surface deformation details with high resolution, compared to traditional leveling and extensometer techniques. In this paper we use PS-InSAR technique and 29 acquisitions by Envisat between 2003 and 2009 to monitor recent land subsidence in Beijing plain area. we studied the characteristics of spatio-temporal evolution of Beijing subsidence. The results suggests subsidence bowls have been bounded together in Beijing plain area, which covers Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi, Tongzhou area, and the range of subsidence has a eastward trend. With conventional of emergency water resource in Changping, Huairou, Pinggu, the rates have increased from more than 10-20mm/yr to about 20-30mm/yr, 50 percent increase in subsidence bowls. What's more, the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation is not only controlled by tectonic but influenced by stress-strain behavior (elastic - plastic - viscoelastic) of aquifer systems. Keywords: Land Subsidence; PS-InSAR; Beijing; Ground fissure; Stress-strain analysis

  9. 汽车用水性涂料的特征及其涂装技术%The Characteristics of Waterborne Coatings for Automobile and Its Painting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡春; 李文刚

    2012-01-01

    The significant of waterborne for coating process, the difficulties of waterborne coating caused by the characteristics of water, the key process condition of waterborne coating, the factors restricting the development of waterborne coatings and their status were introduced. Pointed out that we should vigorously develop waterborne coatings and coating technology%介绍了涂装工艺水性化的意义,水的特征给水性涂装带来的难点,水性涂装的关键工艺条件,制约水性涂料发展的因素及其现状。指出应大力发展水性涂料及其涂装技术。

  10. Technology Characteristics and Control Methods of Carbon Increment for Scrap%废钢增碳工艺的特点和控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔炜; 何春华; 黄和江

    2012-01-01

    废钢增碳工艺可以降低炉料成本,但是工艺本身在熔化效率、铁液和材料性能、原材料和炉衬寿命方面有自身的特点和不同,需要在生产中调整和控制.本文将以实际生产经验和控制对上述三个方面予以阐述.%The technology of carbon increment for scrap can reduce charging cost, however there are each own characteristics and difference with process itself in melting efficiency, molten iron and the material properties, raw materials and lining life which need to be adjusted and controlled in production, of which elaborating has been done with practical experiences in production and control of the above mentioned.

  11. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided.

  12. Determination of Physical, Chemical and Digestibility of some Agricultural by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majed dehgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, physical and chemical characteristics and estimation of effective fiber and digestibility of some agricultural by-products such as lerd, pulp and date kernel, grape pomace, pistachio hulls, lime and rice straw were determined by using in vitro technique. Experimental data were analyzed as a complete randomized design, with three replicates. Physical and chemical characteristics and digestibility parameters among samples were significantly different. Rice straw due to high water holding capacity and low-density mass were floating on the liquid phase of reticulo-rumen and stimulates rumination but palm seed with high bulk density tends to deposit in the rumen. Chemical characteristics such as non-fibrous carbohydrates of lemon pulp and pistachio hull and crude protein of grape pomace, lerd and pulp of date were significantly different between samples. Results of physical characteristics, particle size separation and physical effective cell wall showed that rice straw provides adequate fiber in diet. Also, to some extent physical effective cell wall can be provided by grape pomace, kernel and lerd of date. The predictions of particle size separation and physical effective cell wall were found to compare reasonably well when new Pennsylvania sieves, compare to old ones, were used. By considering physical and chemical characteristics of above mentioned agricultural by-products date pulp with non-fibrous carbohydrate and high protein content and digestibility can be used in higher amounts in ruminant diets.

  13. 测压管路动态特性实测技术研究%Study on measurement technology of dynamics characteristics of typical tubes for pressure measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世策; 韩新刚; 冀晓华; 屠荣伟; 蒋建群

    2012-01-01

    利用声音振动发生原理研制了多功能声音振动发生装置,开发了测压管路动态特性的实测技术,并对风洞试验中典型测压管路的频响特性进行了实测.采用正弦压力波对不同的测压管路进行激励,采用多点联合扫描技术提高采样频率,得到完整的正弦波动曲线.实验研究结果表明,该实验技术可以得到高频的动态压力信号和准确的频响特性曲线,为误差修正提供了依据.%By using independently developed sound vibration generating device, the measurement technology of dynamics characteristics of typical tubes for pressure measurements was developed, and the frequency response characteristics of typical tubes for fluctuating wind pressure measurements were measured. By using principle of sound vibrations, a multi-function sound vibration generating device was developed. Different pipes were excited by sine pressure waves, multi-point scanning technology was used to improve the sampling frequency for getting full curves of sine waves. Experimental results show that the experimental technique developed can be ' used to obtain high-frequency dynamic pressure signals and accurate frequency response curve for providing a basis for the error correction.

  14. Development of atomic spectroscopy technologies - The characteristics of laser beam propagation in resonant and near-resonant atomic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyung; Chang, Joon Sung; Lee, Won Kyu; Jeon, Jin Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We studied the conical emission(CE) in samarium(Sm) vapor under the near-resonant condition. The incident dye laser was tuned to the transition line, 4f{sup 6}6s{sup 2} {sup 7}F{sub 0} {yields} 4f{sup 6}({sup 7})6s6p({sup 1}P{sup 0}), of Sm atom. Using a high temperature oven, we could obtain the atomic density of 8 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 3} large enough to observe the CE. We observed 1 {approx} 3 rings around the original laser beam and the number of the rings depended on the laser intensity, the laser wavelength and the atomic density. These results are attributed to the self-phase-modulation of the laser beam interacting with the near-resonant atomic medium. We obtain a simple expression that describes the dependence of the locations of the rings on the laser intensity. We compare the experimental results with this expression quantitatively and then estimate the nonlinear susceptibility of Sm vapor. The laser beam propagating through the resonant medium undergo severe deformation because of nonlinear interaction such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, etc. When strong pump beam coexists with the probe beam, propagation characteristics can be changed. We use samarium(Sm) vapor as the nonlinear medium. Probe laser is tuned around 4f{sup 6}s{sup 2} {sup 7}F{sub 0} {yields} 4f{sup 6}({sup 7}F)6s6p({sup 1}P{sup 0}) transition line of Sm (562.601 nm). Pump laser is tuned around 4f{sup 6}s{sup 2} {sup 7}F{sub 1} {yields} 4f{sup 6}({sup 7}F)6s6p({sup 1}P{sup 0}) transition line of Sm (572.019 nm). The probe and the pump beams are {lambda} -type configuration. The transmission and beam width of the probe beam is changed as the intensity and the detuning of the probe beam are varied. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A 3D WEBGIS SYSTEM FOR RETRIEVING AND VISUALIZING CITYGML DATA BASED ON THEIR GEOMETRIC AND SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS BY USING FREE AND OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pispidikis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CityGML is considered as an optimal standard for representing 3D city models. However, international experience has shown that visualization of the latter is quite difficult to be implemented on the web, due to the large size of data and the complexity of CityGML. As a result, in the context of this paper, a 3D WebGIS application is developed in order to successfully retrieve and visualize CityGML data in accordance with their respective geometric and semantic characteristics. Furthermore, the available web technologies and the architecture of WebGIS systems are investigated, as provided by international experience, in order to be utilized in the most appropriate way for the purposes of this paper. Specifically, a PostgreSQL/ PostGIS Database is used, in compliance with the 3DCityDB schema. At Server tier, Apache HTTP Server and GeoServer are utilized, while a Server Side programming language PHP is used. At Client tier, which implemented the interface of the application, the following technologies were used: JQuery, AJAX, JavaScript, HTML5, WebGL and Ol3-Cesium. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the application’s primary objectives are a user-friendly interface and a fully open source development.

  16. Qualitative and chemical characteristics of mineral matter in the selected lignite deposits in light of their suitability for clean coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielowicz Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the variability of ash content and chemical composition of coal ash is crucial when assessing the possibility of using this raw material in clean coal technologies (CCS. The paper focuses on chemical, technological and quality characteristics of ash from the combustion of lignite from Polish deposits. Ash content on a dry ash-free basis for the samples from 9 deposits varies from 1 to 50%. The most commonly observed ash content in the studied samples of lignite is in the range between 10–20%. The measured ash melting temperatures from the collected lignite samples have shown that the sintering, softening, melting and flow temperatures, determined in an oxidizing atmosphere (air, are higher than those determined in a reducing atmosphere. In the majority of Polish lignite deposits, the dominant component of ash was SiO2, followed by CaO. When evaluating the suitability of coal in energy production, with particular emphasis on the combustion and gasification processes, it is also necessary to study the behavior of ash at high temperatures and the impact of ash on the gasification and combustion facilities. Ash fouling and slagging processes, which are heavily dependent on the ash content, composition, melting point and the content of chlorine, phosphorus and sulfur in coal, have a negative effect on the combustion process.

  17. Microstructure formation and interface characteristics of directionally solidified TiAl-Si alloys in alumina crucibles with a new Y2O3 skull-aided technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglei; Liu, Jianxiu; Wu, Shen; Tian, Shuxia; Gao, Hongxia; Wang, Shengyong; Guo, Jingjie; Wang, Xiao

    2017-03-01

    The microstructure evolution and interface characteristics of a directionally solidified Ti-43Al-3Si (at.%) alloy in an alumina (Al2O3) crucible with new Y2O3 skull-aided technology were investigated. The Y2O3-skull that is in contact with the TiAl-melt is relatively stable, which results in a more controlled reaction between the skull and the melt than in the case of an Al2O3 crucible is used. A thin reaction layer was formed between the mould and the melt through mutual diffusion. The layer thickness increased with increasing reaction time. The thickness of this layer was less than 80 μm for reaction times up to 5800 s. Y2O3 particles were not found in the specimen because the mould coating was prepared with fine Y2O3 powder without a binder, which prevented the Y2O3 particles splitting from the coating as a consequence of thermal physical erosion. The oxygen content of the TiAl-alloy increased with increasing reaction time. The total oxygen content of the solidified specimen was less than that of the specimen solidified in the Al2O3 crucibles. This new Y2O3 skull-aided technology is expected to improve the surface quality of TiAl-alloys and reduce the reaction between the crucible/mould and molten TiAl alloys during directional solidification processing with longer contact times.

  18. Teaching Gene Technology in an Outreach Lab: Students' Assigned Cognitive Load Clusters and the Clusters' Relationships to Learner Characteristics, Laboratory Variables, and Cognitive Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-02-01

    This study classified students into different cognitive load (CL) groups by means of cluster analysis based on their experienced CL in a gene technology outreach lab which has instructionally been designed with regard to CL theory. The relationships of the identified student CL clusters to learner characteristics, laboratory variables, and cognitive achievement were examined using a pre-post-follow-up design. Participants of our day-long module Genetic Fingerprinting were 409 twelfth-graders. During the module instructional phases (pre-lab, theoretical, experimental, and interpretation phases), we measured the students' mental effort (ME) as an index of CL. By clustering the students' module-phase-specific ME pattern, we found three student CL clusters which were independent of the module instructional phases, labeled as low-level, average-level, and high-level loaded clusters. Additionally, we found two student CL clusters that were each particular to a specific module phase. Their members reported especially high ME invested in one phase each: within the pre-lab phase and within the interpretation phase. Differentiating the clusters, we identified uncertainty tolerance, prior experience in experimentation, epistemic interest, and prior knowledge as relevant learner characteristics. We found relationships to cognitive achievement, but no relationships to the examined laboratory variables. Our results underscore the importance of pre-lab and interpretation phases in hands-on teaching in science education and the need for teachers to pay attention to these phases, both inside and outside of outreach laboratory learning settings.

  19. Slow-Wave Characteristics of a Frame-Rod Structure Based on Micro-Fabricated Technology for THz Vacuum Electron Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chengfang; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Yudong; Ju, Yongfeng; Yang, Dingli; Chang, Bo; He, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-01

    A simple equivalent circuit analysis of the frame-rod slow-wave structure (SWS) on dielectric substrates of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) is developed, using the quasi-TEM approximation approach for the dispersion and coupling impedance characteristics of the structure. Moreover, the obtained complex dispersion equation and coupling impedance are numerically calculated. The calculation results by our theory method agree well with the results obtained by the 3D EM simulation software HFSS. It is shown that the dispersion of the frame-rod circuit is decreased; the phase velocity is reduced and the bandwidth becomes greater, while the coupling impedance decreases after filling the dielectric materials in the frame-rod SWS. In addition, a comparison of slow-wave characteristics of this structure with a rectangular helix counterpart is made. As a planar slow-wave structure, this structure has potential applications in compact TWTs based on the micro-fabrication technology, which could be scaled to millimeter wave, even to THz frequency.

  20. Analysis of the Complex Characteristics of the Organization of Science and Technology-based Small-Micro Enterprises%科技型小微企业组织复杂性特征探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利; 袁页

    2013-01-01

    According to the principles of complexity science theory and the reality of technology based small micro enterprises,the articles made a wide research on the small micro enterprise organization complexity at home,and focus on the characteristics of technological small micro enterprise environment complexity,the complexity of technology based smallmicro enterprise organization structure characteristics,the complexity characteristics of technology based small micro enterprise organization form.Also,the complexity of technology-based small micro enterprise organization management mode characteristics,small-micro enterprises exploration and the characteristics of the complexity of the organization's strategy are studied.%根据复杂性理论和小微企业的现实情况,在国内科技型小微企业研究综述的基础上,对科技型小微企业组织环境复杂性特征、科技型小微企业组织结构复杂性特征、科技型小微企业组织形态复杂性特征、科技型小微企业组织管理方式复杂性特征、科技型小微企业组织战略复杂性特征进行了探索和分析.

  1. Innovations in value-addition of edible meat by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2012-11-01

    While muscle foods are the more commonly consumed portion of an animal, meat by-products such as the entrails and internal organs are also widely consumed. Considered high-priced delicacies or waste material to be tossed away, the use and value of offal-edible and inedible meat by-products depend entirely on the culture and country in question. The skin, blood, bones, meat trimmings, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull, and internal organs of harvested animals comprise a wide variety of products including human or pet food or processed materials in animal feed, fertilizer, or fuel. Industry is using science and innovation to add value to animal by-products far beyond its usual profitability. Regardless of the final product's destination, it is still necessary to employ the most up-to-date and effective tools to analyze these products for nutritional properties, to search for key active molecules in nutrition like bioactive peptides, food safety (antimicrobial peptides), medicine, cosmetics or other fields, to develop new technological applications and to continue innovation towards advanced value-addition of meat by-products.

  2. NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENT FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. El-Baroty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolics compounds and their phenolic constituents were quantified in organic and aqueous of four varieties (Zebdia, Sukkari, taimor and Hindi of mango (Mangifera indica L., seeds pulp and kernel, one varieties of pomegranate (Punica ranatum L., peel and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., Giza 6, shell by-products. The antioxidant activities of all by products extracts were assessed by five antioxidant methods as well as by rancimate test. The total Phenolic content of aqueous and organic extracts of among all mango varieties, pomegranate and peanut shell showed the content values ranging from 71.06 to 124.18 mg/100g, 95.07 to 124.18 mg/100g and 41.64 to 71.06, respectively. Nineteen phenolic compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC among all mango varieties, of which vanillic acid, benzoic acid and mangiferin were occurred in high amounts. The major phenolic compounds were detected in pomegranate and peanut shell were chlorogenic and gallic and caffeic (24.42%, respectively. All fruits by products were exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity, with various degrees in all tested methods. However, among all by-products extracts, organic extract had higher antioxidant than that aqueous extracts toward all antioxidant tested. Mango kernel peel and pomegranates showed high radical scavenging activity, which could be compared with the synthetic antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisol (BHA. However, all by-products extracts exhibited high inhibit effect against the lipid peroxidation of sunflower oil (at 100°C as assessed by rancimat methods. However, this antioxidant activity was found to be strong significant correlation with phenolic contents (p<0.05 in by-product extracts. It can be thus concluded that varied varieties of mango, pomegranate and peanut by-products, although it constitutes the part of the fruits, it is valuable parts due to its antioxidant activities, it can be

  3. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were cleanroom environments.

  4. On the Paradigm of Universities of Science and Technology with the Characteristic of "Entrepreneurship Promotion"%以“促进创业”为特征的理工院校范式简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金华

    2012-01-01

    范式理论既可以适用于概括理工院校发展的时代特征,又对理工院校的发展实践具有指导作用。理工院校与"创业"之间的日益密切关系,使得"促进创业"成为当前理工院校的范式的基本特征。%The theory of paradigm can not only be applied in summarizing the times characteristics of the development of universities of science and technology,but also in directing the development practice of universities of science and technology.There is an increasingly close relationship between "entrepreneurship" and universities of science and technology,consequently "entrepreneurship promotion" has become the basic characteristic of the paradigm of universities of science and technology.

  5. Genotoxicity of Disinfection By-products: Comparison to Carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be formed when water is disinfected by various agents such as chlorine, ozone, or chloramines. Among the >600 DBPs identified in drinking water, 11 are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and another ~70 DBPs that occur at s...

  6. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine, while the diet (B contained 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% fish meal. The fish were fed twice a day at affixed feeding rate of 5% body weight of fish per day for 90 days. The total body weight, total length and standard length were measured every 10 days throughout the experimental period. The growth response and performance data of the studied fish (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diet (B containing fishmeal recorded a better growth response than that fish fed poultry by- product meal (diet A. The final weight increment, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER over the experimental period showed lowest value for the group fed the diet with poultry by-product (Diet A compared to those fed with the fishmeal (Diet B. Except the apparent protein utilization (APU was recorded higher for those fed with Diet A (23.31 than Diet B (11.99. The groups fed diet (A attained SGR 0.24, FCR 1.9, PER 0.75, APU 23.31, while it recorded in group (B, SGR 0.34, FCR 1.2, PER 1.06, APU 11.99. Therefore, fish meal is better as compared to poultry by-products for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus nutrition.

  7. By-product materials in cement clinker manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadayev, A. [ICS and E, Aurora, CO (United States); Kodess, B. [VNIIMS Gosstandart of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    The use of Cl- and SO{sub 3}-containing by-products from chemical industries for manufacturing Portland cement clinker using a wet process was examined. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the by-products and raw materials were determined. Homogeneous raw mixes containing different concentrations of by-products (5--30%) were prepared and the influence of the by-products on all steps of burning the mixes in a kiln to form a cement clinker was investigated. It was shown that introducing Cl- and SO{sub 3}-containing by-products to the raw mixes significantly changes all the cement clinker producing stages and changes the chemical and mineralogical compositions at all intermediate stages and in the finished products, forming new minerals containing Cl and SO{sub 3} [CaO{sub x} (SiO{sub 2}){sub y} CaCl{sub 2}] or [CaO{sub x} (SiO{sub 2}){sub y} CaSO{sub 4}] and increasing the amount of well-known intermediate minerals. The presence of the chlorides and sulfates in the cement clinker burning processes removes alkali from the raw mixes, turning them to volatile forms, accelerating the raw mineral decomposition processes and accelerating the formation processes of cement minerals (C{sub 2}S, C{sub 12}A{sub 7}, C{sub 4}AF) and formation of chloride and sulfate cycles in the kiln, forming clinker liquids and decreasing the formation and growth of the main cement minerals (C{sub 3}A, C{sub 3}S). The cement clinker contains some quantity of minerals with Cl or SO{sub 3}. Their presence in the final product decreases cement quality by reducing the amount of active CaO (C) and reducing the active CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratio.

  8. The Effect and Mechanism of Transdermal Penetration Enhancement of Fu's Cupping Therapy: New Physical Penetration Technology for Transdermal Administration with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Fang-Fang

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, a new type of physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics is presented. Fu's cupping therapy (FCT), was established and studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments and the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology was preliminarily discussed. With 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-ylacetic acid (indomethacin, IM) as a model drug, the establishment of high, medium, and low references was completed for the chemical permeation system via in vitro transdermal tests. Furthermore, using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) and iontophoresis as references, the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patches was evaluated using seven species of in vitro diffusion kinetics models and in vitro drug distribution; the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to last time t (AUC0-t, AUMC0-t), area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and mean residence time (MRT), were used as indicators to evaluate the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT in vivo. Additionally, we used the 3(K) factorial design to study the joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, micro- and ultrastructural changes on the surface of the stratum corneum (SC) were observed to explore the FCT penetration mechanism. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in vivo percutaneous absorption amount of IM using FCT were greater than the amount using CPEs and iontophoresis. Firstly, compared with the

  9. The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Haynes, Brian R; Estabrooks, Carole A; Kushniruk, André; Dubrowski, Adam; Bajnok, Irmajean; Hall, Linda McGillis; Li, Mingyang; Carryer, Jennifer; Jedras, Dawn; Bai, Yu Qing Chris

    2012-12-31

    There is growing awareness of the role of information technology in evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of organizational context and nurse characteristics in explaining variation in nurses' use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile Tablet PCs for accessing evidence-based information. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model provided the framework for studying the impact of providing nurses with PDA-supported, evidence-based practice resources, and for studying the organizational, technological, and human resource variables that impact nurses' use patterns. A survey design was used, involving baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The setting included 24 organizations representing three sectors: hospitals, long-term care (LTC) facilities, and community organizations (home care and public health). The sample consisted of 710 participants (response rate 58%) at Time 1, and 469 for whom both Time 1 and Time 2 follow-up data were obtained (response rate 66%). A hierarchical regression model (HLM) was used to evaluate the effect of predictors from all levels simultaneously. The Chi square result indicated PDA users reported using their device more frequently than Tablet PC users (p = 0.001). Frequency of device use was explained by 'breadth of device functions' and PDA versus Tablet PC. Frequency of Best Practice Guideline use was explained by 'willingness to implement research,' 'structural and electronic resources,' 'organizational slack time,' 'breadth of device functions' (positive effects), and 'slack staff' (negative effect). Frequency of Nursing Plus database use was explained by 'culture,' 'structural and electronic resources,' and 'breadth of device functions' (positive effects), and 'slack staff' (negative). 'Organizational culture' (positive), 'breadth of device functions' (positive), and 'slack staff '(negative) were associated with frequency of Lexi/PEPID drug

  10. Sensor Technology and Performance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA is currently involved in detailed laboratory and/or field studies involving a wide variety of low cost air quality sensors currently being made available to potential citizen scientists. These devices include sensors associated with the monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (...

  11. By-products of the Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Waste: Formation and Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maud; Cormier, Stephania; Varner, Kurt; Dellinger, Barry

    2010-04-01

    Destruction of toxic chemicals by thermal treatment can be a highly effective method for remediation of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Of the 977 Superfund source control treatment projects in the United States from 1982 to 2005, 16% used incineration or other thermal treatments (the proportion is similar for 126 projects in the period 2002-2005).(1) However, as with other technologies, if thermal treatments are not matched correctly with the site or are improperly operated, harmful by-products can form, requiring further treatment.

  12. The origins of religion: evolved adaptation or by-product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysiäinen, Ilkka; Hauser, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Considerable debate has surrounded the question of the origins and evolution of religion. One proposal views religion as an adaptation for cooperation, whereas an alternative proposal views religion as a by-product of evolved, non-religious, cognitive functions. We critically evaluate each approach, explore the link between religion and morality in particular, and argue that recent empirical work in moral psychology provides stronger support for the by-product approach. Specifically, despite differences in religious background, individuals show no difference in the pattern of their moral judgments for unfamiliar moral scenarios. These findings suggest that religion evolved from pre-existing cognitive functions, but that it may then have been subject to selection, creating an adaptively designed system for solving the problem of cooperation.

  13. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients.

  14. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  15. Development and Station of Fiber Optical Communication Technology Characteristics%光纤通信技术发展特点及现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber communication is its transmission frequency bandwldtla, communlcauon capacity, long distance relay, low loss characteristics, and with anti-electromagnetic interference capability, security and good benefits, the trunk lines in the communications, power control systems and military communications field the use of more and more widely. Optical fiber communication technology is moving in large capacity, ultra-long haul transmission and switching, the direction of all-optical networks.%光纤通信是以其传输频带宽、通信容量大、中继距离长、损耗低特点,并具有抗电磁干扰能力强,保密性好的优势,在通信的主干线路中、电力通信控制系统中以及军事领域的用途越来越广泛。光纤通信技术正朝着超大容量、超长距离传输和交换、全光网络方向发展。

  16. 基于ASP的网上商店的设计与实现%ASP Technology Characteristics and Development Analysis-Online Store Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文彬

    2011-01-01

    Online store,e-trade areas as an advanced trading,is sweeping the world,and the field of traditional attitudes and behavior had a tremendous impact. This paper first analyzes the characteristics of ASP technology, and secondly, the ASP-based online store design and development conducted in-depth discussion, put forward their own proposals and views, proven that the system successfully completed the online store from the user registration, landing, query, purchase, and other feedback throughout the process. The experimental results show, designed to meet the expected demand.%分析ASP技术的特点,并就基于ASP技术的网上商店设计开发进行深入的探讨,提出建议和看法,经过实践证明,该网上商店系统成功地完成了用户注册、登陆、查询、购买、反馈信息等整个过程。

  17. 变电站噪声特性及降噪控制措施%Control Measures on Substation Noise Characteristics and Noise Reduction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵宇鹰; 张思平

    2014-01-01

    目前变电站噪声对周边环境的影响愈发明显,并已成为亟待解决的环境问题。通过对厦门站噪声特性的测试分析,确定了噪声的主要传播途径,通过针对性降噪措施的实施,利用开发的声全息技术可以快速准确地识别配电站、变配电设备的噪声源。通过对噪声源及传播路径的改善,可有效降低变配电设备的噪声量级。%Current transformer noise influences on surrounding environment more and more obvious,and has become a pressing environmental problems.Determined by the test and analysis the characteristics of the xia-men station noise,noise is the main route of transmission,and introduces a series of corresponding noise re-duction measures.Noise sources can be quickly and accurately identified to the distribution station and power distribution equipments.using acoustic holography technology.The improvement of noise source and propaga-tion path can effectively reduce the noise level variable power distribution equipment.

  18. Physical and chemical parameter correlations with technical and technological characteristics of heating systems and the presence of Legionella spp. in the hot water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Anita; Štambuk-Giljanović, Nives

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and compare the quality of hot water between four facilities for accommodation located in Southern Croatia (the Split-Dalmatian County). The research included data collection on the technical and technological characteristics in the period from 2009 to 2012. The survey included a type of construction material for the distribution and internal networks, heating system water heater type, and water consumption. Changes in water quality were monitored by determination of the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, free chlorine residual concentrations, iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in the samples, as well as the presence and concentration of bacteria Legionella spp. The temperature is an important factor for the development of biofilms, and it is in negative correlation with the appearance of Legionella spp. Positive correlations between the Fe and Zn concentrations and Legionella spp. were established, while the inhibitory effect of a higher Cu concentration on the Legionella spp. concentration was proven. Legionella spp. were identified in 38/126 (30.2%) of the water samples from the heating system with zinc-coated pipes, as well as in 78/299 (26.1%) of the samples from systems with plastic pipes. A similar number of Legionella spp. positive samples were established regardless of the type of the water heating system (central or independent). The study confirms the necessity of regular microbial contamination monitoring of the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs).

  19. 普安银鲫的生物学特性及养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Cultivation Technology of PUAN Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢先中; 冉光鑫; 黄仕洪

    2015-01-01

    普安银鲫(PUAN Carassius auratus)是贵州省特有的天然雌核发育鱼类种质资源;它具有肉质好、生长快、杂食性、抗病力强、营养与药用价值高等特点。该文对普安银鲫形态特征、生活习性、摄食习性、繁殖习性等生物学特征进行了综述。并对普安银鲫养殖过程中池塘准备、放养密度、饲料投喂、水质管理,疾病防治等进行了简单介绍。%PUAN Carassius auratus was indigenous unique natural fish germplasm resources in Guizhou prov⁃ince;it has good meat,fast growth,omnivorous,disease resistance,high nutritional and medicinal value. In this paper,biological characteristics of PUAN Carassius auratus were reviewed,including morphological char⁃acteristics,living habits,feeding habits and breeding habits. Cultivation technology of PUAN Carassius aura⁃tus was introduced briefly,including breeding ponds during the preparation,stocking density,feed,feeding,wa⁃ter quality management and disease prevention.

  20. By-product information can stabilize the reliability of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, G D

    2012-12-01

    Although communication underpins many biological processes, its function and basic definition remain contentious. In particular, researchers have debated whether information should be an integral part of a definition of communication and how it remains reliable. So far the handicap principle, assuming signal costs to stabilize reliable communication, has been the predominant paradigm in the study of animal communication. The role of by-product information produced by mechanisms other than the communicative interaction has been neglected in the debate on signal reliability. We argue that by-product information is common and that it provides the starting point for ritualization as the process of the evolution of communication. Second, by-product information remains unchanged during ritualization and enforces reliable communication by restricting the options for manipulation and cheating. Third, this perspective changes the focus of research on communication from studying signal costs to studying the costs of cheating. It can thus explain the reliability of signalling in many communication systems that do not rely on handicaps. We emphasize that communication can often be informative but that the evolution of communication does not cause the evolution of information because by-product information often predates and stimulates the evolution of communication. Communication is thus a consequence but not a cause of reliability. Communication is the interplay of inadvertent, informative traits and evolved traits that increase the stimulation and perception of perceivers. Viewing communication as a complex of inadvertent and derived traits facilitates understanding of the selective pressures shaping communication and those shaping information and its reliability. This viewpoint further contributes to resolving the current controversy on the role of information in communication.

  1. Chlorine dioxide and by-products in water distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Francisco Cardoso

    1991-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is used as both a pre-oxidant and/or a post-disinfectant in several water treatment plants in the United States. Chlorine dioxide is associated with its byproducts chlorite and chlorate. Chlorine dioxide, chlorine, chlori te and chlorate were sampled in four distribution systems where chlorine dioxide is used for disinfection purposes: Charleston, WV, Columbus, GA, New Castle, PA, and Skagit, WA. The fate of chlorine dioxide and its by-products in dist...

  2. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Laia Font-Ribera

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemio...

  3. New insights into meat by-product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2016-10-01

    Meat industry generates large volumes of by-products like blood, bones, meat trimmings, skin, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull and viscera among others that are costly to be treated and disposed ecologically. These costs can be balanced through innovation to generate added value products that increase its profitability. Rendering results in feed ingredients for livestock, poultry and aquaculture as well as for pet foods. Energy valorization can be obtained through the thermochemical processing of meat and bone meal or the use of waste animal fats for the production of biodiesel. More recently, new applications have been reported like the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as alternative to plastics produced from petroleum. Other interesting valorization strategies are based on the hydrolysis of by-products to obtain added value products like bioactive peptides with relevant physiological effects as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, etc. with promising applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. This paper reports and discusses the latest developments and trends in the use and valorisation of meat industry by-products.

  4. 我国科技项目资源配置的基本特征及优化对策%The Basic Characteristics of Resource Allocation of Scientific and Technological Projects and Optimization Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司课题组

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyses the basic characteristics of resource allocation of scientific and technological projects on the base of data of national survey of all R&D resources of 2000. It also provides some policies to solve the problems of inequality of resource allocation between regions and industries and that of decentralization and shortage of inputs.

  5. Novel process to recover by-products from the pickling baths of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frias, C.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; Van Erkel, J.; Maas, W.; Kemppainen, J.; Mancia, F. [Tecnicas Reunidas, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Development of an integrated process (the PIBARE process) which is able to recover and recycle free and complex acids back to the pickling tank is described. The recovery of these by-products proceeds while the metals are recovered in the form of electrodeposited metal alloy and are internally recycled to the stainless steel manufacturing process. Virtually no solid residue or liquid is produced in the process. Results after three years of investigation are very promising, having achieved all stated objectives at least on the laboratory scale. The new technology promises significant economic and environmental benefits over other existing technologies for the treatment of spent baths. However, since the benefits have not been confirmed at the pilot scale, commercial application would require additional research, including finding more efficient and more selective anionic membranes. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. The Management Characteristics of 3D Printing Technology and the Development Thinking of Corporations at Present%3D打印技术的管理特征及企业发展思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓东; 李天柱; 金玉然

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze and sums up the manage characteristics of 3D printing technology, such as the uncertainty scientific foundation, technologycluster feature, from the perspective of its technology and industry characteristics, specifically including five detailed aspects such as scientific basis, technology itself, technology market, business sectors and emerging technology point based on emerging technology management theory, and then we put forward the thinking and ways of 3D printing technology development for Chinese firms at this stage including using existing technology, relying on the existing universities to break the "technology cluster", realize the breakthrough as well as the accurate market positioning and precisely in the 3D printing technology business links. Finally, 3D printing enterprises should take the "both hands" development ideas. So it has great significance in analyzing and studying on the management characteristics of 3D printing technology to seek the law of its management and promoting the sustainable development of 3D printing technology.%文章依据新兴技术管理理论,以3D打印技术为研究对象,从技术特点和产业特征入手,具体围绕技术科学基础、技术本身、技术市场、商业环节及新兴技术角度这五个重要方面,分析和归纳3D打印技术典型的管理特征,同时应用理论分析和案例分析方法,提出我国企业现阶段发展3D打印技术的思路,主要包括运用现有技术,依托或脱胎高校突破现存“技术簇”,实现领先。同时,实现市场准确定位,精准进入3D打印技术商业环节,最后,3D打印企业走“两手抓”发展思路。本研究对不断探寻管理3D打印技术的规律及促进3D打印技术可持续发展具有重要意义。

  7. [Degradation Kinetics and Formation of Disinfection By-products During Linuron Chlorination in Drinking Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiao; Hu, Chen-yan; Cheng, Ming; Gu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Chlorination degradation of linuron was studied using the common disinfectant sodium hypochlorite, the effects of chlorine dosage, pH value, bromine ion concentrationand temperature were systematically investigated, and the formation characteristics of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the chlorination reaction was analyzed. The results showed that the chlorination degradation kinetics of linuron by sodium hypochlorite could be well described by the second-order kinetic model. Moreover, pH values had a great impact on the degradation reaction, and the rate constant reached the maximum level at pH 7, and the base elementary reaction rate constants of HOCl and OCl- with linuron were 4.84 x 10(2) L · (mol · h)(-1) and 3.80 x 10(2) L · (mol · h)(-1), respectively. The reaction rate decreased with the addition of bromide ion and increased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, many kinds of disinfection by- products were produced during the chlorination degradation of linuron, including CF, DCAN, TCNM and halogen acetone. Under conditions of different solution pH and different bromide ion concentrations, there would be significant difference in the types and concentrations of disinfection by-products.

  8. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-hong; Zhang, Wan-gang

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides. PMID:27657142

  9. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  10. STONES SAWING SLUDGE AS BY-PRODUCT: characterization for a future recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2017-04-01

    subsequent environmental degradation and to promote a technology innovation (sustainability and circular economy) a proactive waste management strategy trying to optimize on the one hand the processing to obtain reduced waste and the other to improve the process to obtain two reusable by-products was considered.

  11. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un procedimiento general para el diseño de una planta para la producción de un alimento a partir de bagazo y miel final, enriquecido proteicamente con levadura Candida utilis y que se le ha dado el nombre de Bagames. El diseño cuenta con varias etapas: preparaci ón de las materias primas, fermentación en estado sólido, sistema de aireaci ón, sistema de bombeo y transporte mecánico del producto, secado, humidificaci ón del aire. El diseño de todos los equipos fue realizado en Microsoft Excel. La metodología desarrollada puede ser generalizada a otras plantas del país. Mediante un análisis de prefactibilidad económica se calculó que la inversi ón en el Complejo Agro Industrial "Siboney" es de $72 697,91 con un tiempo de recuperación de 2,44 años. Con un valor del VAN de $219 407, 48 y un TIR de 39,13 %. Se demostró que la tecnología es técnico económicamente factible.

  12. Effects of orange by-product fiber incorporation on the functional and technological properties of pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe incorporation of fiber into products consumed every day by the general population is important and viable. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating orange juice industry dietary fiber byproducts in fettuccini of fresh pasta. Three different fiber concentrations were added to fresh pastas (25 g/kg, 50 g/kg and 75 g/kg. The results showed a significant increase in solid loss content when the incorporation of orange fiber was greater than 50 g/kg. This difference did not occur regarding weight increase values and color parameters. The pasta with 75 g/kg orange fiber can be considered a “high fiber” product, with the total dietary fiber content of the pasta increasing by 99% compared to control pasta. The carotenoid and phenolic contents of pasta increased significantly with the incorporation of fiber at 75 g/kg, but only the pasta formulation with 25 g/kg of orange fiber did not differ from control pasta in relation to all of the sensory attributes and presented an acceptance greater than 75%. The addition of orange fiber byproducts to pastas is an interesting alternative because fiber has a high nutritional value and an abundance of antioxidants.

  13. Application of biological marker technology to bioremediation of refinery by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.; McCaffrey, M.A.; Smith, W.J.; Fetzer, J.C. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The progress of bioremediation of waste petroleum sludge at Chevron`s Perth Amboy, New Jersey, refinery landfarm was evaluated using a ranking scale based on refractory biological marker hydrocarbons that are indigenous to, and ubiquitous in, crude oils. Of the four samples analyzed from different locations in the landfarm, two were virtually identical and showed an absence of the n-alkanes expected to be found in the sludge (light biodegradation ranking). Another showed additional partial degradation of acyclic isoprenoids, e.g., pristane and phytane (moderate ranking). The fourth sample showed complete n-paraffin and isoprenoid loss, partial alteration of hopanes, and losses of C{sub 27} steranes, C{sub 27} diasteranes, C{sub 27} monoaromatic steroids, and C{sub 26} triaromatic steroids relative to the higher steroid homologs in each of these series (heavy ranking). These results suggest a concomitant preferential loss of steroid hydrocarbons that have the cholestane side chain and a possible new steroid biodegradation mechanism that is essentially blind to the structure of the steroid nucleus. The latter sample also showed levels of most polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), suggesting a building up of these compounds as others were removed. However, some of the smaller PAH (acenaphylene, fluorene, fluoranthene) appear to have decreased. These results suggest that a protocol based on such a biodegradation ranking scale could be used to monitor the progress of bioremediation of oil based refinery wastes. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Diane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing awareness of the role of information technology in evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of organizational context and nurse characteristics in explaining variation in nurses’ use of personal digital assistants (PDAs and mobile Tablet PCs for accessing evidence-based information. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS model provided the framework for studying the impact of providing nurses with PDA-supported, evidence-based practice resources, and for studying the organizational, technological, and human resource variables that impact nurses’ use patterns. Methods A survey design was used, involving baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The setting included 24 organizations representing three sectors: hospitals, long-term care (LTC facilities, and community organizations (home care and public health. The sample consisted of 710 participants (response rate 58% at Time 1, and 469 for whom both Time 1 and Time 2 follow-up data were obtained (response rate 66%. A hierarchical regression model (HLM was used to evaluate the effect of predictors from all levels simultaneously. Results The Chi square result indicated PDA users reported using their device more frequently than Tablet PC users (p = 0.001. Frequency of device use was explained by ‘breadth of device functions’ and PDA versus Tablet PC. Frequency of Best Practice Guideline use was explained by ‘willingness to implement research,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ ‘organizational slack time,’ ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative effect. Frequency of Nursing Plus database use was explained by ‘culture,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ and ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative. ‘Organizational culture’ (positive, ‘breadth of device functions

  15. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  16. ANALYSIS OF BY-PRODUCTS MARKET IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Keniyz N. V.; Nesterenko A. A.; Syrovatkina S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Changing style of life, its rhythm and tendencies dictate their own conditions. The deficit of time makes us economize it on all, including the time for cooking. Among the main trends of the domestic meat market - switching consumers from frozen meat products to fresh cooled products. In connection with it the amount of consumers of meat semi-finished products grows. In the work there was considered the results of research of the Russian market of by-products. The market of frozen meat by-pro...

  17. 风电机组变流器技术特点和可靠性分析%The characteristics and reliable analysis to wind turbines converter technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁华; 腾依海

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines converter is one of the core components of wind turbine and the key equipment to realize the energy conversion .Its reliability determines the reliability of wind turbines running .Due to the special running environment of the wind turbines ,wind turbines power converter has its own characteristics in industry application .Around issues of the reliability of power converter ,starting from the working fea-tures and technology requirements of converter ,the paper analyzes the main reasons of the converter fail-ure ,and expounds the failure mechanism of power devices during work .Some measures for improving the reliability of the converter have been proposed in it .%风电机组变流器是风力发电机组核心部件之一,是实现能量转换的关键设备,其可靠性决定了风电机组运行的可靠性。由于风电机组运行环境特殊,因此,风电机组的功率变流器有其自身的行业应用特点。围绕功率变流器的可靠性问题,从变流器的工作特点及技术要求出发,分析了变流器故障主要原因,阐述了功率器件在工作中的失效机理,提出了提高变流器可靠性的措施。

  18. A Management State of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) and the Measuring Direction - Centered By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Hee Seon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The chemical materials, DDT and Dioxin, threaten the human health and take the high toxicity on ecosystem and a living thing. Because the chemical materials remain in environment for a long time due to a slow natural decomposition, they are biologically concentrated through the food cycle in ecosystem and have a characteristic to move a long distance. Owing to such toxicity and the characteristics of chemical materials, the world organization named them as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and has been actively progressing the international movement to strictly restrict them since the middle of 1990s. POPs regulation agreement, which is on progress centered in UNEP, is facing to the conclusion of the agreement of 2001 year. An agricultural chemical of organic chlorine among 12 POPs indicated by UNEP has been already prohibited in the domestic use and manufacturing or not registered, so the basic research, including search and monitoring if POPs remain or not, is required afterward. Because Dioxin, Puran, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) among POPs, which are produced as by-products from all kinds of industrial processes, are not raw materials dislike other POPs, their use and manufacturing cannot be only prohibited by the related law but also they have few substitutes. Therefore, they should be applied by the different regulation from the existing toxic chemicals in order to manage the toxicity of the materials. However, the regulation on by-products among POPs is just in the beginning stage, and even the producing source has not been yet confirmed. This study suggests the necessity of the management on Dioxin, Puran, HCB, by-products among POPs, and presents the measuring direction with grasping the domestic and foreign trend of the regulation on the materials. 70 refs., 2 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  20. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered.

  1. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Sid [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers

  2. Chlorine dioxine DBPs (disinfection by-products in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lasagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s it has been well known that, though water for human consumption is generally disinfected before being distributed along the network, the use of chemicals results in the formation of many different Disinfection By-Products (DBPs. In the case of chlorine dioxide, the most important and represented DBPs are chlorite and chlorate: after an introduction concerning the current Italian regulation on this subject, in the experimental part the results of a 7-year minitoring campaign, concerning water of different origin collected from taps in various Italian regions, are shown. The analytical technique used for the determination of chlorite and chlorate was Ion Chromatography. The result obtained are finally discussed.

  3. Detection of regulated disinfection by-products in cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes; Cabezas, Lourdes; Fernández-Salguero, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Cheese can contain regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly through contact with brine solutions prepared in disinfected water or sanitisers used to clean all contact surfaces, such as processing equipment and tanks. This study has focused on the possible presence of up to 10 trihalomethanes (THMs) and 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a wide range of European cheeses. The study shows that 2 THMs, (in particular trichloromethane) and 3 HAAs (in particular dichloroacetic acid) can be found at μg/kg levels in the 56 cheeses analysed. Of the two types of DBPs, HAAs were generally present at higher concentrations, due to their hydrophilic and non-volatile nature. Despite their different nature (THMs are lipophilic), both of them have an affinity for fatty cheeses, increasing their concentrations as the percentage of water decreased because the DBPs were concentrated in the aqueous phase of the cheeses.

  4. Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

    2008-08-01

    Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

  5. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Font-Ribera, Laia

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  6. Effect of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertising Activities by Product Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasiewicz Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer two related questions: are celebrity endorsements more likely to be result in a higher evaluation of the product being advertised than use of an anonymous individual (e.g. a typical consumer; and, if present, do these positive effects vary by product category? To answer these two questions research was conducted on a 237 student sample employing a quasi-experiment consisting of four groups (two product categories and two types of endorsers using data collected through an online survey. The results indicate that celebrity endorsements do have a positive impact on the evaluation of durable goods, but do not affect the evaluation of frequently purchased products. This finding largely confirms the assumptions of the match-up model, the meaning transfer model, and the ELM model.

  7. Wheat germ: not only a by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Andrea; Hidalgo, Alyssa

    2012-03-01

    The wheat germ (embryonic axis and scutellum) represents about 2.5-3.8% of total seed weight and is an important by-product of the flour milling industry. The germ contains about 10-15% lipids, 26-35% proteins, 17% sugars, 1.5-4.5% fibre and 4% minerals, as well as significant quantities of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols [300-740 mg/kg dry matter (DM)], phytosterols (24-50 mg/kg), policosanols (10 mg/kg), carotenoids (4-38 mg/kg), thiamin (15-23 mg/kg) and riboflavin (6-10 mg/kg). Oil recovery is achieved by mechanical pressing or solvent extraction, which retrieve about 50% or 90% lipids, respectively; innovative approaches, such as supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, are also proposed. The oil is rich in triglycerides (57% of total lipids), mainly linoleic (18:2), palmitic (16:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, but relevant amounts of sterols, mono- and diglycerides, phospho- and glycolipids are present. The lypophilic antioxidants tocopherols and carotenoids are also abundant. The main by-product of oil extraction is defatted germ meal, which has high protein content (30-32%), is rich in albumin (34.5% of total protein) and globulin (15.6%), and thus presents a well-balanced amino acid profile. Its principal mineral constituents are potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc and manganese, in decreasing order. Total flavonoid content is about 0.35 g rutin equivalent/100 g DM. The wheat germ is therefore a unique source of concentrated nutrients, highly valued as food supplement. While the oil is widely appreciated for its pharmaceutical and nutritional value, the defatted germ meal is a promising source of high-quality vegetable proteins. Better nutrient separation from the kernel and improved fractioning techniques could also provide high-purity molecules with positive health benefits.

  8. Comparison and Research on the Personality Characteristics between Advanced Personnel of Science and Technology and Common Personal%高校优秀科技人员与普通科技人员人格特征的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井西学; 王金民; 于斌; 赵国志

    2001-01-01

    本文通过对高校优秀科技人员与普通科技人员人格特征的调查与比较,了解和掌握了其人格方面的差异性特征,为今后指导人才培养提供了相关依据。%Through the investigation and comparison of the characteristics between advanced personal of science and technology and common personal,we understand and master the different characteristics of their personality. Thus,this paper provides relevant proof for our trainning of talented personnel hereafter.

  9. Seafood Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    -Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is needed to pay attention to environmental protection and continued biodiversity. Further, it is necessary to use all the raw materials provided such that present by-products and side streams in processing are being upgraded for a better use than today. Principles of blue biotechnology may......This presentation will fill the total picture of this conference between fisheries and aquaculture, blue biotech and bioconservation, by considering the optimal processing technology of marine resources from the raw material until the seafood reaches the plate of the consumer. The situation today...

  10. Characteristics of networks in energy efficiency research, development and demonstration – a comparison of actors, technological domains and network structure in seven research areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2013-01-01

    The need for more energy efficient products and technologies has increased recently in connection with meeting today’s energy and environmental issues. Research, development and demonstration (RD&D) is one way of supporting technological innovation and knowledge diffusion - but there is no such t...

  11. Impact of Post-Secondary Business Teacher Educators' Employment Characteristics and Innovation Factors on Their Adoption of Current Computer Technologies as a Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Betty F.; Gaytan, Jorge A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Business teacher educators prepare business teachers and workers to be successful in today's constantly changing technological environment. Therefore, business teacher educators must meet the challenge to be prepared technologically to educate their students for the workforce. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine…

  12. 微波辐照技术的工艺特性及其在水处理中的应用%Characteristics of microwave irradiation technology and its application to water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚峰; 王景新; 李志成; 冯朋

    2012-01-01

    The technological characteristics of microwave irradiation technology and its applied mechanisms in water treatment are analyzed. The research situation and application situation of microwave irradiation technology applied to wastewater treatment are introduced. The technological types of microwave irradiation technology used for treating wastewater and their reaction effects are summarized. Some problems existing in the developing stage of water treatment are analyzed, too. Corresponding opinion and suggestion are put forward. The development tendency of microwave irradiation technology of water treatment is forecast.%分析了微波辐照技术的工艺特性及其在水处理中的作用机理,介绍了微波辐照技术用于废水处理领域中的研究状况与应用情况,综述了微波辐照技术用于废水处理的工艺类型及反应效果.结合相关研究与工程应用情况,分析了微波辐照技术在水处理应用中存在的问题,并提出了相应的意见和建议.展望了微波辐照技术在水处理中的发展方向.

  13. Mineralogy of clean coal combustion by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ligang Wang; Changhe Chen; Kruse H. Kolker

    2004-01-01

    Coal combustion technologies are changing in order to bum coal more cleanly. Many "clean combustion" and postcombustion technologies are developed to remove SO2 and NOx gases, particulate matter during combustion, or from the flue gases leaving the furnace. This paper focuses on three types of fly ash (flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residuals, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) residuals and sorbent duct injection (SDI) residuals) which produced by "the clean combustion" and postcombustion technologies. The residuals formed by FGD are PCFA (pulverized coal fly ash) grains entrained with reacted and unreacted sorbent and have lower bulk densities than PCFA grains because it contains higher concentrations of calcium and sulfur, and lower concentrations of silicon, aluminum and iron than PCFAs. AFBC residuals consist of spent bed which is a heterogeneous mixture of coarse-grained bed material and irregularly shaped, unfused, spherical PCFAs. The main crystalline phases in AFBC residuals are anhydrite (reacted sorbent), quartz and lime (unreacted sobent), calcite, hematite, periclase, magnetite and feldspars.The residuals produced by SDI contained 65%-70% PCFA with the larger sizes material being irregularly shaped, fused or roughedged. The reaction products of sorbent (portlandite and lime) included calcium sulfate (anhydrite) and calcium sulfate. The chemical properties of these residuals are similar to those of high calcium PCFAs because of the high alkalinity and high pH of these residuals.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Utilisation of Food and Woodworking Production By-products by Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldis Viesturs

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to develop laboratory-scale technologies for composting milk/cheese whey, spent liquor, brewery yeast, fish processing by-products, etc., adding these by-products and special microorganism associations to the basic material - sawdust, bark, etc., also arranging different experimental composting sites. Two Trichoderma strains (Tr. lignorum, Tr. viride and a nitrification association for regulating the circulation of nitrogen-ammonification and nitrification processes were applied. Monitoring of the composting quality was realised by microbiological and chemical analyses, and biotests for compost quality (toxicity assessment. For purifying the polluted air from the composting facilities, the biofiltration technique was realised in a modified SSF system. Biodegradation of ammonia was investigated in a two-stage system with the inert packing material - dolomite broken bricks, and hemoautotrophic microorganisms: DN-1 (Pseudomonas sp., DN-2 (Nitrosomonas sp., DN-3 (Nitrobacter sp. and DN-13 (Sarcina sp.. For hydrogen sulphide biodegradation, Thiobacillus thioparus-3 was immobilised on glass bricks as the carrier material. Biodegradation efficiency of hydrogen sulphide was 87%. Biodegradation of ammonia in the first step in the two-stage system reached 77%, degradation of the gas remaining in the second step was 75%. Compost's quality was similar to black soil - brown-coloured, with good soil odour and without toxic compounds.

  16. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild Dragøy; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as by-products. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.

  17. Reduction of wastewaters and valorisation of by-products from "Serpa" cheese manufacture using nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, V; Minhalma, M; Queiroz, D; Geraldes, V; Macedo, A; de Pinho, M N

    2005-01-01

    Second cheese whey (SCW) is a by-product of cheese and curd cheese production that is usually not recovered and therefore contributes substantially to the negative environmental impact of the cheese manufacture plants. Membrane technology, namely nanofiltration (NF), is used in this work for the recovery of SCW organic nutrients, resulting from "Serpa" cheese and curd production. The SCW is processed by NF to recover a rich lactose fraction in the concentrate and a process water with a high salt content in the permeate. The permeation experiments were carried out in a plate and frame NF unit, where two NF membranes (NFT50 and HR-95-PP) were characterized and tested. The NF permeation experiments were performed accordingly with two different operation modes: total recirculation and concentration. In order to select the best membrane and operating pressure for the SCW fractionation, total recirculation experiments were carried out. After the membrane selection, the concentration experiments showed that the selected membrane (NFT50) at 30 bar allows a water recovery of approximately 80%, concentrating the second cheese whey nutrients approximately 5 times. Therefore, the NF operation can successfully reduce the wastewater organic load and simultaneously contribute to the valorisation of the cheese and curd cheese manufacture by-products.

  18. Optimization of "Serpa" cheese whey nanofiltration for effluent minimization and by-products recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhalma, Miguel; Magueijo, Vítor; Queiroz, Denise P; de Pinho, Maria Norberta

    2007-01-01

    Second cheese whey (SCW) is a by-product of cheese and curd cheese production that is usually not recovered and therefore substantially contributes to the negative environmental impact of the cheese manufacture plants. Membrane technology, namely nanofiltration (NF), is used in this work for the recovery of SCW organic nutrients, resulting from "Serpa" cheese and curd production. The SCW is processed by NF to recover a rich lactose fraction in the concentrate and a process water with a high salt content in the permeate. The permeation experiments were carried out in a plate & frame NF unit, where two NF membranes (NFT50 and HR-95-PP) were characterized and tested. The NF permeation experiments were performed accordingly with two different operation modes: total recirculation and concentration. In order to select the best membrane and operating pressure for the SCW fractionation, total recirculation experiments were carried out. The NF modeling was also performed, in terms of permeate fluxes and rejection coefficients using the resistances-in-series model and the solution-diffusion model, respectively. After the membrane selection, the concentration experiments showed that the selected membrane (NFT50) at 3.0MPa allows a water recovery of approximately 80%, concentrating the SCW nutrients approximately 5 times. Therefore, the NF operation can successfully reduce the wastewater organic load and simultaneously contributes to the valorization of the cheese and curd cheese manufacture by-products.

  19. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  20. Minimization of the formation of disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed I; Gad-Allah, Tarek A; Ali, Mohamed E M; Yoon, Yeoman

    2012-09-01

    The drinking water industry is required to minimize DBPs levels while ensuring adequate disinfection. In this study, efficient and appropriate treatment scheme for the reduction of disinfection by-product (DBPs) formation in drinking water containing natural organic matter has been established. This was carried out by the investigation of different treatment schemes consisting of enhanced coagulation, sedimentation, disinfection by using chlorine dioxide/ozone, filtration by sand filter, or granular activated carbon (GAC). Bench scale treatment schemes were applied on actual samples from different selected sites to identify the best conditions for the treatment of water. Samples were collected from effluent of each step in the treatment train in order to analyze pH, UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA(254)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs). The obtained results indicated that using pre-ozonation/enhanced coagulation/activated carbon filtration treatment train appears to be the most effective method for reducing DBPs precursors in drinking water treatment.

  1. Synthesis of zeolite phases from combustion by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimraksa, K.; Chindaprasirt, P.; Setthaya, N. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2010-12-15

    Synthesis of zeolites from combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash, was studied. A molar ratio of SiO{sub 2}/Al2O{sub 3} of 1.5 was used for the syntheses. Refluxing and hydrothermal methods were also used for synthesis for comparison. The reaction temperatures of refluxing and hydrothermal methods were 100{sup o}C and 130{sup o}C, respectively. Sodalite, phillipsite-K, and zeolite P1 with analcime were obtained when fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash were used as starting materials, respectively. With rice husk ash as a starting material, zeolite P1 was produced. This result had advantages over previous studies as there was no prior activation required for the synthesis. The concentrations and types of alkaline used in the synthesis also determined the zeolite type. The different zeolites obtained from three systems were measured for specific surface area and pore size by using BET and Hg-porosimetry, respectively. Ammonium exchange capacities of the synthesised powders containing zeolites, sodalite, zeolite P1 and phillipsite-K were 38.5, 65.0 and 154.7 meq 100 g{sup 1}, respectively.

  2. Synthesis of zeolite phases from combustion by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimraksa, Kedsarin; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Setthaya, Naruemon

    2010-12-01

    Synthesis of zeolites from combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash, was studied. A molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 of 1.5 was used for the syntheses. Refluxing and hydrothermal methods were also used for synthesis for comparison. The reaction temperatures of refluxing and hydrothermal methods were 100 degrees C and 130 degrees C, respectively. Sodalite, phillipsite-K, and zeolite P1 with analcime were obtained when fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash were used as starting materials, respectively. With rice husk ash as a starting material, zeolite P1 was produced. This result had advantages over previous studies as there was no prior activation required for the synthesis. The concentrations and types of alkaline used in the synthesis also determined the zeolite type. The different zeolites obtained from three systems were measured for specific surface area and pore size by using BET and Hg-porosimetry, respectively. Ammonium exchange capacities of the synthesised powders containing zeolites, sodalite, zeolite P1 and phillipsite-K were 38.5, 65.0 and 154.7 meq 100 g(-1), respectively.

  3. Toluene decomposition performance and NOx by-product formation during a DBD-catalyst process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufang; Liao, Xiaobin; Fu, Mingli; Huang, Haibao; Ye, Daiqi

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of toluene decomposition and formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by-products were investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with/without catalyst at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Four kinds of metal oxides, i.e., manganese oxide (MnOx), iron oxide (FeOx), cobalt oxide (CoOx) and copper oxide (CuO), supported on Al2O3/nickel foam, were used as catalysts. It was found that introducing catalysts could improve toluene removal efficiency, promote decomposition of by-product ozone and enhance CO2 selectivity. In addition, NOx was suppressed with the decrease of specific energy density (SED) and the increase of humidity, gas flow rate and toluene concentration, or catalyst introduction. Among the four kinds of catalysts, the CuO catalyst showed the best performance in NOx suppression. The MnOx catalyst exhibited the lowest concentration of O3 and highest CO2 selectivity but the highest concentration of NOx. A possible pathway for NOx production in DBD was discussed. The contributions of oxygen active species and hydroxyl radicals are dominant in NOx suppression.

  4. Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report describes results on feedstock characterization. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. New solutions for by-products plants developed by Koksoprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Tomal; R. Zajdel; H. Zembala

    2002-07-01

    The paper focuses on recent and current activities of KOKSOPROJEKT Company oriented towards up-to-dating and optimization of its own developed processes and technical solutions. As a result of these activities the investment and operation cost have been decreased and European standards in environmental protection have not only been met, but even exceeded. From among many developments in this field this paper only presents three reliable and efficient processes for coke oven gas desulfurizing: ammonia process, potash-vacuum process and catalytic-soda (KAT-SOD) process. All of mentioned technologies have been implemented in Polish coking plants, and the desulfurization plants operate with good results. 1 tab.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  7. Substituição do milho pelo resíduo de fecularia de mandioca sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade e características de carcaça de novilhos confinados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.6093 Replacing corn with cassava starch by-products on the performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of bulls in confinement - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.6093

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de substituição do milho pelo resíduo desidratado de fecularia de mandioca (0; 12,5; 22,8 e 32,7% foi avaliado sobre o desempenho, a digestibilidade e características de carcaça e 32 bovinos mestiços (½ Nelore x ½ Angus de aproximadamente 18 meses de idade e 380 kg de peso vivo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Foram analisados o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, espessura de gordura de cobertura (EGC, área de olho de lombo (AOL, comprimento de perna (CP, espessura de coxão (EC, ingestão de matéria seca (IMS, conversão alimentar (CA, digestibilidade total aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, energia bruta (DAEB, fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA e fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN. O experimento foi desenvolvido durante um período de 56 dias, após 14 dias de adaptação. Os resultados de GMD, RC, CA, EGC, AOL, CP e EC não apresentaram diferenças (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos. A IMS apresentou redução linear quando o milho foi substituído pelo resíduo desidratado de fecularia de mandioca. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO, PB, EB, FDN e FDA não variaram entre as rações experimentais.The effects of replacing corn with different levels of cassava starch by-products (0, 12.5, 22.8, and 32.7% were evaluated on performance, digestibility and carcass traits of feedlot bulls. Thirty-two crossbred bulls (½ Nelore x ½ Angus around 18 months of age and 380 kg of body weight were used. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments and 8 replicates. Evaluated traits were: average daily gain (ADG, carcass dressing (CD, backfat thickness (BT, Longissimus area (LDA, leg length (LL and cushion thickness (CT, dry matter intake (DMI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DMDC, organic matter (OMDC, crude protein (CPDC, crude energy (CEDC

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL BY SUBSURFACE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  10. Application of Technology of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing High-Viscosity Oils for the Purpose of Improving the Rheological Characteristics of Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Vengerov, A. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    There is investigated the technology of hydrodynamic cavitational processing viscous and high-viscosity oils and the possibility of its application in the pipeline transport system for the purpose of increasing of rheological properties of the transported oils, including dynamic viscosity shear stress in the article. It is considered the possibility of application of the combined hydrodynamic cavitational processing with addition of depressor additive for identification of effect of a synergism. It is developed the laboratory bench and they are presented results of modeling and laboratory researches. It is developed the hardware and technological scheme of application of the developed equipment at industrial objects of pipeline transport.

  11. Proteomic analysis of processing by-products from canned and fresh tuna: identification of potentially functional food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, Esther; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Iloro, Ibon; Escuredo, Kepa; Elortza, Felix; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-09-15

    Proteomic approaches have been used to identify the main proteins present in processing by-products generated by the canning tuna-industry, as well as in by-products derived from filleting of skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna. Following fractionation by using an ammonium sulphate precipitation method, three proteins (tropomyosin, haemoglobin and the stress-shock protein ubiquitin) were identified in the highly heterogeneous and heat-treated material discarded by the canning-industry. Additionally, this fractionation method was successful to obtain tropomyosin of high purity from the heterogeneous starting material. By-products from skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna were efficiently fractionated to sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions, prior to the identification based mainly on the combined searching of the peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF) and peptide fragment fingerprinting (MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF) spectra of fifteen bands separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Thus, the sarcoplasmic fraction contained myoglobin and several enzymes that are essential for efficient energy production, whereas the myofibrillar fraction had important contractile proteins, such as actin, tropomyosin, myosin or an isoform of the enzyme creatine kinase. Application of proteomic technologies has revealed new knowledge on the composition of important by-products from tuna species, enabling a better evaluation of their potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  13. Wind technology issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Antoni; Prats, Pep [Ecotecnia S.C.C.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-01-01

    The paper focuses on the main trends of the technology behind the present wind energy applications. The technology characteristics and main challenges are analysed. The important links between political decisions and the development to date of wind turbines signal a direction for forecasting future tendencies and the possible technical characteristics of future turbines. (Author)

  14. Influence of layout parameters on snapback characteristic for a gate-grounded NMOS device in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yuxi; Li Jiao; Ran Feng; Cao Jialin; Yang Dianxiong

    2009-01-01

    r of the GGNMOS devices under high ESD current stress, and design area-efficient ESD protection circuits to sustain the required ESD level.Optimized layout rules for ESD protection in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology are also presented.

  15. Effects of different fat sources, technological forms and characteristics of the basal diet on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows - a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment

  16. Effects of different fat sources, technological forms and characteristics of the basal diet on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows - a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment

  17. Strategy of Utilization of Locally Available Crop Residues and By-Products for Livestock Feeding in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moujahed-Raach, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Important quantities of crop residues and by-products are yearly available in North African countries. This paper presents the screening of the most important by-products in Tunisia, their nutritional characteristics and the appropriate strategies to use most of them in order to improve ruminants feeding systems. One or several by-products are specifie of each region of the country but most of them are localized in the northern region. Some of the agricultural wastes are available in important quantities but are of nutritionally poor or moderate qualities (straw, olive wastes, poultry litter, etc, while others are produced in limited amounts but are of very interesting feeding values (sugar beet pulp, brewers grain, date residue, etc. The main applied strategies to valorize Tunisian agricultural by-products consist in ammoniation of cereal straws along with supplementation with multinutriment blocks and formulation of balanced diets based totally or partially on them. These alternatives are crucial in the improvement of feeding values of studied diets and animal performances essentially by improving micro-bial activity in the rumen. In Tunisia such solution could be applied both in extensive and moderate animal production systems.

  18. Strategy of Utilization of Locally Available Crop Residues and By-Products for Livestock Feeding in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moujahed-Raach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Important quantifies of crops residues and by-products are yearly available in North African countries. This paper presents the screening of the most important by-products in Tunisia, their nutritional characteristics and the appropriate strategies to use most of them in order to improve ruminants feeding systems. One or several by-products are specifie of each region of the country, but most of them are localised in the northern region. Some of the agricultural wastes are available in important quantifies but are of nutritionally poor or moderate qualifies (straw, olive wastes, poultry litter, etc, while others are produced in limited amounts but are of very interesting feeding values (sugar beet pulp, brewers grain, date residue, etc. The main applied strategies to valorise Tunisian agricultural by-products consist in ammoniation of cereal straws along with supplementation with multinutriment blocks and formulation of balanced diets based totally or partially on them. These alternatives are crucial in the improvement of feeding values of studied diets and animal performances essentially by improving microbial activity in the rumen. In Tunisia such solution could be applied both in extensive and moderate animal production systems.

  19. Computer Attitude, and the Impact of Personal Characteristics and Information and Communication Technology Adoption Patterns on Performance of Teaching Faculty in Higher Education in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined computer attitude, and the impact of personal characteristics and ICT adoption patterns on performance of multidisciplinary teaching faculty in three public universities in Ghana. A cross-sectional research of mixed methods was applied in collecting data and information. Quantitative data from 164 respondents were analyzed…

  20. A modern solid waste management strategy--the generation of new by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Kulbat, Eliza; Luczkiewicz, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a 'zero waste' strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms for residual bulk disposal. However, each of the aforementioned facilities generates by-products that must be treated. This project focuses on the leachates from landfill prisms, including modern prism (MP) that meet EU requirements and previous prism (PP) that provide for the storage of permitted biodegradable waste as well as technological wastewaters from sorting unit (SU) and composting unit (CU), which are usually overlooked. The physico-chemical parameters of the liquid by-products collected over 38 months were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) amplifications of functional genes transcripts and a metagenomic approach that describes the archaeal and bacterial community in the MP. The obtained data show that SU and especially CU generate wastewater that is rich in nutrients, organic matter and heavy metals. Through their on-site pre-treatment and recirculation via landfill prisms, the landfill waste decomposition process may be accelerated because of the introduction of organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions may be increased. These results have been confirmed by the progressive abundance of both archaeal community and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The resulting multivariate data set, supported by a principal component analysis, provides useful information for the design, operation and risk assessment of modern MSWPs.

  1. Study on the mechanical characteristics and the key construction technology of center deep ditch in cold region tunnel%寒区隧道中心水沟的受力与施工关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车宝华; 周小涵

    2015-01-01

    针对现阶段广泛使用的寒区铁路隧道中心深埋水沟的施工难点和受力特性进行了研究,用有限元方法重点计算分析了浅埋偏压隧道中心深埋水沟的受力特性,结果表明,中心深埋水沟开挖后隧道结构水平和竖向变形有明显增大。%The mechanical characteristics and construction technology of center deep ditch in cold region railway tunnel was studied. Using finite element mode,the mechanics characteristic of shallow buried partial stressful tunnel was done. It shows that the center deep ditch increases hori-zontal and vertical deformation of the tunnel structure greatly.

  2. Primary Research on the Relationship between Characteristics and Asexual Reproduction Technology of Jingning Baicha%景宁白茶品种特征与无性繁殖技术相关性研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the characteristics of two cultivars of Jingning Baicha and the technology about garden cultivation, short cuttings, tea seeding management. Then the correlation was analysed between survival ratio of the two cultivars and different reproduction time, differentsoil types.%本文介绍景宁白荼两个品种的特性、母本园培育管理、短穗扦插及茶苗管理技术;分析了不同品种、不同时间、不同基质与景宁白茶扦插成活率的相关性。

  3. Trends in Technology Use

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Frant

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between the use of technology, working conditions and the health and well-being of workers in Europe. As it is known that characteristics of work organisation may reinforce or impair both positive and negative effects of technology use, the role of these characteristics is also considered in this study. The research will provide an insight into the trends and changes in technology use and working conditions in European count...

  4. LOCAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE IMPACT OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL DECISIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENT UNDER THE RISK-RELATED CONDITIONS OF MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin VELEV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of globalization in a worldwide scale is even more noticeable in the each country during period of world economic crisis due to the differences in the economic status, deformed by the crisis phenomena. In that case, the conflict between global tendencies and local manifestations in the regional aspect of economic phenomena is even more evidently noticeable as a direct reflection of the resource deficiency. The mineral resources are directly related to that process, not only as a first phase of the transformation of the raw material potential for each country, but also as a serious violator of the ecological equilibrium as a result of the applied technologies. Each country is enforced to resolve the various issues related to preserving the own resource potential as much as possible and to subordinate its investment and technological decisions to an integrated and in-depth utilization in compliance with the sustainable development of society

  5. Application of Hydrogen Technologies for Increasing the Operating Characteristic of Stem of Hip Implant Made of Titanium Alloy, Procured By Mold Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsova SV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the possibility of using the thermo hydrogen technology in the process of manufacturing the stem of hip implant made of titanium alloy, procured by mold castings. The influence of modes of thermo hydrogen processing on the transformation of the cast structure and mechanical properties of mold castings is analyzed in this work. It is shown that the use of thermo hydrogen processing ensures good physical and chemical contact and lets substantially increase the adhesion strength of Osseo integrating porous coating made of unalloyed titanium with titanium alloy VT6 (Ti-6-4 surface of the stem of hip implant. It identifies the elements of the processing technology of the implant elements, allowing to obtain products correspond to the international standard is identified in the work.

  6. Concerning relationship between production technology of ceramic vessels and their functional purposes: characteristic of the pastes (According to investigations at the Bolgar settlement 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhmatova Vera N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of research in the mode of preparing molding compositions as one of technological stages in Bulgar pottery production are presented in the article. The subject of study was the common Bulgar ceramics from the Bulgar settlement site of the Golden Horde period (2011-2012 excavations. Four basic functional groups of ceramics were selected: kitchen, transportation, tableware, technical items. The study was conducted with the aim of identifying the dependence of pottery technology on the pottery functional purpose. While analyzing the materials, a complex methodology has been applied: a synthesis of traditional archaeological and natural science methods (A.A. Bobrinsky’s technical and technological method, petrography, X-ray phase analysis. The studies have shown that different functional forms of pottery had generated a variety of approaches to their manufacture. In most cases, special recipes were absent, but a certain differentiation could be traced in the choice of raw materials for the manufacture of vessels for different functional purposes. A further detailed study of the stages associated with raw materials selection and extraction, as well as that of the vessel hollow body design, and the methods of vessel strengthening (drying and firing are in prospect.

  7. 全手形特征的生物识别技术综述%Review of Biometric Identification Technology Based on Characteristics of the Whole Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于为民; 赵继印; 李敏; 郑蕊蕊; 许爽

    2012-01-01

    全手形特征多模态生物识别是结合指纹、手形和掌纹的全手形特征信息,具有信息更全面可靠的独特优势,能有效地提高生物特征识别的准确率。简述了全手形生物特征识别技术的基本原理和一些关键技术,对目前流行的各种单模态和多模态生物特征的优势和不足进行了分析,并对生物特征识别技术中存在的问题和未来的研究方向进行了讨论。%The multi - modal biometric recognition of the whole hand is an identification technol- ogy using comprehensive feature of fingerprint, hand shape and palm, which have more compre- hensive and reliable information and can effectively improve the accuracy of biometric recogni- tion. Firstly, in this paper, the basic principles and some key technologies of the whole hand bi- ometric technology are described . Then, the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of popular single- mode and multi- modal biometric feature are anslysized. Finally, problems and future research directions biometric identification technology are discussed.

  8. 基于C++的手背脉络特征认证考勤技术研究%Based on the study of the C++on certified checking attendance technology of the dorsal hand venation characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱向彩; 窦佳龙; 吴鲁振

    2014-01-01

    将功能强大的C++语言与数据库技术结合起来,充分发挥其强大的技术优势,应用于手背脉络特征认证考勤技术研究。研究通过静脉识别仪取得个人手背静脉分布图,运用专门的比对算法从静脉分布图像中获取特征值。研究过程中使用红外线CCD摄像头来获得手背的静脉数字图像,并将该图像的特征值提取后存储于计算机系统中。进行图像比对时,通过实时采集静脉图像,加以滤波、图像二值化、图像细化等先进手段提取图像特征值,并与存储在计算机系统中的静脉图像的特征值进行比对,然后运用专用的数字图像匹配算法进行特征匹配来鉴定个人身份。%This paper is going to combine the powerful C ++language with database technology in order to completely play its powerful technology advantages and to be applied to the study on certified checking on work attendance technology of the dorsal hand venation characteristic.This study can get the vein distribution diagram of the dorsal hand by means of vein identification instrument, extracts the characteristic values from the vein distribution diagram according to dedicated alignment algorithm.Obtain the image of the dorsal hand vein by means of infrared CCD camera, save the digital image of the vein in the computer system, and make characteristic values saved.We adopt vein images in real time, extract the characteristic values, and apply advanced filtering, the value of the two images, refinement methods to extract features from digital images when the venous comparison.Then compare them with the characteristic values saved in the computer and apply complicated matching algorithm to match the vein features, therefore we can conduct identity identification and confirm her or his identity.

  9. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  10. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Haefner, R. [Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  11. Characterization and transformation of an industrial by-product (coated paper sludge into a pozzolanic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective re-use of industrial by-products calls for an understanding of their chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics. The by-product used in this study was coated paper industry sludge from a plant whose sole prime material is recycled paper. Due to its high organic and calcium carbonate content and the presence of several clayey materials such as talc and kaolinite, incineration conditions had a significant effect on the mineralogy of such sludge. The present study examined the impact of such conditions on the pozzolanic properties of coated paper sludge. Several temperature intervals ranging from 600 to 750 ºC were studied to determine the conditions yielding the most promising pozzolanic properties.La necesidad de dar un correcto uso a los subproductos industriales requiere del conocimiento de sus características, tanto desde un punto de vista químico como mineralógico y físico. El subproducto utilizado para esta investigación es un lodo de papel estucado procedente de la industria papelera, la cual usa como materias primas un 100% de material reciclado. Debido al alto contenido de materia orgánica y carbonato cálcico y a la presencia de diferentes materiales arcillosos, como el talco y la caolinita, las condiciones de calcinación presentan un papel principal en la mineralogía de este lodo. En el actual trabajo se considera el papel que juegan estas condiciones, tiempo y permanencia en horno, en las propiedades puzolánicas del lodo de papel estucado como material cementante. Por esta razón, se estudiaron diferentes intervalos de temperatura, entre 600 y 750 ºC y 2 horas de permanencia en horno con el objetivo de obtener las mejores propiedades puzolánicas.

  12. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from natural waters using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attenuation of excess nutrients in wastewater and stormwater is required to safeguard aquatic ecosystems. The use of low-cost, mineral-based industrial by-products with high Ca, Mg, Fe or Al content as a solid phase in constructed wetlands potentially offers a cost-effective wastewater treatment option in areas without centralised water treatment facilities. Our objective was to investigate use of water treatment residuals (WTRs), coal fly ash (CFA), and granular activated carbon (GAC) from biomass combustion in in-situ water treatment schemes to manage dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. Both CaO- and CaCO(3)-based WTRs effectively attenuated inorganic N species but exhibited little capacity for organic N removal. The CaO-based WTR demonstrated effective attenuation of DOC and P in column trials, and a high capacity for P sorption in batch experiments. Granular activated carbon proved effective for DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal in column trials, but was ineffective for P attenuation. Only CFA demonstrated effective removal of a broad suite of inorganic and organic nutrients and DOC; however, Se concentrations in column effluents exceeded Australian and New Zealand water quality guideline values. Water treated by filtering through the CaO-based WTR exhibited nutrient ratios characteristic of potential P-limitation with no potential N- or Si-limitation respective to growth of aquatic biota, indicating that treatment of nutrient-rich water using the CaO-based WTR may result in conditions less favourable for cyanobacterial growth and more favourable for growth of diatoms. Results show that selected industrial by-products may mitigate eutrophication through targeted use in nutrient intervention schemes.

  13. Sub-2y node NAND flash characteristics using spot beam technology for low energy, high tilt implant for n-poly doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chong-Il; Lee, Sangsun; Jeon, Young-Ho; Cheon, Youngil; Choi, Jin-Kwan; Yang, Young-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Won; Hong, Rympyo; Yoon, Jong-Yoon; Reece, Ron; Rubin, Leonard M.

    2012-11-01

    Reduction of polysilicon sheet resistivity and polysilicon depletion ratio (PDR) are two major challenges for improving the memory cell characteristics of sub-20 nm NAND Flash devices. High phosphorus doses are implanted into in situ doped polysilicon floating gates to improve PDR, but phosphorus concentrations that are too high can degrade cell characteristics by increasing trapped charge in the TNOX(Tunnel Oxide). It is also important to prevent the bending of narrow polysilicon lines during floating gate implantation. We explored various conditions of low energy, high tilt phosphorus implants for floating gate doping using a spot beam high current implanter. The optimal concentration of implant energy, tilt angle, and thermal annealing has been shown to improve PDR and floating gate TOP CD control.

  14. Water-saving technologies affect the grain characteristics and recovery of fine-grain rice cultivars in semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Riaz, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Nasim, Wajid; Zaman, Umar; Fahad, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-05-01

    Growing rice with less water is direly needed due to declining water sources worldwide, but using methods that require less water inputs can have an impact on grain characteristics and recovery. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of conventionally sown flooded rice and low-water-input rice systems on the grain characteristics and recovery of fine rice. Three fine grain rice cultivars-Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, and Shaheen Basmati-were grown under conventional flooded transplanted rice (CFTR), alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and aerobic rice systems. Grain characteristics and rice recovery were significantly influenced by different water regimes (production systems). Poor milling, including the lowest percentage of brown (head) rice (65.3%) and polished (white) rice (64.2-66.9%) and the highest percentage of broken brown rice (10.2%), husk (24.5%-26.3%), polished broken rice (24.7%), and bran (11.0-12.5%), were recorded in the aerobic rice system sown with Shaheen Basmati. With a few exceptions, cultivars sown in CFTR were found to possess a higher percentage of brown (head) and polished (white) rice and they had incurred the least losses in the form of brown broken rice, husk, polished broken rice, and bran. In conclusion, better grain quality and recovery of rice can be attained by growing Super Basmati under the CFTR system. Growing Shaheen Basmati under low-water-input systems, the aerobic rice system in particular, resulted in poor grain characteristics tied with less rice recovery.

  15. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  16. 金属橡胶减振构件工艺技术及特性分析方法综述%Review on Metal Rubber Damping Part Technology and Characteristics Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东; 赵智姝; 张晶

    2016-01-01

    Metal rubber damping has excellent performance compared to traditional vibration isolator, and it is also the current advanced cushioning technology. The paper describes the basic production process of metal rubber damper based on the development of base metal rubber on the historical background, introduces the current static stiffness analysis method of metal rubber shock absorption technology, analyzes the limitations of the current static stiffness analysis method sex; describes the analytical methods and damping characteristics of metal rubber shock absorption technology difficulties, and introduces the current theoretical modeling of metal rubber shock absorption technology and major achievements; and finally introduces and summarizes research direction and focus on the future of metal rubber shock absorption technology.%金属橡胶减震器和传统减震器相比具有优异的性能,也是当前先进的减震技术。本文在介绍了金属橡胶技术的发展历史背景的基础上,叙述了金属橡胶减振器的基本生产工艺,介绍了当前金属橡胶减震技术的静态刚度分析方法,分析了当前静态刚度分析方法的局限性;阐述了金属橡胶减震技术的阻尼特性分析方法和难点,并介绍了当前金属橡胶减震技术的理论建模方法和主要研究成果;最后对金属橡胶减震技术以后的研究方向和工作重点进行介绍和归纳。

  17. High frequency characteristic of a monolithic 500 °C OpAmp-RC integrator in SiC bipolar IC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the frequency response of a monolithic OpAmp-RC integrator implemented in a 4H-SiC bipolar IC technology. The circuits and devices have been measured and characterized from 27 to 500 °C. The devices have been modelled to identify that the substrate capacitance is a dominant factor affecting the OpAmp's high-frequency response. Large Miller compensation capacitors of more than 540 pF are required to ensure stability of the internal OpAmp. The measured unit-gain-bandwidth product of the OpAmp is ∼1.1 MHz at 27 °C, and decreases to ∼0.5 MHz at 500 °C mainly due to the reduction of the transistor's current gain. On the other hand, it is not necessary to compensate the integrator in a relatively wide bandwidth ∼0.7 MHz over the investigated temperature range. At higher frequencies, the integrator's frequency response has been identified to be significantly affected by that of the OpAmp and load impedance. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for high temperature applications requiring bandwidths of several megahertz.

  18. 基于OCT技术对古瓷釉气泡特征的初步研究%Preliminary Research on Bubble Characteristics of Ancient Glaze Using OCT Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严鑫; 董俊卿; 李青会; 郭木森; 卜工; 胡永庆

    2015-01-01

    optical coherence tomography (OCT ) imaging technology to characterize the bubbles and the bubble distribution char‐acteristic in glaze of ancient porcelain ,sweep frequency OCT imaging system is used to detect five different types ancient porce‐lain chips .According to the two dimensional sectional images and three dimensional tomographic images of the transparent layer of glaze obtained by the OCT imaging system ,the two dimensional sectional images characteristics and three dimensional slices characteristics of the bubbles in glaze are studied .The bubble characteristics in the glaze and its possible causes that gases in the body of the ceramic overflow to the glaze layer in the firing process are comprehensively analyzed .Meantime ,the size of bubble is calculated according to the two dimensional sectional images based on pixel ,and the result is compared with the traditional mi‐croscopic test result .The bubble size ,two dimensional sectional characteristics and three dimensional tomographic image charac‐teristics of opaque glaze are also studied .Experimental results show that the bubble characteristics in glaze of different ancient porcelain chips are obvious difference ,the result of the bubble size calculated based on pixel coincides with the result of the bub‐ble size observed by traditional microscope with ten times magnification ,slices of the body near the body‐glaze binding region based on OCT imaging technology three dimensional tomography can effectively reflect the bubble characteristics in glaze .The measurement of using OCT imaging technology to characterize bubble characteristics of the glaze is proposed ,and the feasibility and the validity of the measurement are certified ,and the nondestructive detection of bubble characteristics in ancient porcelain glaze is realized .Especially for the analysis of bubble characteristics of opaque glaze ,the OCT imaging technology overcomes the limitations of using the traditional microscope technology

  19. Characteristics and Development Trends of Machinery Manufacturing Automation Technology%机械制造自动化技术特点与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎文龙

    2015-01-01

    机械制造业是国家的工业基础.全面推进机械制造自动化及提高智能化水平,是我国机械制造业的发展方向.同时,敏捷制造将"生产技术、组织方式、管理手段"三要素整合集成在一起,也是机械制造业的研究与应用重点.%The mechanical manufacturing is the country's industrial basis.Fully promoting the automation and intelligent level of mechanical manufacturing is the developing direction of mechanical manufacturing industry in our country.Meanwhile, agile manufacturing connects three elements of"producing technology,organizing mode,management measure"together,which is also the key point of mechanical manufacturing industry.

  20. A state of the art on electrochemical noise technique. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technology in nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Yi, Yong Sun; Chung, Man Kyo

    2003-02-01

    The studies for the application of electrochemical noise technique were reviewed in terms of principle, analysing method and application examples of this technique. Because 4% of the economic damage of industry is caused by metallic corrosion, it is important to find and protect corrosive materials and location. By corrosion monitoring of industrial facilities such as nuclear power plant using Electrochemical Noise Measurement(ENM), corrosion attack can be detected and furthermore it can be indicated whether the attacked materials is replaced by new one or not. According to development of control and electronic technology, it was easy to apply ENM to the industry and the interest in ENM also increased. As corrosion is produced on a metal under corrosive environment, local anode(oxidation) and cathode(reduction) are formed. Hence, there is potential difference and current flow between the anode and cathode. ENM is monitoring the potential difference and the current flow with time by high impedance load voltmeter and Zero Resistance Ammeter(ZRA), respectively. The potential difference and current flow generated spontaneously without any application of current and potential between electrodes are monitored by electrochemical noise technique, Thereby ENM can be regarded as the most ideal corrosion monitoring method for the industrial facility and nuclear power plant having corrosion damage and difficulty in access of human body. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the spontaneous and reliable results from the metals damaged by ununiform and localized corrosion such as pitting and SCC using ENM while it is difficult to obtain the reliable result using traditional linear polarization and ac-impedance measurement. In many countries, there are extensive works concerned with application of electrochemical noise technique to corrosion monitoring of nuclear power plant and other industrial facilities, whereas there is little work on this field in Korea. Systematic study for

  1. Cloud Computing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Carlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the key characteristics that cloud computing technologies possess and illustrates the cloud computing stack containing the three essential services (SaaS, PaaS and IaaS that have come to define the technology and its delivery model. The underlying virtualization technologies that make cloud computing possible are also identified and explained. The various challenges that face cloud computing technologies today are investigated and discussed. The future of cloud computing technologies along with its various applications and trends are also explored, giving a brief outlook of where and how the technology will progress into the future.

  2. 美国校长信息化领导力提升项目的特点与启示%The Characteristics and lmplications of Educational Technology Leadership Promotion Programs for the K-12 School Principals in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玥; 赵慧臣

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate international educational technology leadership programs for K-12 school principals in order to help school administrators and teachers gain a comprehensive understanding of train-ing modes of the education technology leadership. Under this background, the authors reviewed the literatures and materials obtained on the Internet, and analyzed the Educational Technology Leadership Program from the George Washington University, the School Technology Lead-ership Program provided by the university of Kentucky, and the Certified Education Technology Leader Certification Program supported by the Consortium for School Networking The educational technology leadership promotion programs for the primary and secondary school principals in USA provide valuable reference for us in the areas of training goals, admission forms, and the curriculum and external certifications. The characteristics of education technology leadership promotion programs for K-12 school principals include:1 ) multi-level training objectives to meet learners' individual choice;2) flexible forms of entrance and the network teach-ing mode to facilitate the learning arrangements of the learners from different space at different time;3 ) multidiscipli-nary cross curriculum, embodying the features of interdisciplinary pedagogy, educational technology, and manage-ment;4) a world-class faculty with reference to international standards, such as NEST-A. Based on our analysis, we think the educational technology leadership promotion for the school principals in Chi-na should:1 ) emphasize the characteristics of the education technology leadership of the principal technology accord-ing to the national standards of education technology;2)maximize the macro-effect of principal’s education technol-ogy leadership;3 ) select appropriate schools and promote the educational technology leadership certification of princi-pals;4 ) explore educational technology leadership degree

  3. Chitin and chitosan from the Norway lobster by-products: Antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayari, Nadhem; Sila, Assaâd; Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Abdallah, Rihab Ben; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali; Balti, Rafik

    2016-06-01

    Chitin was recovered through enzymatic deproteinization of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) processing by-products. The obtained chitin was characterized and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation, the acid-soluble form of chitin. Chitosan samples were then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13 Cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS)-NMR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity and anti-proliferative capacity of chitosan were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity assays indicated that prepared chitosan exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Further, cytotoxic effects of chitosan samples on human colon carcinoma cells HCT116 was evaluated using the MTT assay. Chitosan showed the antiproliferative capacity against the colon-cancer-cell HCT116 in a dose dependent manner with IC50 of 4.6mg/ml. Indeed, HCT116 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) between 13.5 and 67.5% at 0.5-6mg/mL of chitosan after 24h of cell treatment. The chitosan showed high antitumor activity which seemed to be dependent on its characteristics such as acetylation degree.

  4. Integral process of obtaining glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel is obtained from about 10 years ago in Europe, and now that it has taken hold as fuel for diesel engines, it is expected a clear increase in the production of this class of fuels in a the near future. The biodiesel is derived from the transesterification reaction of castor oil with methanol, which is the main by-product the glycerol with an approximate content of 10%. Besides catalyst residuals, soaps, methanol traces, mono and diglycerides in small percentages are presented. This study proposes the separation, purification and characterization of the glycerol obtained from the transesterificación reaction of the castor oil, in order to be able to market it in the national or international market, so that it fulfills the standards of quality, which means getting a pure glycerol and the appropriate physico-chemical characteristics and techniques. The glycerin-methyl esters separation is carried out by decantation being obtained a percentage of around 70% glycerol. This percentage is subsequently increased through the purification process, using hydrochloric acid. Glycerol characterization was carried out by physicochemical and organoleptic tests. The purification process allowed us to obtain a glycerol with a percentage of purity close to 98%. It was also tested by comparison with theoretical data that remnants influenced in the physiochemical properties

  5. The global contribution of energy consumption by product exports from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Erzi; Peng, Chong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the mechanism of the global contribution of energy usage by product exports. The theoretical analysis is based on the perspective that contribution estimates should be in relatively smaller sectors in which the production characteristics could be considered, such as the productivity distribution for each sector. Then, we constructed a method to measure the global contribution of energy usage. The simple method to estimate the global contribution is the percentage of goods export volume compared to the GDP as a multiple of total energy consumption, but this method underestimates the global contribution because it ignores the structure of energy consumption and product export in China. According to our measurement method and based on the theoretical analysis, we calculated the global contribution of energy consumption only by industrial manufactured product exports in a smaller sector per industry or manufacturing sector. The results indicated that approximately 42% of the total energy usage in the whole economy for China in 2013 was contributed to foreign regions. Along with the primary products and service export in China, the global contribution of energy consumption for China in 2013 by export was larger than 42% of the total energy usage.

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  7. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing.

  8. 科技创业人才的属性特征述评与环境弹性模型构建%The Discussion of Attributes & Characteristics of the Technology Entrepreneurial Talents and the Establishment of Environment Elasticity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方涛

    2012-01-01

    Research on the attributes and characteristics of technology entrepreneurial talents as a group contributes to obtain deep insights into the growth pattern of the groups themselves, and to explore the internal law of the interaction between groups and economic and social environment, so as to provide scientific guidance for the development of technological entrepreneurship talents. The existing research, mainly focus on three aspects'; the characteristics of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial environment, and entrepreneurial organization growth, Whereas less research on the initiative function of entrepreneurs on entrepreneurial environment. Based on comprehensive methodologies including literature summary, the paper puts forward that technology entrepreneurial talents have four essential attributes of genetic, social, capital properties and creativity and three basic characteristics of knowledge, economic activities and toughness of career. Based on that, the paper advances the concept of the entrepreneurial environment elasticity through analogy, builds tetrahedron feature model and environmental elasticity function of technology entrepreneurial talents, and deems the environment elasticity of technology entrepreneurial talents positively correlates to the knowledge property, economic property and toughness of career, and quantifies the assignment methods through the design of entrepreneurial cognition questionnaire, so as to lay the foundations for further research on the feature model of technology entrepreneurial talents.%科技创业人才作为一个群体,研究分析其属性与特征,有助于深入了解群体自身的成长规律,探寻群体与经济社会环境相互作用的内在规律,为科技创业人才开发提供科学指导.现有的创业研究主要关注三大方面:创业者特质、创业组织成长和创业环境.而在创业者对创业环境的能动作用方面研究较少.运用文献归纳等综合分析方法,认为科技创业人

  9. 美国教育信息资源教师项目的特征与启示%The Characteristics and Enlightenments of Instructional Technology Resource Teacher Project in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧臣; 杨萍

    2015-01-01

    随着技术成为教学中普遍应用的学习与交流工具,学校在提供适当水平的技术支持上面临着许多挑战。弗吉尼亚州教育主管部门制定了《教育信息资源教师手册》,形成美国教育信息资源教师的角色、职能;而美国塞勒姆市从协助教师教学、组织教学、组织安全管理与学习、沟通和社区关系、职业化五个方面阐释了美国教育信息资源教师的评价标准。从中我们可以了解,美国教育信息资源教师项目的因素:精准的工作描述、有效的交流沟通、可用的技术、合理的财政资源、全面的发展规划和科学的效果评估。通过论述美国教育信息资源教师项目的特点,探讨美国教育信息资源教师项目的启示,以期为我国教育信息化进程中出现的问题提供参考。%As the technology is widely applied in teaching and learning, school is facing many challenges when providing the appropriate level of technical support. The Virginia Department of Education published A Handbook for School Divisions, which mainly describes the instructional technology resource teacherˊs roles and responsibilities. The City of Salem constructed the evalua-tion criteria from five aspects including assisting teaching, organizing instruction, organizational management for safety and learning, communication and community relations and professionalism. The successful factors of the instructional technology resource teacher include the precise job descriptions, effective communication, available technology, reasonable financial resources, and overall plan-ning and scientific assessment. After presenting the characteristics of the instructional technology resource teacher, the enlightenments of instructional technology resource teacher project are explored, so as to provide reference for the solutions to the problems in the de-velopment of education informatization in China.

  10. Study on polarization characteristics of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by sol-gel spin-coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ze; Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Jianlong; Zhang, Naiwen; Liou, Juin J.

    2015-07-01

    The ferroelectric polarization properties of bismuth ferrite (BFO) thin films deposited on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by sol-gel spin-coating technology affected by the processes and dopants have been studied and analyzed tentatively. The results indicate BFO thin film should be introduced to a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process at N2 atmosphere. The enhanced ferroelectric polarization properties were observed in Mn and La doped BFO thin films, because ion substitution may improve the inherent volatility of Bi atoms, valence fluctuation of Fe ions and magnetic spin structures, reducing the formation of oxygen vacancies. The increased remnant polarization observed in the BFO thin film with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) seeding layer has also been analyzed as the probable results of small changes of lattice parameters caused by constraint stress, reduced defects and decreased leakage current density, which are contributed by the PZT seeding layer possibly. Moreover, the remnant polarization approximately 79 μC/cm2 is observed in (Bi0.95La0.05)FeO3 (BLFO) thin film with a PZT seeding layer, which is twice and treble the values of BFO thin films with and without a PZT seeding layer, indicating PZT seeding layer is much more effective for BLFO thin film which has a substitution at A site.

  11. Characteristics and Enlightenment of Corn Production Technologies in the U.S.%美国玉米生产技术特点与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少昆

    2013-01-01

      从玉米品种熟期选择、农事操作及玉米生育进程、土壤耕作类型与整地、灌溉与施肥、绿色覆盖作物及精准农业技术等方面介绍美国玉米生产的技术特点,并比较分析中美玉米生产的气候条件、生育进程差异,提出高产与高效协同发展、简化农事操作、推进子粒收获等建议。%Key technologies of corn production in the U.S. were introduced, including the selection of corn vari-eties for ripe period, farming operation and corn growing process, tillage system and soil preparation, irrigation and fertilization, cover crop and precision agriculture. Based on the comparative analysis of China and U.S. on climatic conditions and development process of corn production, some proposals in such aspects as change of goals in corn production were put forward from high yield to high yield and high efficiencies (natural resource use and economics), simplifying farming procedure, and promoting the full mechanization from planting to harvest, with emphasis on mech-anized harvest of grain.

  12. 医学科技创新体系的内涵、特点及发展展望%Content, Characteristics and Prospect of Medical Science and Technology Innovation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪楠; 贾晓峰; 李晔; 代涛

    2016-01-01

    As a critical part of national scientific and technology system reform, construction of national innovation system is a fundamental measure of innovation driven development strategy.Medical science and technology innovation system (MSTIS) is an important component of national innovation system (NIS).It is essential to elaborate the content, characteristics and process of the MSTIS.Based on the development status of Chinese economy and society and the framework of NIS, we evaluated the characteristics of medical science and technology development, and ultimately concluded and elaborated the content and characteristics of MSTIS from the following aspects: innovation force, innovation subjects, innovation activities, and innovation environments.We also prospected the future process of MSTIS, i.e., promotion of innovation force, ability construction of innovation subjects,scientific plan of innovation activities, and improvement of innovation environment.%推动国家创新体系建设是实现国家创新驱动发展战略的重要举措,是国家科技体制改革的重要组成.医学科技创新体系是国家创新体系的组成部分,具有鲜明的行业特点.不断完善的医学科技创新体系是医学科技创新发展的重要驱动力,科学把握医学科技创新体系的内涵和特点是体系建设的理论基础.本研究依托我国社会、经济发展状况背景,以国家创新体系理论为基本框架,分析医学科技领域的特点,从创新动力、创新主体、创新活动和创新环境四方面系统阐述我国医学科技创新体系的内涵,并从如何提升创新动力、加强创新主体能力、科学规划创新活动、优化创新环境等关键问题入手进行体系建设发展的展望.

  13. Influence of the addition of lupine protein isolate on the protein and technological characteristics of dough and fresh bread with added Brea Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Patricia López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of protein lupine isolate (LI and addition of brea gum (BG on a basic bread formulation is described. The major objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the addition of LI on the quality and quantity of the proteins of fresh bread with BG. Protein quality was determinate by the Chemical Score method corrected for protein digestibility (CSCD%. The bread dough characteristics were determined by farinograph and alveograph. Fresh bread characterization was performed by measuring the physical parameters and evaluating the crumb structure. The effect of LI and BG on available lysine, the loss of available lysine ratio, and the chemical composition of the breads were also determined. The addition of LI on the bread formulation improved the protein content and the CSCD% of lysine. The dough with LI was less resistant to prolonged kneading and less manageable. With BG addition, the dough became stickier. The quality of fresh bread was affected by the addition of LI: the fresh bread had lower specific volume and more heterogeneous crumbs than that of the control group. The addition of BG did not influence the quality of the bread made with the mixed flour, but it had a positive effect on the loss of available lysine.

  14. Calculation of the hydraulic characteristics of the protective coating used in trenchless technologies for the construction and renovation of pipelines to extend their service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of the pipeline, which undergoes trenchless repair by pulling and then fixing various types of internal protective coatings inside, is determined by the strength characteristics of the two-layer structure “old pipeline + internal protective coating”. Hydraulic parameters of internal protective coatings, such as surface roughness and degree of hydrophobicity (water repellency, can play a role in prolonging the life of the repaired pipeline. With a high degree of hydrophobicity of the protective coating, the contact of the transported liquid with the walls of the pipeline during its operation in the non-pressure regime decreases, which leads to a decrease in the negative impact on the walls, in particular, their attrition, interaction with the specific structure of the coating material, which in turn reduces the energy costs when transporting water. Given article deals with a mathematical description of the interaction of the surface structure (with its inherent wetting ability and the transported liquid in a mini-stream created on an inclined open chute imitating the inner surface of a pressureless pipeline. The theoretical positions and methodology for calculating the degree of hydrophobicity are based on research conducted on the basis of frontal and coaxial (along the flow digital photo and video. T

  15. 大米抗性淀粉制备工艺优化及特性分析%Preparation technology optimization and characteristic analysis of rice resistance starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵力超; 于荣; 刘欣; 周爱梅; 曹庸

    2013-01-01

      宜糖米是新型高直链淀粉的大米品种,具有开发高抗性淀粉(resistant starch,RS)产品的潜力。该文采用响应面分析优化压热法制备宜糖米 RS 条件,通过碘吸收曲线、红外光谱、平均聚合度、扫描电镜、性质检测分析形成机理。结果表明:最佳制备条件为淀粉质量分数31%、pH值5.8、压热时间50 min(压强0.1 MPa)、冷藏时间15 h,此时RS得率达到20.1%。特性分析表明,宜糖米RS主要是以短直链淀粉为主体,分子量分布比较集中,淀粉颗粒表面为多孔状的结构,使得持水力高于其他常见RS和膳食纤维。研究结果为RS的研究提供技术方法的参考,同时促进宜糖米资源的深度开发利用。%  Yitang is a new type rice with high amylose content, which was bred by spaceflight mutation and physical mutation. It has great potential for developing high resistant starch (RS) products. Until recently, most of the studies on the RS preparation have focused on high-amylose corn starch or root vegetables starch. In addition, there is a greater difference between rice starch and other kinds of starch in particle characteristics, composition, etc. The production processes of RS cannot simply be deduced from previous reports. In order to make use of Yitang rice rationally, this article focuses on the production processes of RS as a functional food ingredient. The production processes of Yitang Rice RS were optimized through a Box-Benhnken center-united experiment design and Response Surface Methodology (RSM), based on single-factor experiments of moisture content (starch concentration), pH value, autoclaving treatment temperature, cooling method, cold storage time, drying temperature, and the number of autoclaving treatments. RS characteristics analysis was discussed by assistant analyses of absorption curves of starch and I2-KI compound, infrared spectroscopy, average polymerization degree, scanning electron

  16. Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (P<0.05) cooking loss and reduced (P<0.05) emulsion stability in the gel/emulsion systems. Incorporation of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel produced a decrease (P<0.05) of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values and an increase (P<0.05) of yellowness (b*) as compared to the other samples. The effect of adding seaweed on the texture parameters of low-salt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix.

  17. 从模糊神经网络技术探讨普通感冒的证候特征%Syndrome Characteristics of Fuzzy Neural Network Technology on the Common Cold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王至婉; 胡金亮; 李建生; 张甜

    2013-01-01

    目的:运用模糊神经网络技术探讨普通感冒常见证候及其主症、次症的特征.方法:收集7所三级甲等医院普通感冒患者资料,应用Epidata软件建立数据库;运用MATLAB 6.5软件进行编程.从互联网搜集了Fisher-iris数据,选取人工神经网络与模糊系统方法,采用动态kehonen网络,获得最优模糊规则.结果:最终获取20个模糊规则,通过规则转换及设定筛选出5个常见证候,即风寒证、风热证、风燥证、痰热证及痰湿证,并对其主症、次症特征进行筛选.结论:普通感冒常见证候有5种,其主症、次症特征可作为临床辨证的参考;模糊神经网络技术可用于中医证候特征的研究.%Objective:To use the common cold syndromes and with secondary characteristics of fuzzy neural network technology. Methods: To collect 7 hospital patients with common cold data,use Epidata software to establish the database by using MATLAB6.5 software programming. From internet fisher-iris collected data selection,artificial neural network and fuzzy system methodising dynamic keho-nen network,obtaining the optimal fuzzy rules. Results:The final 20 to obtain fuzzy rules,through the conversion rules and setting the selected 5 common syndromes, i. e, wind-cold syndrome, wind-heat syndrome, wind dryness, phlegm and dampness, phlegm heat syndrome. And its characteristics were screened with secondary. Conclusion:The common cold syndromes are 5,the primary and secondary disease characteristics can be used as a clinical syndrome differentiation and reference;fuzzy neural network technology can be used for TCM syndrome characteristics.

  18. 拍合式电磁继电器动态特性测试技术研究%Clapper type electromagnetic relay dynamic characteristic testing technology research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛毓强; 周珍绿

    2013-01-01

    针对现有非接触式继电器动态特性测试采用的图像处理方法数据处理量大、算法复杂且硬件成本高等问题,提出利用光学三角原理对拍合式继电器衔铁运动过程角度位移进行非接触式实时测量的方法.通过光电位置敏感探测器和数据采集模块直接获取衔铁的运动角度数据,利用测得的数据进行计算从而获得继电器吸合过程的动态特性.以G2R-1小型继电器为实验测量对象,建立了继电器衔铁运动的磁路模型,获得了其角度位移的理论值,通过对比理论计算与实验测量的继电器衔铁角度位移数据,分析继电器衔铁吸合过程的运动规律,验证了所提测量方法的正确性和可行性.该方法避免了接触式测量手段对继电器衔铁运动带来的影响,且设计的测量装置具有结构简单、成本低、数据处理量小、适用范围广等优点.%Image processing method of the non-contact measurement of the dynamic characteristics of relay has large amount of data processing,algorithm complexity and hardware cost is high.A method that measured the angle of relay armature in non-contact and real-time using the optical triangulation was proposed.This method is to obtain Angle data of armature by using the position sensitive detectors and the data acquisition module.Using the measured data was calculated in order to get the dynamic characteristic of suction and release process of relay.The armature and absorption process of relay movement rules were analyzed.With G2R-1 small relay as the experimental object,the relay armature motor magnetic circuit model was established,the angle displacement of the theoretical value was obtained.By comparing the theoretical calculation and experimental measurement of the relay armature angle displacement data,analysis of the movement rule of relay armature attracted process,shows that this measurement method is correct and feasible.The impact of the relay armature

  19. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Monti Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  20. Basis for calculating technological parameters of preparation of minced salted fish products of intermediate moisture with specified physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanenko E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of water activity on basic physical and chemical characteristics of salted fish products with intermediate moisture has been defined. During the research the product quality has been assessed by the organoleptic method; determination of the water mass fraction has been carried out by the drying method; the salt mass fraction – by the argentometric method; water activity has been measured by a cooled mirror dew-point sensor. Based on experimental data the dependence of Aw on concentration of sodium chloride in the salt semi-finished products of pollock (Theragra chalcogramma, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias, blue whiting (Micromesistius, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus has been established. The empirical formula showing the correlation of the parameter (Aw with mass fraction of sodium chloride and water has been derived; on its basis it is possible to calculate the parameters of semi-finished product in order to obtain a final minced salt product of intermediate moisture with desired microbial stability upon storage. The relations between the salt mass fraction and water mass fraction excluding bacterial spoilage and mold growth has been determined, they make up S ≥ 0,135 ∙ W and S ≥ 0,34 ∙ W respectively, where S – the mass fraction of salt, %, W – the mass fraction of water, %. An example of calculating the required dosage of sodium chloride in the semi-finished minced salmon has been described to produce the finished product with the exactly given values of humidity and water activity. During the process of minced salted fish products' dehydration the basic physical and chemical parameters – the mass fraction of salt and water affecting the water activity (Aw – have been changing. Determination of these parameters' relationship provides the ability to predict the qualitative changes of salted fish products of intermediate moisture

  1. 舒城县板栗病虫害特征特性及防治技术%Characteristics and Diseases and Pest Control Technologies of Chestnuts in Shucheng County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松林

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of diseases and pest of chestnuts were summarized,including Endothia parasitica(Murr.) P. J. et H. W. Anders.,Dryocosnms kuriphilus Yasumatsu,Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi),Coniella castaneicola etc.,and control technologies were proposed,so as to provide reference for the high-yield cultivation of chestnuts in Shucheng County.%总结了板栗疫病、栗瘿蜂、栗树红蜘蛛、板栗炭疽病等板栗病虫害的特征特性,并提出了防治技术,以期为舒城县板栗的高产栽培参考。

  2. HPLC evaluation of the minor lipid components of by-products resulting from edible oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL-Shami, Safinaz Mohamed M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical evaluation of some by-products resulting from edible oil refining processing steps has been carried out. By-product samples were taken from four different local refineries that apply chemical refining technology. Pretreatment of the representative samples of the by-products were done prior to analysis followed by chromatographic isolation and derivatization of the minor components, namely, free and acylated sterol (FS and AS as well as free and acylated sterylglycosides (FSG and ASG. However, tocopherols were directly determined in the pretreated samples. HPLC, using different detectors, was carried out for the determination of these minor components. Several authors have focused on the analysis of sterols and sterol esters, as well as tocopherols in the refining byproducts; however sterylglycosides, as biologically important components, have not been dealt with. This study throws light on the by – products enriched with certain minor components to be possibly utilized as sources for such components. Also, the role of the conditions of the refining steps followed in removing these valuable minor components from oils was discussed. It was found that soapstock samples contained various amounts of total tocopherols ranging from 80 to 230ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 240 to 4000 mg/100g while total FSG and ASG ranged from 1120 to 6375 mg/100g. In the case of deodorization distillate samples total tocopherols ranged from 960 to 7360ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 1020 to 4160 mg/100g and total FSG, ASG ranged from 395 to 880 mg/100g.El trabajo realiza una evaluación analítica de algunos subproductos resultantes del la refinación de aceites comestibles. Las muestras procedieron de 4 plantas que aplicaban refinación química. Después de un pretratamiento de las muestras estas se sometieron a un análisis cromatográfico para el aislamiento y derivatización de los siguientes componentes minoritarios: esteroles libres y

  3. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  4. Energetic characteristics and target values of benefit transfer for the ventilation and air-conditioning technology; Energetische Kenn- und Zielwerte der Nutzenuebergabe fuer die Raumlufttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Due to the adopted building regulations our buildings become more and more heat-insulated and nearly airtight. Because sufficient ventilation through gaps and windows cannot be ensured by the user, mechanical ventilation systems become necessary for the ventilation of our rooms. The higher heat-insulation and the unchanged internal thermal loads increase the cooling demand. At the present, the energy demand depends more on the use of the building than on its construction. If only limiting the ''building energy demand'', the effect of the improvement of technical building installation adapted for a special use remains unconsidered. Maybe different effects even negate each other. By concentrating only on the building energy demand, the incentive for further development is dropped. Characteristic limit values for the energetic evaluation for HVAC-systems are developed (for only six use cases). The minimum value presents the minimal energy effort, which is necessary to reach the reference energy demand and which is called the target value. In order to limit the energy effort of systems, in the sense of energy savings, a cap value depending on the use cases is proposed. This value can be adopted into future regulations or standards. With the correspondingly achievable effort values, planned system solutions can be compared and classified. [German] Aufgrund von Bauvorschriften werden unsere Gebaeude immer besser gedaemmt und sind praktisch nahezu luftdicht. Da eine ausreichende Belueftung ueber Fugen und Fensteroeffnen nicht ohne Nutzereingriff sichergestellt ist, sind in Zukunft vermehrt maschinelle Systeme zum Lften erforderlich. Durch die verbesserte Waermedaemmung und die gleichgebliebenen internen thermischen Belastungen erhoeht sich zusaetzlich die Nachfrage nach Kuehlung. Der energetische Bedarf begruendet sich zunehmend in der Nutzung eines Gebeaudes und weniger in baulichen Bedingungen. Bei alleiniger Vorgabe eines nach oben begrenzten &apos

  5. Development of a 3D WebGIS System for Retrieving and Visualizing CityGML Data Based on their Geometric and Semantic Characteristics by Using Free and Open Source Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pispidikis, I.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2016-10-01

    CityGML is considered as an optimal standard for representing 3D city models. However, international experience has shown that visualization of the latter is quite difficult to be implemented on the web, due to the large size of data and the complexity of CityGML. As a result, in the context of this paper, a 3D WebGIS application is developed in order to successfully retrieve and visualize CityGML data in accordance with their respective geometric and semantic characteristics. Furthermore, the available web technologies and the architecture of WebGIS systems are investigated, as provided by international experience, in order to be utilized in the most appropriate way for the purposes of this paper. Specifically, a PostgreSQL/ PostGIS Database is used, in compliance with the 3DCityDB schema. At Server tier, Apache HTTP Server and GeoServer are utilized, while a Server Side programming language PHP is used. At Client tier, which implemented the interface of the application, the following technologies were used: JQuery, AJAX, JavaScript, HTML5, WebGL and Ol3-Cesium. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the application's primary objectives are a user-friendly interface and a fully open source development.

  6. 不同影像学技术对正畸治疗中牙根吸收评估的特点分析%Analysis of characteristics of root absorption assessment in orthodontic treatment with different medical imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茹; 樊永杰

    2015-01-01

    正畸治疗中对牙根吸收的评估在正畸学的研究中起着很重要的作用。随着现代医疗检测设备的发展,准确性较高的牙根吸收度的测量技术相继问世和推广,牙根吸收的研究取得了较大的进展。本文就现有临床采用的根尖周片、曲面体层片、头颅侧位片、多层螺旋CT、锥形束CT等主要影像学技术检测牙根吸收的特点作一综述。%The assessment of root absorption in orthodontic treatment plays a very important role in the study of orthodontics .With the devel-opment of modern medical testing equipments, the high-accuracy measuring technology of evaluating root absorption has been available and gener-alized.More progress has been made in the research on root absorption.This paper tries to discuss the characteristics of root absorption detection applied clinically with the main imaging technology which includes periapical radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral cephalogram, multi-slice spiral computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography ( CBCT) and so on.

  7. Hazard Analysis and identification of Critical Control Points of collagen extraction from cod by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the European research project “UTILISATION AND STABILISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COD SPECIES” (QLK1-CT-2000-01017 QLRT-2001-02829) is to investigate whether collagen from fish by-products could serve as an important raw material in high quality food. Since Atlantic cod is a major commodit

  8. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preserving high-protein fish by-products through silages and fermentates

    Science.gov (United States)

    n Alaska, over three million metric tons of fish by-products are generated each year. However, due to the remote locations and seasonal nature of salmon fisheries, by-products are generally not fully utilized unless a fish meal plant is located nearby. Acidification is a common method for inhibiting...

  10. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  11. Entry and Technological Performance in New Technology Domains : Technological Opportunities, Technology Competition and Technological Relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leten, B.; Belderbos, R.; Van Looy, B.

    2016-01-01

    Entry and success in new technology domains (NTDs) is essential for firms' long-term performance. We argue that firms' choices to enter NTDs and their subsequent performance in these domains are not only governed by firm-level factors but also by environmental characteristics. Entry is encouraged by

  12. On the Methods of Technology Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雁

    2007-01-01

    Technology article has the characteristics as clearness, accurateness, conciseness and strictness. Therefore, more attention should be paid in translating the technology articles. This paper analyzes the methods used usually in technology articles translation.

  13. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wheat milling by-products and their impact on bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, Sami; Leys, Sofie; Jacobs, Pieter J; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the properties of dietary fiber (DF) rich wheat milling by-products and their impact on bread making. From coarse bran over coarse and fine weatings to low grade flour, the content of starch and lipids increased, while that of DF and ash decreased. Enzyme activity levels differed strongly and were not related to other by-product properties. Average particle size of the by-products was positively correlated with DF and ash contents and their hydration properties. When meals from flour and by-products were composed on the same overall starch level to compensate for differences in endosperm contamination in the by-products, bread specific volume was more strongly depressed with fine weatings and low grade flour than with coarse bran and weatings. This suggests that the properties of the former were intrinsically more detrimental to bread making than those of the latter.

  15. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  16. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  17. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  18. Research on characteristics and key technology in coal mine internet of things%煤矿物联网特点与关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继平

    2011-01-01

    informationize, etc.The characteristics of coal mine intemet of things are proposed as follows: electric explosion protection, large wireless transmission attenuation, no GPS signal in underground mine, low wireless transmission power, strong anti-interference and anti- fault capability, suitable for using tree-structure, long transmission distance, repeater is inappropriate to be used, small bulk of equipment, powerful adaptive capacity of network voltage fluctuation, be good at protection performance, etc.Put forward the key issues that need to be handled in coal mine intemet of things: firstly, the standards of information coding, transmission,processing,etc;secondly, the mine-used safety admittance products in whole control process, which involve production, transportation, storage, application and maintenance; thirdly, whole process manage and safe explosive control in production, transportation, storage, draw and return, usage, etc; fourthly, management and control of main equipments in whole course, production, transportation, storage, application and maintenance are included; fifthly, staff precise location, automatic identification and training, supervision; sixthly, coal gas examiner, safe inspector, fitter, blasting technician,winch man, shearer driver, water pump operator and their operation devices, man-environment lock control;seventhly, ground remote control of unmanned working face;eighthly, management and control of coal at production, transportation, sales, usage; ninthly, management of emergency rescue equipment, ambulance corps, etc; tenthly, coal geological exploration, design, coal mine construction, safety production, management and administration.

  19. 中国企业技术创新现状调查:特征、倾向与对策%A status survey on technology innovation of firms in China: Characteristics, tendencies, and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赤东

    2013-01-01

    了解和把握创新型企业技术创新的特征与倾向是创新政策制订的重要前提.运用客体法,对国家级创新型企业完成的突出技术创新项目进行全样本调查.从企业技术创新动机、创新类型、创新新颖度、创新经费支出、创新影响与效果等方面分析创新型企业技术创新的特征和倾向.调查结果表明,创新型企业作为一批产业创新领头企业已经呈现一些新的技术创新特征和倾向,如以市场需求驱动为主、创新类型以产品创新为主、以开发出新产品为第一目标、多数企业的创新新颖度达到国际市场新等,以及不同创新类型项目费用额度分布特点.同时还发现一些行业的企业对创新政策较不敏感,而其他一些却对创新政策较敏感等现象.基于此,提出了对创新政策制订与调整的几点启示.%Understanding and holding the development tendencies and characteristics of technology innovation for Innovation - o-riented Enterprises (IoEs) is an important precondition for adjusting and making innovation policies. A full sample questionnaire investigation on excellent technology innovation projects successfully finished by state - level IoEs is carried out based on object approach. Then the tendencies and characteristics of technology innovation for IoEs are analyzed in terms of innovation motivation, type, novelty, expenditure, impact, and effect of firms. Some important conclusions that technology innovation activity of IoEs is mainly driven by market demand; the main innovative type is new product; first important target of technology innovation for firms is to develop a new product; the innovative novelty of most IoEs is new on international market, as well as a distribution regularity of the expenditure quota for all kinds of innovative projects in IoEs are found. What' s more, it is also found that IoEs in some industries are not susceptible to the innovative policy, while others are more

  20. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  1. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry.

  2. Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

    2010-11-01

    Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (>15 μg L(-1)) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based μ-XRF mapping and μ-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg(-1). We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg(-1), as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 μg L(-1) notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems.

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  4. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  6. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong

    2017-08-22

    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO4) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl2). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m(3)) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m(3)) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m(3)). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, Indiana, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high and low r...

  8. By-Product Formation in Repetitive PCR Amplification of DNA Libraries during SELEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recogniz......The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target......-recognizing aptamers. Little is known about the formation of such by-products when employing nucleic acid libraries as templates. We report on the formation of two different forms of by-products, named ladder- and non-ladder-type observed during repetitive amplification in the course of in vitro selection experiments...

  9. THE UPTAKE OF WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS INTO FOODS DURING HOME PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of organic compounds in tap water are produced as a result of disinfection process. Use of chlorine-containing chemicals for disinfection produces many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and haloacetic acid. Ozonation with secon...

  10. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  11. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, Indiana, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high and low r...

  12. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  13. Potato Processing Industry By-products and Their Evaluation in Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Özdemir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available All around the world, particularly in developed countries, fresh potato consumption decreased while the consumption as fast food, snack and convenience food was increased. Potato processing industry has by-products such as cull potato, peel, pulp, and waste water. These by-products can be utilized for production of ethyl alcohol, single cell protein, microbial enzymes, lactic acid, organic fertilizer and bioethanol. The pulp obtained from the processing of potato for starch production can be considered as an energy source with starch content in animal nutrition. Recently, potato peel with the contents of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic, caffeic, gallic, protocatechuic acids and their antioxidant and antimicrobial effects have been intensely focused on. Conversion of by-products of potato processing industry into value-added products is economically important. It was reviewed here by-products of potato processing industry and their evaluation in animal nutrition.

  14. Características agronômicas e tecnológicas de genótipos de feijão do grupo comercial Carioca Agronomic and technologic characteristics of common bean genotypes from Carioca commercial group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Borges Lemos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A busca por cultivares produtivas, adaptadas ao local de cultivo e com características tecnológicas desejáveis é uma constante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de genótipos de feijão, do grupo comercial Carioca, quanto a características agronômicas e tecnológicas. Vinte e nove genótipos foram cultivados na época das águas, nos anos de 2001 e 2002, e distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Sobressaíram-se os genótipos IAC-Carioca, FT-Bonito, Rudá, Porto Real, CNFC 8008, CNFC 8011, CNFC 8012, CNFC 8013 e CNFC 8156 com produtividade de grãos acima da média obtida. Destacaram-se com produtividade média de grãos acima de 3.000 kg ha-1 e tempo de cozimento médio em torno de 20 minutos, os genótipos IAC-Carioca, CNFC 8012 e CNFC 8156.Cultivars with high yield, adaptability and desirable technological characteristics are a must. The objective of this work was to evaluate agronomic and technologic characters of common bean genotypes from carioca commercial group. Genotypes were cultivated in water growing season, in 2001 and 2002. The experimental design was by randomized blocks with 29 genotypes and four replications. The IAC-Carioca, FT-Bonito, Rudá, Porto Real, CNFC 8008, CNFC 8011, CNFC 8012, CNFC 8013 and CNFC 8156 genotypes yielded above the average. The genotypes IAC-Carioca, CNFC 8012 and CNFC 8156 presented the best results with 3,000 kg ha-1 and 20 minutes cooking time.

  15. Researching Summary of the Mantis Shrimp’s Visual Imaging Characteristics and Bionic Technology%螳螂虾视觉成像的特点及其仿生技术研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 金伟其; 裘溯

    2016-01-01

    The mantis shrimp has the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom, its visual system has 16 types of different photoreceptors and the ability to detect and analyze the visible light, ultraviolet light, linear polarized and circular polarized light. The mantis shrimp’s visual system provides a model to design better imaging device. At present, bionic mantis shrimp visual imaging technology is at the initial stage and has broad applied prospects. This paper reviews the research progress of mantis shrimp’s visual characteristics and bionic techniques both in China and abroad, analyzing the mantis shrimp’s visual imaging advantages and pointing out the prospects of bionic mantis shrimp’s visual imaging technology.%螳螂虾是目前发现的拥有世界上最复杂眼睛的动物,其视觉系统有16种不同的光感受器类型,能够探测并分析可见光、紫外光、线偏振光以及圆偏振光。螳螂虾的视觉系统为设计出更好的成像器件提供了范例,目前,仿生螳螂虾视觉成像技术处于起步阶段,具有广阔的应用前景。本文对国内外螳螂虾视觉的特点及其仿生成像技术的研究进展进行了全面系统的综述,分析了螳螂虾视觉的成像优势,指出了仿螳螂虾视觉成像技术的应用前景。

  16. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology – Review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The date palm Phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. Today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. Tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. Wastes such as date pits represent ...

  17. Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adira Wan Khalit, Wan Nor; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2016-05-18

    Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination.

  18. Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Du, Fangling

    2012-10-01

    Peanut is one of the most important oil and protein producing crops in the world. Yet the amounts of peanut processing by-products containing proteins, fiber and polyphenolics are staggering. With the environmental awareness and scarcity of space for landfilling, wastes/by-product utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Several peanut by-products are produced from crush peanut processes and harvested peanut, including peanut meal, peanut skin, peanut hull and peanut vine. Some of peanut by-products/waste materials could possibility be used in food processing industry, The by-products of peanut contain many functional compounds, such as protein, fiber and polyphenolics, which can be incorporated into processed foods to serve as functional ingredients. This paper briefly describes various peanut by-products produced, as well as current best recovering and recycling use options for these peanut byproducts. Materials, productions, properties, potential applications in food manufacture of emerging materials, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed.

  19. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  20. Formation of iodinated disinfection by-products during oxidation of iodide-containing water with potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yi-Li; Hu, Chen-Yan; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Lin, Lin; Mwakagenda, Seleli Andrew; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2012-11-30

    This study shows that iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) including iodoform (IF), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA) can be produced when iodide-containing waters are in contact with potassium permanganate. IF was found as the major I-DBP species during the oxidation. Iodide was oxidized to HOI, I(2) and I(3)(-), consequently, which led to the formation of iodinated organic compounds. I-DBPs varied with reaction time, solution pH, initial concentrations of iodide and potassium permanganate. Yields of IF, IAA and TIAA increased with reaction time and considerable I-DBPs were formed within 12 h. Peak IF yields were found at circumneutral pH range. However, formation of IAA and TIAA was favored under acidic conditions. Molar ratio of iodide to potassium permanganate showed significant influence on formation of IF, IAA and TIAA. The formation of IF, IAA and TIAA also depended on the characteristics of the waters.

  1. Mathematical models applied to the optimisation of mixtures in the production of silage from coffee by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to propose a mathematical model to determine the best combination of the by-products of coffee processing in the production of silage. To this end, 13 treatments were evaluated, resulting from the combination of wet coffee husks (WCH and dried coffee husks (DCH, both with and without the use of molasses (M and with or without the use of the inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum (I. From these components, various mixtures were proposed and evaluated, using the technique of simultaneous optimisation of multiple response variables. Silages with the best characteristics were obtained from the use of 76.40% WCH, 18.77% DCH, 4.83% of M and 0.0001% I.

  2. 豆浆处理工艺改善内酯豆腐的质构特性%Treatment technology of soy milk improving texture characteristics of lactone tofu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 王喜波

    2014-01-01

    , the results showed that homogenate at 1 000 r/min for 8 min was more suitable for soy milk as its improvement of texture characteristics of lactone tofu. The size of particle was shifted from 8.6 to 4.2, 1.6, 1.4μm when soy milk treated by colloid mill, homogenate and ultrasound, respectively. The results of particle size analysis showed that the processing could reduce the particle size of soy milk, which played an improvement role in texture characteristics of lactone tofu. The texture characteristics of lactone tofu were improved by processing technology of soy milk to meet the different requires. The result can provide a reference for the processing technology of lactone tofu.%豆浆的粒子大小可以通过一定的处理工艺加以改变,从而提高内酯豆腐质构特点。该文研究了胶体磨磨齿间隙(10~30μm)、超声波功率强度(1~3 W/g)、匀浆机转速(1000~5000 r/min)对内酯豆腐质构特点的影响。结果表明胶体磨处理能显著(p<0.05)提高内酯豆腐的弹性和内聚性。但在间隙为10µm的情况下,长时间研磨会降低硬度。在不同超声波功率强度条件下,内酯豆腐的硬度和弹性都是先上升后下降。超声波处理会显著(p<0.05)降低内酯豆腐的内聚性。匀浆处理对内酯豆腐的质构特点均产生先上升后下降的影响。通过Topsis法进行多指标综合评价,得出较好的豆浆处理工艺是匀浆处理1000 r/min处理8 min。粒径分析结果证明处理工艺能降低豆浆粒径大小。豆浆处理工艺可以改善内酯豆腐的质构特点,从而满足人们的不同需求。

  3. Structure Characteristics and Construction Technology of the Ballastless Track on the High Speed Railway Bridge%高速铁路桥上无砟轨道结构特点与施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利锋

    2016-01-01

    As the growth of the national economy in China, and the growth of innovation awareness, the reform of railway also accelerates the pace. Since the ballastless track is used, it has been popularized gradually because of its better security and economy. The application of ballastless track in high speed railway bridge provides powerful theory and technical support for the development of China’s high speed railway. Based on CRTSIIballastless track, this paper simply analyzes and expounds its structural characteristics and construction technology to provide the reference.%随着我国国民经济的增长,创新意识的增强,铁路方面也是加快了改革步伐。无砟轨道从应用至今,鉴于其较好的安全性与经济性,逐渐被推广开来。高速铁路桥上无砟轨道也为我国的高速铁路发展提供了有力的理论与技术支撑。因此对无砟轨道的研究与剖析是十分必要的。本文以CRTS域型板式无砟轨道为例,对其结构特点和施工技术进行简单分析阐述,仅供参考。

  4. Dynamic Characteristic of Synchronous Belt Drive based on Virtual Prototype Technology%基于虚拟样机技术同步带传动的动态性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛正浩; 张凯凯; 梁金生; 屈毅

    2011-01-01

    利用Pro/E和ADAMS软件建立同步带传动虚拟样机模型,研究了同步带传动动态特性.通过同步带传动虚拟样机模型的仿真分析,获得刚性带块位移、速度、加速度和接触力曲线,为进一步利用虚拟样机技术对同步带传动系统做深入研究提供参考.%The synchronous belt drive virtual prototype model is created by using Pro/E and ADAMS software,and its dynamic characteristic is researched. Through the simulation analysis of virtual prototype model, a block of rigid displacement, velocity, acceleration and contact force curve are obtained, then provides reference for the further use of the virtual prototype technology to in- depth research of synchronous belt drive system.

  5. “竹炭革”的配方特点、生产工艺及相关检测%Formula Characteristics and Technological Processes of the"Bamboo -Charcoal Leather" and the Related Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启伟; 王桂仙; 管宁章

    2013-01-01

      简单介绍了“竹炭革”的原料配方特点及生产工艺原理,并根据皮革检测标准对“竹炭革”作了相关检测,结果显示“竹炭革”中不含有害物质,使用安全。吸附实验表明,“竹炭革”对有害气体(如甲醛)具有良好的吸附性能,可去除环境中的有害气体。%The formula characteristics and technological processes of the "Bamboo -Charcoal Leather"were briefly introduced.. The "Bamboo-Charcoal Leather" was determined based on the related standards, and the results showed that "Bamboo-Charcoal Leather" did not contain harmful substances. Adsorption of formaldehyde by the "Bamboo -Charcoal Leather" was studied. The results showed that "Bamboo-Charcoal Leather" had good adsorption ability for formaldehyde, so it can be used to remove harmful gases in environment.

  6. Protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive

  7. Microbiological Evaluation of Pork and Chicken By-Products in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Jung, Hae-In; Kuk, Min; Lim, Jong-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the microbiological risk of pork and chicken by-products by enumerating indicator bacteria (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and identifying pathogens such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic isolates was determined, and molecular subtyping was performed using automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Pork and chicken by-products were collected from 10 processing plants. The mean numbers of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli from 95 pork by-product samples and 64 chicken by-product samples were 5.1, 3.6, and 2.4 log CFU/g and 4.5, 3.0, and 1.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The numbers of indicator bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and gizzard) were significantly higher than those in other organs. Salmonella and Campylobacter species were detected in 3 and 5 of 95 pork by-product samples and in 6 and 3 of 64 chicken by-product samples, respectively. Four of 9 Salmonella isolates examined were resistant to eight antibiotics, and each of these resistant strains produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Most Campylobacter isolates were resistant to tetracycline (7 of 8 strains) and quinolones (7 of 8 strains). The similarity in rep-PCR patterns among Salmonella isolates was more closely associated with serotype than with the processing plant and type of meat. Conversely, the rep-PCR patterns of Campylobacter isolates were specific to the processing plant. Our findings could help agencies develop regulations for protection from foodborne bacterial infections arising from animal by-products.

  8. Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

    2012-06-01

    The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future.

  9. 膜生物反应器内流场动力学特性的PIV实验研究%Research on dynamics characteristics of flow field in MBR by PIV technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 田瑞; 陶中兰; 文佳龙

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic characteristic of gas-liquid two phase flow around membrane fibers have important effects on controlling concentration polarization and membrane pollution in submerged membrane bioreactor system. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technology was used to measure the dynamic characteristic of liquid phase flow around membrane fibers. First, the gas-liquid two phase flow field image was gained by PIV technology, gray resolution method was developed and implemented to discriminate liquid phase velocity field from two phase flow field image, and vorticity field data of liquid flow was calculated around membrane fibers by Tecplot. We analyzed the liquid phase flow field and calculated vorticity field data around membrane fibers under the condition of aeration intensity of 2. 5,3. 0,3. 5,4. 5,5. 5 and 6. 5 m3 /h in bore diameter of 3 mm. It was shown that aeration intensity affected liquid phase flow field and vorticity field greatly, increasing aeration intensity in a certain range can make the liquid velocity and vorticity increase. Under the experimental conditions, the optimal aeration intensity identified as 6. 5 m3/h. At the same time, we also analyzed dynamics characteristics of bubble with bore diameter of 3 mm. The study provides experimental data and research experience for optimization design of membrane bio-reactor (MBR).%浸没式膜生物反应器系统内膜面附近的气液两相流动力学特性对控制浓差极化和膜污染具有重要影响.应用粒子图像测速(PIV)技术对浸没式膜生物反应器内近膜面的液相流场动力学特性进行了研究.采用相分离技术灰度分辨法将通过PIV技术得到的气液两相流场图像中的液相速度场进行辨别,得到膜面附近的液相流场数据,并应用Tecplot软件计算得出液相流的涡量特性.在3 mm曝气孔径,2.5、3.0、3.5、4.5、5.5和6.5 m3/h 6种曝气强度下分析了膜面附近的液相速度场和涡量场.结果表明,曝气强度对液

  10. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies.

  11. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  12. Cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the antioxidant potential in winemaking by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jara-Palacios, M; Luisa Escudero-Gilete, M; Miguel Hernández-Hierro, J; Heredia, Francisco J; Hernanz, Dolores

    2017-04-01

    Grape pomace is composed of seeds, skins and stems that are an important source of phenolic substances, which have antioxidant properties and potential benefits to human health. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been used to measure the total antioxidant potential of different winemaking by-products. The electrochemical behavior of pomace, seeds, skins and stems was measured by CV and lipid peroxidation inhibition by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. Differences for the electrochemical parameter were found between the by-products, pomace and seeds, which presented the greatest voltammetric peak area. Furthermore, the by-products induced inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates. Pomace and seeds showed higher capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation than stems and skins, which could be because these by-products are richer in flavanols. Simple regression analyses showed that voltammetric parameters are highly correlated to the values obtained for lipid peroxidation inhibition. CV is a promising technique to estimate the total antioxidant potential of phenolic extract from winemaking by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S.

    2001-07-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha{sup -1}. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  14. Status and commentary of research and development on oil sand pyrolysis characteristics with technology and equipment%油砂热解特性及工艺与装置研究开发现状与评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小龙; 张自生; 高鑫; 李鑫钢

    2016-01-01

    油砂是一种储量巨大的非常规石油资源,油砂热解技术具有良好的工业化前景。本文概述了油砂热解的相关基础研究进展,包括油砂热解的3个阶段、气液固三相产物的性质及多种油砂热解动力学模型的总结。分析了常压干馏、惰性气体保护热解、加氢热解、减压热解及复合热解工艺,简述了不同工艺对产品收率和产品性质等方面的影响。回顾了油砂热解的装置,从固定床、旋转干馏炉、流化床干馏炉到Alberta Taciuk Process (ATP)装置,重点介绍了具有不同载热方式和能量回收方式的旋转干馏炉和流化床干馏炉。从能源利用效率的角度分析对比了各种热解工艺和热解设备的优势与劣势,阐明了降低能耗提高能源效率是热解技术的主要问题,进而提出了旋转干馏炉和流化床干馏炉具有更好的工业前景。%Oil sand is a kind of unconventional oil resources and the pyrolysis technique of oil sand is suitable for industrial application. In this paper the fundamental research of oil sand pyrolysis was summarized, including the three stages of oil sand pyrolysis,properties of gaseous,liquid and solid products and various pyrolysis kinetic models of oil sand. Atmospheric retorting,pyrolysis under inert gas,hydropyrolysis, vacuum pyrolysis and combined pyrolysis technology were analyzed. The effects on the products yields and characteristics of different pyrolysis technologies were reviewed. The pyrolysis equipment were summarized,including fixed bed reactor,rotary retort,fluidized-bed retort and Alberta Taciuk Process (ATP) reactor. And special emphasis was placed on the rotary and fluidized-bed retorts using different ways of heat carrier and energy recovery. From the perspective of energy efficiency,the advantages and disadvantages of different technologies and equipments were analyzed by comparison. It was indicated that reducing energy consumption and

  15. Characteristics of Soil Moisture on Sloping Farmland in Different Soil and Water Conservation Technology Modes%不同水土保持模式下坡耕地的土壤水分特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳; 王存国; 魏永霞; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the problems of draught and soil and water loss on the sloping farmland in the gentle hilly region of the northern of Song-nen Plain,six technology modes of furrow damming,mole drain,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe,the combination of mole drain and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe and furrow damming,conventional tillage were selected.The paper studied on the variation characteristics of soil moisture.The results showed that the soil water storage in different soil and water conservation technology modes changed same trend as hourly precipitation on the whole.The order of soil water storage from big to small was the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and furrow damming,furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe,mole drain,conventional tillage.The order of total evapotranspiration in different soil and water conservation technology modes from big to small was the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe,mole drain,furrow damming,conventional tillage.The research results can provide reference for reasonable selection of soil and water conservation technology mode in the gentle hilly region of the northern of Song-nen Plain.%针对松嫩平原北部丘陵漫岗区坡耕地存在的干旱与水土流失并存的问题,选取了垄向区田、鼠道、鼠道+暗管、鼠道+垄向区田、鼠道+暗管+垄向区田、常规耕作等6种水土保持技术模式,研究了土壤水分变化特征。结果表明,从整体上看,不同水土保持技术模式0~100cm土层土壤储水量与时段降雨量变化趋势一致,土壤储水量大小的技术模式依次为,鼠道+暗管+垄向区田〉鼠道+垄向区田〉垄向区田〉鼠道+暗管〉鼠道〉常规耕作。各水土保持技术模式

  16. Technology reviews: Glazing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology; determine the performance range of available technologies; identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances; examine market forces and market trends; and develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fag into that class.

  17. Technology reviews: Shading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends. Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  18. Removal of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and its chlorination by-products from water and wastewater using non-imprinted polymer (NIP) particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Audrey; Ormeci, Banu; Lai, E P C

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds and their chlorination by-products are two classes of emerging contaminants. Surface water and wastewater treatment technologies have limitations in removing these contaminants. This study evaluated the ability of non-imprinted polymer particles (NIP) to remove the endocrine disruptor 17beta-estradiol (E2) and its chlorination by-products from water and wastewater. NIP effectively removed 98% of 10 mg/L E2 from wastewater. NIP were also effective in removing chlorination by-products of E2 by 84.9% after 10 mg/L E2 in water was chlorinated at 5 mg/L. In the presence of 5 mg/L humic acid, NIP were able to achieve removal of 10 mg/L E2 by greater than 99.9%. Furthermore, after chlorination of 10 mg/L E2 and 5 mg/L humic acid at 10 mg/L chlorine, NIP were also able to remove the chlorination by-products formed as well as the remaining E2 by greater than 99.9%. The presence of 5 mg/L humic acid did not adversely affect the adsorption efficiency. The results of this research indicate that NIPs have good potential as a final treatment step for surface water and wastewater treatment.

  19. Nutritional and technological quality of the durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Flagella

    Full Text Available Durum wheat quality is a complex system that combines yield characteristics, cultivation conditions and certification requirements. In this review, the technological and nutritional aspects of grain quality were evaluated in relation to the influence of climate and agronomic practices. In particular, the technological quality was investigated with regard to the kind of processed product (pasta, bread, couscous, burghul. The influence of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, temperature, water regime and organic farming on grain quality was evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional characteristics of durum wheat related to starch, proteins, lipids, vitamins, fibres and mineral ions content were examined. Special focus was on the antioxidant activity capable of preventing chronic and degenerative diseases thanks to the high content in bioactive compounds, as phenols, tocols, carotenoids and fibres in whole grain. In the light of the new direction of the Community agricultural policy and of the growing interest in human nutrition, two prospects for development of the durum wheat sector were delineated: i developing certified products (PGI, PDO and organic; ii promoting production and processing technologies aimed at increasing the level of bioactive compounds in durum wheat grain and its by-products.

  20. Soluble dietary fiber from Canna edulis Ker by-product and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Wu

    2013-01-30

    Using Canna edulis Ker by-product as raw materials, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared using six different methods, including chemical, physical-chemical, enzymatic, physical-enzymatic, chemical-enzymatic and physical-chemical-enzymatic methods. As main component in the C. edulis by-product composed of cellulose, glucose converts to other single sugars, which form a series of compounds in the SDF. The treated methods have impact effects on single sugar composition, metal ion content, molecular size distribution, chemical bonds and groups in the structure, thermal property and color of the final product. In view of security, high yield and homogeneity as well as good thermal stability of final product, physical-enzymatic method will be a best choice for the production of SDF from C. edulis by-product. The SDF obtained can be used as dietary supplement and additive in the food industry.

  1. Formation and modeling of disinfection by-products in drinking water of six cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli

    2011-05-01

    Water quality parameters including TOC, UV(254), pH, chlorine dosage, bromide concentration and disinfection by-products were measured in water samples from 41 water treatment plants of six selected cities in China. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products in the drinking water of China. Bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were also detected in many water samples. Higher concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were measured in summer compared to winter. The geographical variations in DBPs showed that TTHM levels were higher in Zhengzhou and Tianjin than other selected cities. And the HAA5 levels were highest in Changsha and Tianjin. The modeling procedure that predicts disinfection by-products formation was studied and developed using artificial neural networks. The performance of the artificial neural networks model was excellent (r > 0.84).

  2. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  3. Ozonation of metoprolol in aqueous solution: ozonation by-products and mechanisms of degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kheng Soo; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Abas, Mhd Radzi Bin

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the degradation pathway of metoprolol, a widely used β-blocker, in the ozonation via the identification of generated ozonation by-products (OPs). Structure elucidation of OPs was performed using HPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. Seven OPs were identified, and four of these have not been reported elsewhere. Identified OPs of metoprolol included aromatic ring breakdown by-products; aliphatic chain degraded by-products and aromatic ring mono-, di-, and tetrahydroxylated derivatives. Based on the detected OPs, metoprolol could be degraded through aromatic ring opening reaction via reaction with ozone (O3) and degradation of aliphatic chain and aromatic ring via reaction with hydroxyl radical (•OH).

  4. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  5. 基于两段式水煤浆气化的IGCC系统变工况特性%Off-design Characteristics of IGCC System Based on Two-stage Coal-slurry Gasification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀鑫; 吴少华; 李振中; 王阳

    2012-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle system(IGCC) is often operated at off-design condition.In order to learn the off-design characteristics of IGCC,the software ThermoFlex was used to establish the model of a 200 MW integrated gasification combined cycle(IGCC) system based on the two-stage coal-slurry gasification technology.The effects of gas turbine load,air separation unit integrated coefficient(Xas),atmosphere temperature and atmosphere pressure on the performance of IGCC system were investigated.The results show that gross and net electric efficiency increases at first and then decreases with atmosphere temperature increasing or gas turbine load decreasing.The gross electric efficiency decreases when the air separation unit integrated coefficient increases.Atmosphere pressure has little effect on system efficiency.The application of two-stage coal-slurry gasification technology has good availability to improve IGCC system performance under the above running conditions.The results will provide reference for design and operation of the IGCC power plant.%整体煤气化联合循环(integrated gasification combinedcycle,IGCC)机组在一定情况下处于非设计工况运行。为了研究IGCC系统变工况特性,采用ThermoFlex软件建立基于两段式水煤浆气化技术的200 MW级整体煤气化联合循环系统模型,主要考查燃气轮机负荷、整体空分系数Xas、大气温度、大气压力对系统性能的影响。研究结果表明,降低燃气轮机负荷或者提高大气温度系统效率均呈先升高而后降低的趋势。整体空分系数Xas增加,机组发电效率降低。大气压力对系统效率影响较小。上述条件下采用两段水煤浆气化技术,系统性能可以得到有效改善。研究结果可为采用两段式水煤浆气化技术的IGCC系统的设计、运行提供参考。

  6. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Optimal pH in chlorinated swimming pools - balancing formation of by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal pH range for chlorinated swimming pools the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and trichloramine was investigated in the pH-range 6.5–7.5 in batch experiments. An artificial body fluid analogue was used to simulate bather load as the precursor for by......-products. The chlorine-to-precursor ratio used in the batch experiments influenced the amounts of by-products formed, but regardless of the ratio the same trends in the effect of pH were observed. Trihalomethane formation was reduced by decreasing pH but haloacetonitrile and trichloramine formation increased...

  8. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-01-01

    Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and p...

  9. 理工科院校抑郁症状大学生攻击性特点及防治%The Offensive Characteristics and Its Preventive Treatment of Students with Depressive Symptoms in Science and Technology Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 迟新丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查理工科院校抑郁症状大学生的攻击性特点。方法:首先运用Beck抑郁问卷筛选抑郁症状大学生,其次运用自编抑郁症状大学生攻击性特点问卷调查研究抑郁症状大学生的攻击性特点;结果:抑郁症状大学生的攻击性在不同的因子上存在着显著的性别差异;抑郁症状大学生的攻击性特点在年级上没有表现出过多的显著差异,统计学意义不大;抑郁症状大学生的攻击性在专业方面有非常显著的差异,主要表现为艺术专业学生的攻击性要强于文科和理工科学生。结论:不同性别抑郁症状大学生的攻击性方式有显著差异;年级因素在抑郁症状大学生的攻击性方面没有表现出显著差异,不同专业的抑郁症状大学生的攻击性有极其显著差异。%The paper intends to investigate the offensive characteristics of the university students with depressive symptoms in science and technology universities. Beck Depression Inventory was first carried out to detect and select the students with depressive symptoms, who were further investigated with self- administered questionnaire. Based on such surveys, the offensive characteristics of those students were summarized and analyzed in details. There were signif- icant differences between male and female studentsj aggression in terms of various factors, while students in different grades did not differ a lot in their aggression, which indicates that the statistical method is of less value in analyzing such cases. Besides, striking differences of aggression also existed among students of different majors. There exists a significant difference between male and female students aggression. The factor of grades does not have a striking effect on the students aggression, while the factor of majors influences students'aggression a lot.

  10. Investigation of the thermal conduction characteristics of meridian over human body based on infrared technology%基于红外技术的人体经脉热传输特性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓华; 许金森; 郑淑霞; 兰彩莲

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨人体经脉线上热传输的特性.方法:以先进的红外热成像技术为支撑,利用中医热灸的方法,在人体任脉线上的穴位与非穴位点及旁开非经非穴点加热,诱发出人体经络的循经红外辐射轨迹.结果:可观察到与古代医典和中医学理论所描述的人体任脉循行路线基本一致的轨迹,在加热神阙穴旁开对照点时,还观察到与人体足少阴肾经循行路线基本一致的轨迹.对人体经络的热传输特性进行分析,揭示热在经脉线上的传输具有循经特异性.结论:实验观察到的现象很难用现代医学解剖学来解释,为经络的存在提供了更为有力的证据,对经脉线上的热传输特性的分析表明人体经脉线可能是热的良通道.%Objective: To investigate the thermal conduction characteristics along the meridian course over human body. Methods: Based on the principles of traditional Chinese medicine thermal moxibustion, elicited the infrared radiant track along meridian course over human body surface by local heating acupoint or non-acupoint along meridian course, recorded by advanced infrared thermal imaging technology. Results: The infrared radiant track along Conception Vessel course can be observed over human body surface. Their courses coincide or basically coincide with the Fourteen Meridians that described by the Chinese ancient physicians. It's surprise that IRRTM of Kidney Channel of Foot-Shaoyin displayed on the screen when local heating the non-acupoint beside Shenque. Analysis on the thermal conduction characteristics of the meridian over human body indicated that the thermal conductivity of the corresponding tissues along meridian course was better than that of nonmeridain area. Conclusion: These phcnomcnons are difficult to be explained by anatomy of modern medicine, but they provided some more convincing evidences for the existence of meridians, illustrated that meridian of human body may be the good channels

  11. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Tecnología de producción de haba y características socioeconómicas de productores en Puebla y Tlaxcala Broad bean production technology and socioeconomic characteristics of farmers in Puebla and Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rojas-Tiempo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer la tecnología aplicada al cultivo de haba, para la producción de grano en diferentes comunidades de Puebla y Tlaxcala, México; con la finalidad de encontrar las prácticas débiles y las características socioeconómicas esenciales; así como, los caracteres deseables por los productores de una variedad de haba. El trabajo se desarrolló en la región productora de haba en México. Se aplicaron 100 cuestionarios, 20 por comunidad y una entrevista semiestructurada a informantes clave más información de los agricultores, mediante observaciones directas. Predominan los productores con rasgos de campesinado tradicional en el uso de la tecnología de producción de haba, basada en herramientas tradicionales y el uso de animales de trabajo en la preparación del terreno. La fuente de semillas para la siembra, son las variedades locales que ellos siembran año con año. Entre las características socioeconómicas destacan, que 4% es del sexo femenino y la edad promedio es de 49 años. La región productora de haba cuenta con una combinación de productores, con diferentes grados de campesinidad alternado con productores comerciales o en transición de serlo. Los caracteres de interés deseados por sus variedades, son tamaño de semilla grande o mediana, abundantes en flores, vainas y semillas, que sean precoces y resistentes a las principales plagas, enfermedades y sequía.The research objective was to determine the technology applied to the broad bean crop for grain production in different communities of Puebla and Tlaxcala, Mexico, in order to find weak practices and key socioeconomic characteristics; as well as desirable traits by the producers of a variety of bean. The work was developed in the broad bean-producing region in Mexico. 100 questionnaires were applied, 20 per community and a semi-structured interviews with key informants plus information for farmers, through direct observation. Peasant

  13. Learner Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Drachsler, H., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Learner Characteristics. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Volume 4 (pp. 1743-1745). New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_347

  14. Beyond Technology, there Stands Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Fernandes Lobato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article shows evidence that despite the prominent influences of the technological revolution and the spectacular panoramas on the contemporary world, magic seems to stand beyond technology. To support this hypothesis, the author investigates the images on the cinema, pointing out that to discover magic in a film, for instance, it is necessary to recognize its subjective structures disguised in the objectivity of the screen. Finally, the author indicates that in the field of image production, dance films that are created out of a cross-disciplinary effort are another by product of the fusion between art and video, born out of technological advancements.

  15. Fault Diagnosis in Mill Output Table Based on Acoustic Radiation Characteristics and Demodulation Technology%基于声辐射特征及解调技术的轧机输出辊道故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺田; 黄晓燕

    2014-01-01

    Table is one set of main equipment for a rolling production line delivery rolled piece,and the bearing failure will lead to line paralysis.To understand and master the operation condition of the bearing and find fault are very important at any moment.By constructing equipment radiation noise field monitoring shock pulse wave,and through analysis of the characteristic frequency and reso-nance,the technology of intuitive dynamic image noise source identification and positioning was put forward.The rolling bearing fault site is more effectively and more accurately diagnosed,meeting with actual situation diagnosis.%辊道是轧钢生产线上运送轧件的主要设备,其轴承的失效将导致轧线的瘫痪,随时了解和掌握轴承的运行状态并及时发现故障十分重要,通过构建设备辐射噪声场监听冲击脉冲波,经特征频率及共振分析,研究出了“直观的动态图像噪声源的识别与定位”技术,更有效、更准确地诊断出滚动轴承的故障部位,取得了与实际情况完全吻合的诊断结果。

  16. Características tecnológicas dos caules de juta visando à produção de pastas celulósicas para papel Technological characteristics of jute stalks to produce cellulosic fibers for paper making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas seis variedades de juta quanto à densidade básica do caule e seus teores em líber, lenho, fibra, celulose e dimensões das fibras. Os valores para a densidade básica, de 0,270 a 0,335g/cm³, evidenciaram suas diferenças tecnológicas. Os caules da variedade introduzida sob nº I-52445 foram os menos densos, com menores teores de fibra e de celulose. Os teores de líber (36,6 a 40,6%, lenho (59,4 a 63,4%, fibra (17,3 a 22,0% e celulose (42,4 a 45,4%, bem como o estudo micrométrico das fibras liberianas e lenhosas, evidenciaram as possibilidades de utilização dos caules de juta como matéria-prima para produção de fibras celulósicas para papel.In this paper six varieties of jute identified by the numbers I-53502, I -53503, I -52444, I -52445, I -52446 e Roxa were studied considering the following stalk technological characteristics: basic density, contents of bast, woody fiber, cellulose and fiber dimensions. The basic density ranged from 0.270 to 0.335g/cm³, showing differences among varieties. The contents of bast ranged from 36.6 to 40.6%, woody from 49.4 to 63.4%, fiber from 17.3 to 22.0%, and cellulose from 42.4 to 45.4%; the bast fiber lengths ranged from 1.99 to 2.14mm and woody 0.70 to 0.82mm. These results indicated the great potential the jute stalks have to produce cellulose fibers for paper making.

  17. 中国风电和碳捕集技术发展路径与减排成本研究——基于技术学习曲线的分析%Toward Characteristics of Development of Wind Power and Carbon Capture Technology in China Based on Technological Learning Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建

    2012-01-01

    Coal has been the major energy source in China.The proportion of coal utilization for power generation will even become higher.The key of China’s low-carbon development lies in the choice of low-carbon power technology and its popularization.Compared with hydropower and nuclear power,development of wind power and carbon capture technology is still at preliminary stages.The overall objective of this study was to discuss characteristics of main problems in wind power and carbon capture technology,including the time of deployment,potential of CO2 emission reductions,as well as costs of CO2 emission reductions based on their learning curves.This would be greatly helpful in providing a scientific basis of decision-makers.First,differences in deployment of low-carbon energy technologies of China and the world were compared and contrast.Due to the rapid development of economy and rapid growth of energy demand,the China’s energy deployment rate is much higher than the world average.Based on it,China’s deployment rate was combined with the technological learning curve to analyze the deployment path of wind power and carbon capture technologies.Conclusions were drawn as follows.1)The CO2 mitigation cost of wind power is marginally higher than the carbon capture technology,but when carbon transport cost and carbon storage cost are accounted for,the total cost of carbon capture technology is higher than the wind power;2)The total added investment of wind power is slightly higher than that of the newly built pulverized coal power plant with carbon capture.The investment(including the construction investment)of wind power is 71.9%of the total added investment,which means that improvement in the learning rate will largely reduce the total added investment.The total added investments for carbon capture technology are lower,almost all of which are from the fuel cost and total added investments of the capital of the pulverized coal plant with carbon capture;3

  18. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  19. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  20. Bioenergy by-products as soil amendments? Implications for carbon sequestration and greenhuise gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, M.L.; Oenema, O.; Kuikman, P.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An important but little understood aspect of bioenergy production is its overall impact on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Increased energy production from biomass will inevitably lead to higher input of its by-products to the soil as amendments or fertilizers. However, it is still unclear

  1. Prediction in processing is a by-product of language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Franklin; Kidd, Evan; Rowland, Caroline F

    2013-08-01

    Both children and adults predict the content of upcoming language, suggesting that prediction is useful for learning as well as processing. We present an alternative model which can explain prediction behaviour as a by-product of language learning. We suggest that a consideration of language acquisition places important constraints on Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) theory.

  2. Developing environmental legislation to promote recycling of industrial by-products - an endless story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    In Finland during the last few decades, mineral industrial residues (by-products) have been used in earthworks, but only to a limited extent relative to their total volume. The most important barrier to efficient recycling of by-products has been the need for a site-specific environmental permit, since the permit process tends to be time-consuming and laborious. In 2000 a working group was set up to prepare national legislation, i.e., a Government decree, in order to promote the use of by-products in earth construction. The aim was to exempt certain residues from the environmental permit obligation. At the first stage, the working group determined specific decision criteria for the selection of the by-products to be included. For the selected residues, the acceptable construction applications and material-specific environmental standards were defined. Various difficulties were encountered during the preparation of the decree. These were mainly caused by the lack of data and by some ongoing changes in environmental regulations. Furthermore, the draft decree received several critical and partly contradictory comments and proposals for amendments. This resulted in considerable delay in implementation.

  3. Fish by-product meal in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferreira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4% of fish by-product meal in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and economic analysis. A total of 160 Dekalb White hens with 52-wk old were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of fish by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p < 0.05 were detected for all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk and albumen percentage, yolk and albumen height, feed cost and production cost, in which the inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diets showed better results. It can be concluded that fish by-product meal can be used in diets for hens as alternative feed, with better results in egg production, feed conversion, egg weight, yolk-albumen ratio and a reduction in feed cost and production cost.

  4. Comparison of biochar formation from various agricultural by-products using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is charred material produced by the pyrolysis of organic biomass. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of different agricultural by-products feedstock and their derived biochars were collected to explore the potential of FTIR technique as a simple and rapid method for char...

  5. "By-Products": The Added Value of Academic Writing Instruction for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpignan, Hadara; Rubin, Bella; Katznelson, Helen

    2007-01-01

    We previously defined the "by-products" of academic writing instruction as "affective and social changes perceived by students, "along with" changes in their writing, reflected in interpersonal and intrapersonal behaviors carried over into other spheres of their lives" [Katznelson, Perpignan, & Rubin, 2001. What develops along with the development…

  6. Characterisation of complex xylo-oligosaccharides from xylan rich by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrolysates obtained by hydrothermal treatment of four xylan rich by-products (wheat bran, brewery's spent grain, corn cobs and Eucalyptus wood) were characterised. Depending on the feedstock material studied, the xylan originally present differed in substitution with arabinose, 4- O -methylglucuro

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP...

  8. Neutralization/purification of the wastewaters from printed circuit boards production using waste by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin; Flegar, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was development of a new method for the neutralization/purification of printed circuit boards wastewater (PCBW) originating from Zagreb, Croatia, using two industrial by-products. PCBW was characterized with low pH value (2.11) and high concentration of TDS (50190 mg L(-1)), copper (4190 mg L(-1)) and iron (2660 mg L(-1)). Waste base (WB), by-product of the alumina production, and waste sludge, by-product of the electrochemical treatment of groundwater, were employed as neutralization/adsorption agents. Due to its high neutralization capacity WB was used for pH adjustment to pH 8 and heavy metals removal from both effluents, yet the final removal of the contaminants down to the regulated values was assessed by adsorption/coagulation with the iron and aluminum rich waste sludge. Following the combined treatment the removal efficiency of iron and copper was higher than 99.99% with their final concentration in the treated water of 0.151 mg L(-1) and 0.129 mg L(-1), respectively. Following the ozone base oxidation the removal efficiency of the organic contaminants was more than 83%. The successful application of the industrial waste by-products for neutralization/purification of the PCBW with the removal efficiencies of the contaminants comparable or better than those obtained with conventional treatment represented the main advantage of our presented method.

  9. Towards the Valorization of Humin By-products: Characterization, Solubilization and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, I. van

    2015-01-01

    During the acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates for the production of renewable bulk chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid, large amounts of carbonaceous, insoluble by-products are typically formed by cross-polymerization reactions of HMF and several suga

  10. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  11. Photolysis of tembotrione and its main by-products under extreme artificial conditions:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvayrac, Christophe; Bontemps, Nataly [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Nouga-Bissoue, Achille [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l' Enseignement Technique (ENSET), Université de Douala, BP 2701 Douala (Cameroon); Romdhane, Sana; Coste, Camille-Michel [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Cooper, Jean-Francois, E-mail: cooper@univ-perp.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

    2013-05-01

    The photolytic behaviour of tembotrione, a new chemical herbicide intended for foliar application in corn, was investigated under unnatural and extreme photochemical exposure in aqueous solutions in the laboratory. It appeared that degradation was dependent on pH and occurred more rapidly under acidic and neutral conditions, leading predominantly to the formation of a xanthenedione type compound by intramolecular cyclisation with loss of HCl. Trace amounts of benzoic acid by-products appeared also during UV-C irradiation (λ = 254 nm) of the parent compound. Results were comparable to those obtained with sulcotrione, another β-triketone herbicide. These extreme irradiation conditions clearly accelerated the phototransformation of sulcotrione vs. simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the photolysis of the degradation by-products, resulting from either photolysis, hydrolysis or biotic pathways of the two active ingredients, was also carried out. The benzoic acid by-products appeared more stable to photolysis than their parent molecules. Xanthenedione derivatives were degraded more rapidly with several differences depending on the pH value. - Highlights: • Tembotrione and sulcotrione water photolysis appeared enhanced under unnatural and extreme conditions. • Triketones were easily photodegraded under acidic and neutral conditions. • Xanthenedione derivatives were the predominant by-products. • Phototransformation of xanthenedione derivatives was pH-dependent. • Benzoic acid derivatives can be relatively stable.

  12. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-productsAuthors & affiliations:Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2.1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  13. Hydrothermally treated xylan rich by-products yield different classes of xylo-oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Carvalheiro, F.; Garrote, G.; Avgerinos, E.; Koukios, E.; Parajo, J.C.; Girio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Four xylan rich by-products, namely wheat bran, brewery's spent grain, corn cobs and Eucalyptus wood, were characterised and subjected to a mild hydrothermal treatment in order to release and degrade the xylan from the starting materials. The chemical characterisation of the feedstock materials, wit

  14. "By-Products": The Added Value of Academic Writing Instruction for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpignan, Hadara; Rubin, Bella; Katznelson, Helen

    2007-01-01

    We previously defined the "by-products" of academic writing instruction as "affective and social changes perceived by students, "along with" changes in their writing, reflected in interpersonal and intrapersonal behaviors carried over into other spheres of their lives" [Katznelson, Perpignan, & Rubin, 2001. What…

  15. CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle FunctionGayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan41California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

  16. CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle FunctionGayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan41California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

  17. Productive performance lambs on grazing supplemented with concentrates containing fruit processing by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonfim Manera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of sheep kept in irrigated Tifton 85 pastures receiving concentrate supplementation containing different fruits processing by-products. The pasture area corresponded to 0.58 ha, divided in 24 paddocks, under rotational grazing with 20 days of interval of grazing and four days of grazing. 24 male sheep, castrated with 26.9±2.4 of initial body weight and ten months like testers animals, were used. Three fruit processing by-products (guava, barbados cherry and grape wine industry including in 30% of dry matter basis in supplements, besides the treatment “control” containing traditional ingredients (dry ground corn, soybean meal and wheat bran, were compared. The experimental design was a completely randomized with six replicates by treatments. The concentrates evaluated containing fruit processing by-products did not affect the daily weight gain, the total weight gain and the final body weight of sheep kept in irrigated pastures. The stoking rate of pastures, an average was 90.96 lambs/ha and estimative of meat production by area of 2,756.50 kg/ha/year. Thus, guava, barbados cherry and grape wine industry by-products may substitute 30% of dry matter the traditional ingredients in concentrate without harming the productive performance of animals and area.

  18. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione...

  19. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION AND CONTROL BY OZONATION AND BIOTREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing interest in using ozone in water treatment because it is a strong disinfectant and is able to oxidize the precursors of some disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, ozonation itself produces DBPs, like aldehydes and ketones, and increases the concentration ...

  20. Environment protection in the area of by-products facilities in coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Tomal; Henryk Zembala; Krzysztof Kalinowski; Milan Fedorov; Ludovt Kosnac; Jan Hromiak [Biuro Projektow Koksoprojekt Sp. z o.o., Zabrze (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    20 slides/overheads outline the presentation on the subject of the environmental protection program implemented at the U.S. Steel Kosice Coking Plant. Actions taken include the control of emissions by a system of cooling coke oven gas. A hermetically sealed system uses nitrogen flow for tar management and hermetic loading of the liquid coal by-product Benzol.