WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology by-product characteristics

  1. Technology for recovery of by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuy, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Products of conventional nuclear fuel processing plants are uranium and plutonium, and any other recovered material is considered to be a by-product. Some by-products have been recovered from past nuclear fuel processing operations, either as a normal mode of operation or by special campaigns. Routing recovery over an extended period has been limited to neptunium, but extended campaigns were used at Hanford to recover strontium for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Krypton is recovered at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on a campaign basis, and isotope separation of krypton is done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Past campaigns at Hanford PUREX have recovered cesium, promethium, amercium, cerium, and technetium. Past by-product recovery efforts were usually severely constrained by the status of flowsheet development and availability of existing facilities at the time decisions wee made to recover the by-products. Additional processes were developed to accommodate other unit operations and in response to changes in waste management objectives or user requirements. Now an impressive variety of recovery technology is available for most potential by-products, with varying degrees of demonstration under conditions which satisfy today's environmental protection and waste management constraints

  2. Depleted uranium as a by product of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used during the War in Yugoslavia in the year 1999 by NATO forces, as well as in Bosnia and Gulf War. In Yugoslavia it has been used in two modalities: as ammunition (mostly caliber 30 mm) and as a part of cruise missiles (counterweight penetrator). Total amount of DU in Yugoslavia was about 10 tons. DU is a by product of nuclear technology and represents low-level nuclear waste. Therefore it should be stored. But, because of military application it is in the environment where it could react chemo toxically or radio toxically and so endanger people and animals. This paper contains all relevant technology parameters of DU created as a by product, DU physical and chemical properties, DU ammunition effects, environmental DU transport, and estimation of consequences on people and environment

  3. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  4. IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

  5. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  6. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  7. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  8. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  9. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  10. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  11. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  12. By-product reuse in drinking water softening: influence of operating conditions on calcium carbonate pellet characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Camilla; Rosshaug, P. S.; Kristensen, J. B.

    both socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, optimal implementation of softening requires a holistic approach including e.g. possibilities for by-product reuse. A pellet reactor is one widely used softening technology that may produce up to 350 kg calcium carbonate pellets per 1000 m3...

  13. Sensory and aromatic characteristics of tongue sole by-products hydrolysates (Cynoglossus senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, K. S. B.; Berge, Jean-pascal; Prost, Carole; Musabyemariya, B.; Seydi, Mg

    2009-01-01

    Tongue sole by-products coming from fish-filleting plant were hydrolyzed by Protamex® protease. To identify the future application of hydrolysates, a sensory analysis was carried out.The sensory profile was performed with a jury of 14 specialized judges.11 profiles were found by this panel of tasting. In addition, the aromatic characterization revealed that 57 molecules are responsible for these odours described in sensory analysis.The description of these aromatic compounds opens potentia...

  14. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  15. Milk Technological Properties as Affected by Including Artichoke By-Products Silages in the Diet of Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Muelas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes. Panelists were not able to differentiate among yogurts obtained from those milks by discriminant triangular sensory tests. Silages of artichoke by-products can be included in isoproteic and isoenergetic diets for dairy goats, up to a 25% (feed dry matter, without negatively affecting milk technological and sensory properties whereas reducing feeding costs.

  16. Jatropha curcas, L. Pruning Residues for Energy: Characteristics of an Untapped By-Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, L. is an energy crop mainly cultivated for the oil-seed, and the oil is usually used as bio-fuel. However, few studies have reported information about the utilization of the wood as a fuel for boiler heating systems. With 2500 jatropha trees per hectare, it is possible to produce about 3 t·ha−1·y−1 of woody biomass from pruning. In addition, jatropha trees are commonly cut down to a height of 45 cm once every 10 years, with a production of 80 t·ha−1 of dry matter of woody biomass. The use of this biomass has not yet been investigated. During the European project JatroMed, woody biomass from jatropha pruning was collected in Morocco. Chemical and physical characteristics of the wood were conducted according to UNI EN ISO standards. The following jatropha wood characteristics have been analyzed: Moisture and ash contents, the ash melting point, heating value, and concentrations of C, H, N, and S. This research focused on the evaluation of the potential use of jatropha pruning for energy production, and the results represent critical data that is useful for future studies and business potential.

  17. Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Sutton, P.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-03-01

    Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.

  18. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  19. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  20. Development and quality characteristics of shelf-stable soy-agushie: a residual by-product of soymilk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nti, Christina A; Plahar, Wisdom A; Annan, Nana T

    2016-03-01

    A process was developed for the production of a high-protein food ingredient, soy-agushie, from the residual by-product of soymilk production. The product, with a moisture content of about 6%, was evaluated for its quality characteristics and performance in traditional dishes. The protein content was about 26% with similar amino acids content as that of the whole soybean. Lysine remained high in the dehydrated product (6.57 g/16 g N). While over 60% of the original B vitamins content in the beans was extracted with the milk, high proportions of the minerals were found to be retained in the residual by-product. The process adequately reduced the trypsin inhibitor levels in the beans from 25 to 1.5 mg/g. High sensory scores were obtained for recipes developed with soy-agushie in traditional dishes. The scope of utilization of the soy-agushie could be widened to include several traditional foods and bakery products for maximum nutritional benefits.

  1. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  2. Improvement of Cellulase Production and its Characteristics by Inducing Mutation on Trichoderma reesei 2414 under Solid State Fermentation on Rice By-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Darabzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: Solid State Fermentation is an economic technology to produce value-added products. Also, the use of agricultural by-products, as a waste management strategy, has recently been considered. On the other hand, the new mutants are interesting for the production of enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mutation on the improvement of cellulase quality. Therefore, rice by-products were used under solid state fermentation for production of cellulase. Moreover, the characteristics of the new cellulose produced from the new mutated strain was studied.Material and Methods: Cellulase was produced under solid state fermentation process. Spore suspensions of Trichoderma reesei were subjected to Co60 γ irradiation and mutated. The activities of cellulases (from parent and mutants were compared. The effects of temperature and pH on cellulase activity and the stability of cellulase in optimum condition were investigated.Results and Conclusion: Cellulase was successfully produced under solid state fermentation on the mixture of rice by-products as substrate. The results showed that mutation had a significant effect on cellulase activity and Characteristics. Trichoderma reesei B (a mutated strain had about 30% filter Paperase and 23% Carboxymethyl Cellulase higher than its parent. Cellulase activity of Trichoderma reesei B was 47% higher than its parent at the optimum temperature (50°C. In other temperatures, the activity of cellulase extracted from Trichoderma reesei B was significantly higher than that of the others; for example, at 60°C, the enzyme activity was 120% higher than its parent. It is notable that an 84% increase in the enzyme activity was observed at the optimum pH (4.5 after mutation and cellulase activity increased from 0.72 U g-1 dry solid to 1.31 U g-1 dry solid.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  3. Characterization of gas reburning-sorbent injection technology by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, S.V.; Rai, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that three samples of fly ashes from pilot-scale tests of gas reburning and sorbent injection (GR-SI) technology were characterized physically, chemically, and mineralogically. Texturally, the samples consist of approximately 97% of the total mass of the sample on average. Approximately 3% of the sample mass consisted of the elements Cl, Mg, P, K, Na, and Ti, and ).4% consisted of trace elements. Major crystalline compounds found in these samples were lime (CaO), anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ). The morphology and chemistry of particles in GR-SI samples were similar to those of particles in conventional coal fly ashes. Most of the particles were calcerous. Silicate and alumino-silicate particles were fewer in number, and iron-rich particles were rare. The EP test indicated that extract concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Se were sell below the EPA regulatory levels. Predictions of leachate compositions from these types of fly ashes, if disposed of as a landfill at a midwestern U.S. site indicate, that during the first ten years the concentrations of Ca, SO 4 , Na, b, and OH would remain high. The concentrations of minor constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cd, cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Se) in the leachate are predicted to be at trace levels

  4. Ensiling Characteristics and the In situ Nutrient Degradability of a By-product Feed-based Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Oh, Y K; Park, K K; Kwak, W S

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF)-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP), and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (p<0.01) the chemical composition to a small extent, increased (p<0.05) the lactic acid and NH3-N content, and decreased (p<0.05) both the total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts from 10(9) to 10(8) cfu/g when compared to that before ensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (p<0.05) water-soluble and filterable fraction, a lower insoluble degradable DM and CP fraction (p<0.05), a lower digestible NDF (p<0.05) fraction, a higher (p<0.05) DM and CP disappearance and degradability rate, and a lower (p<0.05) NDF disappearance and degradability rate. These results indicated that cheap, good-quality BF-based roughage could be produced by ensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw.

  5. Technology development of protein rich concentrates for nutrition in extreme conditions using soybean and meat by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenik, Tatiana K; Costa, Rui; Motkina, Elena V; Kosenko, Tamara A; Skripko, Olga V; Kadnikova, Irina A

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to develop new foods for participants of expeditions in extreme conditions, which must be self-sufficient. These foods should be light to carry, with a long shelf life, tasty and with  high nutrient density. Currently, protein sources are limited mainly to dried and canned meat. In this work, a protein-rich dried concentrate suitable for extreme expeditions was developed using soya, tomato, milk whey and meat by-products. Protein concentrates were developed using minced beef liver and heart, dehydrated and mixed with a soya protein-lycopene coagulate (SPLC) obtained from a solution prepared with germi- nated soybeans and mixed with tomato paste in milk whey, and finally dried. The technological parameters of pressing SPLC and of drying the protein concentrate were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimized technological parameters to prepare the protein concentrates were obtained, with 70:30 being the ideal ratio of minced meat to SPLC. The developed protein concentrates are characterized by a high calorific value of 376 kcal/100 g of dry product, with a water content of 98 g·kg-1, and 641-644 g·kg-1 of proteins. The essential amino acid indices are 100, with minimum essential amino acid content constitut- ing 100-128% of the FAO standard, depending on the raw meat used. These concentrates are also rich in micronutrients such as β-carotene and vitamin C. Analysis of the nutrient content showed that these non-perishable concentrates present a high nutritional value and complement other widely available vegetable concentrates to prepare a two-course meal. The soups and porridges prepared with these concentrates can be classified as functional foods, and comply with army requirements applicable to food products for extreme conditions.

  6. Decomposition Characteristics of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene in an Atmospheric Pressure DC Corona Discharge II. Characteristics of Deposited By-products and Decomposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAI, Seiji; TAKAHASHI, Kazuhiro; SATOH, Kohki; ITOH, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous by-products and deposited material obtained from the decomposition of benzene, toluene and xylene in an atmospheric pressure DC corona discharge were minutely investigated by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry and infrared absorption spectroscopy, and the decomposition processes of benzene, toluene and xylene were estimated. It was found that carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH) and formic anhydride ((CHO)2) were the major gaseous by-products from benzene, ...

  7. Fundamental and molecular composition characteristics of biochars produced from sugarcane and rice crop residues and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J

    2016-01-01

    Biochar conversion of sugarcane and rice harvest residues provides an alternative for managing these crop residues that are traditionally burned in open field. Sugarcane leaves, bagasse, rice straw and husk were converted to biochar at four pyrolysis temperatures (PTs) of 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, and 750 °C and evaluated for various elemental, molecular and surface properties. The carbon content of biochars was highest for those produced at 650-750 °C. Biochars produced at 550 °C showed the characteristics of biochar that are commonly interpreted as being stable in soil, with low H/C and O/C ratios and pyrolysis fingerprints dominated by aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. At 550 °C, all biochars also exhibited maximum CEC values with sugarcane leaves biochar (SLB) > sugarcane bagasse biochar (SBB) > rice straw biochar (RSB) > rice husk biochar (RHB). The pore size distribution of biochars was dominated by pores of 20 nm and high PT increased both smaller and larger than 50 nm pores. Water holding capacity of biochars increased with PT but the magnitude of the increase was limited by feedstock types, likely related to the hydrophobicity of biochars as evident by molecular composition, besides pore volume properties of biochars. Py-GC/MS analysis revealed a clear destruction of lignin with decarboxylation and demethoxylation at 450 °C and dehydroxylation at above 550 °C. Overall, biochar molecular compositions became similar as PT increased, and the biochars produced at 550 °C demonstrated characteristics that have potential benefit as soil amendment for improving both C sequestration and nutrient dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships between Teacher Characteristics and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Kurt Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Too often, teachers are using educational technology resources for administrative purposes instead of using these resources in a constructivist manner to enhance student learning. The study site was well behind the national average in overall educational technology use categories. The purpose of this explanatory correlational research was to…

  9. Reducing Volatile Disinfection By-Products in Treated Drinking Water Using Aeration Technologies (WaterRF Report 4441)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  10. Environmental characteristics of clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is aimed at demonstrating the commercial readiness of advanced coal-based technologies. A major goal of the CCT program is to introduce into the US energy marketplace those coal-based power generation technologies that have superior economic and environmental performance over the current suite of commercial coal-based power generation technologies. The commercialization of CCTs will provide the electric utility industry with technology options for replacing aging power plants and meeting future growth in electricity demand. This paper discusses the environmental advantages of two CCTs used for electric power generation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC). These CCTs are suitable for repowering existing power plants or for grassroots construction. Due to their high efficiency and advanced environmental control systems, they emit less sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than a state-of-the-art, pulverized coal power plant with flue gas desulfurization (PC/FGD)

  11. Current technologies and new insights for the recovery of high valuable compounds from fruits by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Asaduzzaman, Md; Scampicchio, Matteo Mario

    2018-02-11

    The recovery of high valuable compounds from food waste is becoming a tighten issue in food processing. The large amount of non-edible residues produced by food industries causes pollution, difficulties in the management, and economic loss. The waste produced during the transformation of fruits includes a huge amount of materials such as peels, seeds, and bagasse, whose disposal usually represents a problem. Research over the past 20 years revealed that many food wastes could serve as a source of potentially valuable bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and vitamins with increasing scientific interest thanks to their beneficial effects on human health. The challenge for the recovery of these compounds is to find the most appropriate and environment friendly extraction technique able to achieve the maximum extraction yield without compromising the stability of the extracted products. Based on this scenario, the aim of the current review is twofold. The first is to give a brief overview of the most important bioactive compounds occurring in fruit wastes. The second is to describe the pro and cons of the most up-to-dated innovative and environment friendly extraction technologies that can be an alternative to the classical solvent extraction procedures for the recovery of valuable compounds from fruit processing. Furthermore, a final section will take into account published findings on the combination of some of these technologies to increase the extracts yields of bioactives.

  12. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  13. Biological and technological characteristics of Georgian wine and table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujmajuridze Levan

    2015-01-01

    Description of grapevine varieties implemented through the descriptors for grapevine (IPGRI OIV. Botanical, biological-technological, qualitative and quantitative marks are characterized and evaluated. Investigation conducted during the biologic development phases were studied for chemical and eno-carpological characteristics.

  14. The Characteristics of a Model Technology Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Andrew R.; Warner, Scott A.; Buechele, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    The things that make the quality of a teacher stand out can cover a wide range of characteristics, actions, words, and experiences. The mark left on a student by a teacher, for good or bad, is written in an ink that will last a lifetime. This article describes a study that identifies the characteristics of exceptional technology education…

  15. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/nonconventional processes/technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2018-05-24

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. In addition, nonconventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  16. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  17. Exogenous protease supplementation of poultry by-product meal-based diets for broilers: Effects on growth, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, T; Mirza, M A; Nawaz, H; Shahid, M

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of three levels (0%, 3% and 6%) of poultry by-product meal (PBM) with or without protease on broiler growth, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility from 1 to 35 days. Two hundred and forty birds (n = 240) were fed equi-caloric and equi-nitrogenous (ME 2850 kcal/kg; CP 20%) diets throughout the experiment. The enzyme supplementation increased feed intake (p  .05) from 1 to 21 days. Increasing level of PBM decreased feed intake (p < .05), but body weight gain was improved (p < .05) at 3% PBM level during 1 to 21 days. The feed:gain was improved (p < .05) in birds fed diets containing 3% PBM. The feed:gain was also improved in birds fed diets containing 3% PBM from 1 to 35 days. However, feed intake and body weight gain in birds fed diets containing PBM remained unaffected. An interaction (p < .01) on feed intake between enzyme and PBM was noticed during 1 to 21 days. However, no interaction was recorded for body weight gain and feed:gain. The per cent carcass yield improved (p < .01) in birds fed diets supplemented with enzyme. The per cent breast meat yield was depressed (p < .005) in birds fed diets containing PBM. Apparent metabolizable energy (p < .001), nitrogen retention (p < .01), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (p < .001), and apparent digestibility coefficient for nitrogen (p < .01) improved in birds fed diets containing enzyme; however, a reverse was noticed in those fed diets containing only PBM. In conclusion, inclusion of 3% PBM along with supplementation of exogenous protease improved performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  19. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Principal Characteristics of Microsilica Obtained from Silicon Manufacture Wastes and Used in Concrete Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanov, V. B.; Putsenko, K. N.

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the survey of foreign and domestic literature over the past 65 years devoted to the study of the properties and the technology of applying microsilica in the capacity of modifying additives to concretes. Microsilica obtained as a by-product from the waste of ferroalloy plants and from the plants involved in production of silicon compounds is discussed. Analysis of the principal characteristics of different types of microsilica obtained from different sources is conducted.

  1. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, Ryan S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  2. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  3. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture.......35 for HFMO) than in maize grain based diets (6.94, 6.73 and 6.19 for RPMM, MMMO and HFMM, respectively). Energy intake was highest (P

  4. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  5. Effects of dietary potato by-product and rumen-protected histidine on growth, carcass characteristics and quality attributes of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, K J; Richard, R P; Colle, M J; Doumit, M E; de Veth, M J; Hunt, C W; Murdoch, G K

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that variable composition in finishing rations, more specifically; the proportion of potato-by-product (PBP) and rumen protected histidine (His) supplementation may influence growth and meat quality attributes. Two different diets were fed (1) finishing ration with corn and barley as grains (CB, n = 20) and (2) substitution of 10% corn, DM basis, with PBP (PBP, n = 20). Additionally, half of each dietary treatment received 50 g/hd/d rumen protected His (HS, n= 20) while the other half received no supplement (NS, n = 20). Inclusion of 10% PBP or HS did not affect growth or carcass traits. Color stability was analyzed using Hunter color values as well as AMSA visual appraisal in both longissimus thoracis (LT) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. The LT, but not the GM, of CB steers was more color stable over a 9 d simulated retail display compared to those fed a PB diet. Steers receiving HS produced significantly (P < 0.05) more color stable LT and GM steaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, PPasta increased (quadratic, PPasta decreased (linear, Ppasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Characteristics of Technology Transfer in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Palii

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research into innovation transfer in the global economy is a very urgent issue under the modern conditions of development of any country. Comparative characteristics of technology transfer in such countries and regions as the USA, EU, Asia, presented in the article, permit us to detect certain patterns of this process inherent both in developed and developing countries. The analysis made in the article can be useful for developing technology transfer processes in the Danube countries’ economy. The analytical method used in this research allowed us to determine the factor that is crucial for the growth of the world market of high-technology products and services. The analysis was conducted on several criteria such as the level of expenditure on R&D in the whole global economy, as well as in individual countries and regions. Besides, there were taken into account the added value of high-tech industries and the share of expenditure on R&D in total production costs. The conclusions regarding the effectiveness of funds allocated for scientific research and experimental development in the U.S. can be drawn on the basis of data presented in the paper on the amount of added value of the U.S. high-tech industries.

  8. Desulfurization technologies for flue gases from power stations, technological and financial characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumoski, Koce

    1997-01-01

    Harms on life environment, caused by aero pollution, for the last decades enforced fast development of technologies for filtration of gases that come from thermal power plants and other objects. SO 2 , that appear as one of outputs of fossil fuels combustion, and also processing of sulphide ore, is a main component of acid rains. Acid rains represent one of the most risky factors, responsible for dryne of woods and changing of flora and fauna on land and in water. Starting from 1931 year when on the thermal power plant BATTERSEA STATION, property of London Power, first scrubbers were monnted for filtration of flue gases of SO 2 , and up till today, many procedures are developed for desulfurization of flue gases. For easier coping with numerous technologies for desulfurization , various classifications were made. By state of aggregation of the absorption agent , the technologies for desulfurization of gases are divided in wet , semidry and dry procedures. Wet procedures are technologies with highness rate of desulfurization of 90-95 % and most flexible of the quality of fuel whose flue gases are filtered. Presently they have high price of 90-220 $/kw installed power. According to American sources, their price at the world market is forecasted that till 2000 year will reach price of 100 $/kw. Dry technologies for desulfurization of flue gases are last technologies. The rate of desulfurization is 50-60 % and its prise is 76 -113 $/kw. Their negative side is high variable costs 250 - 388 $/ ton SO 2 (at wet procedures variable costs 76 - 157 $/ton SO 2 ). Semidry technologies by financial and technological characteristics are wet and dry procedures. (Author)

  9. Empirical Relationships among Technological Characteristics, Global Orientation, and Internationalisation of South Korean New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Yoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International new ventures (INVs that pursue rapid internationalisation have received a growing amount of attention worldwide. This study, therefore, examined characteristics of INVs, and hence investigated empirically the relationships among the technological characteristics of INVs, the characteristics of their chief executive officers (CEOs (i.e., global orientation, and their internationalisation such as the level of internationalisation. The findings of this study can be summarised as follows: all of the technological characteristics (e.g., technological capacity, imitation, innovation, and standardisation have significant effects on the internationalisation of INVs. Furthermore, the CEO’s global orientation mediated the relationship between the technological characteristics and internationalisation.

  10. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  11. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  12. Restudy on digital mine: characteristics, framework and key technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Yin, Z.; Zhong, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2003-02-01

    Based on analysing the problems associated with the promotion of mine digitization in China, the basic characteristics of a digital mine (DM) are described with respect to an intelligent transportation system: high speed intranet as the road-net; modular mining software as the vehicle; mine data and models as the fuel; 3D geoscience modelling (3DGM) and data mining as the filter; data collection and update as the safeguard, and mine GIS (MGIS) as the scheduler. Based on the four-layered structure of C/S and the work processes in a mine, the fundamental constituent diagram and a network framework of DM are designed. The nine key technologies for the implementation of DM strategy are discussed, which includes the data warehouse in mine; the data mining in mine; real 3DGM and visualization; 3D topological modelling and analysis in mine; modular application software and models; underground rapid positioning and automatic navigation; underground multimedia communication and wireless transmission; intelligent mining robot-groups and the integration of 3S (GIS, GPS, RS), office automation (OA) and command dispatch system (CDS). In addition, the recent progress of 'digital Kailuan' is introduced as an example of DM. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L.d.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of gamma radiation on wheat flour and properties of breads. ► Falling number decreased with radiation remaining almost constant up to one month. ► Ionizing radiation may confer an increase in texture parameters, weight and height on the bread.

  14. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  15. Quality and Characteristics of Recent Research in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott D.; Daugherty, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    The focus of research in technology education has evolved throughout its history as the field changed from industrial arts to technology education (Spencer & Rogers, 2006). With the move to technology education, the field has begun to broaden its focus to better understand the teaching, learning, curriculum, and policy implications of preparing…

  16. The Airborne Process{sup TM} : advancement in multi-pollutant emissions control technology by product utilization and the commercialization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortson, M. [Airborne Clean Energy LLC, Terrace Park, OH (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described research and development programs conducted to develop a pollution abatement technology called the Airborne process. The Airborne process is comprised of 3 stages: (1) sodium flue gas purification; (2) sodium bicarbonate regeneration; and (3) a patented granulation process in which ammonia byproducts are transformed into fertilizer. A research program conducted by CANMET developed a new technique to remove heavy metals from sodium sulfate scrubbing solutions, and tested the scrubbing of mixed flue gas in a bench-scale reaction chamber. Pilot tests were conducted to scrub the flue gas in a 0.3 MW coal-fired combustor. The removal of heavy metals and particulates prior to fertilizer production resulted in fertilizer purity that exceeds all global standards. A total of 11 combustion trials were conducted with 11 different types of coal. Results of vertical combustor tests showed that both sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) decreased rapidly after injection started. The scrubber was effective in removing oxidized states of NO as well as 75 per cent of mercury (Hg) capture. The technology was adopted by the Kentucky Utilities Generating Station 6 MW regeneration plant, which developed an automated operation of a scaled down version of the CANMET system. Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and sulfite (SO{sub 3}) reduction at the plant was almost 100 per cent. NO{sub x} reduction to date was approximately 92 per cent, while Hg reduction was 70 per cent. An advanced mercury and NO{sub x} program was developed to examine the chemical effects of oxidants as well as to examine methods of total mercury and NO{sub x} removal. A simplified process schematic of the system was provided. The 3 proven technologies were then integrated to form the Airborne system. It was concluded that full-scale systems are now in operation in power plants across North America. A case study of the Airborne process used at the Mustang generating station in New

  17. [The characteristics of medical technologies in emergency medical care hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakhovskiĭ, A G; Babenko, A I; Bravve, Iu I; Tataurova, E A

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the implementation of major 12 diagnostic and 17 treatment technologies applied during medical care of patients with 12 key nosology forms of diseases in departments of the emergency medical care hospital No 2 of Omsk. It is established that key groups of technologies in the implementation of diagnostic process are the laboratory clinical diagnostic analyses and common diagnostic activities at reception into hospital and corresponding departments. The percentage of this kind of activities is about 78.3% of all diagnostic technologies. During the realization of treatment process the priority technologies are common curative and rehabilitation activities, intensive therapy activities and clinical diagnostic monitoring activities. All of them consist 80.1% of all curative technologies.

  18. Características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola = Carcass characteristics in lambs fed with grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi estudar a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola em dietas para cordeiros. Para a avaliação das características quantitativas da carcaça, foram utilizadas 24 carcaças de cordeiros, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As dietas com média de 15,4% de PB na MS e 80,2% de NDT foram compostas por 40% de feno de capim-Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, canola em grão integral, farelo de canola, torta de canola e mistura mineral. A utilização de grãos e subprodutos da canola na dieta de borregos terminados em confinamento não influenciou (p > 0,05 as características quantitativas da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, não houve efeito dos tratamentos para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. Assim, a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola possibilitaram bons resultados podendo ser recomendados nas formulações de dietas para cordeiros.The aim of this work was to evaluate the introduction of 8% grains and by-products (meal or cake of canola in the diets of lambs. To evaluate quantitative carcass characteristics, 24 Santa Ines lambs were used in a completely randomized design. Diets with averages of 15.4% of CP in DM and 80.2% of TDN were composed for 40% Tifton hay and 60% concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. The use of whole grains and by-products of canola in the diet of lambs finished in feedlot did not influence (p > 0.05 quantitative carcass characteristics. For cut dressing in relation to the CCW, no effect was observed for the analyzed variables among treatments. It was concluded that the introduction of grains and by-products of canola allow for satisfactory results, and could be recommended in the formulations of lamb diets.

  19. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    that the professional venture-capital-funded start-up firm will generally reflect the practices of perceptive management regarding: style, team approach, structure of the firm, market definition, culture, vision, and a formal strategy. Nevertheless, there are some questions about differences those characteristics...... by interview to provide insights on: the entrepreneurial-marketing style utilized, cultural characteristics of the firm, and perspectives of the time horizon of strategy. The representative firms (seven firms to a set) from whom information was solicited were drawn from the U.S. Pacific Northwest), Denmark...

  20. Technology, labor characteristics and wage-productivity gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Maliranta, Mika

    2003-01-01

    We use plant-level linked employer-employee data from Finland to estimate production functions where also employee characteristics (average age and education, and sex composition) are included. We also estimate similar models for wages to examine whether wages are based on productivity. Our aim is to explain productivity besides manufacturing, also in services. For the service sector plants, no data on capital input, working hours, or value added is available, and productivity has to be measu...

  1. Bromatological and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silages with the addition of annato by-product Características bromatológicas e fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante contendo subproduto do urucum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles Rêgo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. silages with the addition of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of the by-product from SPU annato (Bixa orellana, L. based on natural matter. A complete random design was used with four replications. The nutritional composition, pH, ammonical nitrogen and lactic, acetic, propyonic and butyric acids were determined. Levels of annato by-product had an increasingly linear effect on contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fibrous carbohydrates, propionic acid and ammonical nitrogen. The insoluble nitrogen contents in detergent and acid detergent, calculated on the percentage of total nitrogen and lactic, acetic and butyric acids were not altered by adding the annato by product. The annatto by-product improves the bromatological characteristics of the silages and it can be added in levels up to 16% of the natural matter at the moment of elephant grass ensilage.O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de subproduto do processamento do urucum (Bixa orellana, L. SPU, com base na matéria natural. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Determinaram-se a composição nutricional, valores de pH, nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, acético, propiônico e butírico. Os níveis do subproduto de urucum tiveran efeito linear crescente sobre os teores de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, carboidratos não-fibrosos, ácido propiônico e nitrogênio amonical. Os teores nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente e em detergente ácido, calculados em porcentagem de nitrogênio total e os ácidos lático, acético e butírico não foram alterados com a adição do subproduto do urucum. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em

  2. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  3. Characteristics of the Institute of Technology 'Prof. Jorge A. Sabato'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvele, Jose R.

    2001-01-01

    A historical survey is made of the educational and training activities in metallurgy and material sciences carried out by the CNEA since 1962, that were the origin of the 'Prof. Jorge A. Sabato' Institute. Today the Institute, created by the CNEA in association with the National University of General San Martin, is preparing Engineers in Material Sciences and Masters and Ph. D. in Material Sciences and Technology (Mention in Physics and Material). The curricula of the studies are described in detail. The Information Center annexed to the Institute is also described

  4. Characteristic test technology for PWR fuel and its components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Chan Bock; Bang, Je Gun; Jung, Yeon Ho; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyeng Ho; Nam, Cheol; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Myung Ho; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Song, Kun Woo; Kang, Ki Won; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Young Min; Yang, Jae Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic tests of fuel assembly and its components being developed in the Advanced LWR Fuel Development Project supported by the mid-long term nuclear R and D program are described in this report. Performance verification of fuel and its components by the characteristic tests are essential to their development. Fuel components being developed in the Advanced LWR Fuel Development Project are zirconium alloy cladding, UO{sub 2} and burnable absorber pellets, spacer grid and top and bottom end pieces. Detailed test plans for those fuel components are described in this report, and test procedures of cladding and pellet are also described in the Appendix. Examples of the described tests are in- and out-of- pile corrosion and mechanical tests such as creep and burst tests for the cladding, in-pile capsule and ramp tests for the pellet, mechanical tests such as strength and vibration, and thermal-hydraulic tests such as pressure drop and critical heat flux for the spacer grid and top and bottom end pieces. It is expected that this report could be used as the standard reference for the performance verification tests in the development of LWR fuel and its components. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  5. Silicon on insulator technology. Characteristics. Applications; Technologies silicium sur isolant. Caracteristiques. Exemples d'application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suat, J. P.; Peccoud, L.; Le Goascoz, V.; Garcia, M.; Mackowiak, E.

    1975-01-31

    The advantages resulting from a SOS (Silicon-on-Sapphire) MOS technology are demonstrated. Experimental results giving the performance of C.MOS and depletion-enrichment P-channel technologies are presented, with an application of Silicon on insulator on development, that is to say a 1024 bits MNOS memory, peripheral circuits being developed according to the depletion-enrichment technology.

  6. Quantification of aggregate grain shape characteristics using 3-D laser scanning technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available to identify the differences between individual aggregates. It was possible to quantify differences in particle shape characteristics at the small particle scale. The study has demonstrated the advantages of the innovative 3-D laser scanning technology...

  7. On Cultivation of Characteristic Talents in Law in Institutes of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong

    2011-01-01

    For the time being, professional education of law offered by institutes of technology has become an important component of cultivation of professional talents in law in China. Only if institutes of technology face up with their disadvantages, make full use of their resource advantages and cultivate characteristic talents in law, are they able to…

  8. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K C; Jeong, J Y; Kim, T J; Choi, J H; Choi, Y D; Hwang, S T

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m{sup 3} (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure.

  9. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K. C.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m 3 (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure

  10. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K. C.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m{sup 3} (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure.

  11. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fermented By-product of Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, as a Fish Meal Replacer in Juvenile Amur Catfish, Silurus asotus: Effects on Growth, Serological Characteristics and Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katya, Kumar; Yun, Yong-hyun; Park, Gunhyun; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yoo, Gwangyeol; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary fermented by-product of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, (FBPM) as a fish meal (FM) replacer in juvenile Amur catfish, Silurus asotus. A total number of 225 fish averaging 5.7±0.1 g (mean±standard deviation) were fed one of the five experimental diets formulated to replace FM with FBPM at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (FBPM0, FBPM5, FBPM10, FBPM20, and FBPM30, respectively). At the end of eight weeks of the experiment, average weight gain (WG) of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). However, there was no significant differences in WG among the fish fed FBPM0, FBPM5 or FBPM10, and between fish fed FBPM10 or FBPM20, and also between those fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets. Lysozyme activity of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM10, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). The chemiluminescent response of fish fed FBPM5 was significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM0, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). Broken line regression analysis of WG suggested that the maximal dietary inclusion level for FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% without any adverse effects on whole body composition and on serological characteristics. Therefore, these results may indicate that the maximal dietary inclusion level of FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% in juvenile Amur catfish. PMID:25178300

  12. Technological Characteristics of the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle of Pig Depending on the Genetic Type

    OpenAIRE

    Consuela Roibu; Ionuţ Beia; Mariana Bran; Elena Popescu-Micloşanu; Răzvan Popa

    2012-01-01

    The processes of technological processing of meat carried out in optimal conditions, require a good knowledge of the water capacity of bearings by the raw material that makes the manufacturing processes of the various preparations. Technological characteristics of pigmeat analyzed in this paper are represented by water retention ability, capacity of hydration and the degree of perselation. The researches have been conducted on 40 samples, taken from the muscle of the longissimus dorsi from br...

  13. Exploring the Technological Collaboration Characteristics of the Global Integrated Circuit Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of international competition, there are many international technological collaborations in the integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM industry. The importance of improving the level of international technological collaboration is becoming more and more prominent. Therefore, it is vital for a country, a region, or an institution to understand the international technological collaboration characteristics of the ICM industry and, thus, to know how to enhance its own international technological collaboration. This paper depicts the international technological collaboration characteristics of the ICM industry based on patent analysis. Four aspects, which include collaboration patterns, collaboration networks, collaboration institutions, and collaboration impacts, are analyzed by utilizing patent association analysis and social network analysis. The findings include the following: first, in regard to international technological collaboration, the USA has the highest level, while Germany has great potential for future development; second, Asia and Europe have already formed clusters, respectively, in the cooperative network; last, but not least, research institutions, colleges, and universities should also actively participate in international collaboration. In general, this study provides an objective reference for policy making, competitiveness, and sustainability in the ICM industry. The framework presented in this paper could be applied to examine other industrial international technological collaborations.

  14. Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasevski, Apostol; Demjanski, Kiril; And others

    2005-01-01

    Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

  15. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm...

  16. Students' Characteristics, Self-Regulated Learning, Technology Self-Efficacy, and Course Outcomes in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hsuan; Shannon, David M.; Ross, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among students' characteristics, self-regulated learning, technology self-efficacy, and course outcomes in online learning settings. Two hundred and fifty-six students participated in this study. All participants completed an online survey that included demographic information, the modified…

  17. Path creation in Nordic energy and road transport systems – The role of technological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Klitkou, Antje; Borup, Mads

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews path-creation processes in road transport systems in the Nordic countries: e-mobility in Denmark, hydrogen and fuel-cell electrical vehicles in Norway, and advanced biofuels in Finland and Sweden. The study builds on the path creation literature, which seeks to explain the emer......This paper reviews path-creation processes in road transport systems in the Nordic countries: e-mobility in Denmark, hydrogen and fuel-cell electrical vehicles in Norway, and advanced biofuels in Finland and Sweden. The study builds on the path creation literature, which seeks to explain...... the emergence of new technological pathways. Drawing on recent insights concerning the differences between design- and manufacturing-intensive technologies, the paper analyses the influence of technological characteristics on path creation processes. The case comparison indicates that technological...... characteristics seem to have greater influence on the content of activities in the later phase rather than the early phase of path creation processes. The analysis also emphasises that barriers to path creation processes differ depending on technological characteristics. This highlights the importance...

  18. By-products by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Some mining by-products that are currently stockpiled or disposed of could be put to use preventing nutrients from entering river systems, helping reduce the potential for algal blooms. A joint project between CSIRO and the Western Australia (WA) Department of Water investigated a range of spent materials from mining and industry to determine their ability to filter nutrients from natural waters or to treat wastewater. “The largely unexploited by-product materials we generate in Western Australia could be developed as 'designer' contaminant adsorbents,” said CSIRO project leader Dr Grant Douglas. The use of abundant, low-cost wastes generated from mineral processing, in particular, offers a potentially cost- effective and environmentally-friendly strategy for removing nutrients. “The productive use of the by-products also has the potential to reduce the environmental footprint of mining and mineral processing industries by lowering by-product stockpiles,” he said. But the key benefits are in water; not only improving the health of surface waters but, by facilitating reuse, also easing the competition for water resources in an increasingly climate constrained part of the country. Re-use of industrial by-products in WA is currently considered on a case-by-case basis rather than regulated according to established standards. The project aimed to inject some rigour by characterising for the first time the nutrient, trace element uptake and acid neutralising capacity of a range of low-cost by-products (see Fact File). It also underpinned the development of a draft protocol for screening similar by-products in the future. The comprehensive characterisation included identification and procurement, and basic characterisation of by-products included major and trace element geochemistry, mineralogy, radioactivity, geochemical modelling and leachate chemistry and toxicity. These inherent properties and suitability of by-products for potential environmental

  19. Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology on Wine Chemical and Sensorial Characteristics: Potentialities and Drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Santos, Mickael C; Saraiva, Jorge A; Rocha, Sílvia M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    During last years, scientific research on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a nonthermal processing technology for preservation or aging of wine has increased substantially. HHP between 200 and 500MPa is able to inactivate bacteria and yeasts in red and white wines, suggesting that it may be used for wine preservation. However, these treatments have been shown to promote changes on sensorial and physicochemical characteristics in both red and white wines, not immediately in the first month, but along storage. The changes are observed in wine color, aroma, and taste due mainly to reactions of phenolic compounds, sugars, and proteins. These reactions have been associated with those observed during wine aging, leading to aged-like wine characteristics perceived by sensorial analysis. This chapter will present the influence of HHP technology on wine chemical and sensorial characteristics, criticaly discussing its potentialities and drawbacks. The appropriate use of HHP, based on the scientific knowledge of the reactions occuring in wine promoted by HHP, will allow to exploit this technology for wine production achieving distinct characteristics to address particular market and consumer demands. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  1. Research of influence of technological parameters on the noise characteristics of the machine for grinding meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pil’nenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise characteristics (NC machine is one of the main indicators of its quality and competitiveness on the world markets. Scientific and technical work to improve the noise characteristics are relevant and modern. Work focuses on the study of the emergence of the technological equipment of acoustic phenomena. Was selected method of determination and equipment, according to the international standards ISO “Acoustics” taking into account the acoustic properties of the surrounding space. Been established NC machines for grinding meat and fish under operating conditions the in various modes. The maximum value for the characteristic A sound power level (SPL machines produced at idling 79,7 dBA. When the machine comes with the product decline USM on the characteristics A 7.3 dB. It was found exceeding the maximum allowable sound power level at medium frequencies on 2 dB. Impact the components of machines on its NC depending on variables technological factors - the module of elasticity of the product and the effort on the pushrod. Increase modulus of elasticity SPL machines decreases and increase efforts on the pusher Machines USM increases. It was found negative impact construction machines part sat USM. Should be increased rigidity design of the machine.

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRIVING SUPPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi DOI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving support and cruise assist systems are of growing importance in achieving both road traffic safety and convenience. Such driver support seeks to achieve, with the highest possible quality, nothing less than “driver-vehicle symbiosis under all conditions.” At the same time, many traffic accidents result from improper driver behavior. The author focuses on driver behavior under various driving conditions, conducting detailed measurement and analysis of visual perception and attention characteristics as well as perceptual characteristics involved in driving. The aim in doing so is to support research on driving support systems and driving workload reduction technologies that function as human-vehicle systems and take such characteristics into account.

  3. Microencapsulation by spray drying of Lannea microcarpa extract: Technological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sansone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A functional extract from Lannea microcarpa (Lm, possess interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the unprocessed dried extract occurs as sticky and low-water-soluble material showing critical properties for industrial applications. The unprocessed dried extract is not always enough stable to preserve its functional properties, also giving practical difficulties for the manufacturing. Aims: This research aimed to produce Lm extract microparticles with enhanced functional stability and technological characteristics by spray-drying. Methods: Lm extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying using a sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC based matrix. Physicochemical and technological characteristics (determined by UV, HPLC, LLS, SEM, DSC, and in vitro dissolution tests, as well as antioxidant properties (DPPH-test of the resulting powder (LmC were examined. Results: The produced spray dried microparticles showed satisfying encapsulation efficiency, good functional stability and enhanced technological properties. The selected carrier and process conditions led to a stable and handling microencapsulated powder form with improved water dissolution rate. Moreover, the matrix was also able to preserve the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds-rich extract. Conclusions: The made-up powder resulted in a functional component that can be used with great potential in cosmetics, foods or nutraceutical products.

  4. Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. X. Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah, crossbreed 1st generation (F1, crossbreed multiple generation (FH, H≥3 buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F1 and FH, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring (F1, FH. SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo αs-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard αs-casein; while buffalo β-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard β-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of αs-, β-, and κ-casein among Murrah, F1 and FH.

  5. Geological and technological characteristics of the Ball Clay of the Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanno, L.C.; Motta, J.F.M.; Cabral Junior, M.; Saka, S.; Souza, D.D.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper shows preliminary geological and technological results of studies about ball clay in Sao Paulo State. The works had been carried out by the Institute of Research and technology (IPT) and sponsored by Prominerio, during 88. Ball clay is a special clay utilised in the whiteware industry, mainly in the body preparation of sanitaryware products. This raw material come from two sites in Brazil: Sao Simao and Oeiras. Samples from these two deposits had been studied and classified acording to their adequately in the ceramic process. On the other hand, more than 100 samples from several geological sites of the Sao Paulo State were studied in laboratories. Acording to preliminary tests some of them revealed similar characteristics as brazilian ball clays. These clays were characterized by granulometry analysis, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. (author) [pt

  6. Regional characteristics of individual housing units in Serbia from the aspect of applied building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual housing units in Serbia have been studied from the aspect of applied technical solutions. Analyzed data have been collected during a field research in accordance with the current administrative regional division, and they represent a basis for definition of regional typology of individual housing units. Characteristic types of objects of each region’s typology have been further analyzed. Upon these analyses regional characteristics of individual housing units regarding applied construction types, building technologies and materials have been defined and presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36034: Investigation and Systematization of Serbian Housing in Context of Globalization and European Integration in the Framework of Quality and Living-Standard Improvement

  7. Characteristics modeling for supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emission, mainly carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of ‘zeroemission’ technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper the results of analyses of the influence of changing two quantities, namely oxygen share in oxidant produced in the air separation unit, and oxygen share in oxidant supplied to the furnace chamber on the selected characteristics of a steam boiler including the degree of exhaust gas recirculation, boiler efficiency and adiabatic flame temperature, was examined. Due to the possibility of the integration of boiler model with carbon dioxide capture, separation and storage installation, the subject of the analysis was also to determine composition of the flue gas at the outlet of a moisture condensation installation. Required calculations were made using a model of a supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology, which was built in a commercial software and in-house codes.

  8. Performance Characteristics and Temperature Compensation Method of Fluid Property Sensor Based on Tuning-Fork Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid property sensor (FPS based on tuning-fork technology is applied to the measurement of the contaminant level of lubricant oil. The measuring principle of FPS sensor is derived and proved together with its resolution. The performance characteristics of the FPS sensor, such as sensitivity coefficient, resolution, and quality factor, are analyzed. A temperature compensation method is proposed to eliminate the temperature-dependence of the measuring parameters, and its validity is investigated by numerical simulation of sensitivity, oscillating frequency, and dielectric constant. The values of purification efficiency obtained using microwave and without microwave are compared experimentally.

  9. [Genetic improvement of technological characteristics of starters for fermented milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, G G; Barsegian, A A; Grigorian, N G; Toptsian, A V

    2010-01-01

    Possibility for improvement of technological characteristics of lactobacilli using mutations of resistance to rifampicin (rif(r)) and streptomycin (str(r)) was studied. Using starter model of Narine Lactobacillus acidophilus INMIA-9602 Armenian diet milk product, it was showed that a possibility for selecting strains with increased rate of milk fermentation and acid production is higher in Rif(r) and Str(r) mutants induced by nitrosoguanidine than in cultures sensitive to antibiotics. The milk products obtained using Rif(r) and Str(r) strains had high viscosity, improved texture, increased amount of alive cells and good organoleptic features.

  10. ORGANISATIONAL-TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLASTING WORKS ON THE GRIČ TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Deković

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes organisational-technological characteristics of blasting works during the excavation of the Grič Tunnel. The significance of blasting works during the excavation of the tunnel is shown through adjustment of blasting parameters taking into consideration the dynamics of the works, cost-effectiveness and influence of geological circumstances. Successfulness of blasting directly influences the subsequent tunnel excavation cycle both in terms of duration as well as eventually in terms of influence on the entire tunnel investment. Comparison of changes of basic blasting parameters during tunnel excavation ensured optimal excavation progress with minimal price per meter of tunnel progress.

  11. Characteristics of Adults Seeking Health Care Provider Support Facilitated by Mobile Technology: Secondary Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosak, Kelly; Park, Shin Hye

    2017-12-21

    Mobile health technology is rapidly evolving with the potential to transform health care. Self-management of health facilitated by mobile technology can maximize long-term health trajectories of adults. Little is known about the characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers facilitated by mobile technology. This study aimed to examine the following: (1) the characteristics of adults who seek human support from health care providers for health concerns using mobile technology rather than from family members and friends or others with similar health conditions and (2) the use of mobile health technology among adults with chronic health conditions. Findings of this study were interpreted in the context of the Efficiency Model of Support. We first described characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers. Using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t test for the continuous variable of age, we compared adults seeking Web-based and conventional support by demographics. The primary aim was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to examine whether chronic health conditions and demographic factors (eg, sex, income, employment status, race, ethnicity, education, and age) were associated with seeking Web-based support from health care providers. The sample included adults (N=1453), the majority of whom were female 57.60% (837/1453), white 75.02% (1090/1453), and non-Hispanic 89.13% (1295/1453). The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 92 years (mean 48.6, standard deviation [SD] 16.8). The majority 76.05% (1105/1453) of participants reported college or higher level of education. A disparity was found in access to health care providers via mobile technology based on socioeconomic status. Adults with annual income of US $30,000 to US $100,000 were 1.72 times more likely to use Web-based methods to contact a health care provider, and adults with an annual income above US $100,000 were 2.41 to

  12. Satisfaction with Online Commercial Group Chat: The Influence of Perceived Technology Attributes, Chat Group Characteristics, and Advisor Communication Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dolen, W.M.; Dabholkar, P.A.; de Ruyter, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines online commercial group chat from a structuration theory perspective. The findings support the influence of perceived technology attributes (control, enjoyment, reliability, speed, and ease of use) and chat group characteristics (group involvement, similarity, and receptivity) on

  13. Development of oxygen sensing technology in an irradiated fuel rod. Characteristic test of oxygen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Junichi; Hoshiya, Taiji; Sakurai, Fumio; Sakai, Haruyuki

    1996-03-01

    At the Department of JMTR (Japan Materials Test Reactor), the re-instrumentation technologies to a high burnup fuel rod irradiated in an LWR have been developed to study irradiation behavior of the fuel during power transient. It has been progressed developing a chemical sensor as one of the re-instrumentation technologies. This report summarizes the results of characteristic tests of an oxygen sensor made of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) as a solid electrolyte. Several kinds of experiments were carried out to evaluate the electromotive force (emf) performance, stability and lifetime of the oxygen sensor with Ni/NiO, Cr/Cr 2 O 3 and Fe/FeO, respectively as a reference electrode. From the experimental data, it is suggested that the reference electrode of Ni/NiO reveals the most appropriate characteristic of the sensor to measure the partial oxygen pressure in a fuel rod. It is the final goal of this development to clarify the change of oxygen chemical potential in a fuel rod during power transient. (author)

  14. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  15. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    . In the case of large scale, interest has shifted from electricity generation to biofuel production, primarily due to the failed demonstration projects of the technology coupled with combined cycle for electricity generation. On the other hand, in small scale projects, cogeneration applications have gained interest over heat production. However, there are fewer actors involved in small scale experimentation than in large scale. Once the specific situation of each country has been analyzed, and the main characteristics of the development process have been identified, one of the causes which have hindered the technology to reach the expected commercial stage has been the lack of resources to demonstrate its competitiveness. So far, a significant number of experimentation activities, based on demonstration projects and pilot plants, have proved the future potential of the technology. Nonetheless, the uncertainty, shown by the great majority of actors, about integrating the biomass gasification in their industrial process has hindered the demonstration of its operational feasibility. Following this, further efforts should focus on the creation of incentives for the construction of new plants which integrate this technology in an industrial process already consolidated in the market. An approximation of the number of new plants needed, could be a good indicator of the economical resources required in order to acquire enough experience to make biomass gasification a competitive technology in the short-term. After simulating various future evolutions for small scale cogeneration applications, the learning rate obtained through the learning curves model predict that, building roughly forty plants in six years, the technology can be consolidated firmly in the market. Considering the decrease in the number of new plants built since 2002, the expectancies are not really optimistic. Nevertheless, it is not an unachievable objective if incentives are created by all administrative

  16. Características de frutos de pimentão pulverizados com produtos de ação bactericida Characteristics of bell pepper fruits affected by products with bactericidal action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella C Rocha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas das tecnologias desenvolvidas para a cultura do pimentão estão voltadas para a melhoria da produtividade e da aparência dos frutos sem considerar aspectos como sabor, valor nutricional e resíduos tóxicos remanescentes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais com biofertilizante Agrobio (5%, oxicloreto de cobre (2,4 g L-1, sulfato de estreptomicina + oxitetraciclina (0,8 g L-1 e testemunha (água, sobre a produtividade e a qualidade de frutos de três cultivares de pimentão: Magda, Cascadura Itaipu e o híbrido Magali R. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial (4x3. As variáveis analisadas foram produtividade, características físicas e físico-químicas, teor e acúmulo de fósforo, cobre e chumbo nos frutos. Observou-se maior diâmetro longitudinal e volume dos frutos e maiores produtividade e eficiência no aproveitamento do fósforo pelo híbrido 'Magali R'. Observaram-se diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à taxa de acúmulo de cobre nos frutos, tendo sido quatro vezes maior em frutos de "Magda" pulverizados com oxicloreto de cobre que nos demais tratamentos e, nenhum efeito dos tratamentos sobre o acúmulo de chumbo. Os teores de cobre e chumbo encontrados, porém, estão dentro da faixa aceitável pela Anvisa. Constatou-se, ainda, que as aplicações de cobre afetam o sabor dos frutos, principalmente por influenciar em sua acidez total titulável, expressa em maiores teores de ácido cítrico e menores valores de pH. Os resultados apontam, ainda, para uma relação entre acúmulo de cobre nos frutos e eficiência do uso de fósforo, sendo, porém, necessários novos estudos para sua comprovação.Most technologies used for bell pepper production emphasize yields, shape and size of the fruits, with less attention to features such as flavor, nutritional value and toxic residue content. The objectives of the present work

  17. Technological Factors, User Characteristics and Didactic Strategies in Educational Virtual Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natsis, Antonios; Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos

    2012-01-01

    Technological factors, user characteristics and didactic strategies do not function consistently across Educational Virtual Environments. This study investigates the impact of viewing condition and didactic strategy on attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, spatial presence, and learning...... outcomes in an Educational Virtual Environment concerning ancient Greek pottery. Our results show that the viewing condition does not affect attention allocation, suspension of disbelief, and spatial presence. Learning outcomes are better in the monoscopic viewing condition. Didactic strategy has an impact...... on suspension of disbelief and learning outcomes. Domain specific interest associates with higher level of attention allocation and spatial presence, while spatial presence is not related to learning outcomes. More research is needed in order to identify the role of each one of the above factors in Educational...

  18. Vein visualization: patient characteristic factors and efficacy of a new infrared vein finder technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, F B; Resta-Flarer, F; Lesser, J; Ng, J; Ganz, A; Pino-Luey, D; Bennett, H; Perkins, C; Witek, B

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the patient characteristic factors that correlate with identification of i.v. cannulation sites with normal eyesight. We evaluated a new infrared vein finding (VF) technology device in identifying i.v. cannulation sites. Each subject underwent two observations: one using the conventional method (CM) of normal, unassisted eyesight and the other with the infrared VF device, VueTek's Veinsite™ (VF). A power analysis for moderate effect size (β=0.95) required 54 samples for within-subject differences. Patient characteristic profiles were obtained from 384 subjects (768 observations). Our sample population exhibited an overall average of 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4-6.2] veins using CM. As a whole, CM vein visualization were less effective among obese [4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3)], African-American [4.6 (95% CI 3.6-5.5 veins)], and Asian [5.1 (95% CI 4.1-6.0)] subjects. Next, the VF technology identified an average of 9.1 (95% CI 8.6-9.5) possible cannulation sites compared with CM [average of 5.8 (95% CI 5.4-6.2)]. Seventy-six obese subjects had an average of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3) and 8.2 (95% CI 7.4-9.1) veins viewable by CM and VF, respectively. In dark skin subjects, 9.1 (95% CI 8.3-9.9) veins were visible by VF compared with 5.4 (95% CI 4.8-6.0) with CM. African-American or Asian ethnicity, and obesity were associated with decreased vein visibility. The visibility of veins eligible for cannulation increased for all subgroups using a new infrared device.

  19. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p < 0.05 for all technological functional properties studied (emulsification capacity, emulsion stability, protein solubility, and water hold capacity than those of okara flour B. The A and B okara flours were used in a frankfurter sausage formulation as substitution of 1.5% and 4% of meat. The results showed that the sausages containing okara flours A and B, as well as the control sausage, were accepted by the sensory panel. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p < 0.05 in the physical (color, objective texture, and emulsion stability and chemical (pH and proximate composition measurements of the sausages with and without the okara flour.

  20. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  1. Technological Characteristics of the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle of Pig Depending on the Genetic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuela Roibu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The processes of technological processing of meat carried out in optimal conditions, require a good knowledge of the water capacity of bearings by the raw material that makes the manufacturing processes of the various preparations. Technological characteristics of pigmeat analyzed in this paper are represented by water retention ability, capacity of hydration and the degree of perselation. The researches have been conducted on 40 samples, taken from the muscle of the longissimus dorsi from breeds Marele Alb, Landrace, Line S 345 Periş, Duroc, Hampshire and Perhib, F1 hybrids (Marele AlbxLandrace xPietrain and F1 (Marele AlbxLandrace xSeghers. Water retention capacity has been appreciated by many indicators obtained from the pressing of the sample, according to the method Grau-Hamm. The largest capacity aircraft meets the breed Duroc (47.631, followed by the great white (43.33, LSP 345 Periş (42.87 and the hybrid Perhib (42.731. Water retention capacity, expressed as wet surface, stated on the first Landrace breed (30.012, followed by the Hampshire breed and F1xSeghers (29.602 hybrid Perhib (28.6 breed of LSP 345 Periş (28.361, the lowest value is passed to the race Duroc (22.344.

  2. Research on PM2.5 time series characteristics based on data mining technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifang; Jia, Jin

    2018-02-01

    With the development of data mining technology and the establishment of environmental air quality database, it is necessary to discover the potential correlations and rules by digging the massive environmental air quality information and analyzing the air pollution process. In this paper, we have presented a sequential pattern mining method based on the air quality data and pattern association technology to analyze the PM2.5 time series characteristics. Utilizing the real-time monitoring data of urban air quality in China, the time series rule and variation properties of PM2.5 under different pollution levels are extracted and analyzed. The analysis results show that the time sequence features of the PM2.5 concentration is directly affected by the alteration of the pollution degree. The longest time that PM2.5 remained stable is about 24 hours. As the pollution degree gets severer, the instability time and step ascending time gradually changes from 12-24 hours to 3 hours. The presented method is helpful for the controlling and forecasting of the air quality while saving the measuring costs, which is of great significance for the government regulation and public prevention of the air pollution.

  3. Technological characteristics of yeast-containing cakes production using waxy wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iorgachova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the feasibility of using waxy wheat flour, the starch of which doesn`t contain amylose, in order to stabilize the quality of yeast-containing cakes. The influence of the waxy wheat flour mass fraction and the stage of its adding on the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the products are studied. According to the technological properties of a new type of wheat flour, two methods of its adding are proposed ‒ adding the maximum amount of waxy wheat flour at dough kneading stage or using the mixture of waxy and bakery wheat flours for kneading sourdough and dough. It is shown that the replacement of 60 % bakery wheat flour with waxy wheat flour in the recipe of yeast-containing cakes at the dough kneading stage contributes to the production of products with higher quality and organoleptic characteristics compared to both the control and cakes based on a mixture of different types of wheat flour. These samples are characterized by increased by 1.7 – 11.3 % specific volume, porosity – 2.6 – 5.5 % and the total deformation of the crumb – 6.5 – 41.4 %.

  4. Advanced Fuel UCO Preparation Technology for HTGR (Characteristics of Carbon Black)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Oh, S. C.; Kim, Y. K.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Kim, Y. M.; Lee, Y. W.; Cho, H. J.; Shin, E. J.

    2010-06-01

    NGNP program for high specification of HTGR nuclear fuel through the GEN IV study is be progressed. Furthermore, because the NGNP program have a highly focused goal like UCO kernel, kernel fabrication and coating types varied which made selection of a US reference fabrication process. In this study, it was evaluated from the reviews on the UO2 and UCO kernel fabrication technologies and its particle characteristics. For improving the UCO qualities, first it was improved the kernel fabrication processes and carbon dispersion method also. New method for carbon dispersion in broth solution was developed, and its characteristics was evaluated from the AGR irradiation tests used the UCO kernel. In fabrication process, also process parameter variation tests in both forming and sintering steps led to an increased understanding of the acceptable ranges for process parameters and additional reduction in required operating times. Another result of this test program was to double the kernel production rate. Following the development tests, approximately 40 kg of natural uranium UCO kernels have been produced for use in coater scale up tests, and approximately 10 kg of low enriched uranium UCO kernels for use in the AGR-2 experiment

  5. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt Transmitter Experiment Package for CTS. [Communication Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Measured performance characteristics from ground test of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite are presented. The experiment package consists of a 200 W Output Stage Tube (OST) powered by a Power Processing System (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 per cent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 per cent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, intermodulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  6. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  7. Use of information technology for medication management in residential care facilities: correlates of facility characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Powell, M Paige; Kim, Jungyoon; Shiyanbola, Olayinka; Zhu, He; Shiyanbola, Oyewale

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of information technology in resolving medication problems has been well documented. Long-term care settings such as residential care facilities (RCFs) may see the benefits of using such technologies in addressing the problem of medication errors among their resident population, who are usually older and have numerous chronic conditions. The aim of this study was two-fold: to examine the extent of use of Electronic Medication Management (EMM) in RCFs and to analyze the organizational factors associated with the use of EMM functionalities in RCFs. Data on RCFs were obtained from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The association between facility, director and staff, and resident characteristics of RCFs and adoption of four EMM functionalities was assessed through multivariate logistic regression. The four EMM functionalities included were maintaining lists of medications, ordering for prescriptions, maintaining active medication allergy lists, and warning of drug interactions or contraindications. About 12% of the RCFs adopted all four EMM functionalities. Additionally, maintaining lists of medications had the highest adoption rate (34.5%), followed by maintaining active medication allergy lists (31.6%), ordering for prescriptions (19.7%), and warning of drug interactions or contraindications (17.9%). Facility size and ownership status were significantly associated with adoption of all four EMM functionalities. Medicaid certification status, facility director's age, education and license status, and the use of personal care aides in the RCF were significantly associated with the adoption of some of the EMM functionalities. EMM is expected to improve the quality of care and patient safety in long-term care facilities including RCFs. The extent of adoption of the four EMM functionalities is relatively low in RCFs. Some RCFs may strategize to use these functionalities to cater to the increasing demands from the market and also to

  8. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technologies in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    Main components and structures in nuclear power plants generally use materials having superior resistance to corrosion. Since the damages related to corrosion have become a menace to the safety of NPPs as well as economical loss and the steam generator tubing forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs is one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion, it is strongly required to verify the mechanisms of the steam generator tubing degradations, to develop remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, the PWSCC characteristics of the archived steam generator tube materials in the domestic NPPs were evaluated and the databases of the obtained results were established. Also, the PWSCC characteristics of the welding material, Alloy 182, for Alloy 600, were evaluated. To verify the damage mechanisms of the circumferential SCC occurring in the expansion transition region of the tubes in the Korean standard NPPS, the evaluation technique for the residual stresses in the expanded region was acquired. A procedure of the inhibition technique for the SCC occurring in the secondary side of steam generators and a model for estimating the safety of damaged tubes by the structural leakage were developed, by which the fundamental technologies for the safe operations of NPPs, the management of the damages, and the expansion of the plant life were acquired. The material improvement technique for the integrity enhancement of tubes was developed. Along with the development of the Ni-coating technique the evaluation of the properties such as mechanical and SCC properties of the coated film was performed

  9. Mobile technology use and desired technology-based intervention characteristics among HIV+ Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A; Carey, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    HIV positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are retained in HIV medical care at suboptimal rates. Interventions targeted to Black MSM are needed to help to improve their retention in care. The purposes of this study were to investigate the use of mobile technology among HIV+ Black MSM and to explore participants' thoughts about the use of mobile technology for HIV retention in care interventions. Twenty-two HIV+ Black MSM completed a technology use survey and participated in a qualitative interview regarding technology-based interventions. The majority of participants (95%) had access to a cell phone, and used their phones frequently (median 3 hours/day). Men preferred interventions that would allow for anonymous participation and that would provide individually tailored support. Mobile technology is a promising approach to intervention delivery for both younger and older HIV+ Black MSM. These interventions should incorporate features that are desirable to men (i.e., anonymous participation and individual tailoring).

  10. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY PASTA INCORPORATED WITH MICRONIZED CORN PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO RENATO DE JESUS JUNQUEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  11. Characteristics of the life habits of obese students at one of Japan's National Colleges of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shin-Ichi; Shimada, Shigeru

    2017-05-17

    Aim This study clarified the characteristics of life habits of obese Japanese male students at the National Colleges of Technology, Japan. Materials and methods Healthy students aged 15-19 years answered a questionnaire containing 21 items on the following five categories of life habits: general exercise, meals, sleeping, leisure activity and illness or injury history. The subjects were divided into three groups based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF): non-obese (%BF time, bedtime and amount of time spent walking, sleeping and watching TV per day were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests for each item. Results The overweight obese and hidden obese groups engaged in less exercise time, were more likely to eat until they were full at meals and were less likely to eat between meals or late at night than the non-obese group. In addition, the non-obese group had significantly later waking times and significantly less TV-watching time than the overweight obese group. There were no significant differences with respect to leisure activity and illness or injury history among the three groups. Many students in all groups had regular waking times and were not performing any leisure activities. Conclusion The findings suggest that obese students may need further guidance to help them maintain a healthy life and appropriate weight.

  12. Uncertainties in HTGR neutron-physical characteristics due to computational errors and technological tolerances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Grebennik, V.N.; Davidenko, V.G.; Kosovskij, V.G.; Smirnov, O.N.; Tsibul'skij, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the consideration of uncertainties is neutron-physical characteristics (NPC) of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) with a core as spherical fuel element bed, which are caused by calculations from HTGR parameters mean values affecting NPC. Among NPC are: effective multiplication factor, burnup depth, reactivity effect, control element worth, distribution of neutrons and heat release over a reactor core, etc. The short description of calculated methods and codes used for HTGR calculations in the USSR is given and evaluations of NPC uncertainties of the methodical character are presented. Besides, the analysis of the effect technological deviations in parameters of reactor main elements such as uranium amount in the spherical fuel element, number of neutron-absorbing impurities in the reactor core and reflector, etc, upon the NPC is carried out. Results of some experimental studies of NPC of critical assemblies with graphite moderator are given as applied to HTGR. The comparison of calculations results and experiments on critical assemblies has made it possible to evaluate uncertainties of calculated description of HTGR NPC. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  13. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant

  14. Designing the organizational creativity based on job characteristics and job involvement among physical education units’ employees of Technology University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Alavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designing the organizational creativity based on job characteristics and job involvement among physical education employees of Technology University. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all employees, experts, and physical education units’ managers. The statistical samples were 389 people reduced to 338 employees after eliminating the incomplete and useless questionnaires. The research method of the present study was descriptive-correlative. Three questionnaires of job characteristics, job involvement, and organizational creativity were used to evaluate the research variables which were distributed and gathered among research samples after translation and comparison with research samples via face validity (views of 12 sport management experts and construct validity. The research results were analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS and showed that the best predictor of job involvement among physical education units’ employees of Technology University was problem solving (ES= 0.41. However, the job characteristics of autonomy (0.26 and job feedback (.024 had more effects on employees’ creativity. Other results showed that managers reported lower scores of job characteristics and creativity than sport employees. According to research findings, in order to achieve creativity in the workplace within physical education units of Technology University, the managers should stimulate the autonomy and feedback characteristics. Of course, it should not be neglected that this mechanism would be facilitated by creating the problem solving in job.

  15. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik; Stamate, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm, immersed into a ceramic dielectric barrier. A closed flow-through system necessary for the measurements was prepared by placing a quartz plate at a height of 3 mm from the ceramic barrier. The production of nitrogen radicals was determined from the removal of a trace amount of NO in pure N 2 gas, while the production of oxygen radicals was determined by ozone production in pure O 2 or synthetic air. The production efficiency of N and O radicals and NO oxidation in synthetic air was comparable with the efficiency of a volume barrier discharge device. The power density per unit of surface area of the CBD device was more than two times larger than that of a similar volume barrier discharge setup, which makes the CBD device a compact alternative for gas treatment. The production of ozone and different nitrogen oxides was also evaluated for the open system of the CBD which is usable for surface treatment. The ozone concentration of this system was nearly independent from the input power, while the concentration of nitrogen oxides increased with input power. The open system of the CBD was additionally tested for the treatment of a silicon surface. An increase of applied power decreased the time required to reduce the water contact angle below 10 degrees but also started to have an impact on the surface roughness. (paper)

  16. Understanding technology adoption through individual and context characteristics: the case of HDTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaren, Eva; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Huizer, E.

    2011-01-01

    Technology adoption research has a tradition of using and improving Davis' (1989) “Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM) and extended versions of it. This article suggests a break with this tradition by showing that the TAM is limited in its understanding of technology adoption. Two alternative

  17. Technology Student Characteristics: Course Taking Patterns as a Pathway to STEM Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asunda, Paul A.; Kim, Eun Sook; Westberry, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Rising concern about America's ability to maintain its competitive position in the global economy has renewed interest in STEM education. The power and the promise of STEM education is based on the need for technological literacy. Technology education is a discipline devoted to the delivery of technological literacy for all. Nevertheless, a…

  18. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto, quantitative…

  19. The diffusion of microgeneration technologies - assessing the influence of perceived product characteristics on home owners' willingness to pay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudy, Marius C.; Michelsen, Claus; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    This study presents empirical insight into willingness to pay (WTP) for microgeneration technologies and the relative influence of subjective consumer perceptions. First, we apply a double-bounded contingent valuation method to elicit Irish home owners' WTP for micro wind turbines, wood pellet boilers, solar panels and solar water heaters. Utilizing findings from the adoption of innovation literature, in a second step we assess the influence of antecedents on WTP for each of the four technologies, including (1) home owners' perception of product characteristics, (2) normative influences and (3) sociodemographic characteristics. Our results show that WTP varies significantly among the four technologies. More importantly, however, home owners hold different beliefs about the respective technologies, which significantly influence their WTP. The results provide valuable information for marketers and policy makers aiming to promote microgeneration technologies more effectively in consumer markets. - Research highlights: → This study presents empirical insight into Irish home owners' willingness to pay (WTP) for microgeneration technologies and the relative influence of subjective consumer perceptions. → The findings presented in this study clearly show that a major reason for the slow uptake is home owners' WTP, which is significantly below market prices. WTP for solar water heaters, which matches current sales figures in Ireland, is the only exception. → In this context, public policy in the form of financial incentives such as grant aid or tax incentives can be very costly and might not provide a viable support mechanism for policy makers who aim to promote the diffusion of microgeneration. → However, the results also suggest that home owners' WTP is not solely based on rational financial reasoning but is also influenced by people's subjective perception of the technologies' characteristics. → The findings can be used by marketers and policy makers to design

  20. The innovative characteristics and obstruction of technology adoption for management of integrated plants (PTT) of corn in Gowa Regency Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, M. H.; Musa, Y.; Tenriawaru, A. N.; Rahayu, N. E.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to analyze the effects of the farmer’s characteristic, innovation characteristics, and the obstruction faced in the technology adoption for the management of integrated plants corn in Gowa Regency. The method used was explanative in character. Respondents comprised 80 corn farmers chosen randomly. Data were collected using the interviews method which were then quantified using likers scale. The data was analyzed by logistic binary regression. The research results indicated that the farmer’s characteristics which consisted of the age, education, experience, and the land area had no significant effect on the technology adoption of maize integrated crops management (PTT). The obstruction of the adoption, which consisted of the limited capital, availability of inputs, and intensity of counseling had a significant effect on the adoption of maize integrated crops management. While the farmer’s knowledge had no significant effect on the adoption of maize integrated crops management. The variable of the limited capital had a positive coefficient, the more available the farmer’s capital the higher was the chance of farmers to adopt technology integrated crops management. The higher of the extension intensity, the higher of farmer’s chance to adopt the technology of the maize integrated corps management.

  1. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this pa...

  2. STEM Career Cluster Engineering and Technology Education pathway in Georgia: Perceptions of Georgia engineering and technology education high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Mark VanBuren

    This study examined the perceptions held by Georgia Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster Engineering and Technology Education (ETE) high school pathway teachers and Georgia's Career, Technical and Agriculture Education (CTAE) administrators regarding the ETE pathway and its effect on implementation within their district and schools. It provides strategies for ETE teaching methods, curriculum content, STEM integration, and how to improve the ETE pathway program of study. Current teaching and curricular trends were examined in ETE as well as the role ETE should play as related to STEM education. The study, using the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey, was conducted to answer the following research questions: (a) Is there a significant difference in the perception of ETE teaching methodology between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? (b) Is there a significant difference in the perception of ETE curriculum content between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? (c) Is there a significant difference in the perception of STEM integration in the ETE high school pathway between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? and (d) Is there a significant difference in the perception of how to improve the ETE high school pathway between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? Suggestions for further research also were offered.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions...... giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm(-3) and 7 gN dm(-3) respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 degrees C, sterilization: 133 degrees C, and alkali...

  4. Performance and touch characteristics of disabled and non-disabled participants during a reciprocal tapping task using touch screen technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E

    2012-11-01

    Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (ptouch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios the impact of task, technology and individual characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The growing amount of information provided via web-based information technologies forces the users of these technologies to stop seeking for information before having acquired all available information. This stopping decision is either made actively following clear guidelines or subconsciously based on the seeker's intuition. This book analyzes the aforementioned duality by developing and testing a multi-theoretical research model dealing with information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios. Thus, by delivering insights into the mechanisms that influence information seeking activitie

  6. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation. PMID:26372160

  7. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  8. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza virus vaccine (IVV is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  9. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  12. The diffusion of microgeneration technologies - assessing the influence of perceived product characteristics on home owners' willingness to pay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudy, Marius C., E-mail: marius.claudy@dit.i [Faculty of Business, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Michelsen, Claus [Department of Urban Economics, Halle Institute for Economic Research, D-06017 Halle (Saale) (Germany); O' Driscoll, Aidan [Faculty of Business, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-03-15

    This study presents empirical insight into willingness to pay (WTP) for microgeneration technologies and the relative influence of subjective consumer perceptions. First, we apply a double-bounded contingent valuation method to elicit Irish home owners' WTP for micro wind turbines, wood pellet boilers, solar panels and solar water heaters. Utilizing findings from the adoption of innovation literature, in a second step we assess the influence of antecedents on WTP for each of the four technologies, including (1) home owners' perception of product characteristics, (2) normative influences and (3) sociodemographic characteristics. Our results show that WTP varies significantly among the four technologies. More importantly, however, home owners hold different beliefs about the respective technologies, which significantly influence their WTP. The results provide valuable information for marketers and policy makers aiming to promote microgeneration technologies more effectively in consumer markets. - Research highlights: {yields} This study presents empirical insight into Irish home owners' willingness to pay (WTP) for microgeneration technologies and the relative influence of subjective consumer perceptions. {yields} The findings presented in this study clearly show that a major reason for the slow uptake is home owners' WTP, which is significantly below market prices. WTP for solar water heaters, which matches current sales figures in Ireland, is the only exception. {yields} In this context, public policy in the form of financial incentives such as grant aid or tax incentives can be very costly and might not provide a viable support mechanism for policy makers who aim to promote the diffusion of microgeneration. {yields} However, the results also suggest that home owners' WTP is not solely based on rational financial reasoning but is also influenced by people's subjective perception of the technologies' characteristics. {yields} The

  13. Enhancing the ecological and operational characteristics of water treatment units at TPPs based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Filimonova, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The innovative baromembrane technologies for water demineralization were introduced at Russian TPPs more than 25 years ago. While being used in the power engineering industry of Russia, these technologies demonstrated certain advantages over the traditional ion-exchange and thermal technologies of makeup water treatment for steam boilers. Water treatment units based on the baromembrane technology are compact, easy to operate, and highly automated. The experience gained from the use of these units shows that their reliability depends directly on preliminary water treatment. The popular water pretreatment technology with coagulation by aluminum oxychloride proved to be inefficient during the seasonal changes of source water quality that occurs at some stations. The use of aluminum coagulant at pH 8 and higher does not ensure the stable and qualitative pretreatment regime: soluble aluminum forms slip on membranes of the ultrafiltration unit, thereby causing pollution and intoxication as well as leading to structural damages or worsening of mechanical properties of the membranes. The problem of increased pH and seasonal changes of the source water quality can be solved by substitution of the traditional coagulant into a new one. To find the most successful coagulant for water pretreatment, experiments have been performed on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of natural organic matters in the Volga water and their structure. We have developed a software program and measured the concentrations of soluble aluminum and iron salts at different pH values of the source water. The analysis of the obtained results has indicated that iron sulfate at pH 6.0-10.2, in contrast to aluminum oxychloride, is not characterized by increased solubility. Thus, the basic process diagrams of water pretreatment based on baromembrane technologies with pretreatment through coagulation by iron salts and wastewater amount reducing from 60-40 to 5-2% have been introduced for

  14. Improved Switching Characteristics of Fast Power MOSFETs Applying Solder Bump Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Dieckerhoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a reduced package stray inductance on the switching performance of fast power MOSFETs is discussed applying advanced 3D packaging technologies. Starting from an overview over new packaging approaches, a solder bump technology using a flexible PI substrate is exemplarily chosen for the evaluation. Measurement techniques to determine the stray inductance are discussed and compared with a numerical solution based on the PEEC method. Experimental results show the improvement of the voltage utilization while there is only a slight impact on total switching losses.

  15. Technological characteristics of digital video broadcasting: Handheld standard DVB-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja B. Samčović

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld standard DVB-H, as a part of the DVB Project. This standard is based on the previous standard DVB-T, which was developed for the terrestrial digital television. The ways of DVB-H signal transmission are also described. Development of advanced technology enabled the digital video broadcasting over wireless portable terminals. This paper discusses the key technological features of the DVB-H standard, such as: time slicing, forward error correction, 4K mode and in-depth interleavers.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN COOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTS USING SONOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yevtushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the features of formation of sausage product structure in the process of cooking. It is shown that the viscosity of sausage meat varies in a complex manner and has three characteristic areas. The characteristic parameters that determine the formation of the structure of sausages for each area were found. It is established that the use of the cavitation brine gives the finished product a gentle consistence, elasticity and distinct taste that makes it more preferable for the consumer.

  17. Fabrication technology and characteristics of AmO2-MgO cercer materials for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croixmarie, Y.; Mocellin, A.; Warin, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the fabrication technology and the physico-chemical properties of target materials prepared for the ECRIX experiment in the French PHENIX reactor. The ECRIX target materials consist of pellets made of a ceramic-ceramic type composite in which particles of americium oxide are microdispersed in an inert matrix of magnesium oxide

  18. Predicting Personal Healthcare Management: Impact of Individual Characteristics on Patient Use of Health Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefer, Ryan Heath

    2017-01-01

    The use of health information and health information technology by consumers is a major factor in the current healthcare systems' effort to address issues related to quality, cost, and access. Patient engagement in the healthcare process through access to information related to diagnoses, procedures, and treatment has the potential to improve…

  19. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  20. Use of Clinical Health Information Technology in Nursing Homes: Nursing Home Characteristics and Quality Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli-Moraski, Carla

    2014-01-01

    This study compares quality measures among nursing homes that have adopted different levels of clinical health information technology (HIT) and examines the perceived barriers and benefits of the adoption of electronic health records as reported by Nursing Home Administrators and Directors of Nursing. A cross-sectional survey distributed online to…

  1. Do general practice characteristics influence uptake of an information technology (IT innovation in primary care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Evans

    2008-05-01

    Conclusions The analyses show that structural characteristics of a practice are not associated with uptake of a new IT facility, but that its use may be influenced by post-graduate education in the relevant clinical condition. For this diabetes system at least, practice nurse use was critical in spreading uptake beyond initial GP enthusiasts and for sustained and rising use in subsequent years.

  2. Extraction of coastal ocean wave characteristics using remote sensing and computer vision technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available optical imagery from the RapidEye satellite can be used to extract ocean wave characteristics such as wave direction, wavelength, wave period and wave velocity. If successful, the advantage of the proposed remote sensing-based approach would...

  3. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  4. Efeito de dietas semi-simplificadas formuladas com subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de coelhos = Effect of half-simplified diets formulated with cassava by-product ensiled or not on performance and carcass characteristics of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fróes Galuci Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o desempenho da desmama ao abate e as características de carcaça de 144 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, oriundos de matrizes alimentadas com dietas referência ou semi-simplificada com 79,83% de subprodutos de mandioca, distribuídos em gaiolas, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (duas rações fornecidas às matrizes e láparos até a desmama versus três rações fornecidas aos animais da desmama até o abate com 12 repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas fornecidas, após a desmama, consistiram de umareferência e duas semi-simplificadas com 81,63% de subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não antes da sua incorporação. Coelhos cujas mães foram alimentadas com dieta semi-simplificadas se apresentaram mais leves à desmama que os desmamados com dieta-referência. Observou-se menor consumo de ração para os coelhos que receberam a dieta maternidade semi-simplificada até a desmama, resultando em melhor conversão alimentar. Os pesos da carcaça e dos cortes comerciais foram maiores nos animais alimentados com as rações referência maternidade e referência crescimento. O uso de dietas semi-simplificadas com subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não, da desmama ao abate, reduziu o ganho de peso diário e o consumo de ração,porém melhorou a conversão alimentar e diminuiu o custo de ração. A utilização das rações semi-simplificadas apresenta-se como alternativa interessante para a produção de coelhos.This study evaluated the performance from weaning to slaughter and carcass characteristics of 144 New Zealand White rabbits, from does fed with a reference diet or half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava by-product, allocated in iron cages, in a 2 x 3 factorialarrangement (two diets used for does and litters until weaning versus three diets supplied for animals from weaning to slaughter with 12 replications and two animals per experimental unit. The supplied diets after weaning consisted

  5. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  6. Effect of fluorescence on the technological characteristics of cocoons at different cooking temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panayotov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The subject of research are Bombyx mori L. cocoons, differentiated by the nature of their fluorescent radiation. In each fluorescent group 2 subgroups were formed prepared for unreeling through cooking at 80 and 90°C for 5 min. To account for the effect of fluorescence at various cooking temperature levels the basic technological traits signs of the silk filament and cocoons have been defined and analysed: total length of the silk filament (m, nonbroken filament length (m, %, raw silk pesentage (% and reelability (%. It was found that fluorescence of cocoons has statistically significant (p≤0.01- 0.001 effect on the phenotypic manifestation of the technological traits. Within the two cooking temperature levels, the yellow fluorescent cocoons demonstrate higher values at 80 °C, and violet ones at 90°C. The better technological qualities and the lower cooking temperature in the yellow fluorescent cocoons give reason to believe that their use is economically more profitable for the silk reeling industry compared with violet fluorescent cocoons

  7. Technological parameters influence on the non-autoclaved foam concrete characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenjeva, Ekaterina; Mashkin, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Foam concretes are used as effective heat-insulating materials. The porous structure of foam concrete provides good insulating and strength properties that make them possible to be used as heat-insulating structural materials. Optimal structure of non-autoclaved foam concrete depends on both technological factors and properties of technical foam. In this connection, the possibility to manufacture heat-insulation structural foam concrete on a high-speed cavity plant with the usage of protein and synthetic foamers was estimated. This experiment was carried out using mathematical planning method, and in this case mathematical models were developed that demonstrated the dependence of operating performance of foam concrete on foaming and rotation speed of laboratory plant. The following material properties were selected for the investigation: average density, compressive strength, bending strength and thermal conductivity. The influence of laboratory equipment technological parameters on technical foam strength and foam stability coefficient in the cement paste was investigated, physical and mechanical properties of non-autoclaved foam concrete were defined based on investigated foam. As a result of investigation, foam concrete samples were developed with performance parameters ensuring their use in production. The mathematical data gathered demonstrated the dependence of foam concrete performance on the technological regime.

  8. Effect of well-established plasma treatment technology on some physiological characteristics in maize leaves during seedling stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxiang; Fang Xiangqian; Bian Shaofeng; Zhang Lihua; Tan Guobo; Meng Xiangmeng; Yan Weiping; Liu Yaliang; Sun Ning

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical references and technical support for application of plasma treatment technology in agriculture, the seeds of maize were treated by well-established plasma treatment technology, then the changes of physiological characteristics of maize leaves during seedling stage were studied. The results indicated that the stress resistance of maize was improved by plasma treatment. The SOD, POD and CAT activities, soluble protein content and soluble sugar content of leaves at two-leave stage, four-leave stage, six-leave stage and eight-leave stage treated by plasma were higher than that of CK, but the MDA content was lower than CK. Although NR activity in leaves at twoleave stage and four-leave stage was slightly lower than CK, but higher than CK at six-leave stage (26.81%) and eightleaves stage (26.75%). Plasma treatment enhanced the nitrogen metabolism capacity, and this tendency was increased remarkable with the growth stages processes. (authors)

  9. Using Information Systems to Leverage Knowledge Management Processes: The Role of Work Context, Job Characteristics and Task-Technology Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çev.: Nazlı Alkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focus on how an individual's particular work context, job characteristics and knowledge-related job requirements affect the relationship between task-technology fit (TTF and the use of information systems (IS in knowledge management activities. The literature on Knowledge Management (KM and Knowledge Management Systems (KMS is reviewed to identify relevant constructs and their dimensions. Based on this analysis, a model is proposed and tested. Our findings suggest that providing appropriate IT tools that fit tasks alone is no guarantee that they will be employed to leverage the acquisition, transfer and reuse of knowledge. Certain characteristics of jobs, driven by particular work contexts, generate greater need and opportunity for knowledge use. These latter factors moderate the relationship between TTF and actual use of IS for KM purposes: the greater the need and opportunity to conduct knowledgerelated activities, the stronger the relationship between TTF and actual IS use.

  10. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  11. Characteristics of Exemplary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM)-Related Experiential Learning Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jamie Munn

    Experiential opportunities at the secondary level give students the "intimate and necessary relation between the processes of actual experience and education" (Dewey, 1938, p. 19- 20). Career and Technical Education classes (CTE) and co-curricular experiences, one type of experiential learning, underpin and cultivate student curiosity and often channel interests into STEM-related post-secondary disciplines and career choices. There is little existent research on the characteristics of exemplary experiential learning opportunities and the impact on stakeholders. This study is intended to identify the qualities and characteristics of an exemplary secondary experience through the lived experiences of the stakeholders; students, STEM-related teachers, and CTE/STEM Administrators. A qualitative research design was used to examine characteristics and implications for students of four STEM-related programs throughout Virginia. Conclusions from the study include fundamental principles for providing exemplary experiential STEM-related learning opportunities. These principles include: providing hands-on, real world learning opportunities for students, providing learning opportunities that will enhance student ownership in their learning, providing unique and comprehensive career exploration opportunities for students, providing a schedule for teachers that will give them time to plan, deliver, and manage exemplary experiential learning opportunities, providing continual teacher and administrator in-service training relative to planning and implementing exemplary experiential learning opportunities, investing appropriate funds for providing exemplary experiential learning opportunities. Establishing and maintaining active partnerships with business/industry and colleges/universities, and maintaining active advisory communities, providing appropriate staff to support the provision of exemplary experiential learning opportunities is needed. The need for adequate funding

  12. A survey of characteristic engine features for technology-sustained pervasive games

    CERN Document Server

    Nevelsteen, Kim JL

    2015-01-01

    This book scrutinizes pervasive games from a technological perspective, focusing on the sub-domain of games that satisfy the criteria that they make use of virtual game elements. In the computer game industry, the use of a game engine to build games is common, but current game engines do not support pervasive games. Since the computer game industry is already rich with game engines, this book investigates: (i) if a game engine can be repurposed to stage pervasive games; (ii) if features describing a would-be pervasive game engine can be identified; (iii) using those features, if an architectu

  13. E-Learning – Using XML technologies to meet the special characteristics of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kanovsky

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we claim that the current approach to learning objects and metadata standards is counter productive for the integration of e-learning in higher education. We explain why higher education is different with regard to E-learning and we suggest an approach that avoids the use of global standards and favors an approach of an evolving set of metadata tags for an evolving community of practice. We demonstrate how XML technologies and some minimal technical help for the participating teachers can provide the required foundation for a productive process of integrating E-learning in higher education.

  14. Influence of technological factors on characteristics of hybrid fluid-film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltsov, A.; Prosekova, A.; Rodichev, A.; Savin, L.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of the parameters of micro- and macrounevenness on the characteristics of a hybrid bearing with slotted throttling is considered in the present paper. The quantitative assumptions of calculation of pressure distribution, load capacity, lubricant flow rate and power loss due to friction in a radial hybrid bearing with slotted throttling are taken into account, considering the shape, dimensions and roughness of the support surfaces inaccuracies. Numerical simulation of processes in the lubricating layer is based on the finite-difference solution of the Reynolds equation using an uneven orthogonal computational grid with adaptive condensation. The results of computational and physical experiments are presented.

  15. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  16. Performance characteristics of shape memory alloy and its applications for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    As a shape memory alloy, Au-Cd alloy was found in 1951. Thereafter, also in In-Tl alloy, shape memory effect was found. The U.S. Naval Ordinance Laboratory developed Ni-Ti alloy, and published in 1965 as NITINOL. As Cu group shape memory alloys, there are Cu-Zn-Al alloy, Cu-Al-Be alloy and Cu-Al-Ni alloy. Recently, iron group shape memory alloy was published. In 1975, 'Shape memory effect and its application' symposium, in 1978, 'NITINOL heat engine international conference', and in 1982 and 1986, 'Martensite transformation international conference' were held, and the method of the proper use of shape memory alloys and the problems of the alloys themselves such as fatigue have been gradually clarified. In this report, the fundamental action characteristics of shape memory alloys are discribed from the viewpoint of the application, and the possibility of applying these characteristics to nuclear fusion devices and the advantage obtained as the result are explained. Shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity, reversible shape memory effect, the thermodynamic behavior of shape memory alloys, transformation temperature range and using temperature range and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  17. E-government as anti-bureaucracy state technology: theoretical and legal characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Сухонос

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In today's Ukraine reform encountered not only external but also to internal obstacles. The latter were associated not only with the lack of political will, but also with insufficient theoretical knowledge of individuals who organizes changes. Moreover, getting public office, reformers become a part of the bureaucratic state machinery and experiencing significant resistance change. This primarily occurs because of changes that the organizers do not understand the essence of bureaucracy, and therefore can not overcome its negative features. Recent research and publications analysis. In independent Ukraine the majority of works are devoted to problems of organization of public administration, mainly concentrated around corruption. However, the issue of red tape mostly ignored by the overwhelming majority state researchers. As an exception we can mention common work of V. Tsvetkova and V. Gorbatenko «Democracy – Management – Bureaucracy», in which, inter alia, considered «loss, achievements and prospects of the modernization of Ukrainian society» through the prism of theories of bureaucracy. The reform of the state mechanism have also been the subject of research, both domestic and foreign researchers. Here, in particular, we can recall the work P. Rudyk, A. Yuschyk and joint research experts and World Bank N. Manning and N. Parison and Ukrainian scientists P. Klimushkin and A. Serenok who paid a lot of attention to e-governance as a cornerstone of any factor as modern reforms. Without belittling the achievements of the above scientists should keep in mind that none of them considered reforming the state mechanism in the context of changes in the bureaucracy any other state technology, in particular e-government. Their attention is focused only on the fundamental problems of bureaucracy and e-government. Paper objective. That is why the purpose of this article is the study of e-government as anti-bureaucratic state

  18. to the Question of IPv6-protocol Logical Characteristics Properties Using in order to Increase of the Security Level of the Russian Federation National Information Technology Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of IPv6-protocol logical characteristics using in order to increase the security level of the Russian Federation national information technology infrastructure and the global information society.

  19. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  20. Preparation and Characteristics of Porous Ceramics by a foaming Technology at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Q.; Wang, S. P.; Wen, J.; Wu, N.; Xu, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Recycling and converting coal gangue and red mud into porous ceramics with good performance is a feasible disposal route. In this present work, porous foam ceramics was prepared using coal gangue and red mud as main raw materials at low sintering temperature, The amount of coal gangue and red mud were up to 70 wt%. To regulate the forming and sintering performance of the product, quartz sands and clay material were added to the formula. The green body was formed by a foaming technology using aluminum powders as foaming agents at room temperature. After foamed, the specimens were dried at 60-80 °C, and then calcined at 1060°C. Effects of concentration of NaOH and amount of aluminum powders on the phase, mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated here. Such study is expected to provide a new utilization route of the coal gangue and red mud, and brings both intensive environmental and economic benefits.

  1. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Coal characteristics from 'Priskupshtina' deposit and technological parameters for briquetting (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanovski, Dragan

    1998-01-01

    The use of small class coal as well as the lack of formed fuel needed for the industry and for the consumer goods has been a long lasting problem, and a challenge for the researchers of the Republic of Macedonia. For that purpose, all-inclusive analysis of the quality of the coals in Macedonia, their reserves and technical characteristics, as well as analysis of the petrographic structure were made. Classification of the deposits and the research for the possibility of making briquettes was done, too. Laboratory investigations in the coal deposit 'Priskupshtina' were carried out. The analysis of the coal briquetting show that the expected results in coordination with the required standards were not obtained. Spatially the results from the coal calorific value, its hardness and atmospheric resistance. Standard methods were used for the researches without connective means and the achieved results were mutually correlated. Technical-economic verification is necessary in the further process. (Author)

  3. Assessment of Corrosion Characteristics and Development of Remedial Technologies in Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Lim, Y. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    In general, materials having superior resistance to corrosion are used for main components and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) to improve their safety. During long-term operations in the high temperature and pressure environment, however, localized-corrosion related degradations occur frequently in those materials, leading to unexpected shutdown of the plants. The unexpected shutdowns may lower the operating efficiency of the power generation and expand the repair period, which results in a huge economical loss. Moreover, since the damages may cause a leakage of the primary coolant that brings about a contamination by radioactive substances, the corrosion related degradations of structural materials have become a menace to the safety of NPPs. The steam generator tubes forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs are one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion. Therefore, it is strongly required to verify the degradation mechanisms of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 materials used in the steam generator tubes and primary systems, to establish remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, (1) the assessment techniques of corrosion damages were improved and the database of the obtained results were established. (2) The basic technologies of the management of corrosion damages were developed for the practical use. (3) The fundamental technologies for inhibition and repair of corrosion damages were also developed. The results of this project are applicable to the assessment, failure analysis and life estimation of the materials against corrosion damages. The assessment data obtained in this work are available for the technical references of the corrosion failures of components in NPPs during operation. Furthermore, it is applicable to establish materials design requirements, to establish the optimum operation condition and to

  4. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for the Recovery of Polyphenols from Agro-Food By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure-driven membrane-based technologies represent a valid approach to reduce the environmental pollution of several agro-food by-products. Recently, in relation to the major interest for natural compounds with biological activities, their use has been also addressed to the recovery, separation and fractionation of phenolic compounds from such by-products. In particular, tight ultrafiltration (UF and nanolfiltration (NF membranes have been recognized for their capability to recover phenolic compounds from several types of agro-food by-products. The separation capability of these membranes, as well as their productivity, depends on multiple factors such as membrane material, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO and operating conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, feed flow rate, volume reduction factor, etc.. This paper aims at providing a critical overview of the influence of these parameters on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agro-food by-products by using tight UF and NF membranes. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation processes, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and other phenomena occurring in the process. Current extraction methodologies of phenolic compounds from raw materials are also introduced in order to drive the implementation of integrated systems for the production of actractive phenolic formulations of potential interest as food antioxidants.

  5. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for the Recovery of Polyphenols from Agro-Food By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René; Castro-Muñoz, Roberto

    2018-01-24

    Pressure-driven membrane-based technologies represent a valid approach to reduce the environmental pollution of several agro-food by-products. Recently, in relation to the major interest for natural compounds with biological activities, their use has been also addressed to the recovery, separation and fractionation of phenolic compounds from such by-products. In particular, tight ultrafiltration (UF) and nanolfiltration (NF) membranes have been recognized for their capability to recover phenolic compounds from several types of agro-food by-products. The separation capability of these membranes, as well as their productivity, depends on multiple factors such as membrane material, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and operating conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, feed flow rate, volume reduction factor, etc.). This paper aims at providing a critical overview of the influence of these parameters on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agro-food by-products by using tight UF and NF membranes. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation processes, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and other phenomena occurring in the process. Current extraction methodologies of phenolic compounds from raw materials are also introduced in order to drive the implementation of integrated systems for the production of actractive phenolic formulations of potential interest as food antioxidants.

  6. The management of steel industry by-products and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The report considers the management of solid and semi-solid wastes that are reused or disposed of outside steelworks. Headings are: introduction; ironmaking slags (including generation, properties, processing, uses and disposal); (steelmaking slag from hot metal pretreatment, and primary and secondary steelmaking); ironmaking dust and sludges; steelmaking dust and sludges; millscale and sludge from continuous casting and rolling mills; treatment and handling of used oils and greases; refractory waste from refining of metallurgical furnaces and vessels; by-products, waste and wastewater arising from coke oven batteries; treatment of stainless steel waste; characterisation of waste by leaching tests; dumping technology; and conclusions.

  7. Quantifying characteristics of information-technology applications based on expert knowledge for detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1998-10-09

    Expert opinions were elicited about the characteristics at the commercial-farm level of on-line information technology (IT) applications that are able to detect oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows. Since actual data of these characteristics are not available, judgmental data provided an alternative means to interpret the implications of research results for commercial farms. Applications included were activity measurement, milk-production measurement, electrical conductivity of quarter milk, automated concentrate feeders and milk-temperature measurement. Sensitivity and specificity of detection of oestrus (OD), clinical-mastitis (CMD) and subclinical-mastitis (SCMD) were ascertained. Conjoint-analysis was used to assess the effect of each application indirectly by decomposing the evaluated overall detection characteristics of a predefined number of IT combinations. The individual experts were consistent in evaluating the alternatives, but there was variation in estimates among experts. Estimations of the main effects of the applications and important first-order interactions were incorporated into the detection models. Implementation of all applications under study resulted in overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% and 90%, 73% and 87%, 58% and 82% for OD, CMD and SCMD, respectively. Further research is necessary that should take into account costs and benefits of the different detection systems based on the current status of farm performance (e.g. OD and mastitis incidence) and farm structure (e.g. farm size, years in operation of the milking parlour and parlour layout). Research to do this is currently in progress.

  8. In Vitro Characterization of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fruit Processing By-Products as Potential Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-08-23

    Nine wild Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum 53, Lactobacillus fermentum 56, L. fermentum 60, Lactobacillus paracasei 106, L. fermentum 250, L. fermentum 263, L. fermentum 139, L. fermentum 141, and L. fermentum 296, isolated from fruit processing by-products were evaluated in vitro for a series of safety, physiological functionality, and technological properties that could enable their use as probiotics. Considering the safety aspects, the resistance to antibiotics varied among the examined strains, and none of the strains presented hemolytic and mucinolytic activity. Regarding the physiological functionality properties, none of the strains were able to deconjugate bile salts; all of them presented low to moderate cell hydrophobicity and were able to autoaggregate, coaggregate with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and antagonize pathogenic bacteria. Exposure to pH 2 sharply decreased the survival of the examined strains after 1- or 2-h exposure; variable decreases were noted after 3-h exposure to pH 3. Overall, exposure to pH 5 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.3, and 1%) did not decrease the strains' survival. Examined strains presented better ability to survive from the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions in laboratorial media and milk than in grape juice. Considering the technological properties, all the strains were positive for proteolytic activity and EPS and diacetyl production, and most of them had good tolerance to 1-4% NaCl. These results indicate that wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from fruit processing by-products could present performance compatible with probiotic properties and technological features that enable the development of probiotic foods with distinct characteristics.

  9. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrog

  10. Characteristics and attitudes of parents of children born with the use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, A M; Boxer, A S; Corson, S L; Coutifaris, C; Hendrix, A

    1998-11-01

    To explore the medical issues, attitudes, concerns, and choices that parents have about their children born with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Retrospective and prospective survey. An academic medical center and a private practice. Participants who conceived and were delivered of infants in two ART programs. A total of 373 patients were mailed an anonymous survey, a consent form, and the Parent Child Relationship Inventory. The rate of response was approximately 49% for clinic A and 33% for clinic B. Pregnancy outcomes and attitudes about parenting. Respondents' major concerns during pregnancy revolved around miscarriage and the infant's health; complications occurred in 38.9% of first pregnancies. Parents believed that their children were more appreciated, that their children were not emotionally different, that ART did not create ongoing medical or emotional problems, and they were not overprotective as parents. Gender differences were statistically significant on attitudinal variables. Parents had concerns about pregnancy. Overall, men and women felt positive about ART and their parenting. The ART experience is associated with complex choices, attitudes, and emotions.

  11. Warpage Characteristics and Process Development of Through Silicon Via-Less Interconnection Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Lin, Yu-Min; Wu, Sheng-Tsai; Lee, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Shin-Yi; Chang, Hsiang-Hung; Chang, Tao-Chih; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2018-08-01

    In this study, through silicon via (TSV)-less interconnection using the fan-out wafer-level-packaging (FO-WLP) technology and a novel redistribution layer (RDL)-first wafer level packaging are investigated. Since warpage of molded wafer is a critical issue and needs to be optimized for process integration, the evaluation of the warpage issue on a 12-inch wafer using finite element analysis (FEA) at various parameters is presented. Related parameters include geometric dimension (such as chip size, chip number, chip thickness, and mold thickness), materials' selection and structure optimization. The effect of glass carriers with various coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) is also discussed. Chips are bonded onto a 12-inch reconstituted wafer, which includes 2 RDL layers, 3 passivation layers, and micro bumps, followed by using epoxy molding compound process. Furthermore, an optical surface inspector is adopted to measure the surface profile and the results are compared with the results from simulation. In order to examine the quality of the TSV-less interconnection structure, electrical measurement is conducted and the respective results are presented.

  12. Productive and morphological characteristics of new capsicum varieties created in agricultural and technological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Živka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum altogether with tomato is leading species of vegetable in our region. The claim of the marketplace and climatic conditions qualifies route of the selection. A capsicum variety has to be with high yield, to have quality and adaptability according to the ecological conditions of the region. In the Agricultural and technological research center-Zajecar during perennial research capsicum was the most important species. National committee verified two capsicum cultivars on year 2002nd as the product of this work One of them is the cultivar Julija; sweet capsicum with long fruits and the other is the cultivar Mina, chilly pepper. Variety Julija (known as L-ZA-10 were analyzing during two years on the three different locations (Novi Sad, Smederevska Palanka and Zajecar. Yield of the variety was on the level of standard - Župska rana and Gold medal. Julija always had a higher level of the yield than other varieties which were researched, especially in conditions of extremely high level of temperature and base air humidity. Variety Mina (known as L-ZA-1 was early maturing variety with higher yield and higher tolerance to plant diseases and vermins than standard variety Yellow hot chilli pepper. .

  13. Synergism of the method of characteristics and CAD technology for neutron transport calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Wang, D.; He, T.; Wang, G.; Zheng, H.

    2013-01-01

    The method of characteristics (MOC) is a very popular methodology in neutron transport calculation and numerical simulation in recent decades for its unique advantages. One of the key problems determining whether the MOC can be applied in complicated and highly heterogeneous geometry is how to combine an effective geometry processing method with MOC. Most of the existing MOC codes describe the geometry by lines and arcs with extensive input data, such as circles, ellipses, regular polygons and combination of them. Thus they have difficulty in geometry modeling, background meshing and ray tracing for complicated geometry domains. In this study, a new idea making use of a CAD solid modeler MCAM which is a CAD/Image-based Automatic Modeling Program for Neutronics and Radiation Transport developed by FDS Team in China was introduced for geometry modeling and ray tracing of particle transport to remove these geometrical limitations mentioned above. The diamond-difference scheme was applied to MOC to reduce the spatial discretization error of the flat flux approximation in theory. Based on MCAM and MOC, a new MOC code was developed and integrated into SuperMC system, which is a Super Multi-function Computational system for neutronics and radiation simulation. The numerical testing results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the new idea for geometry treatment in SuperMC. (authors)

  14. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  15. Influence of production technology and design on characteristics neutron-sensitive P-I-N diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevertaylo, V.L.; Kovrygin, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of tests on neutron-sensitive p-i-n diode with local p-n junction, which allows to measure not only the integral dose by nonionizing energy loss (NIEL), but also the real-time dose and dose rate because of ionizing energy losses (IEL). The influence of design and process parameters and the lifetime of minority carriers on the radiation characteristics of the device considered. Sensitivity at low doses (from one to ten rad) is limited due to a decrease in the lifetime because of influence of lateral sides of cut. The sensitivity and accuracy of dose can be increased by moving of p-n junction away from the cut surface. The dependence of the voltage drop across the diode on the neutron dose irradiation up to 5 krad received, and the sensitivity was 2 - 3 mV/rad. We have demonstrated that replacement of the bulk p-i-n diode with total p-n junction by new diodes with local p-n junction allow for increase sensitivity, accuracy of dose and application in NIEL and IEL measurements simultaneously. Explanation for the extinction of a direct current through the diode with increasing doses of neutron irradiation proposed

  16. Transforming beef by-products into valuable ingredients: which spell/recipe to use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Mary Henchion

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance. It also highlights the impact of life experiences, linked to demographic characteristics, on interpretations and evaluations of products and processes. Ideational influences, i.e. knowledge of the nature or origin of the substance, are reasons for rejecting some concepts, with misalignment between nature of processing and the product resulting in rejection of others. Lack of perceived necessity also results in rejection. Alignment of ingredients with existing culinary practices and routines, communication of potential sensory or other benefits as well as naturalness are factors likely to promote acceptance, and generate repeat purchase, in some consumer segments. Trust in oversight that the products are safe is a prerequisite for acceptance in all cases. These findings have implications for pathways to increase sustainability of beef production and consumption through increased use of beef by-products.

  17. A Hybrid MCDM Approach for Strategic Project Portfolio Selection of Agro By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Debnath

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing size of the population, society faces several challenges for sustainable and adequate agricultural production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the strategic project portfolio selection (SPPS. The initial adaptation of strategic portfolio management of genetically modified (GM Agro by-products (Ab-Ps is a huge challenge in terms of processing the agro food product supply-chain practices in an environmentally nonthreatening way. As a solution to the challenges, the socio-economic characteristics for SPPS of GM food purchasing scenarios are studied. Evaluation and selection of the GM agro portfolio management are the dynamic issues due to physical and immaterial criteria involving a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM approach, combining modified grey Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, Multi-Attributive Border Approximation area Comparison (MABAC and sensitivity analysis. Evaluation criteria are grouped into social, differential and beneficial clusters, and the modified DEMATEL procedure is used to derive the criteria weights. The MABAC method is applied to rank the strategic project portfolios according to the aggregated preferences of decision makers (DMs. The usefulness of the proposed research framework is validated with a case study. The GM by-products are found to be the best portfolio. Moreover, this framework can unify the policies of agro technological improvement, corporate social responsibility (CSR and agro export promotion.

  18. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  19. Gamma Radiation Influence on Rheological and Technological Characteristics of Wheat Flour (misr-1) and Sensory Properties of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Asael, M.A.; El-Adly, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on rheological and technological characteristics of flour extraction from irradiated wheat grains (misr-1) with 3,6 and 9 kGy, also baking quality and sensory characteristics of pan breads made from this flour. The rheological properties of wheat flour 72% extraction were determined by farinograph parameter, extensograph parameter and measured by amylo graph paramete. Gamma radiation caused increase in water absorption and decrease dough development time, and dough stability time. The decrease percentage increased by increasing dose rate and increased the dough weakness, also γ-irradiation increased the elasticity, decrease extensibility and decrease dough strength (energy), whereas γ-irradiation on wheat grains (misr-1) decrease the maximum viscosity of flour, it indicate an increase in enzymatic activity as a result of the breakdown of starch and improve the gluten index %, this fact is beneficial for bread baking purposes. So γ-irradiation increased volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy,and no real differences of taste, texture, appearance and odor scores for sensory evaluation of pan bread made of flour extraction from irradiated and un-irradiated wheat grains. Mean while, irradiation particularly at higher doses (6 and 9 kGy)caused difference in the color (darkness) of pan bread. Gamma irradiation increased the baking quality, and improvement volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy.

  20. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102 at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw decreased (p<0.05 up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05 increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05 color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.

  1. Characteristics Associated with Persistence and Retention among First-Generation College Students Majoring in Science, Technology, Engineering, or Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Lorie Lasseter

    Persistence and retention of college students is a great concern in American higher education. The dropout rate is even more apparent among first-generation college students, as well as those majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). More students earning STEM degrees are needed to fill the many jobs that require the skills obtained while in college. More importantly, those students who are associated with a low-socioeconomic background may use a degree to overcome poverty. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics associated with student attrition among first-generation students or STEM majors, very little information exists in terms of persistence and retention among the combined groups. The current qualitative study identified some of the characteristics associated with persistence and retention among first-generation college students who are also STEM majors. Participants were juniors or seniors enrolled at a regional 4-year institution. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to allow participants to share their personal experiences as first-generation STEM majors who continue to persist and be retained by their institution. Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure (1987) was used as a framework for the investigation. This theory emphasizes personal and academic background, personal goals, disconnecting from one's own culture, and institutional integration as predictors of persistence. The findings of the investigation revealed that persisting first-generation STEM majors are often connected to family, but have been able to separate that connection with that of the institution. They also are goal-driven and highly motivated and have had varied pre-college academic experiences. These students are academically integrated and socially integrated in some ways, but less than their non-first-generation counterparts. They are overcoming obstacles that students from other backgrounds may not experience. They receive

  2. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  3. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  4. By Product Ternak Teknologi dan Aplikasinya

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Muhammad Irfan

    2015-01-01

    DAFTAR PUSTAKA Adventini, N., Muhayatun, D. D. Lestiani dan W.Y.N. Syahfitri. 2012. Analisis Mikronutrien dalam Daging, Limpa, dan Hati Sapi. Jurnal Medika. 38 (8), 580???586. Angelidaki, I., and B. K. Ahring. 2000. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure. Water Science Technology. 41 (3), 189-194. Anonim. 1974. Gelita-Instant-Gelatins Type 800 A Type 800 B. Gelatine-Information-Service. Deutsche Gelatine-Febrike...

  5. Student and high-school characteristics related to completing a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) major in college

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.

  6. Nutritional diversity of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.G. Azevêdo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven by-products were collected from regions throughout Brazil. Chemical composition, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were determined with the objective of grouping by-products with similar nutritional characteristics. The by-products belonging to group one (G1 presented the highest content of neutral detergent fiber exclusive of ash and nitrogenous compounds [aNDFom(n] and lowest energy content, with 42.5% and 38.8% of IVNDFD and TDN, respectively. A new cluster analysis was carried in order to better characterize G2 by-products, six subgroups (SGs were established (SG1 to SG6. SG1 by-products had the highest and the lowest values for lignin and TDN, respectively. SG2 by-products had the highest aNDFom(n value, with TDN and IVNDFD values greater than 600 and 700g/kg, respectively, and crude protein (CP value below 200g/kg in dry matter (DM. Among all the subgroups, SG3 had the highest TDN (772g/kg and IVNDFD (934g/kg values and the lowest lignin (23g/kg in DM value. The ether extract was what most influenced the hierarchical establishment of residual grouping in SG4. SG5 by-products had the highest concentration of non-fibrous carbohydrate. Different from the other subgroups, SG6 by-products had the highest value of available CP.

  7. Mining by-products show potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Grant

    2013-01-01

    , transition metals, metalloids and anions such as arsenate have been effectively removed from wastewater. This process purifies the wastewater from mines in a faster, more effective way that does not require large amounts of infrastructure or difficult chemistry to achieve it. The advantages don't stop there. The hydrotalcites themselves are easily removed using centrifugation, leaving behind a much cleaner sludge and a lot less of it. Initial results have shown the treatment produces around 80 to 90% less sludge than that of lime-based treatments — so it does not present the same scale of handling and final disposal problems. The hydrotalcite-treated water can be recycled back into the plant to lower the total cost of water used in the mining operations, ultimately helping to reduce water consumption as there will be less water drawn from the environment such as from the groundwater near to the mine. This would be particularly valuable for mining operations in arid regions with limited water supply such as in Australia and Chile. Around the world the minerals industry is keen to find more efficient ways to treat their wastewaters and reduce their environmental footprint. With the inherent technical advantages and added benefits of using hydrotalcites, there's a high likelihood of the mining industry adopting this technology on a global scale. The steps to making this a reality have already been made, with commercialisation of the technology underway via Australian company Virtual Curtain. There is also the potential use the treatment to reprocess and recover valuable commodities and produce 'ore- grade' material out of the contaminants. The material can be fed back into the recovery process to recover a greater proportion of the contained metals. This is a very real example of extracting 'wealth from waste', opening up the possibility of partially offsetting wastewater treatment costs for the mining industry.

  8. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare

    1997-12-31

    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Abel Massingue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella. Methods Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella’s was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA analysis. Results The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05 fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05 higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C*, and lower h° and darker (lower L* than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05 sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Conclusion Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  10. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingue, Armando Abel; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a *, C *, and lower h °) and darker (lower L *) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  11. Influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone, microcrystalline cellulose and colloidal silicon dioxide on technological characteristics of a high-dose Petiveria alliacea tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Martha-Estrella; Lemus-Rodríguez, Zoe; Hung-Arbelo, Mario; Vistel-Vigo, Marlen

    2017-12-01

    Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub used by its immunomodulatory, anticancerogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study determined the influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD) and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) on the technological characteristic of a high-dose P. alliacea tablet prepared by the wet granulation method. The botanical and pharmacognostic analysis of the plant material was firstly performed, followed by a 2 3 factorial design considering three factors at two levels: (a) the binder (PVP) incorporated in formulation at 10% and 15% (w/w); (b) the compacting agent (CSD) added at 10% and 15% (w/w) and; (c) the diluent (MC) included at 7.33% and 12.46% (w/w). The analysis of pharmaceutical performance and the accelerated and long-term stability of the best prototype were also completed. The binder, compacting agent and the interaction binder/diluent had a significant impact on breaking force of high-dose P. alliacea tablet. The optimum formula was found to contain 15% (w/w) of CSD, 7.33% (w/w) of MC and 10% (w/w) of PVP. At these conditions, the tablet shows a breaking force of 77.96 N, a friability of 0.39%, a total phenol content of 1.30 mg/tablet and a maximum disintegration time of 6 min. The use of adequate amounts of PVP, MC and CSD as per the factorial design allowed the preparation of a tablet suitable for administration, despite the inappropriate flow and compressibility properties of the P. alliacea powder.

  12. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  13. Evolution of technology convergence networks in Korea: Characteristics of temporal changes in R&D according to institution type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Seongkyoon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal changes in development of technology convergence networks by institution type, i.e., public research institute (PRI), university and industry. Using the co-classification of technological domains of patents, we identified technology convergence of Korean patents, which were filed at Korea Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) from 1997 to 2011. We conducted a network analysis at the technology level to search for the key technology fields and frequent instances of technology convergence. The results show that technology convergence networks have grown significantly in the recent period regardless of the institution type. While industries started to conspicuously engage in technology convergence in the late 1990s, universities or PRIs did not do so until the mid-2000s. This discrepancy in the phase of technology convergence is attributed to the temporal difference in R&D stage (e.g., basic research and commercial product development). Our findings imply that corporal and governmental R&D management decision on promising technology fields will be more effective if the decision makers carefully consider the type of R&D entity in analyzing technological landscapes. PMID:29420574

  14. Evolution of technology convergence networks in Korea: Characteristics of temporal changes in R&D according to institution type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Seongkyoon; Jung, Jung-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal changes in development of technology convergence networks by institution type, i.e., public research institute (PRI), university and industry. Using the co-classification of technological domains of patents, we identified technology convergence of Korean patents, which were filed at Korea Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) from 1997 to 2011. We conducted a network analysis at the technology level to search for the key technology fields and frequent instances of technology convergence. The results show that technology convergence networks have grown significantly in the recent period regardless of the institution type. While industries started to conspicuously engage in technology convergence in the late 1990s, universities or PRIs did not do so until the mid-2000s. This discrepancy in the phase of technology convergence is attributed to the temporal difference in R&D stage (e.g., basic research and commercial product development). Our findings imply that corporal and governmental R&D management decision on promising technology fields will be more effective if the decision makers carefully consider the type of R&D entity in analyzing technological landscapes.

  15. Characterization of by-products from the Coolside process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Thomas, G.A.; Schram, W.H.; Givens, E.N.; Robertson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Coolside is a flexible dry flue gas desulfurization process for removal of SO 2 from coal fired power plants emissions. Hydrated lime is pneumatically injected dry into the power plant duct work on the cool side of the air preheater. The flue gas stream is then humidified to within about 20--30 F of adiabatic saturation by spraying atomized water. A critical component of the Coolside process is the addition of a promoter to the water spray to enhance SO 2 capture efficiency. In general, sodium based compounds have been found to be the most effective promoters, although chloride salts have also been shown to be effective if added during lime hydration. The Coolside technology was successfully demonstrated at the Ohio Edison Edgewater Plant as part of a US DOE supported US EPA demonstration program. The test lasted from July 1989 through February 1990 and had two primary goals. First, to achieve overall SO 2 reductions of 30%, 50%, and 70%. Second, to achieve reliable process operations at 20 and 25 F approach to adiabatic saturation. The demonstration was considered successful. The Coolside solids differ from other dry scrubber wastes in that the residual lime is hydrated and from other low temperature scrubbing wastes in that the sorbent activator, NaOH in this case, introduces significant quantities of sodium compounds in the waste. Sixty-five tons of the waste were collected during the demonstration runs in February 1990 in order to assess the environmental impact of the by-product through a series of field lysimeter and laboratory column leaching studies. In the first phase of this assessment, approximately 400 samples of the by-product material have been analyzed for the major, minor, and trace elements by the ultimate and proximate analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and PIXE/PIGE analysis. The results of these analyses and the unique chemistry of the Coolside solids as a function of processing variables is presented in this paper

  16. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  17. Comparative Phytonutrient Analysis of Broccoli By-Products: The Potentials for Broccoli By-Product Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengpei; Zhang, Lihua; Ser, Suk Lan; Cumming, Jonathan R; Ku, Kang-Mo

    2018-04-13

    The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues. Broccoli florets had higher concentrations of amino acids, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin compared to other tissues, whereas leaves were higher in carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Leaves were also good sources of calcium and manganese compared to other tissues. Stems had the lowest nitrile formation from glucosinolate. Each tissue exhibited specific core gene expression profiles supporting glucosinolate metabolism, with different gene homologs expressed in florets, stems, and leaves, which suggests that tissue-specific pathways function to support primary and secondary metabolic pathways in broccoli. This comprehensive nutrient and bioactive compound profile represents a useful resource for the evaluation of broccoli by-product utilization in the human diet, and as feedstocks for bioactive compounds for industry.

  18. Comparative Phytonutrient Analysis of Broccoli By-Products: The Potentials for Broccoli By-Product Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengpei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues. Broccoli florets had higher concentrations of amino acids, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin compared to other tissues, whereas leaves were higher in carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Leaves were also good sources of calcium and manganese compared to other tissues. Stems had the lowest nitrile formation from glucosinolate. Each tissue exhibited specific core gene expression profiles supporting glucosinolate metabolism, with different gene homologs expressed in florets, stems, and leaves, which suggests that tissue-specific pathways function to support primary and secondary metabolic pathways in broccoli. This comprehensive nutrient and bioactive compound profile represents a useful resource for the evaluation of broccoli by-product utilization in the human diet, and as feedstocks for bioactive compounds for industry.

  19. Pyrolysis of forestry biomass by-products in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.A.

    1999-06-01

    This article summarizes the technical characteristics of a biomass pyrolysis pilot plant recently constructed in central Greece. It highlights the considerations involved in achieving successful pyrolysis technology and environmental and developmental goals, by reviewing technical and nontechnical barriers associated with biomass treatment technology in Greece. Data from the start-up phase of the plant operation are presented and some aspects of the process are outlined. The capacity of the plant is 1200 1450 kg hr, based on wet biomass (Arbutus Unedo) and the pyrolysis temperature is approximately 400{sup o}C. Char yield is 1418 % weight on dry basis and is of good quality consisting of 76{sup o}C with heat content 6760 kcal kg. Bio-oil includes 63% C and its heat content is 6250 kcal kg. (author)

  20. Pyrolysis of forestry biomass by-products in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.A. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-06-01

    This article summarizes the technical characteristics of a biomass pyrolysis pilot plant recently constructed in central Greece. It highlights the considerations involved in achieving successful pyrolysis technology and environmental and developmental goals, by reviewing technical and nontechnical barriers associated with biomass treatment technology in Greece. Data from the start-up phase of the plant operation are presented and some aspects of the process are outlined. The capacity of the plant is 1200--1450 kg/hr, based on wet biomass (Arbutus Unedo) and the pyrolysis temperature is approximately 400 C. Char yield is 14--18% weight on dry basis and is of good quality consisting of 76% C with heat content 6760 kcal/kg. Bio-oil includes 64% C and its heat content is 6250 kcal/kg.

  1. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  2. Digital by-product data in web 2.0 exploring mass collaboration of Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zeyi

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), every action on the Internet nowadays is recorded by digital by-product data: online purchases, tagging friends' photos, browsing webpages, etc. This unprecedented technological revolution has empowered us with unique abilities to understand not only people's behaviours, but also online platforms. Business corporates and academic researchers alike have both embarked on actively mining such information to stay ahead of the game in th...

  3. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  4. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  5. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Farm and socio-economic characteristics of smallholder milk producers and their influence on technology adoption in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos Galdino Martínez; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    In order to identify the factors influencing adoption of technologies promoted by government to small-scale dairy farmers in the highlands of central Mexico, a field survey was conducted. A total of 115 farmers were grouped through cluster analysis (CA) and divided into three wealth status categories (high, medium and low) using wealth ranking. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the association of wealth status with technology adoption. Four groups of farms were differentiated in terms of farms' dimensions, farmers' education, sources of incomes, wealth status, management of herd, monetary support by government and technological availability. Statistical differences (p technologies identified, six of which focused on crop or forage production and 11 of which were related to animal husbandry. Relatives and other farmers played an important role in knowledge diffusion and technology adoption. Although wealth status had a significant association (p technology to farmers, usefulness and productive benefits of innovations together with farmers' knowledge of them, were important. It is concluded that the analysis of the information per group and wealth status was useful to identify suitable crop or forage related and animal husbandry technologies per group and wealth status of farmers. Therefore the characterizations of farmers could provide a useful starting point for the design and delivery of more appropriate and effective extension.

  7. The Impact of Entrepreneurial Characteristics on the Intention of Administrative Sciences Students –University of Science and Technology – to Start New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Mohammed Al-Nashmi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial characteristics (locus of control, self-confidence, need for achievement, independency and responsibility, risk-taking, creativity on entrepreneurial intentions among business students in the University of Science and Technology, Yemen. The researcher used descriptive analytical methods to answer the study questions, and used a questionnaire for collecting quantitative data from the study sample which consisted of 157 university students. The study findings showed that there was a significant effect of entrepreneurial characteristics on the intentions to start new ventures among business students in the University of Science and Technology. Based on the regression analysis applied in the study, results also showed that students' locus of control, and their creativity level were of the highest influencing variables on students' intentions, whereas self-confidence appeared to be the lowest influencing variable. The study concluded that students of administrative sciences have several characteristics and traits of a successful entrepreneur. This enhances their enthusiasm towards initiating their own businesses, given proper support. In light of the findings, the researcher presented a set of recommendations to the stakeholders.  Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial characteristics, Entrepreneurial intention, Small enterprises.

  8. Optimization of extrusion variables for the production of snacks from by-products of rice and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairy Silva Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to define the process conditions to obtain snacks from the by-products of rice and soybean with physical characteristics suitable for marketing. Therefore, the effects of moisture and extrusion temperature on the expansion and color of the products obtained experimentally obtained were evaluated, and the proximate composition of the by-products and that of the snack with greater desirability were determined. Response surface methodology and rotational central composite design were used, and desirability test based on the regression models adjusted was applied. The most desirable snack, with the highest expansion index (3.39, specific volume (13.5 mL.g-1, and the chromaticity coordinate a* (2.79, was obtained under 12 g.100 g-1 moisture and 85ºC of temperature in the third zone of the extruder. The snack produced under these conditions attained content of protein and lipid content 41 and 64% higher than that of the traditional corn snack. It can be concluded that producing extruded snack made form a mixture of broken grains, rice bran, and soybean okara (81:9:10 is technologically feasible, enabling the development of a new product with good nutritional value that can improve the diet of children, the main consumers of this type of food.

  9. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  10. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  11. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  12. PRODUCTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-23

    Feb 23, 2016 ... The pulp and kernels of the fruit are the only by-products marketed by women and mainly girls who .... characteristics of trees and fruit involved, 30 adult hermaphrodite ..... Ethnobotanical research and traditional health care in.

  13. Efeito de dietas semi-simplificadas formuladas com subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de coelhos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.9643 Effect of half-simplified diets formulated with cassava by-product ensiled or not on performance and carcass characteristics of rabbits - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.9643

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Monteiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o desempenho da desmama ao abate e as características de carcaça de 144 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, oriundos de matrizes alimentadas com dietas referência ou semi-simplificada com 79,83% de subprodutos de mandioca, distribuídos em gaiolas, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (duas rações fornecidas às matrizes e láparos até a desmama versus três rações fornecidas aos animais da desmama até o abate com 12 repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas fornecidas, após a desmama, consistiram de uma referência e duas semi-simplificadas com 81,63% de subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não antes da sua incorporação. Coelhos cujas mães foram alimentadas com dieta semi-simplificadas se apresentaram mais leves à desmama que os desmamados com dieta-referência. Observou-se menor consumo de ração para os coelhos que receberam a dieta maternidade semi-simplificada até a desmama, resultando em melhor conversão alimentar. Os pesos da carcaça e dos cortes comerciais foram maiores nos animais alimentados com as rações referência maternidade e referência crescimento. O uso de dietas semi-simplificadas com subprodutos de mandioca ensilados ou não, da desmama ao abate, reduziu o ganho de peso diário e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou a conversão alimentar e diminuiu o custo de ração. A utilização das rações semi-simplificadas apresenta-se como alternativa interessante para a produção de coelhos.This study evaluated the performance from weaning to slaughter and carcass characteristics of 144 New Zealand White rabbits, from does fed with a reference diet or half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava by-product, allocated in iron cages, in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two diets used for does and litters until weaning versus three diets supplied for animals from weaning to slaughter with 12 replications and two animals per experimental unit. The supplied diets after weaning

  14. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a

  15. CONSIDERATIONS IN UTILIZING BY-PRODUCT CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    By-product feeds provide a variety of carbohydrates that can vary greatly in their content, digestibility, and physical effects. Variation in the composition and quality of by-product feeds needs to be evaluated to assess whether the variation poses an acceptable risk for inclusion of small or larg...

  16. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  17. Influence of layout parameters on snapback characteristic for a gate-grounded NMOS device in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yuxi; Li Jiao; Ran Feng; Cao Jialin; Yang Dianxiong

    2009-01-01

    Gate-grounded NMOS (GGNMOS) devices with different device dimensions and layout floorplans have been designed and fabricated in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology. The snapback characteristics of these GGNMOS devices are measured using the transmission line pulsing (TLP) measurement technique. The relationships between snapback parameters and layout parameters are shown and analyzed. A TCAD device simulator is used to explain these relationships. From these results, the circuit designer can predict the behavior of the GGNMOS devices under high ESD current stress, and design area-efficient ESD protection circuits to sustain the required ESD level. Optimized layout rules for ESD protection in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology are also presented. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Atributos físicos de um Hapludox em função de sistemas de produção integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP, sob plantio direto = Soil physical characteristics of an Oxisol as affected by production systems lay farming, under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alguns atributos físicos do solo foram avaliados, após oito anos da instalação do experimento (1995 a 2003, num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Coxilha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em seis sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens anuais de inverno e deverão: sistema I (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-milho; sistema II (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-milho; sistema III (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-pastagem de milheto; sistema IV (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-pastagem de milheto; sistema V (trigo-soja / aveia branca-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-pastagem de milheto; e sistema VI (trigo-soja / aveia branca-soja /pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-pastagem de milheto. A densidade de solo e resistência à penetração foram maior na camada 10-15 cm do que na camada 0-5 cm. Nos sistemas I, V e VI, houve diminuição da porosidade total e aumento da densidade e da resistência à penetração de solo, na camada 10-15 cm, em relação à camada 0-5 cm, devido maior intensidade das atividades agropastoris. Após oito anos, os sistemas de manejo com integração lavoura pecuárianão provocaram degradação, em níveis limitantes, nas propriedades físicas do solo manejado sob sistema plantio direto. Soil physical characteristics were evaluated, after eight years (1995 to 2003, on a typic Hapludox located in Coxilha, Rio Grande do SulState, Brazil. Six crop production systems were evaluated: system I (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-corn; system II (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch + annual ryegrass pasture-corn; system III (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-pearl millet pasture; system IV (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch + annual ryegrass pasture-pearl millet pasture; system V (wheat-soybean, white oat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-pearl millet pasture

  19. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  20. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  1. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  2. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  3. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  4. Raw materials from the region of Rio Claro - SP for the manufacture of ceramic coatings: technological characteristics and geological-technological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, R.A.; Roveri, C.D.; Maestrelli, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    The Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Polo (PCSG) is the largest national producer of ceramic tiles, located in east-central region of Sao Paulo, encompassing different cities. PCSG uses various clays as the main raw material from the Corumbatai Formation, which is inserted in the Sedimentary Basin of Parana, with more than 1.5 square kilometers. In this context, X-ray diffractograms of samples from different areas of PCSG were used for application of the cluster analysis. Aiming to group the samples in families and subsequently to seek the most representative for the complete analysis. Also, ceramic tests were made by the following methods: the green bulk density after pressing, flexural strength modulus for green. , tests were conducted after firing at 1070 °C and 1120 °C: apparent density after drying, flexural modulus; after firing: apparent density after firing, water absorption linear shrinkage sintering, apparent porosity, modulus of resistance to bending after burning. Further, from the georeferenced sample were created tables for industry in the area, to facilitate the identification of new sample by XRD. Furthermore, the 3D model of the region was developed from the interesting characteristics for ceramic use, using Micromine Mining Software, Enterprise Micromine. (author)

  5. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  6. Morphological and crystalline structural characteristics of PEDOT™/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites for applications towards technology in electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashery, A. [Solid State Physics Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, 12311 (Egypt); Said, G. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Arafa, W.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayom University, Fayoum (Egypt); Gaballah, A.E.H. [Research Scholar, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University (Egypt); Farag, A.A.M., E-mail: alaafaragg@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Aljouf University, Aljouf (Saudi Arabia); Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-06-25

    Nanocomposites of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Tetra Methacrylate (PEDOT™)/TiO{sub 2} were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy indicated highly dense surface morphology of the prepared samples. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the prepared samples have particle size comparable with those obtained by X-ray diffraction results. The crystallite sizes, lattice strain and other related physical parameters were calculated by using X-ray peak broadening analysis. Optical constants such as extinction coefficient and refractive index as well as dielectric constants were calculated for PEDOT™/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film using spectrophotometric measurements of both transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–2400 nm. PEDOT™/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films/n-Si diodes were prepared by spin coating method. The electrical properties of the diodes were investigated at different temperatures in the range 300–375 K. The prepared diode showed a rectification characteristics and the rectification ratio was studied as a function of voltage at different temperatures. Temperature dependence of both ideality factor and barrier height was also investigated. High values of ideality factor confirmed the abnormality characteristics of the prepared diodes as compared to the conventional behavior of ideal diode. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite TiO{sub 2}- PEDOT™ films were prepared by sol gel technique. • A remarkable dependence of n and dispersion parameters on film thickness. • Anomalous behavior of n was explained by multi-oscillation model. • Energy gap of PEDOT™ doped TiO{sub 2} is lower than those for undoped TiO{sub 2}. • Rectification characteristics were observed for PEDOT™-doped TiO{sub 2}/n-Si.

  7. Characteristics of the Institute of Technology 'Prof. Jorge A. Sabato'; Caracteristicas del Instituto de Tecnologia 'Prof. Jorga A. Sabato'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvele, Jose R [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    2001-07-01

    A historical survey is made of the educational and training activities in metallurgy and material sciences carried out by the CNEA since 1962, that were the origin of the 'Prof. Jorge A. Sabato' Institute. Today the Institute, created by the CNEA in association with the National University of General San Martin, is preparing Engineers in Material Sciences and Masters and Ph. D. in Material Sciences and Technology (Mention in Physics and Material). The curricula of the studies are described in detail. The Information Center annexed to the Institute is also described.

  8. Impact of Information Technology, Clinical Resource Constraints, and Patient-Centered Practice Characteristics on Quality of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongDeuk Baek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Factors in the practice environment, such as health information technology (IT infrastructure, availability of other clinical resources, and financial incentives, may influence whether practices are able to successfully implement the patient-centered medical home (PCMH model and realize its benefits. This study investigates the impacts of those PCMH-related elements on primary care physicians’ perception of quality of care. Methods: A multiple logistic regression model was estimated using the 2004 to 2005 CTS Physician Survey, a national sample of salaried primary care physicians (n = 1733. Results: The patient-centered practice environment and availability of clinical resources increased physicians’ perceived quality of care. Although IT use for clinical information access did enhance physicians’ ability to provide high quality of care, a similar positive impact of IT use was not found for e-prescribing or the exchange of clinical patient information. Lack of resources was negatively associated with physician perception of quality of care. Conclusion: Since health IT is an important foundation of PCMH, patient-centered practices are more likely to have health IT in place to support care delivery. However, despite its potential to enhance delivery of primary care, simply making health IT available does not necessarily translate into physicians’ perceptions that it enhances the quality of care they provide. It is critical for health-care managers and policy makers to ensure that primary care physicians fully recognize and embrace the use of new technology to improve both the quality of care provided and the patient outcomes.

  9. The User Characteristics Effects to Smart Board Usage on Technology Acceptance Model Variables: The Sample of Bartin Highschool Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Akça

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new technology’s acceptance also gets shaped according to users’ features, expectations and perceptions. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM that developed by Davis (1989, defends that there are perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use variables to determinants of a new technology’s usage by user. These perceptions predict the user’s behavior and explain it. The smart board that has common usage in modern classrooms provides effectiveness at education and learning activities. Teachers who use smart boards can present more effectively. This situation increases the teacher’s productivity and student’s learning success and improvement the class’s education quality. Existence of the smart board in the classroom motivates all by self. Thanks to this technological device, it is easy to access internet based study materials. This study’s purpose is testing the user features explanation power effects to usage of smart board, which is a new education tool, based on TAM variables. For performing of the research, surveys have actualized with 24 teachers at Bartin High School with smart boards. Survey data have been interpreted based on correlation, factor and regression analyses in WarpPLS 5.0. Results have been concluded from analyse strongly supports research model.

  10. Development of nuclear transmutation technology - A study on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of Pb-Bi coolant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Youl; Yang, Hui Chang; Huh, Byung Gil [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide the direction of HYPER design in terms of thermal hydraulics especially through the analysis of thermal hydraulic characteristics of lead-bismuth material as a HYPER coolant and of proton accelerator target system. In this study, in order to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of HYPER system, the FLUENT calculation is performed with liquid metal lead-bismuth(43%) and the turbulent Prandtl number model is developed. Also, the heat transfer analyses including temperature rising are performed for accelerator beam window, solid tungsten target and liquid target which is composed of liquid lead and lead-bismuth, respectively and the thermal stress analyses are performed for accelerator beam window. Through this study, the BASECASE whose parameter is HYPER system design specification is calculated by FLUENT. It is shown that the coolant velocity must exceeds 1.6 m/s for supporting the core coolant temperature in operating temperature range. The suggested turbulent Prandtl number model is applicable to liquid metal. And in order to maintain the integrity of proton beam target system, it is necessary to investigate the target structure associated with smoothing the flow path and beam window cooling. 43 refs., 67 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  11. Improvement of fatty acid profile and studio of rheological and technological characteristics in breads supplemented with flaxseed, soybean, and wheat bran flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Mariana B; Judis, María A; Romero, Ana M; Avallone, Carmen M; Bertola, Nora C

    2014-01-01

    Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA) profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran) and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF), soybeans flour (SF), or wheat bran (WB) was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg(-1) of wheat flour (WF) in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg(-1) SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  12. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  13. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons between the Particulate and the Gas Phase of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Relation to Cigarette Technological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaitzoglou M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Particulate- and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in the mainstream smoke (MSS of 59 manufactured cigarette brands (commercially available brands of unknown tobacco and blend type with variable ‘tar’ yields and physical/technological characteristics. Depending on the existence/absence of filter, the ‘tar’ yield indicated on the packet, and the cigarette length and diameter, the examined cigarette brands were classified into 15 groups: non filter (NF, high (H, medium (M, light (L, super light (SL, ultra light (UL, one-tar yields (O, 100 mm long cigarettes (H-100, L-100, SL-100, UL-100, O-100, and slim cigarettes (SL-SLIM, UL-SLIM, O-SLIM. Cigarettes were smoked in a reference smoking machine equipped with glass fibre filters for collection of PAHs bound to total particulate matter (TPM, and polyurethane foam plugs (PUF for collection of gas-phase PAHs. The relationships of gas- and particulate-phase concentrations of PAHs (ng/cig with the contents of typical MSS components, such as TPM, ‘tar’, nicotine and carbon monoxide were investigated. In addition, the phase partitioning of PAHs in MSS was evaluated in relation to the technological characteristics of cigarettes.

  14. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Mariana B.; Judis, María A.; Romero, Ana M.; Avallone, Carmen M.; Bertola, Nora C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA) profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran) and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF), soybeans flour (SF), or wheat bran (WB) was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF) in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile. PMID:25478592

  15. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH 4 + -N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm -1 ) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm -1 ) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by-products

  16. Investigation on by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient using FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and phyto-toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-07-01

    Success and acceptability of the bio energy conversion technology to a large extent depend upon management of the inevitable by-products generated during the conversion process. By-products can be considered favourable as organic fertilizer as they retain nutrients with varying composition depending upon input biomass. However, characteristics of these heterogeneous resources with respect to feedstock and processing conditions have to be assessed to state on their agricultural and environmental benefits. Therefore, 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from surplus biomass viz. cow dung, Ipomoea carnea:cow dung (60:40 dry weight basis) and rice straw:green gram stover:cow dung (30:30:40 dry weight basis) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk are considered to understand the fertilizer prospects. Considering 3 potential application options, digestate from each feedstock option was further processed as separated solid, separated liquid and ash from solid digestates. Thus, a total of 10 by-products were investigated for understanding their prospects as fertilizer using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and phyto-toxicity test to have a broad insight in terms of their organic, mineral, elemental composition, morphological feature and potential phyto-toxicity. In general, irrespective of origin of feedstock, solid digestate, ash digestate and char showed similarity in terms of composition of functional groups with some degree of variation in relative content as reflected by FTIR analysis. Dominance of organic functional groups in separated solid digestates compared to liquid fraction indicated the former as favourable organic amendments. Quartz was the prevalent mineral phase in all separated solid, ash digestate and rice husk char. Digestates in ash phase represent more concentrated plant nutrient source with

  17. Performance Characteristics of a Wood By-Product as Base Friction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resulting friction brake lining materials were additionally subjected to thermal cycles and associated baking and curing. The final products were thereafter subjected to laboratory and road performance tests which included investigations of the effects of temperature and pressure on the friction lining coefficients, the ...

  18. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; semiconductor manufacturing processes. The measurements of airborne NPs were mainly performed around process equipment during fabrication processes and during maintenance. The number concentrations of NPs were measured using a water-based condensation particle counter having a size range of 10-3,000 nm. The chemical composition, size, and shape of NPs were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were particle size exceeded 100 nm in diffusion, metallization, ion implantation, and wet cleaning/etching process. The results show that the SiO2 and TiO2 are the major NPs present in semiconductor cleanroom environments.

  19. Nutritional characteristics of by-products originating from the Central European ethanol fuel industry for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrayová, S; Brestensky, M; Patrás, P; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Chemical composition and nutrient and energy digestibilities were determined in 4 samples of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and 1 sample of wet distillers grains (WDG) from 4 ethanol fuel manufacturers. The cereal sources used for ethanol production were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 1 sample), wheat + barley (Hordeum vulgare; 2 samples), and maize (Zea mays; 2 samples). The nutrient contents (expressed as % of DM) were variable, ranging from 30.5 to 39.5 CP, 4.4 to 12.3 fat, 7.5 to 12.9 crude fiber, 2.7 to 7.8 ash, and 0.4 to 0.9 total P. The concentration of Lys ranged from 2.05 to 5.20 g/kg DM. The diets were fed to 6 gilts (39.9 ± 1.9 kg BW) fitted with ileal T-cannulas using a 5 × 6 Youden square. Each experimental period comprised a 5-d adaptation followed by a 2-d collection of urine and feces and 1-d (24 h) collection of ileal digesta. Using acid-insoluble ash as a marker, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy and AID of AA were calculated. The ATTD of N ranged from 55.7 to 83.7%. The N retention expressed as percentage of N intake ranged from 10.2 to 32.0. Except for wheat-based DDGS, the AID of N was 66.8%. The ATTD and AID values of NDF were 52.8 and 24.4%, respectively. The concentration of total P in WDG was half of values in DDGS, which likely caused its very low ATTD (1.4%). The ATTD and AID of energy ranged from 58.8 to 73.9% and from 40.6 to 54.1%, respectively. The AID of AA was greatest (P origin is an important determinant of quality.

  20. Utilization of by-products in ruminant diets in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.; Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out with the objective of studying the nutritive value of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products, either alone or in combination with non-protein nitrogen, and the use of these by-products in ruminant diets. The intake and nutritive value of poor quality roughages and other by-products (cereal straw, peanut hulls and waste paper) were improved considerably by supplements that provide nitrogen (soybean meal or urea) and energy (barley grain). Partial replacement of soybean meal in diets of fattening lambs by urea was possible and dry mature sheep could be maintained on cereal straw diets supplemented with small quantities of barley grain, urea, minerals and vitamins. Silage was made from citrus peels or grape marc and poultry litter. It replaced successfully part of the concentrate mixture in the diets of lactating cows and growing heifers. (author)

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Structural and electrical characteristics of lanthanum oxide gate dielectric film on GaAs pHEMT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia-Song, Wu; Hsing-Chung, Liu

    2009-11-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using a lanthanum oxide thin film (La2O3) with a high dielectric constant as a gate dielectric on GaAs pHEMTs to reduce gate leakage current and improve the gate to drain breakdown voltage relative to the conventional GaAs pHEMT. An E/D mode pHEMT in a single chip was realized by selecting the appropriate La2O3 thickness. The thin La2O3 film was characterized: its chemical composition and crystalline structure were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. La2O3 exhibited good thermal stability after post-deposition annealing at 200, 400 and 600 °C because of its high binding-energy (835.6 eV). Experimental results clearly demonstrated that the La2O3 thin film was thermally stable. The DC and RF characteristics of Pt/La2O3/Ti/Au gate and conventional Pt/Ti/Au gate pHEMTs were examined. The measurements indicated that the transistor with the Pt/La2O3/Ti/Au gate had a higher breakdown voltage and lower gate leakage current. Accordingly, the La2O3 thin film is a potential high-k material for use as a gate dielectric to improve electrical performance and the thermal effect in high-power applications.

  2. Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Sb>As>Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in >50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  4. Classification of $E_{0}$-semigroups by product systems

    CERN Document Server

    Skeide, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In these notes the author presents a complete theory of classification of E_0-semigroups by product systems of correspondences. As an application of his theory, he answers the fundamental question if a Markov semigroup admits a dilation by a cocycle perturbations of noise: It does if and only if it is spatial.

  5. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  6. MSWI by-products and immobilisates as concrete constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florea, M.V.A.; Quaas, L.C.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Schmidt, W.; Msinjili, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) produces a number of by-products: fly ashes, bottom ash and air pollution control residues. All these materials contain certain levels of contaminants, such as heavy metals, chlorides and sulphates among others, which are higher than the accepted limits for

  7. The Making of the Indian National Innovation Systems: Lessons on the specific characteristics of the domestic and the external co-evolutions of technologies, institutions and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angathevar

    is growing at a nearly 8 % of GDP and is seen as an emerging economy on a par with China. The policy makers in India have asked: can India become a developed country by 2020? (see Kalam, 1998).  India has tried to apply science and technology to industrialise agriculture and build a modern economy......India is one of the few large economies that have functioning national systems of innovation. It has followed largely a period when self-reliance and selective and guided intervention in the world economy prevailed until the early 1990s when liberalisation of the economy took off. Its economy now....... To this day despite the splendid achievements, India has not escaped from underdevelopment, poverty and inequalities. The specification of the peculiarities and characteristics of India's system of innovation by taking various indicators is critical to undertake. India's strategy for building its national...

  8. Production of hydrogen from by-products of food industries by rhodospirillaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, U.

    1983-11-01

    The decomposition of organic substances from food-by-products as whey, beet sugar molasses, cane-sugar-molasses and potato-water by the Rhodospirillaceae Rp. capsulata, Rp. acidophila, Rm. vannielii, Rs. rubrum, and Rs. tenue to hydrogen and carbon dioxide were tested. In a pre-cultivation Lactobacillus bulgaricus converted the sugars of the by-products into lactic acid, which is easier in handling. Rs. rubrum was superior in producing hydrogen from this nutrient. It released from whey up to 56% of the substrate hydrogen, from beet sugar molasses 42%, from cane-sugar-molasses 89% and from potato-water 19%. Out-door-researches were made to evaluate the decrease of hydrogen yield under the influence of weather as well as day and night periods compared to the homogeneous conditions of the laboratory. From 200 m/sup 3/ whey, the daily output of a dairy, 4000 m/sup 3/ hydrogen corresponding to an energy equivalent of 1000 l fuel oil could be produced. To achieve this, 130 000 m/sup 2/ have to be covered with batch fermenters. These results show, that there is nearly no hope to decompose food by-products by Rhodospirillaceae in large scale technology, unless a new processing technology using a flow-fermenter and raising the hydrogen production significantly will be found.

  9. Experimental cancer studies of chlorinated by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    Chlorinated drinking water contains a number of different by-products formed during the chlorination process from organic matter. The carcinogenicity of only a fraction of them have been evaluated in experimental animals. The focus has been on compounds and groups of compounds that are most abundant in chlorinated drinking water or the in vitro toxicity data have suggested genotoxic potential. From trihalomethanes, chloroform causes liver tumors in mice and female rats and renal tumors in male mice and rats. Tumor formation by chloroform is strongly associated with cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation in tissues and that has been considered to be one determinant of its carcinogenicity. From halogenic acetic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichlotoacetic acid (TCA) are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and DCA in male rats. Their genotoxicity is equivocal and nongenotoxic mechanisms, such as peroxisome proliferation and hypomethylation of DNA in the liver, likely contribute to tumor development. From chlorinated furanones (CHFs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) is a multisite carcinogen in rats (e.g. in thyroid glands and liver) and it has caused DNA damage in vivo. MX may be a complete carcinogen because it also has promoter properties in vitro. Chlorinated drinking water may also contain brominated by-products providing the raw water contains bromide. At least some of them (bromodichloromethane, bromoform) have been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Altogether, although several by-products have been shown to have carcinogenic potential in laboratory animals, it not yet possible to state which compounds or groups of by-products cause the cancer risk in chlorinated drinking water. The cellular mechanisms of their effects and these effects at low concentrations are still poorly understood. The few studies with mixtures of these by-products suggest that the mixture effects may be complex and unpredictable (inhibitory

  10. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  11. Patient and cycle characteristics predicting high pregnancy rates with single-embryo transfer: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology outcomes between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Jennifer; Stanhiser, Jamie; Coddington, Charles; Jones, Tiffany; Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B

    2017-11-01

    To analyze factors associated with high live birth rate and low multiple birth rate in fresh and frozen-thawed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. The study population included 181,523 women undergoing in vitro fertilization with autologous fresh first cycles, 27,033 with fresh first oocyte donor cycles, 37,658 with fresh second cycles, and 35,446 with frozen-thawed second cycles. None. Live birth rate and multiple birth rate after single-embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) were measured, in addition to cycle characteristics. In patients with favorable prognostic factors, including younger maternal age, transfer of a blastocyst, and additional embryos cryopreserved, the gain in the live birth rate from SET to DET was approximately 10%-15%; however, the multiple birth rate increased from approximately 2% to greater than 49% in both autologous and donor fresh and frozen-thawed transfer cycles. This study reports a 10%-15% reduction in live birth rate and a 47% decrement in multiple birth rate with SET compared with DET in the setting of favorable patient prognostic factors. Our findings present an opportunity to increase the rate of SET across the United States and thereby reduce the multiple birth rate and its associated poor perinatal outcomes with assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A 3D WEBGIS SYSTEM FOR RETRIEVING AND VISUALIZING CITYGML DATA BASED ON THEIR GEOMETRIC AND SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS BY USING FREE AND OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pispidikis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CityGML is considered as an optimal standard for representing 3D city models. However, international experience has shown that visualization of the latter is quite difficult to be implemented on the web, due to the large size of data and the complexity of CityGML. As a result, in the context of this paper, a 3D WebGIS application is developed in order to successfully retrieve and visualize CityGML data in accordance with their respective geometric and semantic characteristics. Furthermore, the available web technologies and the architecture of WebGIS systems are investigated, as provided by international experience, in order to be utilized in the most appropriate way for the purposes of this paper. Specifically, a PostgreSQL/ PostGIS Database is used, in compliance with the 3DCityDB schema. At Server tier, Apache HTTP Server and GeoServer are utilized, while a Server Side programming language PHP is used. At Client tier, which implemented the interface of the application, the following technologies were used: JQuery, AJAX, JavaScript, HTML5, WebGL and Ol3-Cesium. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the application’s primary objectives are a user-friendly interface and a fully open source development.

  13. Lignin-rich biomass of cotton by-products for biorefineries via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Liang, Jiajin; Wu, Shubin

    2016-10-01

    Pyrolysis was demonstrated to investigate the thermal decomposition characteristics and potential of lignin-rich cotton by-products cotton exocarp (CE) and spent mushroom substrate consisted of cotton by-products (MSC) for biorefineries. The chemical component and structure alteration of CE and MSC was found to affect their thermochemical behaviors. The bio-oil yield from CE was 58.13wt% while the maximum yield from MSC was 45.01% at 600°C. The phenolic compounds obtained from CE and MSC were 33.9% and 39.2%, respectively. The yield of acetic acid from MSC between 400 and 600°C was about 30-38% lower than that from CE, which suggests the high quality of bio-oil was obtained. Biochar from MSC via slow pyrolysis had a high mass yield (44.38wt%) with well-developed pore structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  16. Self-Healing Capacity of Asphalt Mixtures Including By-Products Both as Aggregates and Heating Inductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Cortavitarte, Marta; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Calzada-Pérez, Miguel Á

    2018-05-15

    Major advances have been achieved in the field of self-healing by magnetic induction in which the addition of metallic particles into asphalt mixtures enables repairing their own cracks. This technology has already been proven to increase the life expectancy of roads. Nevertheless, its higher costs in comparison with conventional maintenance caused by the price of virgin metallic particles still makes it unattractive for investment. This research aimed at making this process economically accessible as well as environmentally efficient. To this end, an intense search for suitable industrial by-products to substitute both the virgin metal particles and the natural aggregates forming asphalt mixtures was conducted. The set of by-products used included sand blasting wastes, stainless shot wastes, and polished wastes as metallic particles and other inert by-products as aggregates. The results demonstrated that the by-products were adequately heated, which leads to satisfactory healing ratios in comparison with the reference mixture.

  17. Water disinfection agents and disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.; Kapusta, O.; Kunštek, M.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe factors of water quality change in the distribution network and legislative requirements in Slovakia for disinfectants and disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In the experimental part, the time dependence of the application of the chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on the formation of some by-products of disinfection for drinking water from WTP Hriňová is studied. We monitored trihalomethanes, free chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chlorites.

  18. Models for estimation of the presence of non-regulated disinfection by-products in small drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2017-10-23

    Among all the organic disinfection by-products (DBPs), only trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are regulated in drinking water, while most DBPs are not. Very little information exists on the occurrence of non-regulated DBPs, particularly in small water systems (SWS). Paradoxically, SWS are more vulnerable to DBPs because of a low capacity to implement adequate treatment technologies to remove DBP precursors. Since DBP analyses are expensive, usually SWS have difficulties to implement a rigorous characterization of these contaminants. The purpose of this study was to estimate non-regulated DBP levels in SWS from easy measurements of relevant parameters regularly monitored. Since no information on non-regulated DBPs in SWS was available, a sampling program was carried out in 25 SWS in two provinces of Canada. Five DBP families were investigated: THMs, HAAs, haloacetonitriles (HANs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), and haloketones (HKs). Multivariate linear mixed regression models were developed to estimate HAN, HK, and HNM levels from water quality characteristics in the water treatment plant, concentrations of regulated DBPs, and residual disinfectant levels. The models obtained have a good explanatory capacity since R 2 varies from 0.77 to 0.91 according to compounds and conditions for application (season and type of treatment). Model validation with an independent database suggested their ability for generalization in similar SWS in North America.

  19. Irradiated fuel by-product separation research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, M.

    1984-01-01

    Although no decision has been made to reprocess irradiated CANDU fuel, by-product separation research has recently been initiated in Canada because of its potential importance to Canadian research programs in advanced fuel cycles (especially U/Pu cycle development in the near term) and nuclear waste management. In addition, separated by-products could have a significant commercial potential. Demonstrated applications include: heat sources, gamma radiation sources, light sources, new materials for productions of other useful isotopes, etc. For illustrative purposes the calculated market value of by-products currently stored in irradiated CANDU fuel is approximately $210/kgU. Ontario Hydro has initiated a program to study the application of new separation technolgies, such as laser-based techniques and the plasma ion cyclotron resonance separation technique, to either augment and/or supplant the chemical extraction methods. The main goal is to develop new, more economical extraction methods in order to increase the magnitude of the advantages resulting from this approach to reprocessing. (author)

  20. Hygiene of work in main shops of modern coking by-product industry. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitul' skii, V B

    1984-07-01

    The hygiene of working conditions is evaluated and compared for coking by-product industry shops using modern technology and machines with those using obsolete equipment and methods. Most basic factors in contamination of atmosphere of coking, pitch-coking and metal-refining shops are coal and coke dust, carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially carcinogenic benzpyrene. Contamination of air of working zone is determined by details of technology: periodicity or continuity of industrial processes, use of improved equipment for smokeless injection of charge into stoves and of hermetic pipes to remove gas with hydraulically operated caps, position of machines in shops and in coal tar distillation removal of carcinogenic benzpyrene by sulfonation and aeration. In modernized shops of coking by-product industry, illness and loss of work capacity are significantly lower than in plants using obsolete methods and equipment. Measures are presented for hygienic improvement of working conditions; both methods to further increase efficiency of technological processes and methods to protect individual worker on job such as use of respirators, protective clothing, plexiglass shields, shampoos and skin creams. 14 references.

  1. Testing of CFC replacement fluids for arc-induced toxic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravey, W.R.; Goerz, D.A.; Hawley-Fedder, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The authors have developed a unique test-stand for quantifying the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stress/breakdown environments. PFIB is an extremely toxic gas with a threshold limit value of 10 ppbv as set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. They have tested several new fluids from various manufacturers for their potential to generate PFIB. Their goal is to determine breakdown characteristics and quantify toxic by-products of these replacement fluids to determine a safe, usable alternative for present CFC`s.

  2. The Effect and Mechanism of Transdermal Penetration Enhancement of Fu's Cupping Therapy: New Physical Penetration Technology for Transdermal Administration with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Fang-Fang

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, a new type of physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics is presented. Fu's cupping therapy (FCT), was established and studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments and the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology was preliminarily discussed. With 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-ylacetic acid (indomethacin, IM) as a model drug, the establishment of high, medium, and low references was completed for the chemical permeation system via in vitro transdermal tests. Furthermore, using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) and iontophoresis as references, the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patches was evaluated using seven species of in vitro diffusion kinetics models and in vitro drug distribution; the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to last time t (AUC 0-t , AUMC 0-t ), area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to infinity (AUC 0-∞ , AUMC 0-∞ ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and mean residence time (MRT), were used as indicators to evaluate the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT in vivo. Additionally, we used the 3 K factorial design to study the joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, micro- and ultrastructural changes on the surface of the stratum corneum (SC) were observed to explore the FCT penetration mechanism. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in vivo percutaneous absorption amount of IM using FCT were greater than the amount using CPEs and iontophoresis. Firstly, compared with

  3. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  4. Boron availability to plants from coal combustion by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukier, U.; Sumner, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Agronomic use of coal combustion by-products is often associated with boron (B) excess in amended soils and subsequently in plants. A greenhouse study with corn (Zea mays L.) as test plant was conducted to determine safe application rates of five fly ashes and one flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FDG). All by-products increased soil and corn tissue B concentration, in some cases above toxicity levels which are 5 mg hot water soluble B (hwsB)kg -1 soil and 100 mg B kg -1 in corn tissue. Acceptable application rates varied from 4 to 100 Mg ha -1 for different by-products. Leaching and weathering of a high B fly ash under ponding conditions decreased its B content and that of corn grown in fly ash amended soil, while leaching of the same fly ash under laboratory conditions increased fly ash B availability to corn in comparison to the fresh fly ash. Hot water soluble B in fly ash or FDG amended soil correlated very well with corn tissue B. Hot water soluble B in fly ash amended soil could be predicted based on soil pH and B solubility in ash at different pH values but not so in the case of FDG. Another greenhouse study was conducted to compare the influence of FDG and Ca(OH 2 ) on B concentration in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves grown in soil amended with the high B fly ash. The Ca(OH) 2 significantly decreased tissue B content, while FDG did not affect B uptake from fly ash amended soil. 41 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimadeev, M M

    1962-01-01

    A review of literature on the carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products are briefly discussed. Many of the products can induce hyperkeratosis, folliculitis, verruca, pulmonary adenoma, skin cancer, etc. Their action is mainly local but they can also be multicentric. Although a number of groups have made chemical analyses of various petroleums and peroleum products, results were generally negative with respect to 3,4-benzypyrene, although 40 to 68 microg/g was found in 1 crude petroleum. At present it appears that much of the carcinogenic action of these materials resides in polycyclic hydrocarbons about which little is known.

  6. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  7. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wan-Gang

    2016-09-20

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  8. Radiation preservation of fish and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas, K

    1974-07-01

    The desirability of making the irradiation of fish and fishery products the subject of common experiments in the South and South East Asian and Far East region was based on studies carried out in various laboratories in the region, as well as the findings of a Technical Assistance Mission to the area in 1971/72, and an FAO/IAEA Study Group Meeting on Food Irradiation in Bangkok (1971). As a result, fish preservation by irradiation was among the first topics suggested for collaborative studies under the IAEA-sponsored Regional Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA), which became operational in June 1972. Following an FAO/IAEA Panel meeting on Aspects of the Introduction of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries at Bombay, in November 1972, it was suggested that collaborative fish irradiation studies be initiated as the first regional project under the RCA. A meeting of scientists authorized to represent the Governments willing to participate in the venture, was recommended. This plan was accepted by an informal meeting of Government Representatives on the future of the RCA held during the 17th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna in 1973. The offer of the Philippine Government to host the initiating meeting was accepted, and the Working Group to launch the Asian Regional Project on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery Products (RPF) met in November 1973 in Manila. This meeting was attended by representatives of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The Federal Republic of Germany and Japan sent observers who also served as consultants and greatly contributed to the scientific deliberations. The Working Group accepted a Project Agreement draft which foresees regional co-ordination of the scientific programme by common planning, distribution of labour and reporting at annual co-ordination meetings. To achieve these goals, the

  9. Radiation preservation of fish and by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1974-01-01

    The desirability of making the irradiation of fish and fishery products the subject of common experiments in the South and South East Asian and Far East region was based on studies carried out in various laboratories in the region, as well as the findings of a Technical Assistance Mission to the area in 1971/72, and an FAO/IAEA Study Group Meeting on Food Irradiation in Bangkok (1971). As a result, fish preservation by irradiation was among the first topics suggested for collaborative studies under the IAEA-sponsored Regional Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA), which became operational in June 1972. Following an FAO/IAEA Panel meeting on Aspects of the Introduction of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries at Bombay, in November 1972, it was suggested that collaborative fish irradiation studies be initiated as the first regional project under the RCA. A meeting of scientists authorized to represent the Governments willing to participate in the venture, was recommended. This plan was accepted by an informal meeting of Government Representatives on the future of the RCA held during the 17th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna in 1973. The offer of the Philippine Government to host the initiating meeting was accepted, and the Working Group to launch the Asian Regional Project on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery Products (RPF) met in November 1973 in Manila. This meeting was attended by representatives of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The Federal Republic of Germany and Japan sent observers who also served as consultants and greatly contributed to the scientific deliberations. The Working Group accepted a Project Agreement draft which foresees regional co-ordination of the scientific programme by common planning, distribution of labour and reporting at annual co-ordination meetings. To achieve these goals, the

  10. Bioconversion of sugar beet pulps and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J.P.; Bourlet, P.

    A new technology for biogas and energy supply by anaerobic digestion of wet vegetal substrats was studied. It was a two step anaerobic process, each resulting from numerous fermentative reactions. About 88% of the pulp substrat can be converted into gas and a volumic load of 7 kg.m/sup 3/ of dry solids was converted in 24 hours. Many technological problems were encountered with beet trash digestion. It was not tested with high loads, but bioconversion rate was about 75%.

  11. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2017-05-07

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a sufficiently adverse environment. In an evolutionary game where two defenders can cooperate to defend a common resource, this paper analyzes the common-enemy hypothesis when adversity is endogenous, in that an attacker sets the number of attacks. As a benchmark, we first consider exogenous adversity, where adversity is not subject to evolution. In this case, the common-enemy hypothesis is predicted when the degree of complementarity between defenders' defensive efforts is sufficiently low. When the degree of complementarity is high, the hypothesis is predicted only when cooperation costs are high; when cooperation costs are instead low, a competing hypothesis is predicted, where adversity discourages cooperation. Second, we consider the case of endogenous adversity. In this case, we continue to predict the competing hypothesis for a high degree of complementarity and low cooperation costs. The common-enemy hypothesis, however, only continues to be predicted for the lowest degrees of complementarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered.

  13. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  14. STONES SAWING SLUDGE AS BY-PRODUCT: characterization for a future recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2017-04-01

    subsequent environmental degradation and to promote a technology innovation (sustainability and circular economy) a proactive waste management strategy trying to optimize on the one hand the processing to obtain reduced waste and the other to improve the process to obtain two reusable by-products was considered.

  15. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  16. Physical and chemical parameter correlations with technical and technological characteristics of heating systems and the presence of Legionella spp. in the hot water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Anita; Štambuk-Giljanović, Nives

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and compare the quality of hot water between four facilities for accommodation located in Southern Croatia (the Split-Dalmatian County). The research included data collection on the technical and technological characteristics in the period from 2009 to 2012. The survey included a type of construction material for the distribution and internal networks, heating system water heater type, and water consumption. Changes in water quality were monitored by determination of the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, free chlorine residual concentrations, iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in the samples, as well as the presence and concentration of bacteria Legionella spp. The temperature is an important factor for the development of biofilms, and it is in negative correlation with the appearance of Legionella spp. Positive correlations between the Fe and Zn concentrations and Legionella spp. were established, while the inhibitory effect of a higher Cu concentration on the Legionella spp. concentration was proven. Legionella spp. were identified in 38/126 (30.2%) of the water samples from the heating system with zinc-coated pipes, as well as in 78/299 (26.1%) of the samples from systems with plastic pipes. A similar number of Legionella spp. positive samples were established regardless of the type of the water heating system (central or independent). The study confirms the necessity of regular microbial contamination monitoring of the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs).

  17. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez; Arael Martínez Teruel; Luis B. Ramos Sánchez; María Caridad Julián

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un...

  18. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  19. Extrusion Processing of Raw Food Materials and by-products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Vivian; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Falade, Kolawole O

    2018-05-22

    Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed. Value addition by extrusion to food processing wastes and by-products from fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and seafood, cereals and residues from starch, syrup and alcohol production, and oilseed processing are also discussed. Extrusion presents an economical technology for incorporating food processing residues and by-products back into the food stream. In contemporary scenarios, rising demand for extruded products with functional ingredients, attributed to evolving lifestyles and preferences, have led to innovations in the form, texture, color and content of extruded products. Information presented in this review would be of importance to processors and researchers as they seek to enhance nutritional quality and delivery of extruded products.

  20. Hazard assessment of nitrosamine and nitramine by-products of amine-based CCS: alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, H E; Devito, S; Goldbohm, R A; Stierum, R H; Venhorst, J; Kroese, E D

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered vital and economic elements for achieving global CO2 reduction targets, and is currently introduced worldwide (for more information on CCS, consult for example the websites of the International Energy Agency (http://www.iea.org/topics/ccs/) and the Global CCS Institute (http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/)). One prominent CCS technology, the amine-based post-combustion process, may generate nitrosamines and their related nitramines as by-products, the former well known for their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to efficiently assess the carcinogenic potency of any of these by-products this paper reviews and discusses novel prediction approaches consuming less time, money and animals than the traditionally applied 2-year rodent assay. For this, available animal carcinogenicity studies with N-nitroso compounds and nitramines have been used to derive carcinogenic potency values, that were subsequently used to assess the predictive performance of alternative prediction approaches for these chemicals. Promising cancer prediction models are the QSARs developed by the Helguera group, in vitro transformation assays, and the in vivo initiation-promotion, and transgenic animal assays. All these models, however, have not been adequately explored for this purpose, as the number of N-nitroso compounds investigated is yet too limited, and therefore further testing with relevant N-nitroso compounds is needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A Management State of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) and the Measuring Direction - Centered By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Hee Seon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The chemical materials, DDT and Dioxin, threaten the human health and take the high toxicity on ecosystem and a living thing. Because the chemical materials remain in environment for a long time due to a slow natural decomposition, they are biologically concentrated through the food cycle in ecosystem and have a characteristic to move a long distance. Owing to such toxicity and the characteristics of chemical materials, the world organization named them as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and has been actively progressing the international movement to strictly restrict them since the middle of 1990s. POPs regulation agreement, which is on progress centered in UNEP, is facing to the conclusion of the agreement of 2001 year. An agricultural chemical of organic chlorine among 12 POPs indicated by UNEP has been already prohibited in the domestic use and manufacturing or not registered, so the basic research, including search and monitoring if POPs remain or not, is required afterward. Because Dioxin, Puran, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) among POPs, which are produced as by-products from all kinds of industrial processes, are not raw materials dislike other POPs, their use and manufacturing cannot be only prohibited by the related law but also they have few substitutes. Therefore, they should be applied by the different regulation from the existing toxic chemicals in order to manage the toxicity of the materials. However, the regulation on by-products among POPs is just in the beginning stage, and even the producing source has not been yet confirmed. This study suggests the necessity of the management on Dioxin, Puran, HCB, by-products among POPs, and presents the measuring direction with grasping the domestic and foreign trend of the regulation on the materials. 70 refs., 2 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Chlorine dioxine DBPs (disinfection by-products in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lasagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s it has been well known that, though water for human consumption is generally disinfected before being distributed along the network, the use of chemicals results in the formation of many different Disinfection By-Products (DBPs. In the case of chlorine dioxide, the most important and represented DBPs are chlorite and chlorate: after an introduction concerning the current Italian regulation on this subject, in the experimental part the results of a 7-year minitoring campaign, concerning water of different origin collected from taps in various Italian regions, are shown. The analytical technique used for the determination of chlorite and chlorate was Ion Chromatography. The result obtained are finally discussed.

  3. Nutritional evaluation of irradiated animal protein by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hakeim, N.F.; Hilali, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Blood, fish and meat-bone meals were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical composition of meals. Available lysine in irradiated fish meals was reduced by 8,04%. Losses occurred in some amino acids especially the essential ones of the irradiated protein by-products. Isoleucine, phenylalanine and valine were the limiting amino acids in the irradiated blood, fish and meat-bone meal, respectively. At dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy essential amino acids index (EAAI) was 48,24%, 42,89%, 48,38%, 53% and 55,95% for blood meal 37,91%, 39,71%, 41,18% and 37,90% for fish meal and 37,07%, 36,01%, 27,61%, 38,21% and 38,45% for meat-bone meal, respectively. (orig.) [de

  4. Effect of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertising Activities by Product Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasiewicz Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer two related questions: are celebrity endorsements more likely to be result in a higher evaluation of the product being advertised than use of an anonymous individual (e.g. a typical consumer; and, if present, do these positive effects vary by product category? To answer these two questions research was conducted on a 237 student sample employing a quasi-experiment consisting of four groups (two product categories and two types of endorsers using data collected through an online survey. The results indicate that celebrity endorsements do have a positive impact on the evaluation of durable goods, but do not affect the evaluation of frequently purchased products. This finding largely confirms the assumptions of the match-up model, the meaning transfer model, and the ELM model.

  5. The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Diane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing awareness of the role of information technology in evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of organizational context and nurse characteristics in explaining variation in nurses’ use of personal digital assistants (PDAs and mobile Tablet PCs for accessing evidence-based information. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS model provided the framework for studying the impact of providing nurses with PDA-supported, evidence-based practice resources, and for studying the organizational, technological, and human resource variables that impact nurses’ use patterns. Methods A survey design was used, involving baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The setting included 24 organizations representing three sectors: hospitals, long-term care (LTC facilities, and community organizations (home care and public health. The sample consisted of 710 participants (response rate 58% at Time 1, and 469 for whom both Time 1 and Time 2 follow-up data were obtained (response rate 66%. A hierarchical regression model (HLM was used to evaluate the effect of predictors from all levels simultaneously. Results The Chi square result indicated PDA users reported using their device more frequently than Tablet PC users (p = 0.001. Frequency of device use was explained by ‘breadth of device functions’ and PDA versus Tablet PC. Frequency of Best Practice Guideline use was explained by ‘willingness to implement research,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ ‘organizational slack time,’ ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative effect. Frequency of Nursing Plus database use was explained by ‘culture,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ and ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative. ‘Organizational culture’ (positive, ‘breadth of device functions

  6. Technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1998-01-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  7. Technological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  8. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Sid [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers

  9. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  10. Properties and possibilities to use by-product from e-beam installations for partial recycling of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelovski, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generated by-products from E-beam cleaning systems of industrial waste gases have been studied using different techniques like TG-DTA systems, Electron Microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods. On the base of the investigations it was found that the composition of the by-product varies depending on the content of pollutants in the waste gases and technological parameters during cleaning process. Size of particles and thermal stability of the by product were determined. Content of ammonium sulphate as a main component, ammonium nitrate and heavy metals content is also determined and discussed. During thermal treatment of the by-product at temperature range 543-663K half of the ammonia is released in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition are determined and it is confirmed that for waste gases containing mainly SO x as a pollutants they are very close to the pure ammonium sulphate. By-product from demonstration E-beam installation at Maritsa-East -2 TPP is used to produce mixed fertilisers using milled Tunisia phosphorites or tribo-activated mixtures of the by-product, Tunisia phosphorite, potassium sulphate and aches from electrostatic precipitators of TPP. It was found that during thermo-tribochemical treatment of selected mixtures different type of fertilisers could be produced, where the soluble forms of Phosphorous may vary, depending on the conditions. During thermal treatment about half of ammonia is released in the gas phase opening a way for partial recycling of ammonia to the cleaning process. Agrochemical tests of the fertilisers on the base of by-product confirm their efficiency. (author)

  11. Properties and possibilities to use by-product from e-beam installations for partial recycling of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelovski, Y. [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    Generated by-products from E-beam cleaning systems of industrial waste gases have been studied using different techniques like TG-DTA systems, Electron Microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods. On the base of the investigations it was found that the composition of the by-product varies depending on the content of pollutants in the waste gases and technological parameters during cleaning process. Size of particles and thermal stability of the by product were determined. Content of ammonium sulphate as a main component, ammonium nitrate and heavy metals content is also determined and discussed. During thermal treatment of the by-product at temperature range 543-663K half of the ammonia is released in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition are determined and it is confirmed that for waste gases containing mainly SO{sub x} as a pollutants they are very close to the pure ammonium sulphate. By-product from demonstration E-beam installation at Maritsa-East -2 TPP is used to produce mixed fertilisers using milled Tunisia phosphorites or tribo-activated mixtures of the by-product, Tunisia phosphorite, potassium sulphate and aches from electrostatic precipitators of TPP. It was found that during thermo-tribochemical treatment of selected mixtures different type of fertilisers could be produced, where the soluble forms of Phosphorous may vary, depending on the conditions. During thermal treatment about half of ammonia is released in the gas phase opening a way for partial recycling of ammonia to the cleaning process. Agrochemical tests of the fertilisers on the base of by-product confirm their efficiency. (author)

  12. The determination and fate of disinfection by-products from ozonation of polluted raw water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Fang, G.-C.; Wang, C.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The major disinfection by-products (DBPs) resulting from ozone treatment of polluted surface water were investigated. By-products of either health concern or which may contribute to biological instability of treated drinking water were investigated. The major DBPs were analyzed in two fractions: carbonyl compounds and brominated organic compounds. The natural organic matter (NOM) was also isolated and fractionated from polluted water for subsequent ozonation and DBPs identification under conditions of typical drinking treatment. The main identified carbonyl compounds were low molecular weight carboxylic acids, benzoic compounds, aliphatic aldehydes and odorous aldehydes, respectively. Brominated organics were also found in ozonated water, including bromoform (CHBr 3 ), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), respectively. It was also found that the characteristic of organic precursors have significant influences on brominated organic by-products formation. Humic acid demonstrated the highest CHBr 3 , DBAA and 2,4-DBP formations, whereas hydrophilic neutral produced less CHBr 3 and 2,4-DBP than the rest of the organic fractions but produced the highest amount of DBAN. In addition to the other target compounds, a total of 59 different organic compounds were detected by means of gas chromatograph/high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) detection and tentatively identified using mass spectral library searching, mainly aromatics, acids/esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phthalates and amines/amino acids were analyzed. The percentage of elimination or formation levels reached during ozonation is also discussed in this study

  13. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, T.R.; Parra, R.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  15. Slaughterhouse by-products treatment using anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukazis, Ioannis; Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of animal by-products (ABP) as substrates for anaerobic digestion, aiming at methane production. Specifically, four ABP of Category 2 and 3, namely (i) stomach and rumen, (ii) stomach contents, (iii) breasts and reproductive organs and (iv) bladders and intestines with their contents, were selected. The methane potential of each ABP was initially determined, while the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of ABP with two agroindustrial waste, i.e. orange peels and olive leaves was also studied. To this purpose, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP), as well as semi-continuous assays were respectively conducted. In the latter, the effect of the variation in the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production was investigated. Results obtained from BMP assays showed that the samples containing breasts and reproductive organs, bladders and intestine, and stomach and rumen, had higher methane potentials of 815, 787 and 759 mLCH 4,STP /gVS, respectively. Moreover, according to the results of the semi-continuous assays, maximum methane yields between 253 and 727mLCH 4 /gVS fed were obtained at an OLR of 0.8gVS/L/d. The only case in which methanogenesis inhibition phenomena, due to increased ammonia concentrations, were observed, was the assay being fed with a mixture of breasts and reproductive organs and orange peels, at the highest OLR. This inhibition phenomenon was attributed to an inappropriate C/N ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of steam treated agricultural by -product as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, M.; Rajput, N.; Lili, Z.; Su, Z.; Rui, Y.; Tian, W.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of animal food is a burning issue of the recent time, whereas the agricultural by -products are readily available to be used as ruminants feed. However, the low protein and digestibility are the hindrances in utilization of these low quality crop residues as a feed. In order to utilize rice straw as animal feed this study was conducted to investigate the influence of steam explosion treatment on its composition and in vitro degradability. The samples, I (untreated rice straw), II (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/ sub2/ steam pressure for 90 sec) and III (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/steam pressure for 120 sec) were prepared. The results revealed that the crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents of rice straw were improved after treatment with steam explosion in time dependent manner (P<0.05). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and organic matter (OM) were higher, while dry matter (DM) and ash contents were lower (P<0.05) in II as compared to group I and III; however, after increasing the time at same pressure these parameters decreased. Furthermore, group III showed higher concentration of propionate, acetate, butyrate, and total VFA (P<0.05). While, group I exhibited higher concentration of iso-butyrate and iso-valerate (P<0.05). The concentration of valeric acid and acetate to propionate ratio were not affected by steam explosion treatment. Moreover, group III showed the higher in vitro DM degradability, OM degradability, DNDF and gas production (P<0.05); while, lower DADF and pH (P<0.05) compared with groups I and II. These findings suggest that the steam explosion treatment at 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/ pressure for 120 sec, may be used to enhance the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. (author)

  17. Substituição do milho pelo resíduo de fecularia de mandioca sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade e características de carcaça de novilhos confinados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.6093 Replacing corn with cassava starch by-products on the performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of bulls in confinement - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.6093

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de substituição do milho pelo resíduo desidratado de fecularia de mandioca (0; 12,5; 22,8 e 32,7% foi avaliado sobre o desempenho, a digestibilidade e características de carcaça e 32 bovinos mestiços (½ Nelore x ½ Angus de aproximadamente 18 meses de idade e 380 kg de peso vivo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Foram analisados o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, espessura de gordura de cobertura (EGC, área de olho de lombo (AOL, comprimento de perna (CP, espessura de coxão (EC, ingestão de matéria seca (IMS, conversão alimentar (CA, digestibilidade total aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, energia bruta (DAEB, fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA e fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN. O experimento foi desenvolvido durante um período de 56 dias, após 14 dias de adaptação. Os resultados de GMD, RC, CA, EGC, AOL, CP e EC não apresentaram diferenças (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos. A IMS apresentou redução linear quando o milho foi substituído pelo resíduo desidratado de fecularia de mandioca. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO, PB, EB, FDN e FDA não variaram entre as rações experimentais.The effects of replacing corn with different levels of cassava starch by-products (0, 12.5, 22.8, and 32.7% were evaluated on performance, digestibility and carcass traits of feedlot bulls. Thirty-two crossbred bulls (½ Nelore x ½ Angus around 18 months of age and 380 kg of body weight were used. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments and 8 replicates. Evaluated traits were: average daily gain (ADG, carcass dressing (CD, backfat thickness (BT, Longissimus area (LDA, leg length (LL and cushion thickness (CT, dry matter intake (DMI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DMDC, organic matter (OMDC, crude protein (CPDC, crude energy (CEDC

  18. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild Dragøy; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as by-products. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.

  19. Utilisation of Food and Woodworking Production By-products by Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldis Viesturs

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to develop laboratory-scale technologies for composting milk/cheese whey, spent liquor, brewery yeast, fish processing by-products, etc., adding these by-products and special microorganism associations to the basic material - sawdust, bark, etc., also arranging different experimental composting sites. Two Trichoderma strains (Tr. lignorum, Tr. viride and a nitrification association for regulating the circulation of nitrogen-ammonification and nitrification processes were applied. Monitoring of the composting quality was realised by microbiological and chemical analyses, and biotests for compost quality (toxicity assessment. For purifying the polluted air from the composting facilities, the biofiltration technique was realised in a modified SSF system. Biodegradation of ammonia was investigated in a two-stage system with the inert packing material - dolomite broken bricks, and hemoautotrophic microorganisms: DN-1 (Pseudomonas sp., DN-2 (Nitrosomonas sp., DN-3 (Nitrobacter sp. and DN-13 (Sarcina sp.. For hydrogen sulphide biodegradation, Thiobacillus thioparus-3 was immobilised on glass bricks as the carrier material. Biodegradation efficiency of hydrogen sulphide was 87%. Biodegradation of ammonia in the first step in the two-stage system reached 77%, degradation of the gas remaining in the second step was 75%. Compost's quality was similar to black soil - brown-coloured, with good soil odour and without toxic compounds.

  20. THE USE OF AGRO INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS IN THE DIET OF GROWER TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Makinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of grower turkeys to diets containing different agro industrial by-products. A total of 120grower turkeys were used for this study. Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. T1 (control diet contained none of the agro industrial by products used while T2, T3 and T4 contained15% each of Wheat offal, Maize offal, Rice offal respectively. The turkeys were randomly allocated to four experimental treatments of thirty birds per treatment while each treatment was replicated three times (3 with ten (10 birds per pen in a completely randomized design. The result of growth performance revealed that average feed intake, average weight gain and feed conversion ratio of turkeys fed the control and 15% Wheat Offal diets were not significantly different (P>0.05. The result of carcass characteristics and organ weights followed similar trend. Turkeys fed 15% Maize Offal and 15% Rice Offal diets recorded the lowest values (P0.05 in all the haematological parameters and serum biochemical indices measured except PCV which decreased across the treatment groups. It was concluded that 15% wheat offal can be included in the diet of grower turkeys without adverse effect on growth performance, carcass yield and health status of birds. Â

  1. Toluene decomposition performance and NOx by-product formation during a DBD-catalyst process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufang; Liao, Xiaobin; Fu, Mingli; Huang, Haibao; Ye, Daiqi

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of toluene decomposition and formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by-products were investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with/without catalyst at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Four kinds of metal oxides, i.e., manganese oxide (MnOx), iron oxide (FeOx), cobalt oxide (CoOx) and copper oxide (CuO), supported on Al2O3/nickel foam, were used as catalysts. It was found that introducing catalysts could improve toluene removal efficiency, promote decomposition of by-product ozone and enhance CO2 selectivity. In addition, NOx was suppressed with the decrease of specific energy density (SED) and the increase of humidity, gas flow rate and toluene concentration, or catalyst introduction. Among the four kinds of catalysts, the CuO catalyst showed the best performance in NOx suppression. The MnOx catalyst exhibited the lowest concentration of O3 and highest CO2 selectivity but the highest concentration of NOx. A possible pathway for NOx production in DBD was discussed. The contributions of oxygen active species and hydroxyl radicals are dominant in NOx suppression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Investigation of grass carp by-products from a fish farm in Vojvodina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Đ.; Tasić, T.; Kormanjoš, Š.; Ikonić, P.; Šojić, B.; Pelić, M.; Ristić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The quantity of by-products obtained during grass carp primary processing and chemical characteristics of internal organs were investigated. The total average weight of byproducts was 783.69 g (36.99%) in relation to live body weight which was cca 2118.5 g. The by-product contributing the largest quantity to total live body weight was the head with 458.22 g (21.63% of live body weight), followed by complete internal organs and tail and fins, with weights of 198.03 g or 9.35% and 57.93 g or 2.73%, respectively. The chemical composition of internal organs from the grass carp was mostly water (65.55%), following by crude fats and crude proteins (17.47% and 13.35%, respectively). The low collagen content (13.43% of total crude protein) indicates the high nutritional quality of the protein content from internal organs. Nitrogenous complexes from the internal organs were predominantly proteins. Digestible nitrogen was approximately equal to total nitrogen (89.38%), indicating that all proteins of the internal organs had high biological value. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that carp internal organs could be important sources of proteins and fats, and thus, could be used in Serbia as a raw material for feed and technical fat production.

  3. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  4. Film coated tablets (ColoPulse technology) for targeted delivery in the lower intestinal tract : influence of the core composition on release characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C. A.; Baltink, Jan H.; Woesthuis, Ellen M.; Stellaard, Frans; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    The design of a film coating technology which allows a tablet to deliver the drug in the ileocolonic segment would offer new treatment possibilities. The objective is to develop a platform technology that is suitable for a broad range of drug compounds. We developed a coated tablet with a delayed,

  5. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Richard M

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  6. State of the art of NOx mitigation technologies and their effect on the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel-fueled Compression Ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palash, S.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Masum, B.M.; Sanjid, A.; Abedin, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Different NO x reduction technologies are discussed along with their implementation. • EGR rate up to 25% is feasible considering engine performance and other emissions. • ITR technology reduces NO x fairly but increases other emissions, it also reduces performance. • LTC reduces NO x and PM emissions simultaneously but increases HC and CO emissions. • Water injection and emulsion reduce NO x (up to 38%) and PM but increases HC and CO emissions. - Abstract: Biodiesel fuels have the potential to become a reliable substitute for diesel which is used moderately to meet the current energy demands. This fuel can be produced from new or used vegetable oils, non-edible sources and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable. In spite of the many advantages of using biodiesel, most of the researchers have reported that they produce higher NO x emissions compared to diesel, which is a deterrent to the market expansion of these fuels. In this study, the different paths to reduce NO x emissions from diesel engines by applying several technologies, such as using additives into fuel, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), water injection (WI), emulsion technology (ET), injection timing retardation (ITR), simultaneous technology (ST) and low temperature combustion (LTC) mode are reviewed briefly. The impacts of different NO x mitigation technologies on biodiesel-fueled diesel engine performance and emissions are also analyzed critically and different methods of their implementation are shown. This paper also provides a comparison of different NO x mitigation technologies based on previous articles related to this topic. From this comparative study, it was found that the average reduction of NO x emissions by using additives, EGR, WI and ET, ITR, ST and LTC are in the ranges 4–45%, 26–84%, 10–38%, 9.77–37%, 22–95% and 66–93% respectively, compared to biodiesel combustion without applying technologies. However, the average reduction

  7. Influence of gas-powder laser cladding’s technological parameters on structural characteristics of corrosion-resistant steels’ restored surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, S. E.; Oplesnin, S. P.; Goltyapin, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    The results of the developed industrial technology for surface restoration of corrosion-resistant steels by laser surfacing are presented in the article. A comparative analysis of the microstructure of the welded wear-resistant layer, the fusion zone with the base material and the diffusion zone for different technological surfacing regimes are given. Dyrometric studies and nondestructive testing of the deposited layer for defects were performed

  8. Proteomic analysis of processing by-products from canned and fresh tuna: identification of potentially functional food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, Esther; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Iloro, Ibon; Escuredo, Kepa; Elortza, Felix; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-09-15

    Proteomic approaches have been used to identify the main proteins present in processing by-products generated by the canning tuna-industry, as well as in by-products derived from filleting of skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna. Following fractionation by using an ammonium sulphate precipitation method, three proteins (tropomyosin, haemoglobin and the stress-shock protein ubiquitin) were identified in the highly heterogeneous and heat-treated material discarded by the canning-industry. Additionally, this fractionation method was successful to obtain tropomyosin of high purity from the heterogeneous starting material. By-products from skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna were efficiently fractionated to sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions, prior to the identification based mainly on the combined searching of the peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF) and peptide fragment fingerprinting (MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF) spectra of fifteen bands separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Thus, the sarcoplasmic fraction contained myoglobin and several enzymes that are essential for efficient energy production, whereas the myofibrillar fraction had important contractile proteins, such as actin, tropomyosin, myosin or an isoform of the enzyme creatine kinase. Application of proteomic technologies has revealed new knowledge on the composition of important by-products from tuna species, enabling a better evaluation of their potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  10. Systems evolution of waste and by-product management and bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, L.

    2009-07-01

    Evolutionary economic geography provides an inspiring extension to geographical systems analysis. The objective of this dissertation is to apply the systems approach and theory as an integrative framework of sustainable development, and as a capable analytical tool in the analysis of evolutionary resource management and energy production systems in their geographical contexts. The systems investigated are waste and by-product management and bioenergy production systems located in Finland and Scotland. Industrial ecosystem (IE) indicators are constructed for the analysis of waste and by-product management. They present both direct and indirect environmental, economic and social impacts of local waste management operations. The indicators are further applied in scenarios that dynamise the evolution of systems material and energy flows towards the balanced environmental, economic and social development, i.e. the vision of the industrial ecology. The results indicate that the energy use of waste derived fuels in regional cooperation has much potential in the development towards the optimal roundput model of industrial ecosystem. The business opportunities based on local woodfuels are investigated in the context of Scottish forestry policy. The evolution of institutional environments and arrangements of forest management in the Scottish Highlands enables a new type of rural entrepreneurship. The case study of Finnish heat entrepreneurship constructs a heat energy business model, including both the business architecture for product/service flows and the earning logics. Finally, a synthesis of the evolution of natural resource management systems is presented. The evolution process has many geographical contingent conditions, such as resources, technologies, institutions and organisations. Together with general socio-economic mechanisms, they affect the actors in spatial economic processes and interactions. Realisations of the system evolution are structures of economies

  11. A modern solid waste management strategy--the generation of new by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Kulbat, Eliza; Luczkiewicz, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a 'zero waste' strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms for residual bulk disposal. However, each of the aforementioned facilities generates by-products that must be treated. This project focuses on the leachates from landfill prisms, including modern prism (MP) that meet EU requirements and previous prism (PP) that provide for the storage of permitted biodegradable waste as well as technological wastewaters from sorting unit (SU) and composting unit (CU), which are usually overlooked. The physico-chemical parameters of the liquid by-products collected over 38 months were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) amplifications of functional genes transcripts and a metagenomic approach that describes the archaeal and bacterial community in the MP. The obtained data show that SU and especially CU generate wastewater that is rich in nutrients, organic matter and heavy metals. Through their on-site pre-treatment and recirculation via landfill prisms, the landfill waste decomposition process may be accelerated because of the introduction of organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions may be increased. These results have been confirmed by the progressive abundance of both archaeal community and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The resulting multivariate data set, supported by a principal component analysis, provides useful information for the design, operation and risk assessment of modern MSWPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization and transformation of an industrial by-product (coated paper sludge into a pozzolanic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective re-use of industrial by-products calls for an understanding of their chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics. The by-product used in this study was coated paper industry sludge from a plant whose sole prime material is recycled paper. Due to its high organic and calcium carbonate content and the presence of several clayey materials such as talc and kaolinite, incineration conditions had a significant effect on the mineralogy of such sludge. The present study examined the impact of such conditions on the pozzolanic properties of coated paper sludge. Several temperature intervals ranging from 600 to 750 ºC were studied to determine the conditions yielding the most promising pozzolanic properties.La necesidad de dar un correcto uso a los subproductos industriales requiere del conocimiento de sus características, tanto desde un punto de vista químico como mineralógico y físico. El subproducto utilizado para esta investigación es un lodo de papel estucado procedente de la industria papelera, la cual usa como materias primas un 100% de material reciclado. Debido al alto contenido de materia orgánica y carbonato cálcico y a la presencia de diferentes materiales arcillosos, como el talco y la caolinita, las condiciones de calcinación presentan un papel principal en la mineralogía de este lodo. En el actual trabajo se considera el papel que juegan estas condiciones, tiempo y permanencia en horno, en las propiedades puzolánicas del lodo de papel estucado como material cementante. Por esta razón, se estudiaron diferentes intervalos de temperatura, entre 600 y 750 ºC y 2 horas de permanencia en horno con el objetivo de obtener las mejores propiedades puzolánicas.

  13. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from natural waters using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attenuation of excess nutrients in wastewater and stormwater is required to safeguard aquatic ecosystems. The use of low-cost, mineral-based industrial by-products with high Ca, Mg, Fe or Al content as a solid phase in constructed wetlands potentially offers a cost-effective wastewater treatment option in areas without centralised water treatment facilities. Our objective was to investigate use of water treatment residuals (WTRs), coal fly ash (CFA), and granular activated carbon (GAC) from biomass combustion in in-situ water treatment schemes to manage dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. Both CaO- and CaCO(3)-based WTRs effectively attenuated inorganic N species but exhibited little capacity for organic N removal. The CaO-based WTR demonstrated effective attenuation of DOC and P in column trials, and a high capacity for P sorption in batch experiments. Granular activated carbon proved effective for DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal in column trials, but was ineffective for P attenuation. Only CFA demonstrated effective removal of a broad suite of inorganic and organic nutrients and DOC; however, Se concentrations in column effluents exceeded Australian and New Zealand water quality guideline values. Water treated by filtering through the CaO-based WTR exhibited nutrient ratios characteristic of potential P-limitation with no potential N- or Si-limitation respective to growth of aquatic biota, indicating that treatment of nutrient-rich water using the CaO-based WTR may result in conditions less favourable for cyanobacterial growth and more favourable for growth of diatoms. Results show that selected industrial by-products may mitigate eutrophication through targeted use in nutrient intervention schemes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Technology of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing High-Viscosity Oils for the Purpose of Improving the Rheological Characteristics of Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Vengerov, A. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    There is investigated the technology of hydrodynamic cavitational processing viscous and high-viscosity oils and the possibility of its application in the pipeline transport system for the purpose of increasing of rheological properties of the transported oils, including dynamic viscosity shear stress in the article. It is considered the possibility of application of the combined hydrodynamic cavitational processing with addition of depressor additive for identification of effect of a synergism. It is developed the laboratory bench and they are presented results of modeling and laboratory researches. It is developed the hardware and technological scheme of application of the developed equipment at industrial objects of pipeline transport.

  15. Characteristics of networks in energy efficiency research, development and demonstration – a comparison of actors, technological domains and network structure in seven research areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2013-01-01

    efficiency research and development. The results show how certain knowledge institutions that connect the scientific knowledge with specific applications seem to be especially important for progress in the field. Overall the study enriches the understanding of RD&D in energy efficiency with a new view......The need for more energy efficient products and technologies has increased recently in connection with meeting today’s energy and environmental issues. Research, development and demonstration (RD&D) is one way of supporting technological innovation and knowledge diffusion...

  16. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  17. Effects of different fat sources, technological forms and characteristics of the basal diet on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows - a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment

  18. HTGR fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, L.H.; Heath, C.A.; Shefcik, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The following aspects of HTGR reprocessing technology are discussed: characteristics of HTGR fuels, criteria for a fuel reprocessing flowsheet; selection of a reference reprocessing flowsheet, and waste treatment

  19. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Haefner, R. [Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  20. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  1. LOCAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE IMPACT OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL DECISIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENT UNDER THE RISK-RELATED CONDITIONS OF MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin VELEV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of globalization in a worldwide scale is even more noticeable in the each country during period of world economic crisis due to the differences in the economic status, deformed by the crisis phenomena. In that case, the conflict between global tendencies and local manifestations in the regional aspect of economic phenomena is even more evidently noticeable as a direct reflection of the resource deficiency. The mineral resources are directly related to that process, not only as a first phase of the transformation of the raw material potential for each country, but also as a serious violator of the ecological equilibrium as a result of the applied technologies. Each country is enforced to resolve the various issues related to preserving the own resource potential as much as possible and to subordinate its investment and technological decisions to an integrated and in-depth utilization in compliance with the sustainable development of society

  2. On the relationship between the Bulgar ceramic vessels production technology and their functional purposes: molding compositions characteristics (after the 2011-2012 studies on the Bulgar settlement site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhmatova Vera N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of research in the mode of preparing molding compositions as one of technological stages in Bulgar pottery production are presented in the article. The subject of study was the common Bulgar ceramics from the Bulgar settlement site of the Golden Horde period (2011-2012 excavations. Four basic functional groups of ceramics were selected: kitchen, transportation, tableware, technical items. The study was conducted with the aim of identifying the dependence of pottery technology on the pottery functional purpose. While analyzing the materials, a complex methodology has been applied: a synthesis of traditional archaeological and natural science methods (A.A. Bobrinsky’s technical and technological method, petrography, X-ray phase analysis. The studies have shown that different functional forms of pottery had generated a variety of approaches to their manufacture. In most cases, special recipes were absent, but a certain differentiation could be traced in the choice of raw materials for the manufacture of vessels for different functional purposes. A further detailed study of the stages associated with raw materials selection and extraction, as well as that of the vessel hollow body design, and the methods of vessel strengthening (drying and firing are in prospect.

  3. Concerning relationship between production technology of ceramic vessels and their functional purposes: characteristic of the pastes (According to investigations at the Bolgar settlement 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhmatova Vera N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of research in the mode of preparing molding compositions as one of technological stages in Bulgar pottery production are presented in the article. The subject of study was the common Bulgar ceramics from the Bulgar settlement site of the Golden Horde period (2011-2012 excavations. Four basic functional groups of ceramics were selected: kitchen, transportation, tableware, technical items. The study was conducted with the aim of identifying the dependence of pottery technology on the pottery functional purpose. While analyzing the materials, a complex methodology has been applied: a synthesis of traditional archaeological and natural science methods (A.A. Bobrinsky’s technical and technological method, petrography, X-ray phase analysis. The studies have shown that different functional forms of pottery had generated a variety of approaches to their manufacture. In most cases, special recipes were absent, but a certain differentiation could be traced in the choice of raw materials for the manufacture of vessels for different functional purposes. A further detailed study of the stages associated with raw materials selection and extraction, as well as that of the vessel hollow body design, and the methods of vessel strengthening (drying and firing are in prospect.

  4. Study of the raw material base for a by-product coke plant by the method of thermal degradation of coal in a centrifugal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epimakhov, N.M.; Kardashova, V.F.; Sulimova, E.I.

    1982-01-01

    Coals from the Donbass and Karaganda basins, being supplied to a Bagley by-product coke plant were studied. A sharp distinction between coals of different degrees of metamorphism in respect to the yield of liquid nonvolatile products was demonstrated. A difference in respect to this index was recognized for individual coals from one and the same technological group from a single basin.

  5. Use of the by-products of the biodiesel productive chain; Aproveitamento dos subprodutos da cadeia produtiva do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebus, Fernando; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: f_moebus@polis.ufrj.br, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This paper performs an economical analysis of the incomes obtained with the using of byproducts of productive chain of bio diesel. Two technologies will be studied as follows: the commercialization of the residues (peels, cake) in the form of briquettes, and glycerin. A cost spreadsheet was developed for quantification the costs for obtain the biodiesel from the different raw-materials in a process of batch. Besides the cost of raw material and others inputs (catalyst and methanol), it will be analysed the main factors that influences the final costs of product a the generated incomes with commercialization of by-products.

  6. Integral process of obtaining glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel is obtained from about 10 years ago in Europe, and now that it has taken hold as fuel for diesel engines, it is expected a clear increase in the production of this class of fuels in a the near future. The biodiesel is derived from the transesterification reaction of castor oil with methanol, which is the main by-product the glycerol with an approximate content of 10%. Besides catalyst residuals, soaps, methanol traces, mono and diglycerides in small percentages are presented. This study proposes the separation, purification and characterization of the glycerol obtained from the transesterificación reaction of the castor oil, in order to be able to market it in the national or international market, so that it fulfills the standards of quality, which means getting a pure glycerol and the appropriate physico-chemical characteristics and techniques. The glycerin-methyl esters separation is carried out by decantation being obtained a percentage of around 70% glycerol. This percentage is subsequently increased through the purification process, using hydrochloric acid. Glycerol characterization was carried out by physicochemical and organoleptic tests. The purification process allowed us to obtain a glycerol with a percentage of purity close to 98%. It was also tested by comparison with theoretical data that remnants influenced in the physiochemical properties

  7. Removal of disinfection by-product precursors by coagulation and an innovative suspended ion exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, David; Rockey, Chris; Jefferson, Bruce; Judd, Simon; Jarvis, Peter

    2015-12-15

    This investigation aimed to compare the disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBPFPs) of three UK surface waters (1 upland reservoir and 2 lowland rivers) with differing characteristics treated by (a) a full scale conventional process and (b) pilot scale processes using a novel suspended ion exchange (SIX) process and inline coagulation (ILCA) followed by ceramic membrane filtration (CMF). Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection analysis highlighted clear differences between the organic fractions removed by coagulation and suspended ion exchange. Pretreatments which combined SIX and coagulation resulted in significant reductions in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance (UVA), trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (THMFP, HAAFP), in comparison with the SIX or coagulation process alone. Further experiments showed that in addition to greater overall DOC removal, the processes also reduced the concentration of brominated DBPs and selectively removed organic compounds with high DBPFP. The SIX/ILCA/CMF process resulted in additional removals of DOC, UVA, THMFP, HAAFP and brominated DBPs of 50, 62, 62, 62% and 47% respectively compared with conventional treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The global contribution of energy consumption by product exports from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Erzi; Peng, Chong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the mechanism of the global contribution of energy usage by product exports. The theoretical analysis is based on the perspective that contribution estimates should be in relatively smaller sectors in which the production characteristics could be considered, such as the productivity distribution for each sector. Then, we constructed a method to measure the global contribution of energy usage. The simple method to estimate the global contribution is the percentage of goods export volume compared to the GDP as a multiple of total energy consumption, but this method underestimates the global contribution because it ignores the structure of energy consumption and product export in China. According to our measurement method and based on the theoretical analysis, we calculated the global contribution of energy consumption only by industrial manufactured product exports in a smaller sector per industry or manufacturing sector. The results indicated that approximately 42% of the total energy usage in the whole economy for China in 2013 was contributed to foreign regions. Along with the primary products and service export in China, the global contribution of energy consumption for China in 2013 by export was larger than 42% of the total energy usage.

  9. Improved concrete properties to resist the saline water using environmental by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Anwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of using environmental by-product materials (silica fume and fly ash in concrete on the chloride ion permeability of concrete. Nine concrete mixtures were designed to have the same degree of workability and air content with water/cementitious material ratio of 0.4. The studied parameters include the main fresh and hardened concrete properties such as slump, air content, unit weight, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, static Young's modulus, and dynamic elastic modulus. Concrete samples were kept in water for 28 days, then immersed in artificial sea water for 5 months. The total and soluble chloride contents were measured through the concrete using the potentiometric titration analysis. The obtained test results indicated that the use of ternary systems in concrete improved the different characteristics of the product concrete and showed a significant resistance to chloride penetration. The weights of chloride in mix 9 (10% silica fume and 25% fly ash at depths from the concrete surface to 30 mm were less than the weights of control mix 1 (100% ordinary Portland cement by about 60%. Further, the ternary systems can be used in concrete industry with considerable proportions.

  10. Coal combustion by-product (CCB) utilization in turfgrass sod production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science

    2004-04-01

    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) are produced nationwide, generating 101 Mg of waste annually. Though varied, the majority of CCB are crystalline alumino-silicate minerals. Both disposal costs of CCB and interest in alternative horticultural/agricultural production systems have increased recently. Field studies assessed the benefit of CCB and organic waste/product mixtures as supplemental soil/growth media for production of hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) sod. Growth media were applied at depths of 2 to 4 cm (200 to 400 m{sup 3}{center_dot}ha{sup -1}) and vegetatively established by sprigging. Cultural practices typical of commercial methods were employed over 99- or 114-day growth periods. Sod was monitored during these propagation cycles, then harvested, evaluated, and installed offsite in a typical lawn-establishment method. Results showed mixtures of CCB and biosolids as growth media increased yield of biomass, with both media and tissue having greater nutrient content than the control media. Volumetric water content of CCB-containing media significantly exceeded that of control media and soil included with a purchased bermudagrass sod. Once installed, sod grown on CCB-media did not differ in rooting strength from control or purchased sod. When applied as described, physicochemical characteristics of CCB-media are favorable and pose little environmental risk to soil or water resources.

  11. Alginato bacteriano: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção Bacterial alginate: technological aspects, characteristics and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer used for a variety of industrial applications, for example, in the textiles, cosmetics, foods, agricultural and biotechnological industries. This biopolymer is traditionally extracted from some brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae and can be produced by bacteria isolated from soil, as Azotobacter vinelandii, like capsular polysaccharide using glucose, sucrose, among others as carbon sources. The main difference between the alginate of seaweed and the bacterial ones, is the biggest degree of acetylation of this last one, with great influence in the gel force. These chemical characteristics and production of bacterial alginate are presented in this work.

  12. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of square pore CoCrMo cellular structures manufactured using laser melting technology for potential orthopaedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlehurst, Kevin; Wang, Chang Jiang; Stanford, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The compressive properties of CoCrMo cellular structures were investigated. • CoCrMo cellular structures with bone like properties have been presented. • An expression has been proposed to predict the effective elastic modulus. • Structural variation and heterogeneities were modelled within a cellular structure. - Abstract: In order to improve the stress shielding characteristics of orthopaedic devices implants that mimic the mechanical behaviour of bone need to be considered. Additive layer manufacturing processes provide a capability to produce orthopaedic implants with tailored mechanical properties. In this work cobalt chrome molybdenum cellular structures have been designed and manufactured using selective laser melting, with volume based porosity ranging between 25% and 95%. The effective mechanical properties have been determined through uniaxial compression testing and compared to numerical and analytical predictions where differences were observed. Cellular structures have been presented that exhibit similar stiffness and strength characteristics when compared to cortical and cancellous bone in the human femur. An expression has been proposed to predict the effective elastic modulus of cobalt chrome molybdenum cellular structures with volumetric porosity of 65% and above. A finite element modelling technique has been used to demonstrate that structural variation and heterogeneities that are associated with the manufacture of cellular structures can significantly decrease the effective stiffness

  13. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  14. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the Facility for Transformation of Magnetic Characteristics of Weakly Magnetic Oxidized Iron Ores Related to Improvement of Technologies for Iron Ore Concentrate Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko, O.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New facility for continuous registration of iron ore magnetization depending on temperature by heating of iron ores upon reducing conditions was created. Facility allows to register the processes of transformation of weakly magnetic minerals into strongly magnetic ones under the influence of reducing agents and temperature, as well as to determine the Curie temperature of the minerals. Using created facility it was shown, that heating of goethite and hematite in the presence of 4 % of starch in the temperature range of 300—650 °С leads to significant increase of magnetization of the samples. X-Ray diffraction confirmed that under indicated conditions the structure of hematite and goethite is transformed into magnetite structure. Obtained results open up new possibilities for the development of effective technologies for oxidized iron ore beneficiation.

  16. 太阳能光伏发电技术的特点及其发展%Characteristics and Development of Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福保; 王湘艳

    2011-01-01

    从太阳能光伏发电技术的核心器件太阳电池出发,介绍了各类太阳电池的特点和发展情况,重点介绍了硅基太阳电池、化合物太阳电池和染料敏化太阳电池等的技术研发状况,并分析了我国光伏发电技术的发展路线。%As the nuclear part of photovoltaic power generation, solar cell is very essential. In this paper, the character and technology development situation of different types of solar cells have been introduced, with the emphasis on silicon solar cells, compoun

  17. Total dose effects on the shallow-trench isolation leakage current characteristics in a 0.35microm SiGe BiCMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, G.; Mathew, S.J.; Banerjee, G.; Cressler, J.D.; Clark, S.D.; Palmer, M.J.; Subbanna, S.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the Shallow-Trench Isolation (STI) leakage currents in a SiGe BiCMOS technology are investigated for the first time, and shown to be strongly dependent on the irradiation gate bias and operating substrate bias. A positive irradiation gate bias significantly enhances the STI leakage, suggesting a strong field assisted nature of the charge buildup process in the STI. Numerical simulations also suggest the existence of fixed positive charges deep in the bulk along the STI/Si interface. A negative substrate bias, however, effectively suppresses the STI leakage, and can be used to eliminate the leakage produced by the charges deep in the bulk under irradiation

  18. Development of thermal conditioning technology for alpha-contaminated wastes: a study on leaching characteristics and long-term safety assessment of simulated waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Choi, Yong Cheol [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Radioactive wastes should be stabilized for safe management during several hundred years. To assess stability of solidified waste forms, mechanical properties and chemical durability of the waste forms should be analyzed. Chemical durability is one of the most important factors in the assessment of waste forms, which could be examined by leaching tests. Various methods in leaching test are suggested by different organizations, but a formal test method in Korea is not ready yet. Therefore, the leaching test method applicable to various constituents is necessary for the safe management of radioactive wastes In this study, leaching behavior and characteristics of components such as solidification materials, heavy metals and radioactive nuclids were analyzed for cement waste form and glassy waste form. 58 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  19. Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (Psalt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A state of the art on electrochemical noise technique. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technology in nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Yi, Yong Sun; Chung, Man Kyo

    2003-02-01

    The studies for the application of electrochemical noise technique were reviewed in terms of principle, analysing method and application examples of this technique. Because 4% of the economic damage of industry is caused by metallic corrosion, it is important to find and protect corrosive materials and location. By corrosion monitoring of industrial facilities such as nuclear power plant using Electrochemical Noise Measurement(ENM), corrosion attack can be detected and furthermore it can be indicated whether the attacked materials is replaced by new one or not. According to development of control and electronic technology, it was easy to apply ENM to the industry and the interest in ENM also increased. As corrosion is produced on a metal under corrosive environment, local anode(oxidation) and cathode(reduction) are formed. Hence, there is potential difference and current flow between the anode and cathode. ENM is monitoring the potential difference and the current flow with time by high impedance load voltmeter and Zero Resistance Ammeter(ZRA), respectively. The potential difference and current flow generated spontaneously without any application of current and potential between electrodes are monitored by electrochemical noise technique, Thereby ENM can be regarded as the most ideal corrosion monitoring method for the industrial facility and nuclear power plant having corrosion damage and difficulty in access of human body. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the spontaneous and reliable results from the metals damaged by ununiform and localized corrosion such as pitting and SCC using ENM while it is difficult to obtain the reliable result using traditional linear polarization and ac-impedance measurement. In many countries, there are extensive works concerned with application of electrochemical noise technique to corrosion monitoring of nuclear power plant and other industrial facilities, whereas there is little work on this field in Korea. Systematic study for

  1. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (5) operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Iwaki, C.; Narabayashi, T.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. And from temperature measuring results, it is supposed that the steam temperature at the mixing nozzle is changed between about 80 degree centigrade and about 60 degree centigrade. Then from the pressure measuring results, it is confirmed that the pressure at the diffuser depends on each the throat diameter and

  2. HPLC evaluation of the minor lipid components of by-products resulting from edible oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL-Shami, Safinaz Mohamed M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical evaluation of some by-products resulting from edible oil refining processing steps has been carried out. By-product samples were taken from four different local refineries that apply chemical refining technology. Pretreatment of the representative samples of the by-products were done prior to analysis followed by chromatographic isolation and derivatization of the minor components, namely, free and acylated sterol (FS and AS as well as free and acylated sterylglycosides (FSG and ASG. However, tocopherols were directly determined in the pretreated samples. HPLC, using different detectors, was carried out for the determination of these minor components. Several authors have focused on the analysis of sterols and sterol esters, as well as tocopherols in the refining byproducts; however sterylglycosides, as biologically important components, have not been dealt with. This study throws light on the by – products enriched with certain minor components to be possibly utilized as sources for such components. Also, the role of the conditions of the refining steps followed in removing these valuable minor components from oils was discussed. It was found that soapstock samples contained various amounts of total tocopherols ranging from 80 to 230ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 240 to 4000 mg/100g while total FSG and ASG ranged from 1120 to 6375 mg/100g. In the case of deodorization distillate samples total tocopherols ranged from 960 to 7360ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 1020 to 4160 mg/100g and total FSG, ASG ranged from 395 to 880 mg/100g.El trabajo realiza una evaluación analítica de algunos subproductos resultantes del la refinación de aceites comestibles. Las muestras procedieron de 4 plantas que aplicaban refinación química. Después de un pretratamiento de las muestras estas se sometieron a un análisis cromatográfico para el aislamiento y derivatización de los siguientes componentes minoritarios: esteroles libres y

  3. Hazard Analysis and identification of Critical Control Points of collagen extraction from cod by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the European research project “UTILISATION AND STABILISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COD SPECIES” (QLK1-CT-2000-01017 QLRT-2001-02829) is to investigate whether collagen from fish by-products could serve as an important raw material in high quality food. Since Atlantic cod is a major

  4. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  5. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of the...

  6. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the reasons ...

  7. Effect of hydrogen bond formation/replacement on solubility characteristics, gastric permeation and pharmacokinetics of curcumin by application of powder solution technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of curcumin using the potential of liquisolid technology. Twelve drug-loaded liquisolid systems (LS-1 to LS-12 were prepared using different vehicles (PEG 200, PEG 400 and Tween 80 and curcumin concentrations in vehicle (40%, 50%, 60% and 70%, w/w. The carrier [microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH102] to coat (Aerosil® ratio was 20 in all formulations. The systems were screened for pre-compression properties before being compressed to liquisolid tablets (LT-1 to LT-12. Post compression tests and in vitro dissolution of LTs were conducted and the results compared with those obtained for a directly compressed tablet (DCT made of curcumin, MCC PH102 and Aerosil®. LTs exhibited higher cumulative drug release (CDR than the DCT and the optimum formulation, LT-9 (made using Tween 80, was studied by powder XRD, DSC, SEM and FTIR. Ex-vivo permeation of curcumin from LT-9 through goat gastrointestinal mucosa was significantly (P<0.05 enhanced and its oral bioavailability was increased 18.6-fold in New Zealand rabbits. In vitro cytotoxicity (IC50 of LT-9 towards NCL 87 cancer cells was 40.2 µmol/L substantiating its anticancer efficacy. Accelerated stability studies revealed insignificant effects of temperature and humidity on LT-9. In summary, solubility enhancement of curcumin in LTs produced significant improvements in its permeation and bioavailability.

  8. Optimal Design of an Hourglass in-Fiber Air Fabry-Perot Microcavity—Towards Spectral Characteristics and Strain Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourglass in-fiber air microcavity Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed in this paper, and its second reflecting surface of in-fiber microcavity is designed to be a concave reflector with the best curvature radius in order to improve the spectral characteristics. Experimental results proved that the extinction ratio of Fabry-Perot interferometer with cavity length of 60 μm and concave reflector radius of 60 μm is higher than for a rectangular Fabry-Perot interferometer with cavity length of 60 μm (14 dB: 11 dB. Theory and numerical simulation results show that the strain sensitivity of sensor can be improved by reducing the microcavity wall thickness and microcavity diameter, and when the in-fiber microcavity length is 40 μm, the microcavity wall thickness is 10 μm, the microcavity diameter is 20 μm, and the curvature radius of reflective surface II is 50 μm, the interference fringe contrast of is greater than 0.97, an Axial-pull sensitivity of 20.46 nm/N and resolution of 1 mN can be achieved in the range of 0–1 N axial tension. The results show that the performance of hourglass in-fiber microcavity interferometer is far superior to that of the traditional Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  9. Liming efficacy and transport in soil of a dry PFBC by-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The by-products of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems are mixtures of coal ash, anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), and unspent alkaline sorbent. Because PFBC by-products are alkaline and contain large concentrations of readily soluble bases (Ca and in some cases Mg) and other essential plant nutrients such as S and K, they have potential use as soil amendments, especially in acidic soils. PFBC by-products (particularly those with large Mg contents) may cause excessively high soluble salt concentrations when applied to soil. This could be detrimental to plant growth and might also impact the release of trace elements from the coal ash component of the by-product. In field experiments on three acidic soils, the liming effectiveness of a PFBC by-product, its effects on corn and alfalfa growth, and its impacts on crop, soil, and water quality were investigated

  10. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  11. By-product formation in repetitive PCR amplification of DNA libraries during SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recognizing aptamers. Little is known about the formation of such by-products when employing nucleic acid libraries as templates. We report on the formation of two different forms of by-products, named ladder- and non-ladder-type observed during repetitive amplification in the course of in vitro selection experiments. Based on sequence information and the amplification behaviour of defined enriched nucleic acid molecules we suppose a molecular mechanism through which these amplification by-products are built. Better understanding of these mechanisms might help to find solutions minimizing by-product formation and improving the success rate of aptamer selection.

  12. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  14. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  15. XYLOOLIGOSACCHARIDES FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERISATION, PRODUCTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaprelyants

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a review of characteristics, production, physiological properties and application of xylooligosaccharides (XOS. XOS are the carbohydrates, their molecules are built from xylose residues linked mainly by в-(1→4-glycoside bonds. Xylan is important for plant cell walls and is widely spread component in agricultural by-products. XOS are products of xylan hydrolytic degradation, and exhibiting the high prebiotic potential. The XOS preparation of wheat and rye bran stimulated the cells accumulation ‑ 1,4∙1010 CFU/cm3 of L. аcidophilus and 9,2∙1010 CFU/cm3 of В. bifidum. A difference in XOS molecules branching causes a wide range of their physiological properties: antioxidant, immunomodulation, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic. XOS can reduce high cholesterol level and triglycerides in blood plasma. XOS application reviewed in this article opens new perspectives on its potential use for human consumption. The rich sources of xylan are wheat, rye and barley bran, rice husk, wheat straw, corncobs, cotton stalk. Industrial way of XOS production includes chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis with following purification. Chemical methods are based on hydrothermal pretreatment and acidic or alkali extraction. Obtained oligosaccharides have a wide range of polymerization degree (DP from 2 to 20. Enzymatic methods include fermentation with xylanase that allow controlling the XOS accumulation with certain DP. The different chromatographic purification after hydrolysis is used for analytical purposes. There are anion-exchange, size-exclusion, affinity, size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, biomethods are preferred for XOS used in food, because such preparations do not contain monosaccharides and furfural as contaminants. XOS are stable in a wide range of temperature and pH, justifying the development of new synbiotics generation. Most widely XOS are used in production of functional

  16. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  17. Agrochemical characterisation of the solid by-products and residues from the winery and distillery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M A; Moral, R; Paredes, C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D

    2008-01-01

    The winery and distillery industry produces a great quantity of residues, whose management and disposal are environmental problems due to their seasonal character and some polluting characteristics. The main solid by-products and residues generated are grape stalk, grape pomace or marc, wine lee, exhausted grape marc and winery sludge. In this study, 87 samples of winery and distillery residues were collected from different Spanish wineries and distilleries. Electrical conductivity, pH, total organic matter, organic carbon, polyphenols and contents of plant nutrients and heavy metals were determined. The purpose of this research was to study the composition of these wastes and to find relationships in order to use easily analysable parameters to estimate their composition. In general, the winery and distillery residues showed low pH (mean values ranged from 3.8 to 6.8) and electrical conductivity values (1.62-6.15 dS m(-1)) and high organic matter (669-920 g kg(-1)) and macronutrient contents, especially in K (11.9-72.8 g kg(-1)). However, a notable polyphenol concentration (1.2-19.0 g kg(-1)) and low micronutrient and heavy metal contents were also observed, some of these properties being incompatible with agricultural requirements. Therefore, conditioning treatments are necessary prior to possible use of these wastes. In all wastes, significant correlations were found between easily determined parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity and total organic matter, and most of the parameters studied. The regression models obtained are also discussed.

  18. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Monti Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  19. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  20. Interface engineering and reliability characteristics of hafnium dioxide with poly silicon gate and dual metal (ruthenium-tantalum alloy, ruthenium) gate electrode for beyond 65 nm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hee

    Chip density and performance improvements have been driven by aggressive scaling of semiconductor devices. In both logic and memory applications, SiO 2 gate dielectrics has reached its physical limit, direct tunneling resulting from scaling down of dielectrics thickness. Therefore high-k dielectrics have attracted a great deal of attention from industries as the replacement of conventional SiO2 gate dielectrics. So far, lots of candidate materials have been evaluated and Hf-based high-k dielectrics were chosen to the promising materials for gate dielectrics. However, lots of issues were identified and more thorough researches were carried out on Hf-based high-k dielectrics. For instances, mobility degradation, charge trapping, crystallization, Fermi level pinning, interface engineering, and reliability studies. In this research, reliability study of HfO2 were explored with poly gate and dual metal (Ru-Ta alloy, Ru) gate electrode as well as interface engineering. Hard breakdown and soft breakdown were compared and Weibull slope of soft breakdown was smaller than that of hard breakdown, which led to a potential high-k scaling issue. Dynamic reliability has been studied and the combination of trapping and detrapping contributed the enhancement of lifetime projection. Polarity dependence was shown that substrate injection might reduce lifetime projection as well as it increased soft breakdown behavior. Interface tunneling mechanism was suggested with dual metal gate technology. Soft breakdown (l st breakdown) was mainly due to one layer breakdown of bi-layer structure. Low weibull slope was in part attributed to low barrier height of HfO 2 compared to interface layer. Interface layer engineering was thoroughly studied in terms of mobility, swing, and short channel effect using deep sub-micron MOSFET devices. In fact, Hf-based high-k dielectrics could be scaled down to below EOT of ˜10A and it successfully achieved the competitive performance goals. However, it is

  1. Effect of marine by-product meals on hen egg production parameters, yolk lipid composition and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyes-Vargas, E; Ortega-Pérez, R; Espinoza-Villavicencio, J L; Arellano-Pérez, M; Civera, R; Palacios, E

    2018-04-01

    The effect of including 5% marine by-product meals in feeds of laying hens on egg production, composition and sensory characteristics was tested. Marine by-product meals were prepared using two methods: (i) cooking (100°C/10 min) followed by drying (60°C/24 hr) or (ii) grinding followed by drying. The raw materials used for meal production were scallop or squid viscera, shrimp heads or whole mackerel. A total of 108 laying hens were allocated to nine diet treatments; one control diet (corn and soya bean based) and eight experimental diets, containing 95% of the control feed and 5% of the experimental meal for three weeks. Daily intake was higher in hens fed the dried mackerel and cooked shrimp meals. All the experimental treatments showed significantly higher concentration of n-3 HUFA in yolk reserves and phospholipids compared to the control (0.12-0.13 g per 100 g), especially those with scallop or squid prepared by both methods (0.53-0.95 g per 100 g). Scallop, squid and shrimp meal inclusion in the feed produced eggs with more astaxanthin (0.22 mg per 100 g) while this carotenoid was absent in the control and mackerel treatments. Visual evaluation of raw yolk colour increased with the inclusion of marine by-product meals with higher values in hens fed shrimp heads (13), followed by scallop viscera (11), squid viscera (9), and with similar values for mackerel and control (4). The taste, aroma, texture and colour of cooked eggs from different treatments were not statically different when evaluated by a panel of 60 untrained people. These results suggest that meals from marine by-products are a better alternative for improving egg yolk composition by increasing n-3 HUFA when compared to fishmeal as they also increase astaxanthin and yolk pigmentation without affecting egg sensory characteristics. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Determination of characteristic properties of low sulphur IGO (industrial gasoil) and FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) mixtures for application technology; Bestimmung anwendungstechnischer Eigenschaften von FAME (Fettsaeuremethylester) in Heizoel EL mittels einer Pruefapparatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liska, M.; Rheinberg, O. van [Oel-Waerme-Inst. gGmbH, Aachen (Germany); Seehack, S.; Gruen, H.; Lucka, K.; Koehne, H. [Inst. fuer wirtschaftliche Oelheizung (IWO), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Hardware-in-the-loop test rigs have been assembled for the investigation of characteristic properties of mixtures of low-sulfur IGO and FAME for application technology. The aim of these test rigs is to differentiate alternative fuels regarding the operational reliability for the use in oil firing systems. Two out of three 20% (v/v) FAME mixtures proofed to be critical as malfunctions due to blockings and deposits occurred. The critical fuels furthermore showed a significant increase in water content, acid number and peroxide number. This shows interdependency between malfunction of burner components and a delectable change of fuel properties. Nonetheless the fuel analytics prior to testing could not be used to predict the fuel quality. An increase of component lifetime could be achieved by the change of the oil tube material from copper to stainless steel respectively the stabilization of the fuel by additives for those alternative fuels proven to be critical. (orig.)

  3. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  4. Biochemical and physicochemical analysis of fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) by-product using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, H.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acid- and alkali-process on biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of fish protein isolate from red snapper (Lutjanus sp) by-product was evaluated. Protein recovered by alkali process (16.79%) was higher compared to acid process (13.75%). Reduction of lipid content and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) exhibited in both treatments indicated both process improved fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper by-product. In addition, the increasing of water holding capacity and oil binding capacity were observed. However, high peroxide value of fish protein isolate was showed in both treatment. This finding indicated that acid and alkali process can be used as a useful method to recover proteins from red snapper by-product. Alkali process gave a protein isolate with better overall quality compared to acid process.

  5. Populações de milho: características agronômicas e tecnológicas Maize populations performance as to agronomic and technological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Lima

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se duas populações de milho de grãos brancos (IAC-Taitinga e IAC-Moroti e duas de grãos amarelos (IAC-Taiúba e IAC-Iubatã e os cruzamentos recíprocos entre as de grãos brancos e três testemunhas (Ag-401, C-601 e IAC-Porangatu, em dois locais, quanto a características agronômicas. Com exceção das testemunhas, testaram-se também tais populações quanto aos principais parâmetros de interesse tecnológico, relacionados com o rendimento e qualidade do fubá mimoso, para uso em panificação. Foram observadas diferenças altamente significativas entre os tratamentos para os caracteres produtividade de grãos, altura da planta e de inserção da espiga, rendimento de gérmen e de fubá mimoso, volume específico comparativo (V.E.C. e escore total comparativo (Es. T.C.. As populações, de modo geral, apresentaram altos níveis de produção de grãos, sendo o maior valor obtido pela população IAC-Taitinga. Sete dos materiais estudados apresentaram porte médio e dois, porte baixo. A população IAC Taitinga, sem diferir de IAC-Moroti e do híbrido IAC-Taitinga x IAC Moroti, apresentou o maior valor para rendimento de fubá mimoso. A IAC-Taiúba sobressaiu-se das demais quanto ao V.E.C. e só não alcançou valor máximo para Es.T.C. devido à cor amarela dos grãos. A IAC-Taitinga e o híbrido IAC-Taitinga x IAC-Moroti mostraram valores iguais ao padrão (100% para Es.T.C. Foi observado efeito maternal atuando no rendimento do fubá mimoso obtido.White and yellow grained maize populations and some of their reciprocal crosses were evaluated as to several agronomic traits as well as to flour yield and bread characteristics. Some populations, including the hybrids under testing showed high grain yield potentials, at the same levels of commercial hybrids Ag-401 e C-601. Significant differences were recorded for plant and ear height, among the entries studied. 'IAC-Taitinga', without differing- from 'IAC-Moroti' and 'IAC

  6. Development of a 3D WebGIS System for Retrieving and Visualizing CityGML Data Based on their Geometric and Semantic Characteristics by Using Free and Open Source Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pispidikis, I.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2016-10-01

    CityGML is considered as an optimal standard for representing 3D city models. However, international experience has shown that visualization of the latter is quite difficult to be implemented on the web, due to the large size of data and the complexity of CityGML. As a result, in the context of this paper, a 3D WebGIS application is developed in order to successfully retrieve and visualize CityGML data in accordance with their respective geometric and semantic characteristics. Furthermore, the available web technologies and the architecture of WebGIS systems are investigated, as provided by international experience, in order to be utilized in the most appropriate way for the purposes of this paper. Specifically, a PostgreSQL/ PostGIS Database is used, in compliance with the 3DCityDB schema. At Server tier, Apache HTTP Server and GeoServer are utilized, while a Server Side programming language PHP is used. At Client tier, which implemented the interface of the application, the following technologies were used: JQuery, AJAX, JavaScript, HTML5, WebGL and Ol3-Cesium. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the application's primary objectives are a user-friendly interface and a fully open source development.

  7. Local agro-industrial by-products with potential use in Ghanaian aquaculture: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    plant by-products for use in fish grow-out facilities, particularly in tilapia production, which accounts for over 80 % of aquaculture production. This review thus identifies local agro-industrial byproducts with potential use in fish feeds based on their nutritional composition, total annual production......, competition for and seasonal availability and dynamics of these products as well as prices. The effects of dietary inclusions of these by-products on fish growth and feed utilisation are also reviewed. Based on the published works and other practical information reviewed, these by-products represent huge...... regions of the world where these crops and their resulting by-products are produced in commercial quantities...

  8. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  9. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  10. [Evaluating work intensity in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagulov, N K; Alpysbayeva, Zh T

    2015-01-01

    The article covers evaluation of work strain in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry. The study results conclude that occupational activity of by-product coke industry workers, under exposure to occupational hazards, affects the workers' performance. Major occupations workers demonstrate higher level of functional strain of CNS, poor concentration of attention and lower ability to switch over, decreased general performance, vs. the auxiliary occupations workers who demonstrated increased cardiovascular and neuro-muscular strain due to occupational activity.

  11. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO 2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO 2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO 2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO 2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO 2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  12. By-Product Formation in Repetitive PCR Amplification of DNA Libraries during SELEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recogniz......The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target......-recognizing aptamers. Little is known about the formation of such by-products when employing nucleic acid libraries as templates. We report on the formation of two different forms of by-products, named ladder- and non-ladder-type observed during repetitive amplification in the course of in vitro selection experiments....... Based on sequence information and the amplification behaviour of defined enriched nucleic acid molecules we suppose a molecular mechanism through which these amplification by-products are built. Better understanding of these mechanisms might help to find solutions minimizing by-product formation...

  13. Silage or fresh by-product of peach palm as roughage in the feeding of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade; de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intake and apparent digestibility of agro-industrial by-product of peach palm in diets for lambs. Twenty castrated, crossbred Santa Ines lambs, with average age of 150 days and body weight of 22.4 ± 3.4 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design with four experimental diets composed of the following: fresh by-product of peach palm enriched with urea + ammonia sulfate (FU); fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (FP); silage of peach palm by-product + concentrate (SP); and silage of peach palm by-product enriched with 15% of cornmeal + concentrate (SPC). Intake was recorded daily, and the digestibility coefficients were estimated with the internal marker indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF). Diet FU resulted in the lowest intake and digestibility of the nutrients evaluated. Animals receiving diet FP showed higher intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and digestible energy (DE) in relation to animals fed diets SP and SPC. Diets SP and SPC showed higher coefficients of digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF than diet FP. Diet SP reduced the intakes of DM, OM, ether extract (EE), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), TDN, and DE and the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and NFC as compared with diet SPC. Feedlot lambs fed a diet with fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (diet FP) have higher nutrient intake.

  14. Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adira Wan Khalit, Wan Nor; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2016-05-18

    Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination.

  15. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  16. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO 4 ) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m 3 ) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m 3 ) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m 3 ). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120 min at 60 °C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160 °C for 1h and 200 °C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  19. An overview of the western Maryland coal combustion by-products/acid mine drainage initiative, Part 1 of 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzrick, P.; Rafalko, L.G.; Lyons, C.

    1996-01-01

    The western Maryland coal combustion by-products (CCB)/acid mine drainage (AMD) initiative (the Initiative) is a public-private partnership exploring the use of CCBs to eliminate AMD from Maryland's abandoned coal mines. This dynamic partnership will sponsor a series of large scale experiments and demonstrations addressing the engineering problems that characterize the beneficial application of CCBs to prevent acid formation on a scale that is consistent with the large quantity of these materials that will be produced by power plants in or near western Maryland. The initial demonstration is the filling and sealing of a small hand dug mine (the Frazee Mine) under approximately ninety feet of overburden on Winding Ridge near Friendsville, Maryland. A second demonstration is being planned for the Kempton mine complex. Subsequent demonstrations will focus on reducing the cost of materials handling and mine injection and solving the engineering problems characteristic of filling abandoned mines in Maryland. The Initiative is the flagship activity in Maryland's overall Ash Utilization Program, the goal of which is to promote beneficial use of all coal combustion by-products

  20. Adaptation by product hacking : A cybernetic design perspective on the co-construction of Do-It-Yourself assistive technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Couvreur, L.B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Whatever you may have heard about product hackers, the truth is they do something really, really
    well. In short: “hackers build things, crackers break them.” Through their experiential and social
    approach product hackers discover new possibilities in a frugal manner with the local

  1. Protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive

  2. Biogas production from animal manure and agri-organic by-products. An analysis of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, W.

    1997-12-01

    Growing interest in sustainable energy has been directed to the production of biogas from organic matter in animal manure and agri-organic by-products. The technology of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of organic materials is used in several parts of the world. Based on this experience and on positive results in a Novem study for the Netherlands situation in 1995, an actor survey has been carried out. The introduction of combined digestion of animal manure and agri-organic by-products has been discussed with companies, business associations and governmental organisations in the energy, agricultural and waste sectors. The survey has revealed that commercial exploitation of biogas plants with a capacity of 100 kton per year is possible under the following conditions: (1) costs of investment should not be higher than 100 Dutch Guilders (45 ECU) per ton processing capacity; (2) yield demands on investment capital, both equity and debt, should not be higher than 8%; (3) selling price for biogas should be around 0,30 Dutch Guilders (0,135 ECU) per m o 3 natural gas equivalents; (4) supply for processing of agri-organic by-products with a received minimum fee of 35 Dutch Guilders (15,7 ECU) per ton should be guaranteed; (5) dairy, pig and arable farmers involved in the biogas plant should have both financial and quality incentives to participation; (6) environmental legislation on the level of heavy metals in animal manure mixed with agri-organic byproducts should not be different from the accepted levels in 'normal' animal manure; and finally (7) the site of the biogas plant accepted by local authorities should be suitable by logistic standards for the transports of animal manure, agri-organic by-products, the digested mixture and biogas. It has been concluded that these conditions are not unrealistic, although there is no absolute certainty that they will be fulfilled. However, circumstances for the implementation of biogas plants have improved in recent years

  3. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  4. Mineral composition of fruit by-products evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriela de Matuoka e Chiocchetti; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Macio Arruda Bacchi; Rogerio Augusto Pazim; Silvana Regina Vicino Sarries; Thais Melega Tome

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of fruits cropping 40 million tons per year. In agro-food processing, approximately 50 % of raw material is discarded generating large amounts of by-products. The lack of information on the nutritional quality of agroindustrial by-products precludes their potential use in the manufacture of food products accessible to all. In this context, the objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional quality of by-products of the industrial processing of fruits. Samples of bagasse, peel and seeds of several fruits (banana, camu camu, coconut, cupuacu, guava, jackfruit, mango, orange, papaya, pineapple, and soursop) were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. In general, higher levels of minerals were found in the by-products rather than in the pulps of fruits. This indicates that the use of the by-products should be encouraged, thereby reducing the economic and environmental impact of waste generated by agroindustrial processing. (author)

  5. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects...... of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut...... environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione...

  6. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  7. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  8. Water extracts from winery by-products as tobacco defense inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouaret, Razik; Goujon, Eric; Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Mery-Bernardon, Aude; Goupil, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    Water extracts from winery by-products exhibited significant plant defense inducer properties. Experiments were conducted on three marc extracts containing various amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Infiltration of red, white and seed grape marc extracts into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining. The infiltration zones and the surrounding areas revealed accumulation of autofluorescent compounds under UV light. Leaf infiltration of the three winery by-product extracts induced defense gene expression. The antimicrobial PR1, β-1,3-glucanase PR2, and chitinase PR3 target genes were upregulated locally in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatments. The osmotin PR5 transcripts accumulated as well in red marc extract treated-tobacco leaves. Overall, the winery by-product extracts elicited an array of plant defense responses making the grape residues a potential use of high value compounds.

  9. Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic performance for weaning to finishing pigs. Methods A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc), average 7.01±1.32 kg body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, Phase 2: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0 to 5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6 to 14 week). Results In the growth trial, BW, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in the diet increased (linear, pby-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (quadratic, p = 0.05) and crude ash (Linear, p = 0.05) of Longissimus muscle. In addition, cooking loss and water holding capacity increased with increasing milk product levels in the weaner diets (linear, pby-product treatment had higher feed cost per weight gain compared to non-milk by-products treatment (linear, p = 0.01). Conclusion Supplementation of 10% to 5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had results equivalent to the 30% to 15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplementation in the diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs. PMID:29103280

  10. A brief review on activated carbon derived from agriculture by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohd Adib; Mansor, Muhammad Humaidi; Zolkarnaini, Wan Amani Auji Wan; Rusli, Nurul Shahnim; Aminuddin, Anisah; Mohamad, Khalidah; Sabhan, Fatin Aina Mohamad; Atik, Arif Abdallah Aboubaker; Ozair, Lailatun Nazirah

    2018-06-01

    A brief review focusing on preparation of the activated carbon derived from agriculture by-products is presented. The physical and chemical activation of activated carbon were also reviewed. The effects of various parameters including types of activating agents, temperature, impregnation ratio, were also discussed. The applications of activated carbon from agricultural by products were briefly reviewed. It is provenly evident in this review, the relatively inexpensive and renewable resources of the agricultural waste were found to be effectively being converted into wealth materials.

  11. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  12. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Ponzonia, R.W.; Hamzah, A.; Abu-Bakara, K.R.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia.

  14. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-01-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications

  15. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank's needs for banking purposes include: (1) Data processing services; (2) Production and... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (weight-percent VOC) Air fresheners: Single-phase 70 Double-phase 30 Liquids/pump sprays 18 Solids/gels 3... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC Content Limits by Product Category 1 Table 1 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  17. Conversion of the biodiesel by-product glycerol by the non-conventional yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying

    production process. Since the volume of the glycerol by-product has exceeded the current market need, biodiesel producers are looking for new methods for sustainable glycerol management and improving the competitiveness of the biodiesel industries. The EU Commission funded GLYFINERY project is one initiative...

  18. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  19. By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta

    2016-01-01

    We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public

  20. Transposable elements in cancer as a by-product of stress-induced evolvability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars P.; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Barbara McClintock's famous notion of TEs acting as controlling elements modifying the genetic response of an organism upon exposure to stressful environments has since been solidly supported in a series of model organisms. This re...... as an evolutionary by-product of organisms' abilities to genetically adapt to environmental stress....

  1. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile...

  2. Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with cancer risk, and a recent study found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether swimming in pools is associated with ...

  3. Effect of Addition of Moringa Leaf By-Product (Leaf-Waste) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incorporation of Moringa leaf fibre (a by-product of leaf processing which contains 24% Crude Fibre by dry weight at 0, 5 and 10 % substitution of wheat flour in cookies was investigated. Three products containing wheat flour: Moringa leaf fibre ratios of 100:0, 95:5, and 90:10 respectively were prepared, and a ...

  4. Utilisation of metallurgical by-products in road construction in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, František

    2017-09-01

    Metallurgical by-products, primarily blast furnace slag and steel slag, have ranked among important alternative sources of fill as well as of material for the structural layers in highways. Main hazards of metallurgical by-products are closely connected to their chemical and mineralogical composition and they can be resulted in volume changes. Fears from possible deformations similar to the D47 motorway meant that metallurgical by-products were excluded from several public tenders of road construction. Comparison of blast furnace slag, steel slag and other metallurgical by products parameters allow us to define the most hazardous material as steelworks waste. Linear swelling of steelwork waste achieves more than 40% at 75°C and swelling pressure was higher than 1.5 MPa. Compositional heterogeneity of steelworks waste makes it difficult to establish the long-term behaviour of this material. At the present time we cannot ascertain which maximum values can be reached by deformation and what are the swelling pressures acting on the material while the volume changes are in progress.

  5. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP ......-digesting 50% of SBP with cow manure....

  7. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was soil.

  8. A Multinomial Logit Approach to Estimating Regional Inventories by Product Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1998-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology to distribute the volume on each FIA survey plot to product classes and...

  9. Effects of heat treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) by heat treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...

  10. Glutamic acid production from wheat by-products using enzymatic and acid hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Alting, A.C.; Floris, R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamic acid (Glu) has potential as feedstock for bulk chemicals production. It has also been listed as one of the top twelve chemicals derived from biomass. Large amounts of cheaper Glu can be made available by enabling its production from biomass by-products, such as wheat dried distillers grains

  11. Advice on the disposal of radioactive by-products arising in the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyermann, M.; Goergner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the current legislation in the GDR advice is given on the classification and disposal of radioactive by-products from the utilization of nuclear energy with special emphasis on the different procedures for products which require a disposal licence by the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and those which do not need such an authorization. (author)

  12. Fish by-product meal in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferreira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4% of fish by-product meal in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and economic analysis. A total of 160 Dekalb White hens with 52-wk old were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of fish by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p < 0.05 were detected for all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk and albumen percentage, yolk and albumen height, feed cost and production cost, in which the inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diets showed better results. It can be concluded that fish by-product meal can be used in diets for hens as alternative feed, with better results in egg production, feed conversion, egg weight, yolk-albumen ratio and a reduction in feed cost and production cost.

  13. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  14. CONTROL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS): COST AND PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is in the process of developing a sophisticated regulatory strategy in an attempt to balance the complex trade-offs in risks associated with controlling disinfectants and disinfection by-products (D/DBPs) in drinking water. EPA first attempted to control DBPs in 1974, w...

  15. Bioenergy by-products as soil amendments? Implications for carbon sequestration and greenhuise gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, M.L.; Oenema, O.; Kuikman, P.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An important but little understood aspect of bioenergy production is its overall impact on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Increased energy production from biomass will inevitably lead to higher input of its by-products to the soil as amendments or fertilizers. However, it is still unclear

  16. Environmental and personal determinants of the uptake of disinfection by-products during swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Schmalz, Christina; Zwiener, Christian; Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Mitch, William; Critelli, Rossana; Naccarati, Alessio; Heederik, Dick; Spithoven, Jack; Arjona, Lourdes; de Bont, Jeroen; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Villanueva, Cristina M

    BACKGROUND: Trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine are internal dose biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. OBJECTIVE: We assessed how these biomarkers reflect the levels of a battery of DBPs in pool water and

  17. In Vitro Iron Bioavailability of Brazilian Food-Based by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetti, Gabriela M; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Wawer, Anna A; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Christides, Tatiana

    2018-05-16

    Background : Iron deficiency is a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Introduction of agro-industrial food by-products, as additional source of nutrients, could help alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, provide alternative sources of nutrients and calories in developed countries, and be a partial solution for disposal of agro-industry by-products. Methods : The aim of this study was to determine iron bioavailability of 5 by-products from Brazilian agro-industry (peels from cucumber, pumpkin, and jackfruit, cupuaçu seed peel, and rice bran), using the in vitro digestion/ Caco-2 cell model; with Caco-2 cell ferritin formation as a surrogate marker of iron bioavailability. Total and dialyzable Fe, macronutrients, the concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (phytic acid, tannins, fiber) and their correlation with iron bioavailability were also evaluated. Results : The iron content of all by-products was high, but the concentration of iron and predicted bioavailability were not related. Rice bran and cupuaçu seed peel had the highest amount of phytic acid and tannins, and lowest iron bioavailability. Cucumber peels alone, and with added extrinsic Fe, and pumpkin peels with extrinsic added iron, had the highest iron bioavailability. Conclusion : The results suggest that cucumber and pumpkin peel could be valuable alternative sources of bioavailable Fe to reduce iron deficiency in at-risk populations.

  18. Application of glass recycling by-products in Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, Chr.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Schmidt, Wolfram; Msinjili, Nsesheye Susan

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a construction material with a large range of applications. In order to generate more sustainable materials, the possibility of the incorporation of by-products and left-over-materials from various processes is investigated. The focus of this research is the

  19. Radioactivity distribution in phosphate products, by-products, effluents, and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, R.J.; Windham, S.T.

    1975-08-01

    Phosphate rock throughout the world contains uranium in concentrations ranging from a few ppM to a few hundred ppM. In the United States, phosphate rock normally contains between 100 to 150 ppM uranium. Mining and processing of these ores redistributes much of the uranium daughters among the various products, by-products, and wastes. These materials are then widely dispersed throughout the environment. This redistribution may lead to increased exposure of the public to these naturally-occurring radionuclides. In determining the magnitude of the population exposure caused by this redistribution and in developing environmental standards and controls to prevent contamination of the biosphere from these naturally-occurring radionuclides it is necessary to determine the concentrations and total quantities of these radionuclides in the products, by-products, effluents and wastes of phosphate mining and manufacturing. Samples of phosphate ores, products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were obtained and analyzed for their radioactivity content. Quantities of radioactivity entering the environment through various products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were estimated

  20. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO X from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This paper surveys the potential for production and consumption of alternative, usable, commercial by-products, in conjunction with major reductions in the inventory of emissions of SO 2 and NO X . An examination is made of the important limitations in the annual consumptive use or price of and/or net revenues from commonplace, electric utility, by-product types such as gypsum, sulfuric acid, etc. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in agricultural fertilizer forms, including ammonium sulfate and other compounds that are available through stack-gas cleaning operations at large, coal-fired boilers. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product yield and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO X emission reduction activity. (author)

  1. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  2. By-products formation during degradation of isoproturon in aqueous solution. II: Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, G; Lopez, A; James, H; Fielding, M

    2001-05-01

    After a previous study in which the considered oxidant was ozone (Part I), a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the degradation of the herbicide isoproturon during its reaction with another oxidant, i.e. chlorine, in aqueous solution (Part II; this paper). The specific aim was to identify the by-products formed. The effects of pH and the presence of bromide ions were studied. Reactions have been carried out at room temperature, in phosphate buffered aqueous solutions, at four pHs (6, 7, 8 and 9). By-products identification was first performed using relatively high initial reagent concentrations which were analytically convenient ([isoproturon] = 40 mg/l, [HClO + ClO-] = 160 mg Cl/l, [Br-] = 80 mg/l). In follow-up studies, the by-products identified during this preliminary step were searched for when using concentration values closer to those actually encountered at real water treatment plants ([isoproturon] = 0.4 and 0.004 mg/l, [HClO + ClO-] = 1.6 mg Cl/l, [Br-] = 0.8 and 0.008 mg/l). Under all of the studied conditions, the results showed that isoproturon is completely degraded and that it decays much faster in the presence of bromide. The pH has a negligible influence when bromide ions are absent. On the contrary, if bromide ions are present, the isoproturon decay is slower at higher pH values. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analyses have led to the identification of several by-products as a result of simultaneous oxidation and substitution reactions, both occurring on the aromatic ring of the herbicide. However, the more abundant by-products are those resulting from the oxidation of the isoproturon aromatic ring. As far as halogenated by-products are concerned, the higher the bromide ion concentration the higher the ratio of brominated to chlorinated by-products. On the basis of the analytical results, a pathway for isoproturon degradation under the studied conditions is proposed.

  3. Biofuels and their by-products: Global economic and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.; Beckman, Jayson F.; Birur, Dileep K.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have used general equilibrium models to study the economy-wide and environmental consequences of the first generation of biofuels (FGB). In this paper, we argue that nearly all of these studies have overstated the impacts of FGB on global agricultural and land markets due to the fact that they have ignored the role of biofuel by-products. Feed by-products of FGB, such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and oilseed meals (VOBP), are used in the livestock industry as protein and energy sources. Their presence mitigates the price impacts of biofuel production. More importantly, they reduce the demand for cropland and moderate the indirect land use consequences of FGB. This paper explicitly introduces DDGS and VOBP into a global computational general equilibrium (CGE) model, developed at the Center for Global Trade Analysis at Purdue University, to examine the economic and environmental impacts of regional and international mandate policies designed to stimulate bioenergy production and use. We show that models with and without by-products reveal different portraits of the economic impacts of the US and EU biofuel mandates for the world economy in 2015. While both models demonstrate significant changes in the agricultural production pattern across the world, the model with by-products shows smaller changes in the production of cereal grains and larger changes for oilseeds products in the US and EU, and the reverse for Brazil. Models that omit by-products are found to overstate cropland conversion from US and EU mandates by about 27%. (author)

  4. improving citric acid production from some carbohydrates by-products using irradiated aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty strains of A. niger were isolated from different sources, screened for their capacity to produce citric acid. All the isolated strains were able to produce citric acid in different quantities at different time intervals i.e. 4, 8 and 12 days on indicator medium. The best incubation period for production for all isolates was 12 days. The most potent strains for production were A 1 , A 4 and A 5 , while A 8 , A 1 6, A 18 and A 19 recorded weak production on that medium. Citric acid productivity were obtained by all strains when using different concentrations of four carbohydrate by-products (maize straw, potato peel wastes, sugar beet pulp and molasses) when each used alone without any additions after 12 days incubation and the production enhanced when the fermentation medium amended with the same concentrations of the mentioned substrates. Type and concentration of carbohydrate by-product affect the production of citric acid by A. niger strains under the study. Increasing substrate concentration led to increase in production, the best concentration for production was 25% for all carbohydrate by-products. As recorded with indicator medium, A 1 , A 4 and A 5 are also the most potent strains for production when growing on the four carbohydrate by-products supplemented to the basal medium, while A 8 , A 6 , A 18 and A 19 recorded the weak production with the carbohydrate by-products used.production of the parental isolates A 1 , A 4 and A 5 on indicator medium were: 0.96, 0.95 and 0.99 (mg/ml) respectively after 12 days incubation, while maximum production by the obtaining resulting isolates (Treated by UV irradiation) were: 1.78, 1.70 and 1.73 (mg/ml) from A 4 T 2 (5 min.), A 4 T 1 (10 min.) and A 1 T 1 (5 min.), respectively.

  5. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta N; Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Nielsen, Tom H; Hansen, Max; Barri, Thaer; Langkilde, Søren; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2009-12-01

    Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activities in erythrocytes increased when rats were fed with the onion extract. Hepatic gene expression of Gr, Gpx1, catalase, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase was not altered in any group of the onion fed rats. By contrast, gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene expression was upregulated but only in rats given the onion residue. The onion by-products as well as the soluble and insoluble fractions had prebiotic effects as evidenced by decreased pH, increased butyrate production and altered gut microbiota enzyme activities. In conclusion, the onion by-products have no in vivo genotoxicity, may support in vivo antioxidative defence and alter the functionality of the rat gut microbiota.

  6. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced the formation of other by-products. With alumina ethene showed a lower tendency to form HCN as compared to propene and water addition further suppressed by-product formation. This contrasts the findings with Cu/ZSM-5, where HCN production was not significantly altered by the presence of water. On this catalyst HNCO was found additionally for dry feeds, whereas ammonia appeared in the presence of water in the same temperature range. Under special feed gas compositions further by-products, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons, were found over Cu/ZSM-5, whereas none of these compounds were observed over {gamma}-alumina

  7. Fiscal 1997 survey report / R and D of important region technology. R and D of technologies giving multi-functional characteristics to C/C composites (development of high-grade surface processing technology for engine members for methane fueled air craft. 1. control technology of micro structures of ultra-high temperature members); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu). 1. chokoon buzai micro kozo seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing members most suitable for aircraft use engines with methane as fuel, the R and D were conducted of technology to reform surfaces and interfaces of materials. In the R and D, the paper took up carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials (C/C composites). In the surface control and reformation technology using the ion engineering method, etc., in the sealing processing of C/C composites, tried was the formation of a C/SiC/Si3N4 composite layer which was formed by Si3N4 much smaller in thermal expansion coefficient than SiC. Further, technologies on ion injection, thin film formation, giving of oxidation resistance/corrosion resistance, improving/giving of thermal shock resistance, etc. In the multi-functional coating formation technology such as high liability and corrosion resistance, the study was carried out of the dense composite functionally-gradient layer as thermal stress relaxation layer and the fiber reinforced layer by carbon fiber using pores. Besides, studies were made of technologies of the micro structure control combination, evaluation of ultra-high temperature resistant environmental characteristics, etc. 61 refs., 198 figs., 44 tabs.

  8. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  9. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  10. Scientific research in the area of coking and coking by-products (based on material from the All-Union Coordinating Conference)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydkevich, M.I.; Tselik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V.

    1985-06-01

    Subjects covered in the all-union coordinating conference on coking and chemical by-products of coking, which took place on 13-15 July 1984, are discussed. One hundred forty eight on-going and new research themes accepted as research projects for 1985-86 were discussed. Areas of research include coals from the eastern deposits and Pechora basin as raw materials for coking; coals from the southern deposits as coking raw materials; technology of coal preparation for coking; technology for producing blast furnace coke and methods of assessing its quality; technology for producing other kinds of coke and carbon graphite materials; methods for extraction processing and producing chemical products from coking.

  11. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  12. UN-ECE task force: 'by-product utilization from stationary installations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, A. E.; Zehetner, G.

    1996-09-01

    The task force has concluded as followed: Major sources of by-products considered in this report from stationary installations are large scale firing installations, waste incineration, upgrading processes and utilization in iron and steel, aluminium and copper industry, and the pulp and paper industry. The share of each sector source to the total amount of by-products generated differs significantly in the participating countries. State of the art processes as described in the report take account of the need for integrated pollution prevention and control. In particular the requirements set out in the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution can still be satisfied when applying these state of the art processes. The report shows that a number of techniques for avoidance, reduction and/or utilization of by-products are in commercial operation in the branches discussed. They can therefore be considered to be best available. For some special by-products technical processes for the treatment are still in development and are not yet state-of-the-art. The implementation of the already proven techniques varies considerably in the different ECE-countries. This is mainly due to the following circumstances: differences in the design and stringency of legal regulations, availability of landfilling sites, costs of disposal, differences in industrial structure. Problems with by-product utilization originate mainly from: a) from a loss of international competitiveness of the respective industrial sector, if the reduction of the amount of by-products or their utilization leads to higher costs than conventional processes; b) from quality standards for materials which are inadequate for secondary raw materials thus creating acceptance problems of these materials. C) In some cases incineration and/or thermal recycling processes generate PCDD/F. quantities produces may be capable of reduction by means of process modification. If, however PCDD/F is released to the

  13. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...... distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary...... products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented....

  14. Características tecnológicas dos caules de juta visando à produção de pastas celulósicas para papel Technological characteristics of jute stalks to produce cellulosic fibers for paper making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas seis variedades de juta quanto à densidade básica do caule e seus teores em líber, lenho, fibra, celulose e dimensões das fibras. Os valores para a densidade básica, de 0,270 a 0,335g/cm³, evidenciaram suas diferenças tecnológicas. Os caules da variedade introduzida sob nº I-52445 foram os menos densos, com menores teores de fibra e de celulose. Os teores de líber (36,6 a 40,6%, lenho (59,4 a 63,4%, fibra (17,3 a 22,0% e celulose (42,4 a 45,4%, bem como o estudo micrométrico das fibras liberianas e lenhosas, evidenciaram as possibilidades de utilização dos caules de juta como matéria-prima para produção de fibras celulósicas para papel.In this paper six varieties of jute identified by the numbers I-53502, I -53503, I -52444, I -52445, I -52446 e Roxa were studied considering the following stalk technological characteristics: basic density, contents of bast, woody fiber, cellulose and fiber dimensions. The basic density ranged from 0.270 to 0.335g/cm³, showing differences among varieties. The contents of bast ranged from 36.6 to 40.6%, woody from 49.4 to 63.4%, fiber from 17.3 to 22.0%, and cellulose from 42.4 to 45.4%; the bast fiber lengths ranged from 1.99 to 2.14mm and woody 0.70 to 0.82mm. These results indicated the great potential the jute stalks have to produce cellulose fibers for paper making.

  15. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  17. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  18. Exploitation of starch industry liquid by-product to produce bioactive peptides from rice hydrolyzed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Piu', Lucilla; Tassoni, Annalisa; Serrazanetti, Diana Isabella; Ferri, Maura; Babini, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Gianotti, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    Small peptides show higher antioxidant capacity than native proteins and may be absorbed in the intestine without further digestion. In our study, a protein by-product from rice starch industry was hydrolyzed with commercial proteolytic enzymes (Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme) and microbial whole cells of Bacillus spp. and the released peptides were tested for antioxidant activity. Among enzymes, Alcalase was the most performing, while microbial proteolytic activity was less efficient. Conversely, the antioxidant activity was higher in the samples obtained by microbial hydrolysis and particularly with Bacillus pumilus AG1. The sequences of low molecular weight antioxidant peptides were determined and analyzed for aminoacidic composition. The results obtained so far suggest that the hydrolytic treatment of this industrial by-product, with selected enzymes and microbial systems, can allow its exploitation for the production of functional additives and supplements rich in antioxidant peptides, to be used in new food formulas for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on zeolite NaA synthesized from by-product silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaičiukynienė, Danutė; Kantautas, Aras; Vaitkevičius, Vitoldas; Jakevičius, Leonas; Rudžionis, Žymantas; Paškevičius, Mantas

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of zeolite NaA from silica by-product was carried out in the presence of 20 kHz ultrasound at room temperature. Zeolites obtained in this type of synthesis were compared to zeolites obtained by performing conventional static syntheses under similar conditions. The sonication effects on zeolite NaA synthesis were characterized by phase identification, crystallinity etc. The effects of different parameters such as crystallization time and initial materials preparation methods on the crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized zeolites were investigated. The final products were characterized by XRD and FT-IR. It was possible to obtain crystalline zeolite NaA from by-product silica in the presence of ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Castanea sativa by-products: a review on added value and sustainable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Nair; Rodrigues, Francisca; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. is a species of the family Fagaceae abundant in south Europe and Asia. The fruits (chestnut) are an added value resource in producing countries. Chestnut economic value is increasing not only for nutritional qualities but also for the beneficial health effects related with its consumption. During chestnut processing, a large amount of waste material is generated namely inner shell, outer shell and leaves. Studies on chestnut by-products revealed a good profile of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective properties. These agro-industrial wastes, after valorisation, can be used by other industries, such as pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics, generating more profits, reducing pollution costs and improving social, economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this review is to provide knowledge about the type of chestnut by-products produced, the studies concerning its chemical composition and biological activity, and also to discuss other possible applications of these materials.

  1. Collection and application of by-product formed in e-b flue gas treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Tokunaga, O.; Machi, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the e-b process SO 2 and NO x are converted into ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate, which condenses from gas phase in the form of submicrone particles. These salts are a valuable fertilizer and should be removed from cleaned gas. Bag filter, ESP and wet gravel bed filter were applied for collecting of salt particles in pilot plant facilities. Up to now ESP is considered to be the best filtration method of aerosols formed after irradiation of flue gas. Collected salts after granulation may be used as a fertilizer enriching soil in nitrogen and sulphur or as a component of mixed fertilizer. Analysis of by-products from different e-b pilot plants confirms that it does not contain any harmful substances like heavy metals and fulfill all standards for commercial fertilizers. Also field experiments show that the by-products have the same properties as a commercial fertilizer

  2. Disinfection by-products/precursor control using an innovative treatment process -- high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawal, K.; Millington, B.; Slifker, R.A.; Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.G.; Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    When waters containing naturally occurring humic substances, precursors, are chlorinated, reaction (disinfection) by-products (DBPs) that may compromise the chemical water quality of the drinking water are formed. Two options exist for the treatment of THMs and other DBPs, removal of precursor material prior to chlorination, or destruction of the by-products once they are formed. The authors have initiated a study using an innovative process, high energy electron beam irradiation, as an alternative treatment for the destruction of toxic organic compounds. Preliminary studies indicated that the process would also be effective in the removal of precursors. An added advantage of this process is that is would serve as a primary disinfectant, destroying any toxic compounds in the source water and may assist in the removal of algae and cyanobacteria toxins. This paper discusses studies in precursor removal and control of THMs

  3. Biological activities of Agave by-products and their possible applications in food and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Romero, Julio Cesar; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Peña-Ramos, Etna Aida; González-Ríos, Humberto

    2018-05-01

    Agave leaves are considered a by-product of alcoholic beverage production (tequila, mezcal and bacanora) because they are discarded during the production process, despite accounting for approximately 50% of the total plant weight. These by-products constitute a potential source of Agave extracts rich in bioactive compounds, such as saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenes, and possess different biological effects, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo tests (e.g. antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antiparasitic and anticancer activity). Despite their positive results in biological assays, Agave extracts have not been widely evaluated in food systems and pharmaceutical areas, and these fields represent a potential route to improve the usage of Agave plants as food additives and agents for treating medical diseases. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Multielemental analysis of agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, C.M.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Saiki, M.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to determine As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se and Zn in the Brazilian agroindustrial by-products. These materials are widely used in ruminant feeding. The results obtained were compared with requirement and maximum tolerable concentrations. The general conclusions from the data obtained were: (1) many by-products presented concentrations of some essential elements lower than the requirement concentrations, while in some samples the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mg and Se exceeded by a little the maximum tolerable concentrations, (2) the elements As, Cd, Hg and Sb, generally considered toxic, showed concentrations lower than maximum tolerable values. (author)

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of By-product Hydrogen from Chlor-Alkali Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division; Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division

    2017-12-01

    Current hydrogen production capacity in the U.S. is about 15.8 million tonne (or metric ton) per year (Brown 2016). Some of the hydrogen (2 million tonne) is combusted for its heating energy value, which makes total annual net production 13.8 million tonne (Table 1). If captive by-product hydrogen (3.3 million tonne) from catalytic reforming at oil refineries is excluded (Brown 2016; EIA 2008), approximately 11 million tonne is available from the conventional captive and merchant hydrogen market (DOE 2013). Captive hydrogen (owned by the refiner) is produced and consumed on site (e.g., process input at refineries), whereas merchant hydrogen is produced and sold as a commodity to external consumers. Whether it is merchant or captive, most hydrogen produced in the U.S. is on-purpose (not by-product)— around 10 million tonne/year.

  6. The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Hanh Nguyen; Nassim Sebaibi; Mohamed Boutouil; Lydia Leleyter; Fabienne Baraud

    2013-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems. Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervi...

  7. L-Serine overproduction with minimization of by-product synthesis by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinjian; Zhang, Xiaomei; Luo, Yuchang; Guo, Wen; Xu, Guoqiang; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-02-01

    The direct fermentative production of L-serine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from sugars is attractive. However, superfluous by-product accumulation and low L-serine productivity limit its industrial production on large scale. This study aimed to investigate metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies towards eliminating by-products as well as increasing L-serine productivity. Deletion of alaT and avtA encoding the transaminases and introduction of an attenuated mutant of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increased both L-serine production level (26.23 g/L) and its productivity (0.27 g/L/h). Compared to the parent strain, the by-products L-alanine and L-valine accumulation in the resulting strain were reduced by 87 % (from 9.80 to 1.23 g/L) and 60 % (from 6.54 to 2.63 g/L), respectively. The modification decreased the metabolic flow towards the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and induced to shift it towards L-serine production. Meanwhile, it was found that corn steep liquor (CSL) could stimulate cell growth and increase sucrose consumption rate as well as L-serine productivity. With addition of 2 g/L CSL, the resulting strain showed a significant improvement in the sucrose consumption rate (72 %) and the L-serine productivity (67 %). In fed-batch fermentation, 42.62 g/L of L-serine accumulation was achieved with a productivity of 0.44 g/L/h and yield of 0.21 g/g sucrose, which was the highest production of L-serine from sugars to date. The results demonstrated that combined metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies could minimize by-product accumulation and improve L-serine productivity.

  8. CHO On A Detox: Removing By-Product Formation Through Cell Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Sara; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred hosts for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins. However, there is a need for improvement of the bioprocesses towards increased cell growth and higher productivities without compromising the product quality. Efforts to obtain tailor-made p......-made products with the desired properties that meet the requirements of regulatory authorities are continuously being made. Of equal relevance is to develop methods to engineer cell lines with improved by-product metabolism....

  9. Gamma and electron radiation effects on agricultural by-products with high fibre content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Nehring, K.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw, rye straw and dried green fodder are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural by-products with high fibre content can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerization of the cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  10. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  11. Valorisation of fish by-products against waste management treatments--Comparison of environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Antelo, Luis T; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Reuse and valorisation of fish by-products is a key process for marine resources conservation. Usually, fishmeal and oil processing factories collect the by-products generated by fishing port and industry processing activities, producing an economical benefit to both parts. In the same way, different added-value products can be recovered by the valorisation industries whereas fishing companies save the costs associated with the management of those wastes. However, it is important to estimate the advantages of valorisation processes not only in terms of economic income, but also considering the environmental impacts. This would help to know if the valorisation of a residue provokes higher impact than other waste management options, which means that its advantages are probably not enough for guarantying a sustainable waste reuse. To that purpose, there are several methodologies to evaluate the environmental impacts of processes, including those of waste management, providing different indicators which give information on relevant environmental aspects. In the current study, a comparative environmental assessment between a valorisation process (fishmeal and oil production) and different waste management scenarios (composting, incineration and landfilling) was developed. This comparison is a necessary step for the development and industrial implementation of these processes as the best alternative treatment for fish by-products. The obtained results showed that both valorisation process and waste management treatments presented similar impacts. However, a significant benefit can be achieved through valorisation of fish by-products. Additionally, the implications of the possible presence of pollutants were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of the liquid biofertilizer production in batch fermentation with by-product from MSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namfon, Panjanapongchai; Ratchanok, Sahaworarak; Chalida, Daengbussade

    2017-03-01

    The long term use of chemical fertilizers destroyed the friability of soil which obviously decreased quantity and quality of crops and especially affect microorganisms living in soils. The bio-fertilizer with microbial consortium is an environmental friendly alternative to solve this bottleneck due to harboring soil microorganisms such as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Deinococcus sp. produced with natural by-product or waste from industries that is alternative and sustainable such as nutrient-rich (by-product) from Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) for producing liquid biofertilizer by batch fermentation. In this work, the concentration of reducing sugar from substrate as main carbon source was evaluated in shake flask with mixed cultures. The optimal conditions were studied comparing with two levels of reducing sugar concentration (10, 20 g/L) and inoculums concentration (10, 20 %v/v) with using (2×2) full factorial design. The results indicated that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for fermentation and inoculums concentration is mainly influenced the batch fermentation process. Moreover, the combined 20 g/L and 10%v/v were considerably concluded as an optimal condition, of which the concentration of vegetative cells and spores attained at 8.29×109 CFU/mL and 1.97×105 CFU/mL, respectively. Their spores cell yields from reducing sugar (Yx/s) were obtained at 1.22×106 and 3.34×105 CFU/g were markedly different. In conclusion, the liquid Biofertilizer was produced satisfactorily at 20 g/L reducing sugar and 10% v/v inoculums in shake flask culture. Moreover, these results suggested that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for low-cost substrate in economical scale and environmental-friendly.

  13. By-Product Carrying Humidified Hydrogen: An Underestimated Issue in the Hydrolysis of Sodium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Eddy; Miele, Philippe; Demirci, Umit B

    2016-07-21

    Catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride generates up to four molecules of hydrogen, but contrary to what has been reported so far, the humidified evolved gas is not pure hydrogen. Elemental and spectroscopic analyses show, for the first time, that borate by-products pollute the stream as well as the vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Protein bread fortification with cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of t...

  15. Mechanical behavior of sustainable building materials using PET waste and industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, C. A; Mendoza-Rangel, J. M; González, J. R; Rodríguez, J. A; Valdez, P

    2015-01-01

    The building industry is facing the challenge of satisfying a growing demand for housing spaces that can be mitigated by the use of construction materials manufactured with industrial by-products that allow the production of low-cost housing with a low environmental impact. In this research, an alternative building system to manufacture lightweight masonry blocks with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and fiber-reinforced panels using binary mixture (Portland cement and fly ash), was s...

  16. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  17. Influência dos teores de aveia e de gordura nas características tecnológicas e funcionais de bolos Influence of oat and fat levels in technological and functional characteristics of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o emprego de aveia e de gordura nas características tecnológicas e funcionais de bolos. No estudo foram utilizados os ingredientes flocos e farinha de aveia (Avena sativa L. do cultivar IAC 7 (30% de flocos grossos tostados e 70% de farinha, previamente selecionados com base na composição química, farinha de trigo, açúcar, sal, fermento químico, emulsificante, leite em pó, ovo inteiro, sorbitol e aroma de baunilha. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento composto central rotacional aplicável à metodologia de superfície de resposta (MSR, sendo os teores de aveia (flocos, farinha e gordura estabelecidos como variáveis independentes. Os resultados de densidade da massa, viscosidade da massa, composição química, energia metabolizável, volume específico, atividade de água, características internas, porosidade e cor foram tratados por análise de regressão múltipla, obtendo-se modelo matemático de segunda ordem com os termos lineares, quadráticos e de interação significativos. A aveia pode ser utilizada na elaboração de bolos de valor calórico reduzido e como fonte de fibras alimentares atendendo às características de alimento funcional. A densidade da massa variou com a quantidade de gordura da formulação, enquanto que a viscosidade, com a concentração de aveia. A porosidade do miolo foi influenciada pelas concentrações de aveia e de gordura utilizadas nas formulações. Com a elevação do teor de aveia e a diminuição de gordura nas formulações ocorreu um aumento da área, diâmetro e perímetro médios dos alvéolos.The present work aimed to study the use of oat and fat in the technological and functional characteristics of cakes. The ingredients used were oat flakes and flour (Avena sativa L., of the cultivar IAC 7 (30% of toasted thick flakes and 70% of flour, selected based on the chemical composition, wheat flour, sugar, salt, baking powder, emulsifier, powdered

  18. Photocatalytic ozonation of terephthalic acid: a by-product-oriented decomposition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Iliana; Rodríguez, Julia L; Poznyak, Tatyana; Chairez, Isaac

    2014-11-01

    Terephthalic acid (TA) is considered as a refractory model compound. For this reason, the TA degradation usually requires a prolonged reaction time to achieve mineralization. In this study, vanadium oxide (VxOy) supported on titanium oxide (TiO2) served as a photocatalyst in the ozonation of the TA with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), having a bandwidth centered at 452 nm. The modified catalyst (VxOy/TiO2) in combination with ozone and LEDs improved the TA degradation and its by-products. The results obtained by this system were compared with photolysis, single ozonation, catalytic ozonation, and photocatalytic ozonation of VxOy/TiO2 with UV lamp. The LED-based photocatalytic ozonation showed almost the same decomposition efficiency of the TA, but it was better in comparison with the use of UV lamp. The oxalic acid accumulation, as the final product of the TA decomposition, was directly influenced by either the presence of VxOy or/and the LED irradiation. Several by-products formed during the TA degradation, such as muconic, fumaric, and oxalic acids, were identified. Besides, two unidentified by-products were completely removed during the observed time (60 min). It was proposed that the TA elimination in the presence of VxOy/TiO2 as catalyst was carried out by the combination of different mechanisms: molecular ozone reaction, indirect mechanism conducted by ·OH, and the surface complex formation.

  19. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  20. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  1. Technical viability of self-compacting concretes with by-products from crushed coarse aggregate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bacarji

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this work is to present the technical viability of Self Compacting Concretes (SCC containing by-products from crushed coarse aggregate production. For this purpose, a vast characterization of these by-products was made; six mixtures of SCC were produced using two different aggregates: granite and mica schist. The binder/dry aggregate (b/agg ratio by mass was 1:3. The following properties were analyzed: compressive strength, direct tensile strength, flexural tensile strength and splitting tensile strength. Granite presented the best mechanical performance. The replacement of natural sand by granite sand generated concretes with the same level of compressive strength and caused an increase in tensile strength values. The incorporation of silica fume into concrete with granite produced an increase of 17% in compressive strength. So, the use of these by-product materials can provide a technically feasible solution that is also consistent with the aims of sustainable development and preservation of the environment.

  2. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Ahmed A; El Tanbouly, Nebal D; Islam, Wafaa T; Eid, Hanaa H; El Maraghy, Shohda A; El Senousy, Amira S

    2015-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides namely, quercetin-3-O-sophorotrioside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.

  3. Optimal pH in chlorinated swimming pools - balancing formation of by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal pH range for chlorinated swimming pools the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and trichloramine was investigated in the pH-range 6.5–7.5 in batch experiments. An artificial body fluid analogue was used to simulate bather load as the precursor for by-products....... The chlorine-to-precursor ratio used in the batch experiments influenced the amounts of by-products formed, but regardless of the ratio the same trends in the effect of pH were observed. Trihalomethane formation was reduced by decreasing pH but haloacetonitrile and trichloramine formation increased....... To evaluate the significance of the increase and decrease of the investigated organic by-products at the different pH values, the genotoxicity was calculated based on literature values. The calculated genotoxicity was approximately at the same level in the pH range 6.8–7.5 and increased when pH was 6...

  4. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram; Merah, Othmane

    2018-02-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people's access to food. Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway ( Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

  5. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  6. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Lepp, Nicholas W.; Madejon, Engracia

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: → By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. → Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. → The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. → Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  7. Disinfection by-products and extractable organic compounds in South African tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien Nothnagel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An important step in urban purification of drinking water is disinfection by e.g. chlorination where potential pathogenic micro-organisms in the water supply are killed. The presence of organic material in natural water leads to the formation of organic by- products during disinfection. Over 500 of these disinfection by-products (DBPs have been identified and many more are estimated to form during the disinfection step. Several DBPs such as trihalomethanes (THMs, which is carcinogenic, poses serious health risks to the community. There is very few quantitative data available which realizes the actual levels of these compounds present in drinking water. The levels of four THMs present in drinking water were measured. It included chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Although microbiological parameters are considered to get more attention than disinfection by-products, the measurement of the levels of these compounds in South-African drinking water is essential together with establishing minimum acceptable concentration levels. The target range for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs established by the US EPA at the end of 2003 is 0-0.08ug/mL. The aim of this paper is to create an awareness of the problem as well as presenting preliminary results obtained with the method of analysis. Preliminary results indicate that urgent attention must be given to the regulation and monitoring of DBPs in South African drinking water.

  8. Socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Consol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57% and more bottled water (33% than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003. These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.

  9. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO x from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This flue gas treatment consists of adding a small amount of ammonia to the flue gas and irradiating the gas by means of an electron beam. This causes reactions which convert SO 2 and NO x to ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. These salts are then collected from the flue gas by conventional collectors, such as a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator. This paper will describe the potential for production of the fertilizer and will analyze the market potential and consumption of the by-product. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in the form of agricultural fertilizer. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product field and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO x emission reduction activity

  10. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread. PMID:29495324

  11. Formation of by-products at radiation - chemical treatment of water solutions of chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, S.A.; Abdullayev, E.T.; Gurbanov, M.A.; Gurbanov, A.H.; Ibadov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation-chemical treatment is considered as a perspective method of water purification from chloroform. It provides the high level of purification (98 percent) of water solutions from chloroform and other chlorine-containing compounds. Meanwhile, other chlorine-containing products can be formed during the process of chloroform degradation and as a result of it the quality of water can change. This work studies the formation of by-products of γ-radiolysis of water solutions at various initial contents of chloroform. Dichlormethane and tetrachlorethane are identified as by-products. It is shown that at high contents of chloroform after certain adsorbed dose the forming products are reducing till their full disappearing. At small contents of chloroform in the studied interval of doses di-chlor-methane is forming. Differences of dose dependences of by-products at various contents of chloroform can be connected with the transition from radical mechanism to chain reaction at high concentrations of chloroform in solutions saturated by oxygen. pH-solutions also reduces during the radiation till pH=1, although this reduction also depends on initial concentration of chloroform. Essential change of pH occurs only at the radiolysis of water solutions containing chloroform ≥0,2 percent. And at radiating of 0,03 percent solution pH reduces only till 4 - 4,5

  12. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sayed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. and caraway (Carum carvi L. oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6% of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

  13. Bioactive compounds from flesh and by-product of fresh-cut watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Viegas, Joana; Moldao-Martins, Margarida; Aguayo, Encarna

    2011-03-30

    The fresh-cut industry produces thousands of tons of waste in non-edible portions that present an environmental and management problem. These by-products could be reused, in particular, to obtain bioactive compounds. In this study, five different fresh-cut watermelon cultivars were assessed for their flesh and by-product bioactive contents. The amount of by-product varied between 31.27 and 40.61% of initial fresh weight (f.w.) depending on the cultivar. Watermelon cultivars were poor sources of total antioxidant, and the content was similar between rind and flesh samples (46.96 vs 43.46 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity kg(-1) f.w.). However, the rind had a moderate total phenolic content higher than that of the flesh (458 vs 389 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg(-1) f.w.) and a much higher content of the amino acid citrulline (3.34 vs 2.33 g kg(-1) f.w.), which has potential bioactive properties. Watermelon rind offers quantitative interest as a natural source of citrulline, particularly Fashion, a dark-skinned, seedless cultivar. More research is required on the efficient extraction of citrulline from watermelon rind and its suitability as an additive to drinks, juices or others products to produce new functional food products with valid health claims. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  15. ADVERGAMES: CHARACTERISTICS, LIMITATIONS AND POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Advergames represent a new advertising concept that uses Internet technology to implement viral marketing campaigns. Despite the potential of this interactive advertising method, very few academic studies have been initiated to investigate the characteristics of advergames, and their influence on consumers’ perceptions and behaviour. Using secondary data, this paper attempts to evaluate the characteristics of effective advergames, and to analyse the effect of advergames on players’ perceptions and behaviour.

  16. Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Thomas da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE, ultrasound-assisted (UAE and microwave-assisted (MAE on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%, but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL. Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth.

  17. Fibre concentrate from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) stem by-products: Characterization and application as a bakery product ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Maroua; Omri, Abdelfatteh El; Blecker, Christophe; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2016-12-01

    The potential of fibre concentrate from artichoke stem by-product in bakery application was investigated. The elaboration of fibre concentrate was characterized by an extraction yield of 48.5%. The chemical composition showed high total dietary fibre (85 g/100 g d.m) and low lipid contents (0.5 g/100 g d.m). The fibre concentrate showed good water holding capacity (8.17 g/g) and high oil holding capacity (16.17 g/g). The effect of fibre concentrate incorporation to wheat dough, at level of 2%, on the rheological properties and physical characteristics of bread was also evaluated. The results showed that the addition of fibre concentrate in wheat flour significantly improved (P < 0.05) dough properties inducing an increase of water absorption, stability and tenacity, and a reduction of extensibility and softening in comparison to the dough without fibre. The colour values of the crust and crumb were significantly (P < 0.05) altered by the addition of fibre concentrate. It was also found that incorporation of fibre concentrate to bread produced a comparable specific volume and enhanced the shelf life, as textural studies revealed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of pigments of hematite, obtained through a by-product of the siderurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prim, S.R.; Folgueiras, M.V.; Lima, M.A. de

    2009-01-01

    In the ceramic industry of tooting, whose selection is strongly influenced by the visual aspect of the decorated surface, the color becomes one of the most important characteristic for the too tings. With the purpose of seeking new pigments that replace or optimize the already known, news method to synthesis are being researched, such as new pigments system and also the incorporation of new raw materials. In this form, in the present work search to study the possibility of use of a by-product deriving from of the siderurgical industry, that introduces high grades of the Fe 2 O 3 . For that different contests of the residue were added in one matrix of silica in the hape of quartz, and homogenized using conventional milling and high energy milling. The material obtained after heating treatment in temperature that varied between 1050 and 1300 deg C was characterization by x-ray diffractometry, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results shown the feasibility of the process depend of the control of the variables temperature and condition of milling in the quality of material obtained. (author)

  19. Nutritional and technological quality of the durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Flagella

    Full Text Available Durum wheat quality is a complex system that combines yield characteristics, cultivation conditions and certification requirements. In this review, the technological and nutritional aspects of grain quality were evaluated in relation to the influence of climate and agronomic practices. In particular, the technological quality was investigated with regard to the kind of processed product (pasta, bread, couscous, burghul. The influence of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, temperature, water regime and organic farming on grain quality was evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional characteristics of durum wheat related to starch, proteins, lipids, vitamins, fibres and mineral ions content were examined. Special focus was on the antioxidant activity capable of preventing chronic and degenerative diseases thanks to the high content in bioactive compounds, as phenols, tocols, carotenoids and fibres in whole grain. In the light of the new direction of the Community agricultural policy and of the growing interest in human nutrition, two prospects for development of the durum wheat sector were delineated: i developing certified products (PGI, PDO and organic; ii promoting production and processing technologies aimed at increasing the level of bioactive compounds in durum wheat grain and its by-products.

  20. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Development of aromatic VOC control technology by electron beam hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon

    2006-01-01

    As a fundamental study, the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using electron beam (EB) irradiation has been extensively investigated. EB treatments of VOCs such as toluene and styrene are discussed. The degradation characteristics were intensively investigated under various concentrations and irradiation doses to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. This work illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs generally increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Based on these basic studies, it was found that by-products produced from EB irradiation of VOCs would cause a secondary pollution problem. Therefore, a novel hybrid technology has been applied to control aromatic VOC emissions by annexing the catalyst technique with conventional treatment study using EB technology. The experiments were carried out using a bench-scale at first, then a pilot-scale system was followed. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC for EB hybrid control to investigate by-products, effects of ceramic and catalyst, and factors affecting overall efficiency of degradation. It was concluded that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively by a novel hybrid system than single EB irradiation. (author)

  2. Effects of soot by-product from the synthesis of engineered metallofullerene nanomaterials on terrestrial invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Boyd, Robert E; Bednar, Anthony J; Weiss, Charles A; Hull, Matt S; Coleman, Jessica G; Kennedy, Alan J; Banks, Cynthia J; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2018-02-23

    The synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials is often inefficient, generating large amounts of soot with metals as waste by-product. Currently, there are no specific regulations for disposal of engineered nanomaterials or the waste by-products resulting from their synthesis, so it is presumed that by-products are disposed of in the same way as the parent (bulk) materials. We studied the terrestrial toxicity of soot from gadolinium metallofullerene nanomanufacturing on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and isopods (Porcellio scaber). The metallofullerene soot consisted of carbon particle agglomerates in the nanometer and submicrometer ranges (1-100 and 101-999 nm, respectively), with metals used during nanomanufacturing detectable on the particles. Despite high metal concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in the soot, only a relatively small amount of metals leached out of a spiked field soil, suggesting only moderate mobility. Seven- and 14-d exposures in field soil demonstrated that the soot was only toxic to earthworms at high concentrations (>10 000 mg/kg); however, earthworms avoided spiked soils at lower concentrations (as low as 500 mg/kg) and at lower soil pH. The presence of soot in food and soil did not cause isopod avoidance. These data demonstrate that metallofullerene soot from nanomanufacturing may only be toxic to earthworms at high concentrations representative of improper disposal or accidental spills. However, our results indicate that terrestrial invertebrates may avoid soils contaminated with soot at sublethal concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-12. Published 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work, and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work, and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  3. Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Hernández, Lina M; Sanders, Jon G; Miller, Gabriel A; Ravenscraft, Alison; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-12-01

    Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey. Because the food offered by ant-plants is usually nitrogen-poor, arboreal ants may balance their diets by consuming insect prey or associating with microbial symbionts to acquire nitrogen, potentially shifting the costs and benefits of plant defense for the ant partner. To determine the effect of ant diet on an ant-plant mutualism, we compared the behavior, morphology, fitness, stable isotope signatures, and gaster microbiomes of A. octoarticulatus ants nesting in Cordia nodosa trees maintained for nearly a year with or without insect herbivores. At the end of the experiment, ants from herbivore exclosures preferred protein-rich baits more than ants in the control (i.e., herbivores present) treatment. Furthermore, workers in the control treatment were heavier than in the herbivore-exclusion treatment, and worker mass predicted reproductive output, suggesting that foraging for insect prey directly increased ant colony fitness. The gaster microbiome of ants was not significantly affected by the herbivore exclusion treatment. We conclude that the defensive behavior of some phytoecious ants is a by-product of their need for external protein sources; thus, the consumption of insect herbivores by ants benefits both the ant colony and the host plant. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Evidence for an imidazoline by-product from glycans using tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Robert J; Smith, Elaine; Li, Wenzhou; Fodor, Szilan

    2017-06-09

    Herein is reported the separation and identification of a previously unknown imidazoline by-product originating from the fluorescent labeling procedure when applied to enzymatically released N-linked glycans of a human IgG1. The imidazoline by-product was generated via the reductive amination procedure with either sodium cyanoborohydride or 2-picoline borane. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in conjunction with hydrophilic interaction-based chromatography (HILIC), the 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA)-labeled glycans were well-resolved from imidazoline by-products to facilitate direct identification utilizing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with fragmentation. It was found that this minor species (∼2%) was 18.0105u less than the neighboring peak GlcNAc 2 Man 3 GlcNAc 2 Fuc peak, abbreviated as A2G0F at 1582.5899u. While this mass loss corresponds to the mass of a water molecule, the molecular location of loss of water was not straightforward in consideration of the biantennary A2G0F structure. Model studies were carried out using A2G0F standard and N-acetyllactosamine to identify the impurity as an imidazoline ring structure located at the reducing end of the glycan as confirmed by high resolution mass fragment ions. Imidazoline content decreased when the reductant concentration was increased. To conclude, evidence for the imidazoline structure was accomplished through high resolution, high accuracy mass spectrometry (HRAM), and experiments showing chemical susceptibility and isotopically labeled tracers. This study is the first to identify these minor species which likely impact all N-acetylglucosamine-type N-linked glycans from biologics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour Características químicas, físicas, tecnológicas e sensoriais de salsicha tipo Frankfurter enriquecida com farinha de okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p Avaliou-se a adição de farinha de okara em produto cárneo emulsionado (salsicha tipo Frankfurter com base nas características físicas, químicas e sensoriais do produto obtido. O okara, resíduo do processamento de 'leite' de soja, foi fornecido por duas empresas cujos sistemas de produção baseiam-se na desintegração a quente da soja com casca (empresa A e sem casca (empresa B. O okara foi desidratado em secador flash dryer e moído na forma de farinha (>420 µm. As farinhas de okara A e B apresentaram níveis aproximados de proteína (35 e 40 g.100 g-1 b.s., respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de okara A apresentou maiores valores (p < 0,05 para todas as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas estudadas (capacidade de emulsificação, estabilidade da emulsão, solubilidade da proteína e capacidade de retenção de água, em comparação com a farinha de okara B. As farinhas de okara A e B foram adicionadas à formulação de salsicha substituindo 1,5% e 4% do peso de carne, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que as salsichas contendo farinhas de okara A e B e a salsicha padrão foram igualmente aceitas pela equipe de provadores. Além disso, não houve diferenças signficativas (p < 0,05 entre as determinações físicas (cor, textura objetiva e estabilidade da emulsão e qu

  7. Características tecnológicas da Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. e alternativas para o uso racional Technological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. and alternatives for its rational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juáres J. Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando contribuir para maior conhecimento sobre as essências arbóreas existentes no nordeste brasileiro, buscou-se através deste trabalho determinar as características tecnológicas da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC e indicar alternativas de uso de sua madeira para construções rurais. A caracterização da espécie foi feita conforme valores, referentes à condição padrão de umidade (12%, obtidos em ensaios realizados de acordo com a NBR 7190 da Associação Brasileira de Norma Técnicas. Foram realizados ensaios de densidades básica e aparente, teor de umidade e de resistência à compressão paralela, tração paralela e cisalhamento, paralelo às fibras. Os resultados foram analisados pela comparação dos valores obtidos com aqueles encontrados na literatura, para outras madeiras. De acordo com os resultados, conclui-se que a madeira da algaroba se equipara em resistência e rigidez, às madeiras tradicionalmente utilizadas nas construções, no Brasil.This work was carried out with the objective of increasing the knowledge on the existing wild trees species in north-eastern Brazil. The main purpose was to determine the technological characteristics of the Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC and to indicate alternative use of its wood for agricultural constructions. The procedures adapted for the characterization of the species were in agreement with the Brazilian Norm 7190 of Brasilian Association of Technical Norms referring to the standard conditions moisture content of 12%. Tests of basic and apparent densities were carried out, moisture content and parallel fibers resistance to compression, traction and shear, were measured. The results were analyzed through the comparison of the values obtained with those found in literature for other kinds of wood. In agreement with the results, it was concluded that the Prosopis juliflora's wood can be compared with other traditional kinds of wood used in Brazil.

  8. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO CAPULHO E PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DA FIBRA DO ALGODOEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DA CALAGEM E DA GESSAGEM BOLLS CHARACTERISTICS AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COTTON FIBER FACING OF LIMESTONE AND PHOSPHOGYPSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON PAULIERI SABINO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Em latossolo roxo ácido e de baixa fertilidade do município de Guaíra (SP, desenvolveu-se de 1986/87 a 1989/90 um ensaio de caráter permanente com o algodoeiro para estudar o efeito da aplicação de calcário (0,6; 1,8 e 3,0 t.ha-1 e de gesso (0, 2, 4, 6 t.ha-1 sobre as características do capulho e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi do tipo blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas e quatro repetições. O calcário elevou os valores de massa de um capulho e diminuiu o índice Micronaire e a maturidade da fibra, mas não afetou a massa de sementes, a porcentagem, o comprimento, a uniformidade de comprimento e a tenacidade da fibra. O gesso aumentou as massas de capulho e de sementes, especialmente quando associado a maior dose de calcário, assim como o índice Micronaire e a maturidade da fibra, no mais baixo nível de calagem.The effects of limestone and phosphogypsum applications on bolls characteristics and technological properties of the cotton fiber were studied in a permanent trial on a Dystrophic Dusky Latosol, acid and of low fertility during growing seasons of 1986/87 to 1989/90. A randomized complete block design was used, arranged in split split-plots with four replications where the dolomitic limestone doses were the main plots (0.6, 1.8 and 3.0 t.ha-1, and the phosphogypsum doses (0, 2, 4, and 6 t.ha-1 were the subplots. Lime and phosphogypsum were applied in the first year and reaplicated during 1988/89. Liming caused an increase in mass of bolls and reduced the Micronaire index and fiber maturity, and did not affect the mass of seed, the percentage of fiber, the length, the length uniformity and fiber tenacity. The use of phosphogypsum increase the mass of bolls and mass of seed, mainly when associated with extremes doses of lime. Otherwise, its effects upon Micronaire index and fiber maturity values, were significant at low level of liming.

  9. Chlorination and chloramination of aminophenols in aqueous solution: oxidant demand and by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrez, O Abou; Dossier-Berne, F; Legube, B

    2015-01-01

    Chlorination and monochloramination of aminophenols (AP) were carried out in aqueous solution at 25°C and at pH 8.5. Oxidant demand and disinfection by-product formation were determined in excess of oxidant. Experiments have shown that chlorine consumption of AP was 40-60% higher than monochloramine consumption. Compared with monochloramination, chlorination of AP formed more chloroform and haloacetic acids (HAA). Dichloroacetic acid was the major species of HAA. Chloroform and HAA represented, respectively, only 1-8% and 14-15% of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) by monochloramination but up to 29% and 39% of AOX by chlorination.

  10. Terminal separation plant for collecting petroleum and by-product gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinin, N S; Shcherbina, V E; Burma, A I

    1966-06-08

    A separation plant at a transportation terminal, for collecting petroleum and by-product gas, consists of 1 or 2 vessels with gas separating device, automatic control devices, demulsifier distributors, a mixer for mixing hot water with the demulsified residue and raw crude oil stream, an apparatus for supplying oil-in-water emulsion under a water cushion, and 2 separating partitions which are located at the end of the vessel. In order to fully use the volume of the vessel, one partition does not touch the bottom, while the other does not touch the top of the tank.

  11. Extractants to assess zinc phytoavailability in mineral fertilizer and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient analytical methods for the quantification of plant-available Zn contained in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products are fundamental for the control and marketing of these inputs. In this sense, there are some doubts on the part of the scientific community as well as of the fertilizer production sector, whether the extractor requested by the government (Normative Instruction No. 28, called 2nd extractor, which is citric acid 2 % (2 % CA (Brasil, 2007b, is effective in predicting the plant availability of Zn via mineral fertilizers and about the agronomic significance of the required minimal solubility of 60 % compared to the total content (HCl (Brasil, 2007a. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alternative extractors DTPA, EDTA, neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, buffer solution pH 6.0, 10 % HCl, 10 % sulfuric acid, 1 % acetic acid, water, and hot water to quantify the contents of Zn available for maize and compare them with indices of agronomic efficiency of fertilizers and industrial by-products when applied to dystrophic Clayey Red Latosol and Dystrophic Alic Red Yellow Latosol with medium texture. The rate of Zn applied to the soil was 5 mg kg-1, using the sources zinc sulfate, commercial granular zinc, ash and galvanic sludge, ash and two brass slags. Most Zn was extracted from the sources by DTPA, 10 % HCl, NAC, 1% acetic acid, and 10 % sulfuric acid. Recovery by the extractors 2 % CA, EDTA, water, and hot water was low. The agronomic efficiency index was found to be high when using galvanic sludge (238 % and commercial granular zinc (142 % and lower with brass slag I and II (67 and 27 %, respectively. The sources galvanizing ash and brass ash showed solubility lower than 60 % in 2 % CA, despite agronomic efficiency indices of 78 and 125 %, respectively. The low agronomic efficiency index of industrial by-products such as brass slag I and galvanizing ash can be compensated by higher doses, provided there is no

  12. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  13. Exploring the antioxidant potentiality of two food by-products into a topical cream: stability, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Amaral, M Helena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS), a food by-product of the coffee roasting industry, has been studied as an active ingredient for skin care products due to its high potential of antioxidant activity and low cytotoxicity. Another food waste used as ingredient with promising characteristics is obtained from Medicago sativa (MS), which antioxidants and isoflavones content is high. The aim of this study is to evaluate and characterize a new body formulation containing two food by-products extracts. Different parameters (such as pH, rheological behavior, color, antioxidant content and microbiological analysis) of a body cream formulation containing by-products (CSMS) and a formulation without extracts (F) were evaluated under a stability study during 180 days at different temperatures. Moreover, the in vitro cell toxicity and the in vivo skin safety and protective effects were also assessed. Formulation showed stable physical properties and antioxidant activity during 180 days of storage. In vitro toxicity was screened in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) and any toxicity was reported. The in vivo test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, CSMS formulation can be regarded as safe for topical application and the skin hydratation improved after 30 days of its use. Also, considering the consumer acceptance, more than 90% of volunteers classified it as very pleasant. CSMS formulation is stable and safe for topical use as no adverse and/or side effects were observed during the application period of testing, improving skin protective properties.

  14. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed H. Imam; Bor-Sen Chiou; Delilah Woods; Justin Shey; Gregory M. Glenn; William J. Orts; Rajnesh Narayan; Robert J. Avena-Bustillos; Tara H. McHugh; Alberto Pantoja; Peter J. Bechtel

    2008-01-01

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the foam product (panels) exhibited useful mechanical properties. Foams with all three fish by-products, ranging between 10 and 15 wt%, showed the highe...

  15. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two ...

  16. Hazard assessment of nitrosamine and nitramine by-products of amine-based CCS: Alternative approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Devito, S.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stierum, R.H.; Venhorst, J.; Kroese, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered vital and economic elements for achieving global CO2 reduction targets, and is currently introduced worldwide (for more information on CCS, consult for example the websites of the International Energy Agency

  17. Lithium and Beryllium By-product Recovery from the Round Top Mountain, Texas, Peraluminous Rhyolite Heavy Rare Earth Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E., Jr.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.

    2016-12-01

    The technology metals Li and Be combine low mass and unique properties. Li batteries are critical in applications at scales from micro-electronics to automotive and grid storage. Low mass Be structural components are essential in aerospace/defense applications and in non-sparking BeCu alloy oilfield tools. Most Li is sourced from desert salarsin the "Lithium Triangle" of Argentina—Bolivia—Chile. In contrast, Materion Corp mines >80% of global Be at Spor Mountain, UT. The massive peraluminous rhyolite heavy rare earth deposit at Round Top Mountain, TX is also enriched in Li, 500 ppm, and Be, 50 ppm. 2016 prices of 7000/tonne Li2CO3 (19% Li) and 1000/kg Be metal suggest favorable economics to extract Li and Be as by-products of HREE mining. Li and some Be are hosted in annite biotite that comprises up to 5% of the rhyolite. Texas Mineral Resources Corp proposes to heap leach crushed rhyolite with dilute H2SO4to release the yttrofluorite-hosted HREEs. At bench scale the annite biotite dissolves, but not quartz and feldspars (>90% of the rock). A series of 40 high-yield laboratory tests at various acid strength, particle size, and exposure time released up to 350 ppm (70%) of the Li and 14 ppm (30%) of the Be. For a 20,000 tonne/day operation, these recoveries correspond to daily production of >3 tonnes Li and 250 kg Be. Higher Li and Be recoveries also increased yields of gangue elements, Fe & Al, into solution. This complicates subsequent separation of Li, Be, and HREEs from the pregnant leach solution. Recovery of target HREEs did not increase beyond 200 ppm Li and 8 ppm Be recovery. Greater Li and Be recoveries increased acid consumption. Thus the "sweet spot" economics for heap leach is likely under conditions of acid strength, grain size, and exposure time that do not maximize by-product Li and Be recoveries. Evolving market prices for the full target element suite and additional costs to recover and purify the Li and Be must also be considered.

  18. Pathway engineering of Enterobacter aerogenes to improve acetoin production by reducing by-products formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Woong; Jung, Hwi-Min; Im, Dae-Kyun; Jung, Moo-Young; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2017-11-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes was metabolically engineered for acetoin production. To remove the pathway enzymes that catalyzed the formation of by-products, the three genes encoding a lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) and two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (budC, and dhaD), respectively, were deleted from the genome. The acetoin production was higher under highly aerobic conditions. However, an extracellular glucose oxidative pathway in E. aerogenes was activated under the aerobic conditions, resulting in the accumulation of 2-ketogluconate. To decrease the accumulation of this by-product, the gene encoding a glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) was also deleted. The resulting strain did not produce 2-ketogluconate but produced significant amounts of acetoin, with concentration reaching 71.7g/L with 2.87g/L/h productivity in fed-batch fermentation. This result demonstrated the importance of blocking the glucose oxidative pathway under highly aerobic conditions for acetoin production using E. aerogenes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid by-products from fish canning industry as sustainable sources of ω3 lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana; Paquincha, Diogo; Martins, Florinda; Queirós, Rui P; Saraiva, Jorge A; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Nastić, Nataša; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Carvalho, Ana P

    2018-08-01

    Fish canning industry generates large amounts of liquid wastes, which are discarded, after proper treatment to remove the organic load. However, alternative treatment processes may also be designed in order to target the recovery of valuable compounds; with this procedure, these wastewaters are converted into liquid by-products, becoming an additional source of revenue for the company. This study evaluated green and economically sustainable methodologies for the extraction of ω3 lipids from fish canning liquid by-products. Lipids were extracted by processes combining physical and chemical parameters (conventional and pressurized extraction processes), as well as chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, LCA was applied to evaluate the environmental performance and costs indicators for each process. Results indicated that extraction with high hydrostatic pressure provides the highest amounts of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3331,5 mg L -1 effluent), apart from presenting the lowest environmental impact and costs. The studied procedures allow to obtain alternative, sustainable and traceable sources of ω3 lipids for further applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Additionally, such approach contributes towards the organic depuration of canning liquid effluents, therefore reducing the overall waste treatment costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chitooligomers preparation by chitosanase produced under solid state fermentation using shrimp by-products as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, T; Pal, Gaurav Kumar; Suresh, P V

    2015-05-05

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions were statistically optimized for the production of chitosanase by Purpureocillium lilacinum CFRNT12 using shrimp by-products as substrate. Central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to evaluate the effect of variables and their optimization. Incubation temperature, incubation time, concentration of inoculum and yeast extract were found to influence the chitosanase production significantly. The R(2) value of 0.94 indicates the aptness of the model. The level of variables for optimal production of chitosanase was 32 ± 1°C temperature, 96 h incubation, 10.5% (w/v) inoculum, 1.05% (w/w) yeast extract and 65% (w/w) moisture content. The chitosanase production was found to increase from 2.34 ± 0.07 to 41.78 ± 0.73 units/g initial dry substrate after optimization. The crude chitosanase produced 4.43 mM of chitooligomers as exclusive end product from colloidal chitosan hydrolysis. These results indicate the potential of P. lilacinum CFRNT12 for the chitosanase production employing cost effective SSF using shrimp by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.