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Sample records for technology borehole mechanics

  1. Development of borehole sealing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kuniaki; Abe, Kenichi; Tanada, Masuakira; Fujii, Mitsuru

    2004-03-01

    As a part of the geoscientific research in JNC Tono Geoscience Center, we are conducting the borehole investigation as a method of surveying techniques to gain an understanding of geological environment characterization (geology/geological structure, rock hydraulic characteristics, ground water geochemical characteristics and rock mechanics) from surface to deep underground. The borehole for the borehole investigation is used for monitoring hole after the borehole investigation. Since the borehole may act as a passage of groundwater flow and disturb the geological environment artificially, it has to be sealed in finally. Moreover, the hydraulic testing and the geochemical analysis of groundwater that be conducted in the zones injected some kind of lost circulation materials might be impacted on the accuracy of test result. The actual technologies regarding to these themes was researched and evaluated. In the second step, clarification of problems and procedure of R and D for solution of these problems was examined. In order to estimate the effect of lost circulation materials on hydraulic testing, a laboratory test of borehole behavior was performed using a scale model that consisted of a borehole and a water-loss zone. In this test, we found out that the lost circulation material was desorbed from the water-loss zone by back-flow action. It was proved by the test that there is little influence from lost circulation materials on hydraulic testing. Investigation regarding borehole sealing technology was conducted in literature search and interview to overseas researchers. In consequent, three kinds of materials - bentonite clay, bentonite pellet, and ethanol bentonite, were selected as effective sealing material. Moreover, five kinds of methods were selected as effective sealing methods. In water permeability test of sealing material, three kinds of sealing materials indicated lower permeability - order of 10 -11 m/sec, and it was evaluated that it could be worked

  2. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  3. A newly developed borehole flowmeter technology for heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive borehole flowmeter tests were performed at 37 fully-screened wells on a one-hectare test site to characterize the three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field of an alluvial aquifer with a σ lnK of 4.7. During the site investigations, several major advancements with respect to borehole flowmeter technology were developed. The milestones included: (1) the development of a field-durable electromagnetic borehole flowmeter with a lower detection limit of 0.1 l/min; (2) the realization of the importance of the pumping rate with respect to the calculated value for the depth-averaged hydraulic conductivity; and (3) an evaluation of alternative methods for calculating the depth-averaged hydraulic conductivity. The predicted three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field was compared to the results of 10 small-scale (3 to 7 m) tracer tests, information about the depositional history of the aquifer, and the results of three large-scale aquifer tests. The hydraulic conductivity data predict the major features of the tracer breakthrough curves, maps the outline of a former river meander in an aerial photograph, and leads to a geometric mean consistent with the average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. (Author) (14 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.)

  4. Research on Deep Joints and Lode Extension Based on Digital Borehole Camera Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Structure characteristics of rock and orebody in deep borehole are obtained by borehole camera technology. By investigating on the joints and fissures in Shapinggou molybdenum mine, the dominant orientation of joint fissure in surrounding rock and orebody were statistically analyzed. Applying the theory of metallogeny and geostatistics, the relationship between joint fissure and lode’s extension direction is explored. The results indicate that joints in the orebody of ZK61borehole have only one dominant orientation SE126° ∠68°, however, the dominant orientations of joints in surrounding rock were SE118° ∠73°, SW225° ∠70° and SE122° ∠65°, NE79° ∠63°. Then a preliminary conclusion showed that the lode’s extension direction is specific and it is influenced by joints of surrounding rock. Results of other boreholes are generally agree well with the ZK61, suggesting the analysis reliably reflects the lode’s extension properties and the conclusion presents important references for deep ore prospecting.

  5. Development of controlled drilling technology and measurement method in the borehole. Phase 2. Upgrading of drilling and measurement system and its application to the fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Shin, Koichi; Ohtsu, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for High Level Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the coastal area is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is little driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging of the bore hole in order to investigate the hydro-geological and geo-mechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potential of the disposal candidates. Since 2000, CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Based on the results of phase 1(2000-2004), CRIEPI has been developing the drilling and logging/measurement technologies for fault zone during phase 2 (2005-2007). The drilling technology such as drilling for fault zone, horizontal drilling, long hole drilling, coring and locality detection was developed and these applicability was confirmed while drilling. The permeability/water-sampling/imaging tool was revised to apply wider borehole and longer measuring section. The WL-LWD was improved to be tougher in the hole. The borehole pressure meter and stress measurement tools were unified. Each tools necessary for the monitoring system is manufactured. The applicability of these tools and systems were verified in the borehole. After conducting surveys for the Omagari fault distributing at the Kami-horonobe area, the drilling site and borehole trace was decided in 2005. Considering the planned trace, the bore hole was drilled to the 683.5m long and its core recovery was 99.8%. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  6. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-6: Data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J.; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Price, R.H.

    1994-11-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-6 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on four thermal/mechanical units, TCw, PTn, TSw1 and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the borehole. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water saturated specimens; however, some specimens of PTn were tested in a room dry condition. The nominal strain rate for the fracture experiments was 10 -5 s -1

  7. Large scale in-situ BOrehole and Geofluid Simulator (i.BOGS) for the development and testing of borehole technologies at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Mandy; Bracke, Rolf; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Wittig, Volker

    2017-04-01

    A fundamental problem of technological applications related to the exploration and provision of geothermal energy is the inaccessibility of subsurface processes. As a result, actual reservoir properties can only be determined using (a) indirect measurement techniques such as seismic surveys, machine feedback and geophysical borehole logging, (b) laboratory experiments capable of simulating in-situ properties, but failing to preserve temporal and spatial scales, or vice versa, and (c) numerical simulations. Moreover, technological applications related to the drilling process, the completion and cementation of a wellbore or the stimulation and exploitation of the reservoir are exposed to high pressure and temperature conditions as well as corrosive environments resulting from both, rock formation and geofluid characteristics. To address fundamental and applied questions in the context of geothermal energy provision and subsurface exploration in general one of Europe's largest geoscientific laboratory infrastructures is introduced. The in-situ Borehole and Geofluid Simulator (i.BOGS) allows to simulate quasi scale-preserving processes at reservoir conditions up to depths of 5000 m and represents a large scale pressure vessel for iso-/hydrostatic and pore pressures up to 125 MPa and temperatures from -10°C to 180°C. The autoclave can either be filled with large rock core samples (25 cm in diameter, up to 3 m length) or with fluids and technical borehole devices (e.g. pumps, sensors). The pressure vessel is equipped with an ultrasound system for active transmission and passive recording of acoustic emissions, and can be complemented by additional sensors. The i.BOGS forms the basic module for the Match.BOGS finally consisting of three modules, i.e. (A) the i.BOGS, (B) the Drill.BOGS, a drilling module to be attached to the i.BOGS capable of applying realistic torques and contact forces to a drilling device that enters the i.BOGS, and (C) the Fluid.BOGS, a geofluid

  8. Emplacement technology for the direct disposal of spent fuel into deep vertical boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Filbert, W.; Wehrmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the early sixties it was decided to investigate salt formations on its suitability to host heat generating radioactive waste in Germany. In the reference repository concept consequently the emplacement of vitrified waste canisters in deep vertical boreholes inside a salt mine was considered whereas spent fuel should be disposed of in self shielding casks (type POLLUX) in horizontal drifts. The POLLUX casks, 65 t heavy carbon steel casks, will be laid down on the floor of a horizontal drift in one of the disposal zones to be constructed in the salt dome at the 870 m level. The space between casks and drift walls will be backfilled with crushed salt. The transport, the handling und the emplacement of POLLUX casks were subject of successfully performed demonstration and in situ tests in the nineties and resulted in an adjustment of the atomic law. The borehole disposal concept comprises the emplacement of unshielded canisters with vitrified HLW in boreholes with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of up to 300 m. In order to facilitate the fast encapsulation of the waste canister by the host rock (rock salt), no lining of the boreholes is planned. With regard to harmonize and optimize the emplacement technology for both categories of packages (vitrified waste and spent fuel) alternatives were developed. In this context the borehole emplacement technique for consolidated spent fuel as already foreseen for high-level reprocessing waste was reconsidered. This review resulted in the design of a new disposal package, a fuel rod canister (type 'BSK 3'), and an appropriate modified transport and emplacement technology. This concept (called BSK 3-concept) provides the following optimization possibilities: (i) A new steel canister of the same diameter (43 cm) as the standardized HLW canisters applied for high-level waste and compacted technological waste from reprocessing abroad can be filled with fuel rods of 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies. (II) The standardized canister

  9. Seismic Observation in Deep Boreholes and Its Applications - Workshop Proceedings, Niigata Institute of Technology, Kashiwazaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    4 was only 70% that of Unit 2 at the same site. Given these circumstances, JNES initiated the 'Observation and Evaluation Study of Ground Motion Amplification' project by drilling a three-kilometer deep borehole on the premises of the Niigata Institute of Technology, which is located near the Kashiwazaki site, and proposed a series of workshops related to deep underground seismic observation and ground motion evaluation to the Seismic Subgroup of the OECD/NEA/IAGE Group at the April 2010 meeting. The first was held from 24-26 November 2010 as part of the first Kashiwazaki International Symposium on seismic safety, and the second was held on 7 to 9 November 2012. In the second WS, 36 papers were presented by the participants from eight countries including two international organizations, and discussed in three sessions (i.e. observation technology, evaluation of the observed seismic motion and the multipurpose use). Regarding the observation technology session, useful lessons-learned in probe development, setup and maintenance under the challenging conditions posed by great depth were described. This information from SAFORD and Kashiwazaki was thought to be particularly valuable for the planning and operation of similar facilities. As for the seismic observations from a deep borehole, it was identified that such observations are very effective for investigation of the earthquake generating process and are important for detailed understanding of the three-dimensional underground structure. There is not yet much experience with observation and application of a deep borehole, and therefore future developments and achievements are expected. The importance of simple ground motion evaluation technology combined with geophysical exploration was also acknowledged. Examples of multipurpose utilization and the advantage of seismic observations in deep boreholes were discussed. Multipurpose use was discussed not only for seismic design and evaluation of nuclear installations

  10. Cement technology for borehole plugging: an interim report on permeability measurements of cementitious solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of borehole plug solids and plug-wall rock junctions is a property of major interest in the Borehole Plugging Program. This report describes the equipment and techniques used to determine the permeabilities of possible borehole plugging materials and presents results from tests on various cementitious solids and plug-rock combinations. The cementitious solids were made from mixtures of cement, sand, salt, fly ash, and water. Three different types of cement and four different fly ashes were used. Permeabilities ranged from a high value of 3 x 10 -4 darcy for a neat cement paste to a low of 5 x 10 -8 darcy for a saltcrete containing 30 wt % sodium chloride. Miniature boreholes were made in the following four different types of rock: Westerly granite, Dresser basalt, Sioux quartzite, and St. Cloud granodiorite. These small holes were plugged with a mix consisting of 23 wt % Type I Portland cement, 20 wt % bituminous fy ash, 43.2 wt % sand, and 13.8 wt % water. After curing for 91 days at ambient temperature, the permeability of the plug-wall rock junctions ranged from 3 x 10 -5 to -8 darcy. Three of the four miniature plugged boreholes exhibited permeabilities of < 10 microdarcys

  11. Safety Characterization of the Technological Development Plant at Hontomín. Risk Structures: 2. Wells and Boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.; Hurtado, A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe storage of CO2 required to guarantee the formation’s caprock seal capacity for CO2 storage during the time in which the CO2 will remain in supercritical state before moving to dissolved phase CO2aq:. Structures such as wells and boreholes affecting storage and caprock formations may play a relevant role in the behavior of the CO2 plume and act as preferential leakage paths violating the integrity of the seal rock. Although the geological history of the storage complex in cases such as depleted oil or gas fields, preferably, allow to assume a priori that the geological medium can reasonably ensure their confining role during the required time, i.e., a «long term» time period for the effective contribution of CCS to the mitigation of climate change (> 10.000 years), it is not possible to make an equivalent prognosis with regard to the behaviour of deep wells and boreholes without having a detailed knowledge of the aging process and of the mechanical and chemical aggression of its components. In any case, always will remain a high level of uncertainty to be integrated in the analysis to assess the security of the storage complex. Therefore, the integrity of the components of deep wells and boreholes that may affect both caprock seal and storage formations, both mechanically and chemically, plays an important role in the chain of elements that contribute to CO2 geological storage long-term safety, hence the importance of its study and integration. An approach to degradation processes of the components of injection and abandoned wells that can act as preferential leakage paths of CO2, consists of the decomposition of the storage system in a components and processes integrated network to estimate their interaction conditional probabilities. This report analyzes these processes, the security and operational requirements of deep wells and boreholes as well as its componentes failure scenarios

  12. Multi-component observation in deep boreholes, and its applications to earthquake prediction research and rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES) has developed a multicomponent instrument that can be operated in deep boreholes (e.g., those one km in depth). It is equipped with stress meters, strain meters, tilt meters, seismometers, magnetometers, and thermometers; in addition, these sensors can be arbitrarily combined. The stress meters, which were developed recently, can observe stress and strain; in the future, data obtained from these sensors will offer new information on seismology and rock mechanics. The size of typical probe is 12 cm diameter 7.8 m total length and 290 kg total weight. It consists of many meters in tandem connection. (authors)

  13. Borehole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature derived from boreholes drilled into the Earth crust. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary...

  14. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  15. A numerical simulation of thermo-mechanical behavior of the intact rock in response to the Borehole Heater Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Syed Danial; Kim, Jongmin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study is based on the numerical simulation of the BHT held at KURT to investigate the TM behavior. • Temperature evolution of numerical model shows good integrity with the insitu measurements. • Thermal stress evolution of the model was in agreement with increasing temperature. • The maximum stress recorded at RS2 at 2 m distance, which was ∼4.7 MPa. - Abstract: In order to investigate the heating effects of High-Level radioactive Waste (HLW) on the intact rock, a Borehole Heater Test (BHT) has been conducted at KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT). In this study, coupled thermo-mechanical (TM) processes carried out at KURT main experiment were simulated by a finite-element code, ABAQUS and its applicability to TM process is investigated. The model incorporates real test configurations by including all site-specific information of BHT. This study mainly describes and discusses the thermal and mechanical behavior from numerical analysis and compares them with experimental observations. A special focus has been on thermal stress analysis of selected stress-meters around the heater and on the factors that affect the thermo-mechanical behavior. The comparison of results shows good integrity with the thermal-mechanical phenomena of geological medium.

  16. Mechanics for materials and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Robert; Murashkin, Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    This book shows impressively how complex mathematical modeling of materials can be applied to technological problems. Top-class researchers present the theoretical approaches in modern mechanics and apply them to real-world problems in solid mechanics, creep, plasticity, fracture, impact, and friction. They show how they can be applied to technological challenges in various fields like aerospace technology, biological sciences and modern engineering materials.

  17. Study of borehole plugging in bedded salt domes by earth melting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.L.

    1975-06-01

    The intent of this program is to define the most viable Melted In situ Rock salt Plug (MIRP) System options, these options being addressed primarily from the downhole subsystem perspective, with a conventional drill rig as the basis for the surface part of the MIRP System. Preliminary experiments had indicated that it is possible to backfill the open penetrations in the domed salt deposits with a melted in situ rocksalt plug such that in time the melted rock salt plug effectively duplicates the parent virgin salt. The programmatic assumption for the requirement of duplicating the virgin salt with a MIRP provides the basis for this study. A system functional analysis was performed to establish the requirements for the performance of the overall MIRP System. A similar functional analysis was conducted for the salt plug that would be formed by the MIRP System. Based on the analyses of the material, thermal, and structural behavior of the salt plug, the requirements for the formation of an acceptable salt plug were determined. From the functional analysis a determination was made of the operation of the hardware for the downhole portion of the MIRP System. From that perspective several design concepts were formulated. For these design concepts a technology roadmap was developed. The pertinent aspects, results, conclusions and recommendations of the above are summarized in the sections that follow

  18. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  19. Cement technology for plugging boreholes in radioactive-waste-repository sites. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, G.A.

    1980-08-01

    Laboratory evaluations were made of several borehole plug formulations proposed for the Bell Canyon field test. Measurements included compressive strength, permeability, density, and thermal conductivity. A few preliminary tests with saltcrete formulations showed no significant difference in physical properties of the solid as a function of fly ash or cement composition. The saltcrete proposed for the field test gave acceptable pushout strength and permeability values using miniature borehole plugs in anhydrite. Similar laboratory tests made with a freshwater formulation indicated high permeability. Electron micrographs showed dissolution cavities or cracks at the plug-wall interface. These studies showed that the reactions occurring between the borehole plug and the adjacent rock wall are an important factor in obtaining a good seal and that laboratory tests are useful to indicate the possibility of success or failure of field tests

  20. Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Granite and Its Effects on Borehole Stability in High Temperature and Three-Dimensional Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao-lin, Liu; Hai-yan, Zhu; Chuan-liang, Yan; Zhi-jun, Li; Zhi-qiao, Wang

    2014-01-01

    When exploiting the deep resources, the surrounding rock readily undergoes the hole shrinkage, borehole collapse, and loss of circulation under high temperature and high pressure. A series of experiments were conducted to discuss the compressional wave velocity, triaxial strength, and permeability of granite cored from 3500 meters borehole under high temperature and three-dimensional stress. In light of the coupling of temperature, fluid, and stress, we get the thermo-fluid-solid model and governing equation. ANSYS-APDL was also used to stimulate the temperature influence on elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability. In light of the results, we establish a temperature-fluid-stress model to illustrate the granite's stability. The compressional wave velocity and elastic modulus, decrease as the temperature rises, while poisson ratio and permeability of granite increase. The threshold pressure and temperature are 15 MPa and 200°C, respectively. The temperature affects the fracture pressure more than the collapse pressure, but both parameters rise with the increase of temperature. The coupling of thermo-fluid-solid, greatly impacting the borehole stability, proves to be a good method to analyze similar problems of other formations. PMID:24778592

  1. Technological development in mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Giorgio; Costa, Roberta

    2010-02-01

    Innovative modes of mechanical ventilation, mainly based on complex closed loop technologies, have been recently developed and are now available for clinical use. Proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist are innovative modes of mechanical ventilation delivering a level of assistance proportional to the patient's effort, thus improving patient-ventilator synchrony and potentially representing a real clinical advantage. Adaptive support ventilation is a ventilatory mode delivering assisted (pressure support ventilation-like) or controlled breathing cycles (pressure-controlled-like), related to a minute ventilation target set by the clinician and on automated measurements of the patient's respiratory mechanics. Noisy pressure support ventilation, finally, is a recently described experimental evolution of pressure support, with some improvement potentials, but no clinical application till now. The recently reported results with proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, and adaptive support ventilation are, till now, mainly based on preliminary physiologic and clinical studies; although they seem to be promising, suggesting that closed loop-based modes could represent a real innovation in the field of mechanical ventilation, further clinical evaluation is needed before their widespread diffusion into clinical practice.

  2. Borehole investigations of firn processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Robert L.

    Information on paleoclimate and firn processes can be obtained from the shallow regions of an ice sheet via borehole logging. I introduce a method for measuring vertical strain in a borehole using a borehole video camera and artificial marking bands. The method uses image processing to determine the distance from the camera to a marker. One product of these measurements is a depth-age scale for the firn at Taylor Dome. The age of an ash layer in the core is 675 +/- 25 years. I compare this method with a similar method using a metal detector to locate the markers. Data collected at Siple Dome with the two methods agrees, and I discuss the merits of each system. From a similar analysis to that used for Taylor Dome, the same ash layer found in both cores has an age of 665 +/- 30 years at Siple Dome, in agreement with the measurements from Taylor Dome. I develop a method for measuring vertical motion using natural markers in the borehole wall. This method determines the returned brightness from an annular region of the borehole wall, and produces a Borehole Optical Stratigraphic (BOS) profile. Features in this BOS profile can be tracked to determine strain. Using data from Summit, Greenland, I calculate the vertical strain that took place between 2 logs taken 70 days apart. Annual layers can be resolved in the BOS signal. A depth-age scale for the firn at Siple Dome, made by counting these annual layers, agrees with similar depth-age scales produced by traditional stratigraphy on the core. I investigate the relationship between the BOS signal and the detailed firn density profile provided by the Wallingford Neutron Scattering density probe. The BOS and density profiles show positive correlation near the surface, with correlation decreasing and becoming negative near the bottom of the survey at 30 meters. This phenomenon could be related to the transitions between densification-mechanism regimes.

  3. Geothermal technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1981-September 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1983-08-01

    The status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program is described. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, diagnostics technology, and permeability enhancement.

  4. Geothermal technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    The status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program is described. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, and diagnostics technology.

  5. PmaCO2 Project: Porosity and CO2 Trapping Mechanisms The Utrillas Formation in SD-1 borehole (Tejada - Burgos): Porosity and Porous Media Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, R.; Barrios, I.; Gonzalez, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of PmaCO 2 project, supported by the Secretary of State and Research MINECO (CGL2011-24768) is to increase the knowledge of the microstructure of porous storage formations and thus contribute to the viability of CO 2 sequestration in geological formations. The microporous structure plays an important role not only in the prevalence of a particular trapping mechanism, but also on the amount of CO 2 immobilized. Utrillas facies are investigated in this project as representatives of a deep saline aquifer storage. This publication is a summary of the work done in the first year of the project. We present a study on microstructure of sandstones Utrillas, sampled in borehole, by applying the mercury intrusion porosimetry technique for the experimental determination of porosity and associated parameters. The porous medium was modeled with the PoreCor simulation code based in intrusion-extrusion curves. (Author) 78 refs.

  6. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A: Data report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J.; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Price, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves prediction of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from the USW NRG-717A borehole drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. USW NRG-7/7A was drilled to a depth of 1,513.4 feet through five thermal/mechanical units of Paintbrush tuff and terminating in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico IEUS. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Orfiz et al. to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics, and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties

  7. Hanford stakeholder participation in evaluating innovative technologies: VOC product line, Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux tunable hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Niesen, K.; Serie, P.

    1995-05-01

    A three-phased stakeholder participation program was conducted to support the Volatile Organic Compounds Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The US DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD) sponsored and directed the VOC-Arid ID. Its purpose was to develop and demonstrate new technologies for remediating VOC contamination in soil and ground water. The integrated demonstration, hosted by the Hanford site in Washington State, is being transitioned into the Department of Energy's (DOE) Plume Focus Area. The Plume Focus Area has the same basic objectives as the ID, but is broader in scope and is a team effort with technology developers and technology users. The objective is to demonstrate a promising technology once, and if results warrant deploy it broadly across the DOE complex and in private sector applications

  8. Entrepreneurial awareness and skills in mechanical technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed entrepreneurial awareness and skills in Mechanical Technology among Technical Education Students in Tai Solarin University of Education. Research questions focusing on the students' level of entrepreneurial awareness and the facilities available for inculcating skills in Mechanical Technology ...

  9. The Kyoto mechanisms and technological innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark...... countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation....

  10. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  11. International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology, held on London, UK, November 24-25, 2011.   Mechanical engineering technology is the application of physical principles and current technological developments to the creation of useful machinery and operation design. Technologies such as solid models may be used as the basis for finite element analysis (FEA) and / or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the design. Through the application of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), the models may also be used directly by software to create "instructions" for the manufacture of objects represented by the models, through computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining or other automated processes, without the need for intermediate drawings.   This volume covers the subject areas of mechanical engineering and technology, and also covers interdisciplinary subject areas of computers, communications, control and automation...

  12. Geothermal technology publications and related reports: a bibliography, January-December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.L. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This annotated bibliography covers the work of Sandia National Laboratories in the following areas: rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, diagnostic technology, and systems analysis/program summaries. (MHR)

  13. Technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Haake, F.; Van der Linden, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    Technology transfer is often mentioned as an ancillary benefit of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), but this claim has never been researched or substantiated. The question of technology transfer is important from two perspectives: for host countries, whether the CDM provides a corridor for foreign, climate-friendly technologies and investment, and for industrialised countries as it provides export potential for climate-friendly technologies developed as a consequence of stringent greenhouse gas targets. In order to better understand whether technology transfer from the EU and elsewhere is occurring through the CDM, and what is the value of the associated foreign investment, this paper examines technology transfer in the 63 CDM projects that were registered on January 1st, 2006. Technology originates from outside the host country in almost 50% of the evaluated projects. In the projects in which the technology originates from outside the host country, 80% use technology from the European Union. Technologies used in non-CO2 greenhouse gas and wind energy projects, and a substantial share of the hydropower projects, use technology from outside the host country, but biogas, agricultural and biomass projects mainly use local technology. The associated investment value with the CDM projects that transferred technology is estimated to be around 470 million Euros, with about 390 coming from the EU. As the non-CO2 greenhouse gas projects had very low capital costs, the investment value was mostly in the more capital-intensive wind energy and hydropower projects

  14. Borehole project - Final report of phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Ramqvist, G.

    2008-03-01

    The report describes borehole plugging techniques for use in deep boreholes extending from the ground surface, and construction and placement of plugs in holes of different lengths and orientations bored from the repository rooms. The principle employed is the one proposed in earlier phases of the project, i.e. to tightly seal those parts of boreholes where the rock has few fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity, and filling of those parts that intersect water-bearing fracture zones with physically stable material that does not need to be low-permeable. Four methods for tight plugging have been identified and tested and a technique has been found for filling boreholes that are intersected by fracture zones. The upper end of boreholes extending from the ground surface needs a 'mechanical' seal for which copper metal and concrete work well. The experience from plugging of a 550 m deep borehole at Olkiluoto (OL-KR24) has been compiled and plans worked out for sampling and testing of contacting clay and concrete in this hole and in short holes in the Aespoe URL. (orig.)

  15. Mechanical technology for higher engineering technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Peter

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical Technology for Higher Engineering Technicians deals with the mechanics of machines, thermodynamics, and mechanics of fluids. This book presents discussions and examples that deal with the strength of materials, technology of machines, and techniques used by professional engineers. The book explains the strain energy of torsion, coil springs, and the effects of axial load. The author also discusses the forces that produce bending, shearing, and bending combined with direct stress, as well as beams subjected to a uniform bending moment or simply supported beams with concentrated non-c

  16. The Clean Development Mechanism and Technology Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the transfer of clean technology in India. The reason this study is unique is because firstly, it adopts an outcome-oriented approach to define ‘technology transfer’, which means that technology transfer occurs if firms...... are able to upgrade their ‘dynamic capabilities’. It uses three indicators of firms’ dynamic capabilities: R&D expenditures to sales ratio, fuel consumption to sales ratio and total factor productivity growth. Secondly, it moves away from the analysis of technology transfer claims made in either Project...

  17. Geophysical borehole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.-Aa.; Duran, O.

    1978-01-01

    A well logging program has been carried out in Sweden in order to investigate the rock properties at depth. The perpose of the investigation is to find out if radioactive waste can be disposed in Sweden. The walls of the borehole have been inspected with a TV-camera. This method has a very high resolution and can detect very small fractures (less than 1 mm). It can also be used to evaluate the orientation of the fractures. The borehole's deviation has been measured with an inclinometer. Natural gamma and induced polarisation measurements have been used to characterize the variation in bedrock composition. The results show that changes in composition are often connected with changes in rock qualities, such as fracture frequency. The resistivity of the borehole fluid has been measured in order to get information about the variation in fluid salinity. Abrupt changes in salinity are connected with major fracture zones. This borehole fluid leaks into the hole from the fractures. In the first 100 m of the borehole measurable permeabilit ies can be obtained of very small fractures (less than 1 mm) are situated between the packers. At depths about 300 m and below, measurable permeabilities are connected with large open fracture zones

  18. Imaging for Borehole Wall by a Cylindrical Linear Phased Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi-Xing, Zhang; Fang-Fang, Shi; Xian-Mei, Wu; Jun-Jie, Gong; Cheng-Guang, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A new ultrasonic cylindrical linear phased array (CLPA) transducer is designed and fabricated for the borehole wall imaging in petroleum logging based on the previous theoretical researches. First, the CLPA transducer, which is made up of numbers of the piezoelectric elements distributed on the surface of a cylinder uniformly, is designed and fabricated. By transmitting and receiving acoustic waves with 16 active elements and using different groups of the elements under the control of the electric system, the CLPA can scan all areas of the borehole wall dynamically and rapidly without a traditional mechanism around the borehole axis. Then, the theoretical and experimental investigations are conducted in detail for the borehole wall scanning and imaging by the steel pipe and casing borehole with defects distributed in different shapes and directions. It is shown by experiments that the CLPA transducer has good focusing characteristic and good resolution for the borehole wall imaging in acoustic logging

  19. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system

  20. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system.

  1. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed

  2. Borehole logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A radioactive borehole logging tool employs an epithermal neutron detector having a neutron counter surrounded by an inner thermal neutron filter and an outer thermal neutron filter. Located between the inner and outer filters is a neutron moderating material for extending the lifetime of epithermal neutrons to enhance the counting rate of such epithermal neutrons by the neutron counter

  3. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  4. Role of fracture mechanics in modern technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sih, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The conference served as a forum not only for reviewing past concepts and technologies but it provided an opportunity for many of the designers, engineers and scientists to come forth with more advanced ideas so that fracture mechanics application can be broadened and employed more effectively to avoid unexpected failures that are annoying, costly and destructive of credibility of the engineering community in general

  5. Governance Mechanisms in Information Technology Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Kiron

    2010-01-01

    While the dominance of Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) as a sourcing strategy would seem to indicate successful and well-informed practice, frequent examples of unraveled engagements highlight the associated risks. Successful instances of outsourcing suggest that governance mechanisms effectively manage the related risks. This…

  6. Quantum Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications to Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jasprit

    1996-01-01

    Explore the relationship between quantum mechanics and information-age applications. This volume takes an altogether unique approach to quantum mechanics. Providing an in-depth exposition of quantum mechanics fundamentals, it shows how these concepts are applied to most of today's information technologies, whether they are electronic devices or materials. No other text makes this critical, essential leap from theory to real-world applications. The book's lively discussion of the mathematics involved fits right in with contemporary multidisciplinary trends in education: Once the basic formulati

  7. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  8. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  9. Neutron borehole logging correction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for logging earth formations traversed by a borehole in which an earth formation is irradiated with neutrons and gamma radiation produced thereby in the formation and in the borehole is detected. A sleeve or shield for capturing neutrons from the borehole and producing gamma radiation characteristic of that capture is provided to give an indication of the contribution of borehole capture events to the total detected gamma radiation. It is then possible to correct from those borehole effects the total detected gamma radiation and any earth formation parameters determined therefrom

  10. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  11. The results of the investigations on rock mechanics in HDB-9-11 boreholes and update of the rock mechanical model around the Horonobe URL construction area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niunoya, Sumio; Matsui, Hiroya

    2008-09-01

    Horonobe URL (Underground Research Laboratory) Project is conducted at Horonobe-cho, Teshio-gun, Hokkaido. This research report shows the result of the rock mechanical investigations which have been carried out from 2004 to 2005 as a part of the project. The objectives of the rock mechanical investigation are as follows: To obtain the data which were necessary for construction design of URL. To confirm the distribution of rock mechanical properties in and around URL construction area. The results of the investigations are summarized as follows: 1) Variation and values of depth direction of physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area corresponded approximately to the results obtained from the rock mechanical investigations of HDB-1-8. 2) The major redesign had been not had about physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area being able to divide into three zones and length of its own zone in updating rock mechanical model. 3) From the results of initial stress measured by hydraulic fracturing, the results that the direction of the maximum principle stress is E-W was no different from results obtained from the investigations of HDB-1-8, but the magnitude correlation among maximum, minimum principle stress and overburden pressure measured around G.L.-927 m showed different trends compared with the results of HDB-1-8. 4) Diatomaceous mudstone was yielded under isotropic compression. Cam-clay model as constitutive law of diatomaceous mudstone should be used for tunnel excavation analysis. 5) Uniaxial compression strength of rock saturated under saline water is larger than that of saturated under freshwater. Poisson's ratio of rock saturated under saline water is smaller than that of saturated under saline water. 6) The effective confining pressure increases with the equivalent opening width and permeability decreases. 7) The value of principle stress obtained from DSCA method is larger than that obtained from hydraulic

  12. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  13. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. BWR mechanics and materials technology update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses technical results obtained from a variety of important programs underway at General Electric's Nuclear Engineering Division. The principal objective of these programs is to qualify and improve BWR product related technologies that fall broadly under the disciplines of Applied Mechanics and Materials Engineering. The paper identifies and deals with current technical issues that are of general importance to the LWR industry albeit the specific focus is directed to the development and qualification of analytical predictive methods and criteria, and improved materials for use in the design of the BWR. In this paper, specific results and accomplishments are summarized to provide a braod perspective of technology advances. Results are presented in sections which discuss: dynamic analysis and modeling; fatigue and fracture evaluation; materials engineering advances; and flow induced vibration. (orig.)

  15. Conceptual Design and Requirements for Characterization and Field Test Boreholes: Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test, introduced herein, is a demonstration of the DBD concept and these advances.

  16. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  17. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  18. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel O.; Bastian, Welsch; Wolfram, Rühaak; Kristian, Bär; Ingo, Sass

    2017-04-01

    Arrays of borehole heat exchangers are an increasingly popular source for renewable energy. Furthermore, they can serve as borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems for seasonally fluctuating heat sources like solar thermal energy or district heating grids. The high temperature level of these heat sources prohibits the use of the shallow subsurface for environmental reasons. Therefore, deeper reservoirs have to be accessed instead. The increased depth of the systems results in high investment costs and has hindered the implementation of this technology until now. Therefore, research of medium deep BTES systems relies on numerical simulation models. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe key features like partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We give an update on the development of BASIMO: a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport in a dual-continuum approach. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. Thereby, partly insulated boreholes can be considered in the model. Furthermore, BASIMO can be used to improve the design of BTES systems: the tool allows for automated parameter variations and is readily coupled to other code like mathematical optimization algorithms. Optimization can be used to determine the required minimum system size or to increase the system performance.

  19. Strategic decision analysis applied to borehole seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, M.M.; Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic Decision Analysis (SDA) is the evolving body of knowledge on how to achieve high quality in the decision that shapes an organization's future. SDA comprises philosophy, process concepts, methodology, and tools for making good decisions. It specifically incorporates many concepts and tools from economic evaluation and risk analysis. Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (CPTC) has applied SDA to evaluate and prioritize a number of its most important and most uncertain R and D projects, including borehole seismology. Before SDA, there were significant issues and concerns about the value to CPTC of continuing to work on borehole seismology. The SDA process created a cross-functional team of experts to structure and evaluate this project. A credible economic model was developed, discrete risks and continuous uncertainties were assessed, and an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results, even applied to a very restricted drilling program for a few years, were good enough to demonstrate the value of continuing the project. This paper explains the SDA philosophy concepts, and process and demonstrates the methodology and tools using the borehole seismology project example. SDA is useful in the upstream industry not just in the R and D/technology decisions, but also in major exploration and production decisions. Since a major challenge for upstream companies today is to create and realize value, the SDA approach should have a very broad applicability

  20. Project Mechanisms and Technology Diffusion in Climate Policy - Kyoto project mechanisms and technology diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, M.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the diffusion of GHG mitigation technologies in developing countries. We develop a model where an abatement technology is progressively adopted by firms and we use it to compare the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with a standard Cap and Trade scheme (C and T). In the presence of learning spillovers, we show that the CDM yields a higher social welfare than C and T if the first adopter receives CDM credits whereas the followers do not. This result lends support to the policy proposal of relaxing the CDM additionality constraint for projects which generate significant learning externalities. (authors)

  1. Oman Drilling Project Phase I Borehole Geophysical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Pezard, P. A.; Henry, G.; Brun, L.; Célérier, B.; Lods, G.; Robert, P.; Benchikh, A. M.; Al Shukaili, M.; Al Qassabi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) drilled six holes at six sites in the Samail ophiolite in the southern Samail and Tayin massifs. 1500-m of igneous and metamorphic rocks were recovered at four sites (GT1, GT2, GT3 and BT1) using wireline diamond core drilling and drill cuttings at two sites (BA1, BA2) using air rotary drilling, respectively. OmanDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, NASA, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, and with in-kind support in Oman from Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University and the German University of Technology. A comprehensive borehole geophysical survey was conducted in all the OmanDP Phase I boreholes shortly after drilling in April 2017. Following geophysical wireline logs, using slim-hole borehole logging equipment provided and run by the Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université de Montpellier/ Géosciences Montpellier, and logging trucks from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, were collected in most of the holes: electrical resistivity (dual laterolog resistivity, LLd and LLs), spectral gamma ray (K, U, and Th contents), magnetic susceptibility, total natural gamma ray, full waveform sonic (Vp and Vs), acoustic borehole wall imaging, optical borehole wall imaging, borehole fluid parameters (pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox potential, non-polarized spontaneous electrical potential), and caliper (borehole diameter). In addition, spinner flowmeter (downhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) and heatpulse flow meter logs (dowhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) were collected in BA1 to characterize downhole fluid flow rates along borehole axis. Unfortuantely, only incomplete wireline logs are available for

  2. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  3. Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Statler, R.D.; Peterson, E.W.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations

  4. Assessing technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara Lena Yri

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an operational definition of technology transfer, to be applied in studies of technology transfer in projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Although the CDM has never been given an explicit mandate for transferring technologies, its contribution in this respect has both been hoped for and exacted. The discussions of technology transfer in CDM projects are however blurred by widely varying conceptions of what technology transfer is. Qu...

  5. Development and Test of a 1,000 Level 3C Fiber Optic Borehole Seismic Receiver Array Applied to Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for CCS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 a contract to design, build and test a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Paulsson, Inc. has completed a design or a unique borehole seismic system consisting of a novel drill pipe based deployment system that includes a hydraulic clamping mechanism for the sensor pods, a new sensor pod design and most important – a unique fiber optic seismic vector sensor with technical specifications and capabilities that far exceed the state of the art seismic sensor technologies. These novel technologies were all applied to the new borehole seismic system. In combination these technologies will allow for the deployment of up to 1,000 3C sensor pods in vertical, deviated or horizontal wells. Laboratory tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed during this project have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown that the system can record events at magnitudes much smaller than M-2.3 at frequencies up to 2,000 Hz. The sensors have also proved to be about 100 times more sensitive than the regular coil geophones that are used in borehole seismic systems today. The fiber optic seismic sensors have furthermore been qualified to operate at temperatures over 300°C (572°F). The fibers used for the seismic sensors in the system are used to record Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) data allowing additional value added data to be recorded simultaneously with the seismic vector sensor data.

  6. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Design of a borehole data-acquisition/transmission system. Final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.L.; Bowden, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Objective of the BDATS program was to design, construct, and demonstrate a borehole probe and associated uphole modules that would allow downhole collection of data from any of several borehole probes and would allow digital transmission of that data uphole to a computer. Specifically, the system was electrically and mechanically configured to interface to six separate borehole probes and a computer in a R and D logging vehicle. However, the system can be used with other types of probes

  8. The Kyoto Mechanisms and Technological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Climate change response, including implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. One of the important agreements in several declarations, including the Kyoto protocol, has been to promote and coordinate...

  9. Physical-Mechanisms Based Reliability Analysis For Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0095 PHYSICAL -MECHANISMS BASED RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Ron Schrimpf VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY 110 21ST...SUBTITLE PHYSICAL -MECHANISMS BASED RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0307 5c.  PROGRAM...which reliability models can be built. Thus, it is important to develop more predictive reliability models for advanced technologies, based on physical

  10. Stratigraphy of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, R.W.; Worssam, B.C.

    1983-12-01

    Seven boreholes, five of them partially cored, were drilled at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as part of a general investigation to assess the feasibility of storing low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in underground cavities. Two of the deeper boreholes were almost wholly cored to provide samples for hydrogeological, hydrochemical, mineralogical, geochemical, geotechnical, sedimentological and stratigraphical studies to enable variations in lithology and rock properties to be assessed, both vertically and laterally, and related to their regional geological setting. This report describes the lithologies, main faunal elements and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and Carboniferous sequences proved in the boreholes. More detailed stratigraphical accounts of the late Jurassic and Cretaceous sequences will be prepared when current studies of the faunal assemblages are complete. (author)

  11. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Borehole Optical Stratigraphy Modeling, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of scripts and code designed for modeling the properties of boreholes in polar ice sheets, under a range of variations in the borehole...

  13. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  14. Thermal neutron absorption borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaum, C.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of quantitatively determining the macroscopic thermal neutron cross-section of a geological formation traversed by a borehole by measuring the flux of both thermal and epithermal neutrons following the irradiation of the formation with neutrons from a continuous source in a neutron sonde. (U.K.)

  15. Rhenium Mechanical Properties and Joining Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian D.; Biaglow, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) provides thermal margin for high performance and long life radiation cooled rockets. Two issues that have arisen in the development of flight Ir/Re engines are the sparsity of rhenium (Re) mechanical property data (particularly at high temperatures) required for engineering design, and the inability to directly electron beam weld Re chambers to C103 nozzle skirts. To address these issues, a Re mechanical property database is being established and techniques for creating Re/C103 transition joints are being investigated. This paper discusses the tensile testing results of powder metallurgy Re samples at temperatures from 1370 to 2090 C. Also discussed is the evaluation of Re/C103 transition pieces joined by both, explosive and diffusion bonding. Finally, the evaluation of full size Re transition pieces, joined by inertia welding, as well as explosive and diffusion bonding, is detailed.

  16. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  19. [Mechanized system for planning technological processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, V S; Shapiro, A M

    1977-01-01

    A mechanized system for the production processes planning involving the use of an electronic code device for data preparation on a punched tape of the "EPECT-IT" type, at the base of which there are classifiers of standard operations and transitions to individual design members, is considered. A fragment of the classifier and a skeleton diagram of the system are presented. It is pointed out that the use of the system helps improve the quality of the design work, as well as to yield considerable economic advantages. The system is in operation at some enterprises of the medical engineering industry.

  20. Mechanics of materials an introduction to engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavami, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    This book, framed in the processes of engineering analysis and design, presents concepts in mechanics of materials for students in two-year or four-year programs in engineering technology, architecture, and building construction, as well as for students in vocational schools and technical institutes. Using the principles and laws of mechanics, physics, and the fundamentals of engineering, Mechanics of Materials: An Introduction for Engineering Technology will help aspiring and practicing engineers and engineering technicians from across disciplines—mechanical, civil, chemical, and electrical—apply concepts of engineering mechanics for analysis and design of materials, structures, and machine components. The book is ideal for those seeking a rigorous, algebra/trigonometry-based text on the mechanics of materials. This book also: ·       Elucidates concepts of engineering mechanics in materials, including stress and strain, force systems on structures, moment of inertia, and shear and bending moments...

  1. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  2. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  3. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  4. Detection of fractures in borehole image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Xiaoling

    2009-10-01

    Fractures in borehole images are currently handpicked by geologists, which is a tedious and expensive task. Automatically detecting fractures in these images is not an easy task. We present a scheme for automatic fracture detection in borehole images. First, an adaptive histogram equalization method is applied to enhance borehole images which enhances the visibility of fractures in the images. Then, a direction filtering method is proposed to extract traces of fractures in borehole images. Finally, the fast Hough transform is taken to detect fractures from the results of direction filtering. Experiment results show that the scheme achieves the good results for automatic fracture detection in borehole images.

  5. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  6. Micro and Nano-Scale Technologies for Cell Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Unal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell mechanics is a multidisciplinary field that bridges cell biology, fundamental mechanics, and micro and nanotechnology, which synergize to help us better understand the intricacies and the complex nature of cells in their native environment. With recent advances in nanotechnology, microfabrication methods and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, we are now well situated to tap into the complex micro world of cells. The field that brings biology and MEMS together is known as Biological MEMS (BioMEMS. BioMEMS take advantage of systematic design and fabrication methods to create platforms that allow us to study cells like never before. These new technologies have been rapidly advancing the study of cell mechanics. This review article provides a succinct overview of cell mechanics and comprehensively surveys micro and nano-scale technologies that have been specifically developed for and are relevant to the mechanics of cells. Here we focus on micro and nano-scale technologies, and their applications in biology and medicine, including imaging, single cell analysis, cancer cell mechanics, organ-on-a-chip systems, pathogen detection, implantable devices, neuroscience and neurophysiology. We also provide a perspective on the future directions and challenges of technologies that relate to the mechanics of cells.

  7. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  8. The development and application of CFD technology in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yufeng

    2017-12-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an analysis of the physical phenomena involved in fluid flow and heat conduction by computer numerical calculation and graphical display. The numerical method simulates the complexity of the physical problem and the precision of the numerical solution, which is directly related to the hardware speed of the computer and the hardware such as memory. With the continuous improvement of computer performance and CFD technology, it has been widely applied to the field of water conservancy engineering, environmental engineering and industrial engineering. This paper summarizes the development process of CFD, the theoretical basis, the governing equations of fluid mechanics, and introduces the various methods of numerical calculation and the related development of CFD technology. Finally, CFD technology in the mechanical engineering related applications are summarized. It is hoped that this review will help researchers in the field of mechanical engineering.

  9. Research evaluation of mechanical cutting technology of mulberry branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhua SONG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available China is the world's largest silkworm cocoon and raw silk producer and exporter. However, as the labor price increases quickly, the sericulture production costs increases, the comparative benefits of sericulture production decreases, and the farmers' enthusiasm in mulberry planting becomes lower. To solve the problem, aiming at the low level of mechanical harvesting and cutting technology of mulberry branch in China, on the basis of discussing the cutting damage forms of mulberry stool in zhe progress of mechanical harvesting muiberry branch, the existing problems and the present situation of the research of cutting technology of mulberry branch and others crop stalks are analyzed. The developmental trend of the mechanical cutting technology of mulberry branch is put formward.

  10. Rock-welding materials for deep borehole nuclear waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The concept of deep borehole nuclear waste disposal has recently been proposed. Effective sealing of a borehole after waste emplacement is generally required. In a high temperature disposal mode, the sealing function will be fulfilled by melting the ambient granitic rock with waste decay heat or an external heating source, creating a melt that will encapsulate waste containers or plug a portion of the borehole above a stack of the containers. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with natural materials, such as high melting temperatures, slow crystallization kinetics, the resulting sealing materials generally being porous with low mechanical strength, insufficient adhesion to waste container surface, and lack of flexibility for engineering controls. Here we show that natural granitic materials can be purposefully engineered through chemical modifications to enhance the sealing capability of the materials for deep borehole disposal. This work systematically explores the effect of chemical modification and crystallinity (amorphous vs. crystalline) on the melting and crystallization processes of a granitic rock system. A number of engineered granitic materials have been obtained that have decreased melting points, enhanced viscous densification, and accelerated recrystallization rates without compromising the mechanical integrity of the materials.

  11. Novel Design Aspects of the Space Technology 5 Mechanical Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Peter; McGill, William

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several novel design elements of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft mechanical subsystem. The spacecraft structure itself takes a significant step in integrating electronics into the primary structure. The deployment system restrains the spacecraft during launch and imparts a predetermined spin rate upon release from its secondary payload accommodations. The deployable instrument boom incorporates some traditional as well as new techniques for lightweight and stiffness. Analysis and test techniques used to validate these technologies are described. Numerous design choices were necessitated due to the compact spacecraft size and strict mechanical subsystem requirements.

  12. Experimental research on sealing of boreholes, shafts and ramps in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and in-situ experiments have been conducted to determine the mechanical and hydraulic performance of cement borehole seals in densely welded Apache Leap tuff. Test results indicate that under saturated conditions, commercial expansive cement can provide good bond strength and adequate hydraulic performance for borehole seal under changing stress conditions. The cement seal should be installed at the intact portion of the opening, and should have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than four. Drying increases borehole plug permeability and decreases mechanical and hydraulic bonds at the plug-rock interface. In-situ testing indicates that installation procedure may significantly affect the cement plug performance

  13. The Clean Development Mechanism and neglected environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Popp, David; Prag, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an institutional framework for developed countries to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Are the technologies promoted those most needed by the recipient countries? We address this question by first reviewing Technology Needs Assessments prepared by developing countries, and then comparing the stated needs to the technologies most frequently promoted via CDM. While there appears to be a good match between requested technologies and those used in CDM, desired technologies such as solar energy for remote locations, biofuels, improved cooking stoves, and efficient lighting appear “neglected” by CDM. Nonetheless, a review of costs for these technologies suggests that many could be cost effective for developing countries. For projects requiring wide dispersal of household items, such as cooking stoves or lighting, the administrative burdens of CDM provide a hurdle. In other cases, difficulties quantifying the ancillary benefits of these projects hinder the promotion of these technologies. We conclude with possible explanations for why these technologies are neglected and suggestions for future research. - Highlights: ► We identify technologies desired by developing countries but not provided via CDM. ► Solar PV is neglected due to high costs. ► The CDM process provides a hurdle for improved cooking stoves and efficient lighting. ► Implications for CDM and climate policy are discussed

  14. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  15. Safety Characterization of the Technological Development Plant at Hontomín. Risk Structures: 2. Wells and Boreholes; Caracterización de la Seguridad de la Planta de Desarrollo Tecnológico de Hontomín. Estructuras de Riesgo: 2. Pozos y Sondeos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.; Hurtado, A.

    2015-07-01

    Safe storage of CO2 required to guarantee the formation’s caprock seal capacity for CO2 storage during the time in which the CO2 will remain in supercritical state before moving to dissolved phase CO2aq:. Structures such as wells and boreholes affecting storage and caprock formations may play a relevant role in the behavior of the CO2 plume and act as preferential leakage paths violating the integrity of the seal rock. Although the geological history of the storage complex in cases such as depleted oil or gas fields, preferably, allow to assume a priori that the geological medium can reasonably ensure their confining role during the required time, i.e., a «long term» time period for the effective contribution of CCS to the mitigation of climate change (> 10.000 years), it is not possible to make an equivalent prognosis with regard to the behaviour of deep wells and boreholes without having a detailed knowledge of the aging process and of the mechanical and chemical aggression of its components. In any case, always will remain a high level of uncertainty to be integrated in the analysis to assess the security of the storage complex. Therefore, the integrity of the components of deep wells and boreholes that may affect both caprock seal and storage formations, both mechanically and chemically, plays an important role in the chain of elements that contribute to CO2 geological storage long-term safety, hence the importance of its study and integration. An approach to degradation processes of the components of injection and abandoned wells that can act as preferential leakage paths of CO2, consists of the decomposition of the storage system in a components and processes integrated network to estimate their interaction conditional probabilities. This report analyzes these processes, the security and operational requirements of deep wells and boreholes as well as its componentes failure scenarios.

  16. Cement thickness measurements in cased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, J.S.; Schuster, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for logging a borehole having solid matter along at least a portion of the wall thereof. Gamma radiation is emitted from the borehole into the surrounding media, and the amount of radiation which returns to the borehole is measured by three detectors located at different distances from the source of radiation, so as to be primarily sensitive to radiation which has respectively penetrated to three different depths in the surrounding media. The thickness of the solid matter on the borehole wall is then determined from the three gamma radiation measurements

  17. Mechanization of Continuous Production of Powdered Cellulose Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosvirnikov, D. B.; Safin, R. G.; Akhmetshin, I. R.; Taimarov, M. A.; Timerbaev, N. F.

    2017-07-01

    The article presents the mechanization of the process for obtaining powdered cellulose using the technology of steam explosion treatment of lignocellulosic material. The presented unit combines the methods of steam explosion treatment and acid hydrolysis of cellulose-containing raw materials.

  18. Fiber optic DTS in sealed and heated boreholes for active groundwater flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Thomas; Parker, Beth; Cherry, John; Mondanos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, advances in technology have allowed temperature profiling to evolve to offer new insight into fractured rock hydrogeology. Temperature profiles in open boreholes within fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation and/or in the borehole. An advance in temperature logging makes use of precision temperature profiles collected using wireline trolling methods in a heated borehole to identify fractures with active groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. A second development is based on collecting wireline temperature profiles within a sealed borehole to eliminate short circuiting effects caused by the open borehole conduit. The borehole is temporarily sealed with a flexible impervious fabric liner so that the water column in the borehole is static and cross-connection is eliminated. Though highly precise temperature and spatial measurements are possible using these techniques, the temporal resolution is limited by the rate at which the wireline probe can be raised and lowered in the borehole. There is a need to measure temperature profiles continuously over time to characterize transient processes. Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a technique that allows for collecting temperature profiles continuously. This tool was advanced by the oil and gas industry for collecting temperature data in multi kilometer deep boreholes over relatively coarse measurement scales. In contrast, very fine spatial and temperature resolutions are needed for freshwater contaminant fractured rock hydrogeology where the scale of interest is much more acute. Recent advances in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolution of DTS systems allow this technology to be adapted well to the shallow subsurface environment. This project demonstrates the first application of DTS used in conjunction with flexible borehole liners in a heated borehole environment. The

  19. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative applications of the neutron-gamma borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Eisler, P.L.; Borsaru, M.; Aylmer, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two examples of neutron-gamma borehole logging application are described. In the quantitative application of the PGNAA technique, research was carried out both in the laboratory and at a mine to establish a suitable borehole logging technology for Mn-grade predictions. As an example of qualitative application of PGNAA, use of this method has been demonstrated for determination of lithology. (author). 4 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea

  2. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Guided by Single Radial Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiankui Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional hydraulic fracturing is not effective in target oil development zones with available wellbores located in the azimuth of the non-maximum horizontal in-situ stress. To some extent, we think that the radial hydraulic jet drilling has the function of guiding hydraulic fracture propagation direction and promoting deep penetration, but this notion currently lacks an effective theoretical support for fracture propagation. In order to verify the technology, a 3D extended finite element numerical model of hydraulic fracturing promoted by the single radial borehole was established, and the influences of nine factors on propagation of hydraulic fracture guided by the single radial borehole were comprehensively analyzed. Moreover, the term ‘Guidance factor (Gf’ was introduced for the first time to effectively quantify the radial borehole guidance. The guidance of nine factors was evaluated through gray correlation analysis. The experimental results were consistent with the numerical simulation results to a certain extent. The study provides theoretical evidence for the artificial control technology of directional propagation of hydraulic fracture promoted by the single radial borehole, and it predicts the guidance effect of a single radial borehole on hydraulic fracture to a certain extent, which is helpful for planning well-completion and fracturing operation parameters in radial borehole-promoted hydraulic fracturing technology.

  4. Horizontal stress anisotropy determined from acoustic full waveforms in borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, A.

    2003-04-01

    Drilling inside competent formations, such as crystalline rocks, hard carbonated rocks or sandstones, involves stable stress modifications around the hole. For vertical boreholes, these modifications depend essentially on the horizontal state of stress, particularly on its anisotropy. They may significantly spread up to more than 0.5 meter from the hole. As the usual frequencies of the borehole acoustic waveforms are about 20 KHz, these modified stress areas should be taken into account in order to interpret the records of the body waves, because their corresponding wavelengths range between 0.25 m for P waves and 0.175 m for S waves. The observation of the borehole acoustic body waves which propagate inside gneisses and metabasites (KTB borehole in Bavaria), granites (boreholes of Soultz-sous-forest in Alsace, and those in Vendée), and compact sandstones and dolomites (Balazuc1 borehole in the South of France), allows us to determine two or sometimes three successive arrivals of P and S waves, although the formations are homogeneous and there is no reflector, such as a fracture. The hypothesis that the double P and S waves may be the result of the reflection of the body waves inside the stress modified areas is consistent with the calculated sizes of the paths of the supposed reflected waves. The theory of borehole rock mechanics does not predict sharp changes in the sizes of these areas as overburdened pressure increases ; but the values of the supposed sizes of the modified areas are, as a function of depth, scattered above and steady below the depth where the overburdened pressure appears equal to the maximum horizontal stress. The squeezing of micro-cracks by pressure is assumed to homogenise formation rheology, and therefore, only the steady values may be considered as representative. Matching the calculated steady values with the possible models of stress deformation can be managed from the horizontal stress anisotropy values, but the solutions are not

  5. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  6. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  7. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal Borehole Televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  8. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal borehole televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  9. Technology of combined chemical-mechanical fabrication of durable coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Portnykh, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the scientific fundamentals of methodology for calculating the modes and structuring the technological processes of combined chemical-mechanical fabrication of durable coatings. It is shown that they are based on classical patterns, describing the processes of simultaneous chemical and mechanical impact. The paper demonstrates the possibility of structuring a technological process, taking into account the systematic approach to impact management and strengthening the reciprocal positive influence of each impact upon the combined process. The combined processes have been planned for fabricating the model types of chemical-mechanical coatings of durable products in machine construction. The planning methodology is underpinned by a scientific hypothesis of a single source of impact management through energy potential of process components themselves, or by means of external energy supply through mechanical impact. The control of it is fairly thoroughly studied in the case of pulsed external strikes of hard pellets, similar to processes of vibroimpact hardening, thoroughly studied and mastered in many scientific schools of Russia.

  10. Effective Information Technology Governance Mechanisms: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of information technology (IT, as a strategic factor for organizations in achieving their objectives, have raised the concern of organizations in establishing and implementing effective IT governance. This study seeks to empirically examine the individual IT governance mechanisms that influence the overall effectiveness of IT governance. The data were obtained by using web based survey from 176 members of ISACA (Information Systems and Audit Control Association Australia. This study examines the influences of six proposed IT governance mechanisms on the overall effectiveness of IT governance. Using Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression techniques, the current study finds significant positive relationships between the overall level of effective IT governance and the following four IT governance mechanisms: the existence of ethics/ culture of compliance in IT, corporate communication systems, an IT strategy committee, and the involvement of senior management in IT.

  11. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  12. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, B.N.P. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  13. The Influence of Interactive Multimedia Technology to Enhance Achievement Students on Practice Skills in Mechanical Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made Rajendra, I.; Made Sudana, I.

    2018-01-01

    Interactive multimedia technology empowers the educational process by means of increased interaction between teachers and the students. The utilization of technology in the instructional media development has an important role in the increase of the quality of teaching and learning achievements of students. The application of multimedia technology in the instructional media development is able to integrate aspects of knowledge and skills. The success of multimedia technology has revolutionized teaching and learning methods. The design of the study was quasi-experimental with pre and post. The instrument used is the form of questionnaires and tests This study reports research findings indicated that there is a significance difference between the mean performances of students in the experimental group than those students in the control group. The students in the experimental group performed better in mechanical technology practice and in retention test than those in the control group. The study recommended that multimedia instructional tool is an effective tool to enhance achievement students on practice skills in mechanical Technology.

  14. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  15. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-01-01

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types. PMID:24784036

  17. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors, polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  18. Humidity sensors principle, mechanism, and fabrication technologies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-04-30

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  19. Study of borehole probing methods to improve the ground characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimipour, Ali

    Collecting geological information allows for optimizing ground control measures in underground structures. This includes understanding of the joints and discontinuities and rock strength to develop rock mass classifications. An ideal approach to collect such information is through correlating the drilling data from the roofbolters to assess rock strength and void location and properties. The current instrumented roofbolters are capable of providing some information on these properties but not fully developed for accurate ground characterization. To enhance existing systems additional instrumentation and testing was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. However, to define the geology along the boreholes, the use of probing was deemed to be most efficient approach for locating joints and structures in the ground and evaluation of rock strength. Therefore, this research focuses on selection and evaluation of proper borehole probes that can offer a reliable assessment of rock mass structure and rock strength. In particular, attention was paid to borehole televiewer to characterize rock mass structures and joints and development of mechanical rock scratcher for determination of rock strength. Rock bolt boreholes are commonly drilled in the ribs and the roof of underground environments. They are often small (about 1.5 inches) and short (mostly 2-3 meter). Most of them are oriented upward and thus, mostly dry or perhaps wet but not filled with water. No suitable system is available for probing in such conditions to identify the voids/joints and specifically to measure rock strength for evaluation of rock mass and related optimization of ground support design. A preliminary scan of available borehole probes proved that the best options for evaluation of rock structure is through analysis of borehole images, captured by optical televiewers. Laboratory and field trials with showed that these systems can be used to facilitate measurement of the location, frequency and

  20. Development of mechanical design technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Tae Wan; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Gyu Mahn

    1999-03-01

    While Korean nuclear reactor strategy seems to remain focused on the large capacity power generation, it is expected that demand of small and medium size reactor will arise for multi-purpose application such as small capacity power generation, co-generation and sea water desalination. With this in mind, an integral reactor SMART is under development. Design concepts, system layout and types of equipment of integral reactor are significantly different from those of loop type reactor. Conceptual design development of mechanical structures of integral reactor SMART is completed through the first stage of the project. Efforts were endeavored for the establishment of design basis and evaluation of applicable codes and standards. Design and functional requirements of major structural components were setup, and three dimensional structural modelling of SMART reactor vessel assembly was prepared. Also, maintenance and repair scheme as well as preliminary fabricability evaluation were carried out. Since small integral reactor technology includes sensitive technologies and know-how's, it is hard to achieve systematic and comprehensive technology transfer from nuclear-advanced countries. Thus, it is necessary to develop the related design technology and to verify the adopted methodologies through test and experiments in order to assure the structural integrity of reactor system. (author)

  1. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  2. Innovative Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Equipment and Materials-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnaz Izailovich, Fayrushin; Nail Faikovich, Kashapov; Mahmut Mashutovich, Ganiev

    2014-12-01

    In the period from 25 to 27 September 2013 the city of Kazan hosted the International Scientific Conference "Innovative mechanical engineering technologies, equipment and materials - 2013" (IRTC "IMETEM - 2013"). The conference was held on the grounds of "Kazanskaya Yarmarka" (Kazan). The conference plenary meeting was held with the participation of the Republic of Tatarstan, breakout sessions, forum "Improving the competitiveness and efficiency of engineering enterprises in the WTO" and a number of round tables. Traditionally, the event was followed by the 13th International specialized exhibition "Engineering. Metalworking. Kazan ", in which were presented the development of innovative enterprises in the interests of the Russian Federation of Industry of Republic of Tatarstan, to support the "Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology" and the 8th specialized exhibition "TechnoWelding". Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  3. Current mechanisms in silicon PIN structures processed with various technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of dark characteristics of PIN (p sup + -semi-intrinsic-n sup +) structures fabricated with several technologies on high-resistivity silicon wafers. The study considers the temperature dependence of the various current mechanisms. Significant and consistent differences were observed in the reverse current-voltage characteristics of the various samples, while capacitance-voltage profiles remain similar, indicating no process related variations in the effective space charge distribution. The results show that the activation energy of the reverse current in samples processed by various technologies differs, which may indicate that the Shockley Read Hall generation occurs through centers at different energies. Specifically, in some samples the reverse currents are dominated by generation-recombination centers located approx 0.2 eV from the mid-gap, while in other samples the currents are dominated by the 'standard' mid-gap generation-recombination centers. The difference is shown ...

  4. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Sorensen

    Full Text Available Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m. These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3 at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

  5. Development of a Lunar Borehole Seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, P. R.; Siegler, M.; Malin, P. E.; Passmore, K.; Zacny, K.; Avenson, B.; Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.; Nagihara, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all seismic stations on Earth are buried below the ground. Burial provides controlled temperatures and greater seismic coupling at little cost. This is also true on the Moon and other planetary bodies. Burial of a seismometer under just 1 meter of lunar regolith would provide an isothermal environment and potentially reduce signal scattering noise by an order of magnitude. Here we explain how we will use an existing NASA SBIR and PIDDP funded subsurface heat flow probe deployment system to bury a miniaturized, broadband, optical seismometer 1 meter below the lunar surface. The system is sensitive, low mass and low power. We believe this system offers a compelling architecture for NASA's future seismic exploration of the solar system. We will report on a prototype 3-axis, broadband seismometer package that has been tested under low pressure conditions in lunar-regolith simulant. The deployment mechanism reaches 1m depth in less than 25 seconds. Our designed and tested system: 1) Would be deployed at least 1m below the lunar surface to achieve isothermal conditions without thermal shielding or heaters, increase seismic coupling, and decrease noise. 2) Is small (our prototype probe is a cylinder 50mm in diameter, 36cm long including electronics, potentially as small as 10 cm with sensors only). 3) Is low-mass (each sensor is 0.1 kg, so an extra redundancy 4-component seismograph plus 1.5 kg borehole sonde and recorder weighs less than 2 kg and is feasibly smaller with miniaturized electronics). 4) Is low-power (our complete 3-sensor borehole seismographic system's power consumption is about half a Watt, or 7% of Apollo's 7.1 W average and 30% of the InSight SEIS's 1.5W winter-time heating system). 5) Is broadband and highly sensitive (the "off the shelf" sensors have a wide passband: 0.005-1000 Hz - and high dynamic range of 183 dB (or about 10-9g Hz-1/2, with hopes for simple modifications to be at least an order of magnitude better). Burial also aids the

  6. Study on sealing of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A bibliographical research on the problem of the backfilling and sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels for radioactive waste disposal has been carried out. Various materials - both natural and artificial - like clay, industrial cement, polymer concrete, geothermical and magnesium cement have been examined. Their main physico-chemical and durability characteristics have been examined. The problem of the interaction between the sealing and the geological environment has been also dealt. The final subject discussed in the bibliography is the damage caused to the host formation by the excavation of shafts and tunnels. The laboratory tests have been performed on a natural clay and other types of material (cement grout, cement grout with expansive additive, cement mortar and remoulded clay) which have been used as plug materials. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are the following: - The permeability of the cement is lower than the permeability of the clay; - no adhesion was observed between clay and cement mortar, with or without expansive additive, when cured under different ambient conditions, but without any application of load; - When curing took place under load, good adhesion was observed between the clay and the cement mortar; - The flow of water in a specimen consisting of a clay core surrounded by remoulded clay is larger than in the natural clay. These results seem to be caused by the different permeabilities of the remoulded and undisturbed clay and not to depend on flow at the contact between the two materials. A remote instrumentation package for the in situ evaluation of the performance of a plug, has been developed. In order to get rid of the uncertainty associated with the infiltration of the cables through the plug a wireless data transmission system, based on acoustic waves, has been developed

  7. Technology Transfer of Isotopes-Based Assay: Strategies and Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbada, R.S.D.C.; Rañada, M.L.O.; Mendoza, A.D.L.; Panganiban, R.; Castañeda, S.S.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Arcamo, S.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor Binding Assay for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP RBA) is an isotope-based assay for detection and quantification of PSP toxins in seafood. It was established in the Philippines through a national program based on the recommendations of the Expert Mission sent by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through the said program, the Philippines Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) was able to put up an RBA facility and develop expertise. Advantages of the technique against Mouse Bioassay (MBA) and high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods were are established. RBA is being utilized by some developed countries as screening method for Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Monitoring. However, it was not immediately adopted by the national HAB regulatory body for the following reasons: (1) acceptance of RBA as an official national method of analysis for PSP, (2) logistics and financial concerns in building up and maintaining a RBA facility, (3) considerations on the use of radioactive materials. To address these issues, the Philippines Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) approved a Grants-In-Aid Project to initiate and to facilitate the transfer of the RBA technology to the monitoring and regulatory body. The project has two major objectives: capacity building and technology transfer. The capacity building focuses on human resources development of HAB monitoring personnel, specifically training on RBA and on the use of radioactive materials. On the other hand, the technology transfer deals with assistance that PNRI may render in establishing the new RBA facility and over-all know-how of the project. In this is poster, the mechanisms and strategies being undertaken by PNRI, in collaboration with the regulatory and monitoring body, to address the limitation of transferring a technology that utilizes radioactive materials including the technical difficulties are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Mechanical-engineering aspects of mirror-fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.K.; Doggett, J.N.

    1982-01-01

    The mirror approach to magnetic fusion has evolved from the original simple mirror cell to today's mainline effort: the tandem-mirror machine with thermal barriers. Physics and engineering research is being conducted throughout the world, with major efforts in Japan, the USSR, and the US. At least one facility under construction (MFTF-B) will approach equivalent energy breakeven in physics performance. Significant mechanical engineering development is needed, however, before a demonstration reactor can be constructed. The principal areas crucial to mirror reactor development include large high-field superconducting magnets, high-speed continuous vacuum-pumping systems, long-pulse high-power neutral-beam and rf-plasma heating systems, and efficient high-voltage high-power direct converters. Other areas common to all fusion systems include tritium handling technology, first-wall materials development, and fusion blanket design

  9. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme.

  10. A new mechanism for energy conservation technology services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng

    1996-12-31

    In the ninth-five year plan of China, the socialist market economy model will be developed. In the stage of transferring from planning economy to market economy, the energy conservation technology services industry in China has met new challenges. Over the past ten to fifteen years, there has developed a new mechanism for financing energy efficiency investments in market economies. The process is simple. After inspecting an enterprise or an entity for energy saving opportunities, an Energy Service Company (ESCO) which business aimed at making money will review the recommended energy conservation opportunities with the enterprise or the entity (user) and implement those measures acceptable to the user at no front end cost to the user. The ESCO then guarantees that the energy savings will cover the cost of the capital renovations using the Performance Contracting.

  11. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme

  12. BOSS: Borehole Disposal of Disused Sealed Sources. A Technical Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The management of disused radioactive sources is the responsibility of individual Member States. Accordingly, interest in technologies to allow the safe, secure and sustainable management of disused sealed radioactive sources is growing. This publication is a technical summary on preparing and planning predisposal and disposal activities with regard to the BOSS (borehole disposal of disused sealed sources) system, a safe, simple and cost effective solution for the management of disused sealed radioactive sources. It advises potential implementers and decision makers on the implementation of BOSS, which is expected to provide Member States with a successful tool to contribute to the safety and security of current and future generations.

  13. Fluid Mechanics of Biological Surfaces and their Technological Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.; Bruse, M.; Hage, W.; Meyer, R.

    A survey is given on fluid-dynamic effects caused by the structure and properties of biological surfaces. It is demonstrated that the results of investigations aiming at technological applications can also provide insights into biophysical phenomena. Techniques are described both for reducing wall shear stresses and for controlling boundary-layer separation. (a) Wall shear stress reduction was investigated experimentally for various riblet surfaces including a shark skin replica. The latter consists of 800 plastic model scales with compliant anchoring. Hairy surfaces are also considered, and surfaces in which the no-slip condition is modified. Self-cleaning surfaces such as that of lotus leaves represent an interesting option to avoid fluid-dynamic deterioration by the agglomeration of dirt. An example of technological implementation is discussed for riblets in long-range commercial aircraft. (b) Separation control is also an important issue in biology. After a few brief comments on vortex generators, the mechanism of separation control by bird feathers is described in detail. Self-activated movable flaps (=artificial bird feathers) represent a high-lift system enhancing the maximum lift of airfoils by about 20%. This is achieved without perceivable deleterious effects under cruise conditions. Finally, flight experiments on an aircraft with laminar wing and movable flaps are presented.

  14. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde

  15. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Investigations at Depth in Slim Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Ask, D.; Cornet, F. H.; Nilsson, T.; Talib, M.; Sundberg, J.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the state of stress is essential to most underground work in rock mechanics as it provides means to analyze the mechanical behavior of a rock mass, serve as boundary condition in rock engineering problems, and help understand rock mass stability and groundwater flow. Luleå University of Technology (LTU) has developed and built a wire-line system for hydraulic rock stress measurements in slim boreholes together with the University of Strasbourg and Geosigma AB. The system consists of a downhole- and a surface unit. The downhole unit consists of hydraulic fracturing equipment (straddle packers and downhole imaging tool) and their associated data acquisition systems. The surface unit comprises of a 40-foot container permanently mounted on a trailer, which is equipped with a tripod, wire-line winches, water hydraulics, and a generator. The surface unit serves as a climate-independent on-site operations center, as well as a self-supporting transport vessel for the entire system. Three hydraulic stress testing methods can be applied: hydraulic fracturing, sleeve fracturing and hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures. The three-dimensional stress tensor and its variation with depth within a continuous rock mass can be determined in a scientific unambiguously way by integrating results from the three test methods. The testing system is state of the art in several aspects including: (1) Large depth range (3 km), (2) Ability to test three borehole dimensions, (3) Resistivity imager maps the orientation of tested fracture (which is highlighted); (4) Highly stiff and resistive to corrosion downhole testing equipment; and (5) Very detailed control on the injection flow rate and cumulative volume is obtained by a hydraulic injection pump with variable piston rate, and a highly sensitive flow-meter. These aspects highly reduce measurement-related uncertainties of stress determination. Commissioning testing and initial field tests are scheduled to occur in a 1200

  16. Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass

  17. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking.

  18. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  19. Geomechanics laboratory characterization of borehole RRL-2 rock core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublette, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    A series of geomechanics laboratory tests were conducted on the basalt core from borehole RRL-2 for the purpose of characterizing the basalt with respect to its physical, mechanical, and thermal properties. The objectives of this testing were to characterize the basalt properties in the area of the proposed shaft and repository site. These rock properties will be used in designing the Exploratory Shaft, evaluating basalt drillability, selecting the Exploratory Shaft breakout horizon, and developing a repository upgraded conceptual design. 10 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  20. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  1. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  2. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Deep Borehole Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Maria; Ask, Daniel; Cornet, Francois; Nilsson, Tommy

    2017-04-01

    Luleå University of Technology (LTU) is developing and building a wire-line system for hydraulic rock stress measurements, with funding from the Swedish Research Council and Luleå University of Technology. In this project, LTU is collaborating with University of Strasbourg and Geosigma AB. The stress state influences drilling and drillability, as well as rock mass stability and permeability. Therefore, knowledge about the state of in-situ stress (stress magnitudes, and orientations) and its spatial variation with depth is essential for many underground rock engineering projects, for example for underground storage of hazardous material (e.g. nuclear waste, carbon dioxide), deep geothermal exploration, and underground infrastructure (e.g. tunneling, hydropower dams). The system is designed to conduct hydraulic stress testing in slim boreholes. There are three types of test methods: (1) hydraulic fracturing, (2) sleeve fracturing and (3) hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures. These are robust methods for determining in situ stresses from boreholes. Integration of the three methods allows determination of the three-dimensional stress tensor and its spatial variation with depth in a scientific unambiguously way. The stress system is composed of a downhole and a surface unit. The downhole unit consists of hydraulic fracturing equipment (straddle packers and downhole imaging tool) and their associated data acquisition systems. The testing system is state of the art in several aspects including: (1) Large depth range (3 km), (2) Ability to test three borehole dimensions (N=76 mm, H=96 mm, and P=122 mm), (3) Resistivity imager maps the orientation of tested fracture; (4) Highly stiff and resistive to corrosion downhole testing equipment; and (5) Very detailed control on the injection flow rate and cumulative volume is obtained by a hydraulic injection pump with variable piston rate, and a highly sensitive flow-meter. At EGU General Assembly 2017, we would like to

  3. Borehole Temperatures at Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a time series of borehole temperatures at different depths from three thermistor strings deployed in three boreholes drilled through the Pine Island...

  4. PmaCO{sub 2} Project: Porosity and CO{sub 2} Trapping Mechanisms The Utrillas Formation in SD-1 borehole (Tejada - Burgos): Porosity and Porous Media Modelling; PROYECTO PmaCO{sub 2}: Porosidad y Mecanismos de Atrapamiento de CO{sub 2} La Formacion Utrillas en el Sondeo SD-1 (Tejada - Burgos): Porosidad y Modelizacion del Sistema Poroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, R.; Barrios, I.; Gonzalez, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of PmaCO{sub 2} project, supported by the Secretary of State and Research MINECO (CGL2011-24768) is to increase the knowledge of the microstructure of porous storage formations and thus contribute to the viability of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geological formations. The microporous structure plays an important role not only in the prevalence of a particular trapping mechanism, but also on the amount of CO{sub 2} immobilized. Utrillas facies are investigated in this project as representatives of a deep saline aquifer storage. This publication is a summary of the work done in the first year of the project. We present a study on microstructure of sandstones Utrillas, sampled in borehole, by applying the mercury intrusion porosimetry technique for the experimental determination of porosity and associated parameters. The porous medium was modeled with the PoreCor simulation code based in intrusion-extrusion curves. (Author) 78 refs.

  5. Final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers. Digging deeper for safety. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido; Hurst, Stephanie; Merkel, Broder; Mueller, Birgit; Schilling, Frank

    2016-03-15

    The proceedings of the workshop on final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers - digging deeper for safety include contributions on the following topics: international status and safety requirements; geological and physical barriers; deep drilling - shaft building; technical barriers and emplacement technology for high P/T conditions; recovery (waste retrieval); geochemistry and monitoring.

  6. Vertical borehole design and completion practices used to remove methane gas from mineable coalbeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.W.; Trevits, M.A.; Steidl, P.F.

    1980-08-01

    Coalbed gas drainage from the surface in advance of mining has long been the goal of researchers in mine safety. Bureau of Mines efforts to achieve this goal started about 1965 with the initiation of an applied research program designed to test drilling, completion, and production techniques for vertical boreholes. Under this program, over 100 boreholes were completed in 16 different coalbeds. The field methods derived from these tests, together with a basic understanding of the coalbed reservoir, represent an available technology applicable to any gas drainage program whether designed primarily for mine safety or for gas recovery, or both.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF BOREHOLES IN RESIDENTIAL LAYOUTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPPIS NAU

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Lack of adequate public water supply to the inhabitants of Awka urban area since the urban water supply scheme at Imo ... investigate the distribution pattern of boreholes in some new settlements within the urban area to see whether their ..... The urban sprawl has resulted in the conversion of hitherto rural ...

  8. Device for radioactive investigation of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampfer, J.G.

    1972-01-01

    The device described is a probe for measuring radioactivity which is inserted in boreholes. It consists of a detector and a counting device which transmits pulses to the surface. The counter is designed so that a series of counting ranges differing from each other by a factor two may be selected by signals from the surface. (JIW)

  9. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The

  10. Hydrological and hydrogeochemical investigations in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.

    1985-07-01

    Underground investigations in boreholes are presumed to be an important investigation technique for the detailed design of a final repository for nuclear waste. The siting of the repository will be based on surface investigations, but for detailed investigations when the access shafts are sunk, investigations in underground boreholes from the initial shafts and tunnels will be of importance. The hydrogeological investigations in boreholes aimed at testing and developing of hydrogeological techniques and instruments for use in an underground environment in order to reflect actual working and testing conditions. This report is the final report from the hydrogeological investigations in boreholes, and it summarizes the different activities carried out during the course of the program. Most of the included activities are reported in separate internal reports, and therefore only the most important results are included, together with the experiences and conclusions gained during the investigations. The hydrogeochemical part of the program is in a separate final report, consequently no hydrogeochemical information is in the current report. (Author)

  11. Ore and rock mass characterization using borehole geophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Wänstedt, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    A geophysical log represents the measurement of a geophysical parameter along a borehole, plotted against time or depth. A variety of geophysical logging tools exist that measure different geophysical parameters. Some geophysical instruments react to the lithological changes along the borehole, others to the fluid within or around the borehole, but very few react solely to a single feature. In every case the user must determine what effect the borehole and its surroundings have on the measure...

  12. Petrophysical properties, mineralogy, fractures, and flow tests in 25 deep boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Kibler, Joyce E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a site investigation for the disposal of radioactive waste, numerous boreholes were drilled into a sequence of Miocene pyroclastic flows and related deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report contains displays of data from 25 boreholes drilled during 1979–1984, relatively early in the site investigation program. Geophysical logs and hydrological tests were conducted in the boreholes; core and cuttings analyses yielded data on mineralogy, fractures, and physical properties; and geologic descriptions provided lithology boundaries and the degree of welding of the rock units. Porosity and water content were computed from the geophysical logs, and porosity results were combined with mineralogy from x-ray diffraction to provide whole-rock volume fractions. These data were composited on plates and used by project personnel during the 1990s. Improvements in scanning and computer technology now make it possible to publish these displays.

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kneafsey, Timothy; Borglin, Sharon; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Doughty, Christine; Reagan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition's (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  14. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  15. Borehole depth and regolith aquifer hydraulic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the performance of regolith aquifers derived from the different bedrock types was examined using information on depth of borehole, depth to the static water level, yield of borehole and drawdown in 259 boreholes covering the different bedrock types. Results show that mean depth of wells varies from about 37 ...

  16. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.S.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. PSVE takes advantage of the naturally occurring tendency of soil vapor to leave the subsurface during periods of low barometric pressure. PSVE seeks to expedite the release of volatile contaminants through the use of boreholes and technological enhancements. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of PSVE to the remediation problems they face. The report provides: stakeholders' final evaluation of the acceptability of PSVE in light of the technology's field test; stakeholders' principal comments concerning PSVE; requirements that stakeholders have of any remediation technology. Technology decision makers should take these conclusions into account in evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of any remedial method proposed for their site. In addition, the report presents data requirements for the technology's field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on PSVE from stakeholders from Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  17. Healthcare Technology Management (HTM) of mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Jun; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilator failures expose patients to unacceptable risks, and maintaining mechanical ventilator safety is an important issue. We examined the usefulness of maintaining mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers (CEs) using a specialized calibrator. These evaluations and the ability to make in-house repairs proved useful for obviating the need to rent ventilators which, in turn, might prove faulty themselves. The CEs' involvement in maintaining mechanical ventilators is desirable, ensures prompt service, and, most importantly, enhances safe management of mechanical ventilators.

  18. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); Thornburg, Jon A. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); He, Ruiqing [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  19. Experimental Study of Crack Initiation and Extension Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing in a Tree-Type Borehole Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure hydraulic fracturing technology in coal and coal bed methane mines can lead to roof and floor damage, and fracture initiation disorder that leads to a “blank area”, and other issues. A new method of hydraulic fracturing is proposed to increase the homogeneous permeability of coal in underground coalmines. Numerical and other simulation tests for different forms of a tree-type, branched borehole model are presented. The results show that the branched array causes cracks to initiate from the bottom of the array, and these extend along the direction of the adjacent boreholes. Generally, as the number of branched boreholes increases, the coal seam fracture network also increase, improving the distribution of the fracture network, making the fracturing effect better. The branched boreholes appear to reduce initiation pressure and, with increasing branches, the initiation pressure decreases. A model with four tree-type, branched boreholes leads to a reduction in initiation pressure of 69%. In terms of permeability improvement technology in underground coalmines, a branched hydraulic fracturing borehole array has the advantages of reducing initiation pressure, controlling crack initiation and extension, enhancing the fracturing effect and reducing the destruction of the roof and floor.

  20. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P, T conditions – Preliminary Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James Lavada [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-18

    The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for ‘seal’ components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits. Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the Pressure, Temperature (P, T) conditions which “seal” material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include the silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries.

  1. Healthcare Technology Management (HTM) of mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Jun; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilator failures expose patients to unacceptable risks, and maintaining mechanical ventilator safety is an important issue. We examined the usefulness of maintaining mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers (CEs) using a specialized calibrator. These evaluations and the ability to make in-house repairs proved useful for obviating the need to rent ventilators which, in turn, might prove faulty themselves. The CEs' involvement in maintaining mechanical ventilators is desirable...

  2. Involvement as a working mechanism for persuasive technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; MacTavish, Thomas; Basapur, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions have been shown to be effective for treatment of mental health complaints. Although non-adherence poses a problem, persuasive technology might be a solution. However, there is limited insight in how and why technology may lead to more adherence and effectiveness. This study

  3. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  4. Biogas Technology Diffusion and Adoption Mechanisms in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increasing awareness of biogas and its related benefits, the global uptake of the technology is generally low. Recently, there has been an increase in donor community and government driven interest in biogas technology. Following the trend, this paper examines perceptions regarding the adoption and use of ...

  5. Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Ortolano, Leonard; David Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up

  6. Microencapsulation: concepts, mechanisms, methods and some applications in food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Teixeira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a process in which active substances are coated by extremely small capsules. It is a new technology that has been used in the cosmetics industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and food industries, being used in flavors, acids, oils, vitamins, microorganisms, among others. The success of this technology is due to the correct choice of the wall material, the core release form and the encapsulation method. Therefore, in this review, some relevant microencapsulation aspects, such as the capsule, wall material, core release forms, encapsulation methods and their use in food technology will be briefly discussed.

  7. Borehole Plugging-Materials Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    This report discusses the background and first year's results of the grouting materials development program for plugging boreholes associated with the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The grouts are to be pumpable, impermeable, and durable for many thousands of years. The work was done at the Concrete Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The workability, strength, porosity, bonding, expansion, and permeability data are summarized and discussed. The work is continuing at WES

  8. Geochemical factors in borehole-shaft plug longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical investigations that address factors controlling the longevity of repository sealing materials in a geochemical environment are discussed. Studies are being made of cement-based materials as major candidates for seals for borehole plugging, and shaft and tunnel sealing in certain potential repository environments. Factors controlling the extent of attainment of equilibrium of the plug components with time and the rate of approach to a state of stable equilibrium of the plug component chemical subsystem within the total system are discussed. The effect of these factors on changes in physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a seal system, and the consequent effectiveness of the seal in preventing transport of radioactive waste species are the dominant features to be determined. Laboratory experiments on the effects of anticipated temperature, pressure, and environmental factors (including chemical composition and specific rock type) are described. Thermodynamic studies are used to determine the potentially stable reaction products under conditions similar to those anticipated for the repository boreholes, shafts, and tunnels during and after the operating stage. Multitemperature reaction series are studied, and reaction kinetics are investigated for the purpose of predicting the course of likely reactions. Detailed studies of permeability, diffusion, and interfacial properties and chemical and microphase characterization of the products of experiments are carried out. Characterization studies of old and ancient cements, mortars, and concretes and prototype man-made seal materials are performed to further assess the factors associated with longevity

  9. A Proposed Borehole Scientific Laboratory in Quay County, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis; Eckels, Marc; Mast, Peter; Zellman, Mark; Creed, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Our team has received funding from the US Department of Energy to initiate a Deep Borehole Field Test that will develop a subsurface test site to evaluate the drilling and scientific aspects of deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock. Phase 1 of the project will focus on Public Outreach and land acquisition whereas Phase 2 will generate a drilling and testing plan and secure regulatory approvals. Phase 3 will complete the Drilling and Testing Plan and Phase 4 will include the drilling and testing. Phase 5 will be devoted to borehole science and experiments with emplacement technology. Although we are specifically considering issues associated with the disposal of waste, this project is a proof of concept, and no waste will be emplaced at our site. In brief, the concept envisions an 8-1/2 inch open-hole completion at a depth of 5000 m in crystalline rock. There will be an extensive program of sample collection (including core) and analysis as well as geophysical logging and borehole testing. Critical issues will be low permeability in the crystalline rock as well as the ability to manage borehole quality. Our team has proposed a site in Quay County, New Mexico that has an 850 meter thick Paleozoic section overlying homogeneous Precambrian granite. A subsequent phase of the project may drill a second hole with a 17-1/2 inch completion located about 200 m from the first. Our long-term plan is that this site will be managed as a deep scientific observatory that also provides a facility for scientific experiments and testing of borehole infrastructure and drilling equipment.

  10. About the Possibility of Disposal of HLRW in Deep Boreholes in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Bracke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using deep boreholes for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW can take advantage of multiple geologic barriers as safety features and aims for the safe containment of radionuclides by containment-providing rock zones (CPRZ. The great depth efficiently prolongs or hinders radionuclide transport and also impedes proliferation. Finally, there may be a time benefit with regard to technical implementation and costs. Due to the phase-out from nuclear energy in Germany the number of boreholes could be less than 100. A simplified, generic safety concept, and the requirements for the diameter of boreholes and containers are derived in this paper. Furthermore, the operational safety of emplacement, the retrieval of waste and sealing of the boreholes is discussed. It is outlined that boreholes can be sealed quickly and over long distances with proven technologies, for example, using the creep properties of salt rock formations. This concept is assessed for its compliance with the safety requirements of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB, and the requirements and criteria for site selection defined by the German commission on “Storage of high-level radioactive waste”. The retrievability of HLRW is assessed to be technically feasible based on today´s knowledge, but recoverability after closure cannot be guaranteed for long time spans. Further developments in details of the concept of deep borehole disposal (DBD, a demonstration of its technical feasibility and an assessment of operational and long-term safety are still necessary to make DBD an approved option.

  11. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  12. Characterization of mudstone, clayey rock and argillite towards stabilisation of boreholes by developing new drilling strategies for geothermal resources exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthaus, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Röckel, Th.; Hecht, Ch.; Herold, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, relating to the BMU Project „ borehole stabilisation as an important factor for the utilization of deep geothermal resources" (Project No. 0327594), sediment rocks with comparable lithology to the pelite beds of the Upper Rhine zone were investigated by a number of geomechanical tests. The investigation will provide detailed information on the geomechanical behaviour (brittle and ductile deformation) of clay stone formations in order to find out critical reasons for the instability of boreholes at a depth of about 2000 m. The main aspect of the study is to develop improved technical options in order to increase borehole stability. Many geothermal energy projects started near the Upper Rhine Rift in order to produce electricity, as the geothermal gradient rises there to about 150° C at 3 - 4 km depth. For these enhanced geothermal systems it is necessary to drill deep boreholes to install geothermal heat exchangers, so that the injected cold water conducts the high temperature of the rocks (Hot Dry Rock-Technology). The drillings have to be intersected through different rock layers that are influenced by varying regional stress fields respective to their depth. Between depths of 1500 to 2000 m within the Upper Rhine zone some of the drilled boreholes were in some parts very unstable, especially in formations where mud- and clay stones were dominant, as well as in interbedded strata with sandstones. As the maximum load capacity of these clays is very low and due to their ductile as well as brittle deformation behaviour, borehole convergence and borehole breakouts are detected. These changes were also caused by deep injection of drilling fluid into the rock formation, increasing the pore pressure there, so that hydraulic tension cracks were induced (hydraulic fracturing). This occurred mainly during drilling and it is the reason why there is an imminent risk of the stability of geothermal boreholes in geological formations composed of mudstones, clay

  13. Novel Experimental Techniques to Investigate Wellbore Damage Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choens, R. C., II; Ingraham, M. D.; Lee, M.; Dewers, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    A new experimental technique with unique geometry is presented investigating deformation of simulated boreholes using standard axisymmetric triaxial deformation equipment. The Sandia WEllbore SImulation, SWESI, geometry, uses right cylinders of rock 50mm in diameter and 75mm in length. A 11.3mm hole is drilled perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder in the center of the sample to simulate a borehole. The hole is covered with a solid metal cover, and sealed with polyurethane. The metal cover can be machined with a high-pressure port to introduce different fluid chemistries into the borehole at controlled pressures. Samples are deformed in a standard load frame under confinement, allowing for a broad range of possible stresses, load paths, and temperatures. Experiments in this study are loaded to the desired confining pressure, then deformed at a constant axial strain rate or 10-5 sec-1. Two different suites of experiments are conducted in this study on sedimentary and crystalline rock types. The first series of experiments are conducted on Mancos Shale, a finely laminated transversely isotropic rock. Samples are cored at three different orientations to the laminations. A second series of experiments is conducted on Sierra White granite with different fluid chemistries inside the borehole. Numerical modelling and experimental observations including CT-microtomography demonstrate that stresses are concentrated around the simulated wellbore and recreate wellbore deformation mechanisms. Borehole strength and damage development is dependent on anisotropy orientation and fluid chemistry. Observed failure geometries, particularly for Mancos shale, can be highly asymmetric. These results demonstrate uncertainties in in situ stresses measurements using commonly-applied borehole breakout techniques in complicated borehole physico-chemical environments. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering

  14. A Novel Method for Borehole Blockage Removal and Experimental Study on a Hydraulic Self-Propelled Nozzle in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolong Ge

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When coal bed methane (CBM drainage boreholes cross fractured, soft, or water-swelling strata, they collapse and block frequently. Borehole blockages result in a rapid decrease in CBM extraction ability, which leads to a reduction in CBM output and threatens coal mine safety production. To solve these problems, a novel method that uses a self-propelled water-jet nozzle to dredge blocked boreholes in coal seams has been proposed on the basis of the existing technology. Based on a theoretical analysis of the reason for borehole caving and the theory of blockage removal, we optimized the nozzle inlet pressure and selected an appropriate high-pressure resin pipe. A field experiment on the blockage removal of blocked CBM drainage boreholes using the proposed method was run in the Fengchun coal mine, Qijiang, Chongqing, southwest China. In this field trial, the time spent to unblock a borehole varied between 18.52 and 34.98 min, which is much shorter than using a drilling rig. After blockage removal, the average pure volume of the methane drainage of a single borehole was increased from 0.03 L/min to ~1.91–7.30 L/min, and the methane drainage concentration of a single borehole increased from 5% to ~44%–85%. The extraction effect increased significantly.

  15. Randomness in quantum mechanics: philosophy, physics and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Manabendra Nath; Acín, Antonio; Kuś, Marek; Mitchell, Morgan W; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    This progress report covers recent developments in the area of quantum randomness, which is an extraordinarily interdisciplinary area that belongs not only to physics, but also to philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and technology. For this reason the article contains three parts that will be essentially devoted to different aspects of quantum randomness, and even directed, although not restricted, to various audiences: a philosophical part, a physical part, and a technological part. For these reasons the article is written on an elementary level, combining simple and non-technical descriptions with a concise review of more advanced results. In this way readers of various provenances will be able to gain while reading the article.

  16. Randomness in quantum mechanics: philosophy, physics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Bera, Manabendra; Acín, Antonio; Kuś, Marek; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    This progress report covers recent developments in the area of quantum randomness, which is an extraordinarily interdisciplinary area that belongs not only to physics, but also to philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and technology. For this reason the article contains three parts that will be essentially devoted to different aspects of quantum randomness, and even directed, although not restricted, to various audiences: a philosophical part, a physical part, and a technological part. For these reasons the article is written on an elementary level, combining simple and non-technical descriptions with a concise review of more advanced results. In this way readers of various provenances will be able to gain while reading the article.

  17. The Mechanism for Organising and Propelling Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqian, Liu; Dongyuan, Cheng; Xinli, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Having started early in the 1920s as a spontaneously launched educational activity by civil organisations under the influence of American audio-visual theory and practice, Chinese educational technology was later put under governmental management. This paper is composed of five parts covering mainly the historical development of educational…

  18. Influence of technological and mechanical properties ratio of nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the conditions ensuring the competitive advantages of a final product is the possibility of carrying out complex, resource-saving technological processes of workpiece shaping from the materials that provide necessary operational properties. In particular, such processes include the deep drawing of products.

  19. Transactions of the 10th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjian, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of engineering mechanics pertaining to mechanical and structural components and the relevant systems in nuclear reactors. Subjects covered include: theoretical developments in structural mechanics, loading conditions, behavior of materials, fluid mechanics, operating experience, accident sequences, and calculational procedures. Problems of structural mechanics analysis are focused within the general context of the design, reliability, and safety of nuclear reactors. Operating plant performance and life extension, waste repository technology and regulatory research have been formalized as distinct Divisions

  20. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  2. Affect and technology acceptance: A test of two mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Commercialization of new technologies may be hampered by stakeholder resistance and a sceptical public. Genetic modification (GM) has suffered particularly from such problems. At present, for example, practically no products exist on the shelves of European retailers that are labelled as containi...... and practice, focusing on point-of-sale promotions that could be the key element in the launch of the first genetically modified foods in markets that are as yet GM-free....

  3. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used, and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to

  4. Mechanical Seal Opening Condition Monitoring Based on Acoustic Emission Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erqing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the measurement of mechanical sealing film thickness and just-lift-off time is very difficult, the sealing film condition monitoring method based on acoustic emission signal is proposed. The mechanical seal acoustic emission signal present obvious characteristics of time-varying nonlinear and pulsating. In this paper, the acoustic emission signal is used to monitor the seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition. The acoustic emission signal is decomposed by empirical mode decomposition into a series of intrinsic mode function with independent characteristics of different time scales and different frequency band. The acoustic emission signal only generated by end faces friction is obtained by eliminating the false intrinsic mode function components. The correlation coefficient of acoustic emission signal and Multi-scale Laplace Wavelet is calculated. It is proved that the maximum frequency (8000 Hz of the correlation coefficient is appeared at the spindle speed of 300 rpm. And at this time (300 rpm the end faces have just lifted off. By a set of mechanical oil seal running test, it is demonstrated that this method could accurately identify mechanical seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition.

  5. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Korsbech, U.; Gynther Nielsen, K.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  6. Advanced Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Above Ground Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage in borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These systems usually consist of several subsystems like the heat source (e.g. solarthermics or a combined heat and power plant), the heat consumer (e.g. a heating system), diurnal storages (i.e. water tanks), the borehole thermal energy storage, additional heat sources for peak load coverage (e.g. a heat pump or a gas boiler) and the distribution network. For the design of an integrated system, numerical simulations of all subsystems are imperative. A separate simulation of the borehole energy storage is well-established but represents a simplification. In reality, the subsystems interact with each other. The fluid temperatures of the heat generation system, the heating system and the underground storage are interdependent and affect the performance of each subsystem. To take into account these interdependencies, we coupled a software for the simulation of the above ground facilities with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the borehole heat exchangers. This allows for a more realistic view on the entire system. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system components and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be ensured.

  7. An extension of fracture mechanics/technology to larger and smaller cracks/defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Fracture mechanics/technology is a key science and technology for the design and integrity assessment of the engineering structures. However, the conventional fracture mechanics has mostly targeted a limited size of cracks/defects, say of from several hundred microns to several tens of centimeters. The author and his group has tried to extend that limited size and establish a new version of fracture technology for very large cracks used in geothermal energy extraction and for very small cracks/defects or damage often appearing in the combination of mechanical and electronic components of engineering structures. Those new versions are reviewed in this paper.

  8. An extension of fracture mechanics/technology to larger and smaller cracks/defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Fracture mechanics/technology is a key science and technology for the design and integrity assessment of the engineering structures. However, the conventional fracture mechanics has mostly targeted a limited size of cracks/defects, say of from several hundred microns to several tens of centimeters. The author and his group has tried to extend that limited size and establish a new version of fracture technology for very large cracks used in geothermal energy extraction and for very small cracks/defects or damage often appearing in the combination of mechanical and electronic components of engineering structures. Those new versions are reviewed in this paper. PMID:19907123

  9. Seafloor Borehole Array Seismic System (SEABASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    the data. SEABASS 110 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank W. Pattee , D. Bibee, J. Orcutt, F. Spiess and W. Farrell for valuable advice and...Trans.Am.Geophys.Union (EOS), 7.k 1305. Spiess, F.N., Stephen, R.A., Beckleheimer, J., Farrell, W.E., Kent, G., and Pattee , A.W., 1989b. LFASE...Am., 7. 57-67. SEABASS 116 Stephen, R.A., Koelsch, D.E., Bibee, D., Farrell, W.E., Pattee , W., and Spiess, F.N., 1989. A borehole seismic array in

  10. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  11. Borehole temperatures from mountain permafrost monitoring, Mongolia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Location and description of some geocryological boreholes in Mongolia. Data include latitude, longitude, location, depth of permafrost top and bottom, and mean...

  12. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  13. Aim and points of this workshop: The 2. Workshop on Seismic Observation in Deep Borehole (SODB) and its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The achievements of the first WS and the aim of the Second WS were explained. The purposes of this Second WS were: to re-recognize the significance of seismic ground motion evaluation based on newly added deep borehole seismic observation in addition to existing borehole investigation, geological surveys, and geophysical exploration; to acknowledge deep borehole seismic observation and geophysical exploration (hardware) as well as the site characteristic evaluation method (software) required for seismic ground motion evaluation; and to consolidate opinions on multi-purpose application of observation technology and data as well as acknowledge issues to be addressed and technological problems. The final goals of this WS were to clarify items and issues that present challenges for the future based on the discussions in this WS. (author)

  14. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  15. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Farré

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support.

  16. Quantum Mechanics for Everyone: Can it be done with Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Dean

    2004-10-01

    The Visual Quantum Mechanics project has created a series of teaching/learning units to introduce quantum physics to a variety of audiences ranging from high school students who normally would not study these topics to undergraduate physics majors. Most recently we have been developing materials relating modern medical procedures and contemporary physics. In all of these materials interactive computer visualizations are coupled with hands-on experiences to create a series of activities which help students learn about some aspects of quantum mechanics. Our goal is to enable students to obtain a qualitative and, where appropriate, a quantitative understanding of contemporary ideas in physics. Included in the instructional materials are student-centered activities that address a variety of concepts in quantum physics and applications to devices such as the light emitting diode, the electron microscope, an inexpensive infrared detection card, and the Star Trek Transporter. Whenever possible the students begin the study of a new concept with an experiment using inexpensive equipment. They, then, build models of the physical phenomenon using interactive computer visualization and conclude by applying those models to new situations. For physics students these visualizations are usually followed by a mathematical approach. For others the visualizations provide a framework for understanding the concepts. Thus, Visual Quantum Mechanics allows a wide range of students to begin to understand the basic concepts, implications and interpretations of quantum physics. At present we are building on this foundation to create materials which show the connection between contemporary physics and modern medical diagnosis. Additional information is available at http://web.phys.ksu.edu/.

  17. Game Mechanics and Bodily Interactions: Designing Interactive Technologies for Sports Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller

    Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training...... activity as a control mechanism or the core game mechanic. While sports training technologies and bodily games build upon similar technologies and emanate from sports, they do not share focus. One focuses on measuring, monitoring and skill acquisition, while the other focuses on motivation, engagement...... and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...

  18. Numerical simulation on reasonable hole-sealing depth of boreholes for gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Pan, Jingtao

    2018-04-01

    To overcome the low efficiency of extracting gas in coal reservoirs with a low gas permeability, some boreholes were drilled for gas extraction in No. 2 coal reservoir of Wangjialing Coalmine in Shanxi Province, China and reasonably sealed. Aiming at shortfalls such as rapid attenuation of volume for extracted gas as well as low gas permeability when using boreholes in the No. 2 coal reservoir, the traditional COMSOL MultiphysicsMT Earth Science Module was used to couple the three governing equations (Darcy-Brinkman-Navier-Stokes) for fluids. On this basis, numerical simulation on the seepage law along the directions of roadways and boreholes was carried out. The simulation results indicated that when the hole-sealing length was within the width range of fractures in roadways, the negative pressure not only led the gas in surrounding rock masses to flow to the boreholes, but also made the air flow in roadways to permeate into coal walls. As a result, gas and air flows both entered into the boreholes through the loosening zone containing fractures, resulting in seepage of air in roadway to the boreholes. The seepage velocity along the roadway direction under condition with a hole-sealing length of 12 m was obviously slower than that when the hole-sealing length was 8 m. While, the method by simply increasing the length of the hole-sealing section for boreholes failed to effectively stop the air flow in roadways from permeating into the coal wall and then entering the boreholes. Moreover, the increase in the hole-sealing length brought about much more difficulties to the hole-sealing construction. So, the method is not operable in practical condition of the coal mine. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the traditional hole-sealing technology based on foamed macromolecular materials which are mainly made of polyurethane (PU) and use the fluid wall-type hole-sealing technology based on solid-liquid coupling. Then, the effects of gas extraction before and after using

  19. Numerical simulation on reasonable hole-sealing depth of boreholes for gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the low efficiency of extracting gas in coal reservoirs with a low gas permeability, some boreholes were drilled for gas extraction in No. 2 coal reservoir of Wangjialing Coalmine in Shanxi Province, China and reasonably sealed. Aiming at shortfalls such as rapid attenuation of volume for extracted gas as well as low gas permeability when using boreholes in the No. 2 coal reservoir, the traditional COMSOL MultiphysicsMT Earth Science Module was used to couple the three governing equations (Darcy-Brinkman–Navier-Stokes for fluids. On this basis, numerical simulation on the seepage law along the directions of roadways and boreholes was carried out. The simulation results indicated that when the hole-sealing length was within the width range of fractures in roadways, the negative pressure not only led the gas in surrounding rock masses to flow to the boreholes, but also made the air flow in roadways to permeate into coal walls. As a result, gas and air flows both entered into the boreholes through the loosening zone containing fractures, resulting in seepage of air in roadway to the boreholes. The seepage velocity along the roadway direction under condition with a hole-sealing length of 12 m was obviously slower than that when the hole-sealing length was 8 m. While, the method by simply increasing the length of the hole-sealing section for boreholes failed to effectively stop the air flow in roadways from permeating into the coal wall and then entering the boreholes. Moreover, the increase in the hole-sealing length brought about much more difficulties to the hole-sealing construction. So, the method is not operable in practical condition of the coal mine. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the traditional hole-sealing technology based on foamed macromolecular materials which are mainly made of polyurethane (PU and use the fluid wall-type hole-sealing technology based on solid-liquid coupling. Then, the effects of gas extraction

  20. Mechanism of Food Ordering in A Restaurant Using Android Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, Rachmat; Zakir, Ahmad; Dafitri, Haida; Siregar, Dodi; Hasdiana

    2017-12-01

    A Restaurant is a gathering place for many people to taste the favorite foods are in there. The restaurant which visited many people sure will increase the attraction of them to visit it. Of course, the owner will get more benefit. However, what happens when a restaurant is famous still uses a service without technology, such as making orders using pens and paper, inspects the food stocks manually, and delivering orders to the kitchen using manpower, and more. Therefore, it designed a system that can accelerate the ordering and processing food in the restaurant. This system replaces the use of pen and paper with digital devices such as tablets/smartphones based on Android. Not only that, order data can be sent through a wireless network which connects tablets/smartphones with the kitchen's computer. It can be read by kitcheners and showed directly on the LCD screen. By the application is expected to reduce the level of error in the processing of the consumer's order.

  1. Urban Tourism Development Mechanisms Based on Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information for tourism and transportation industries is as vital as blood for the human life. According to tourism experts, Iran ranks among ten top countries with the most touristy attractions. Iran’s share from the income of international tourism markets was about 1 unit from a total of 700 units in the year 2000. A major problem on the way of tourism development is the weakness of information systems and their supporters. This has led to providing insufficient information on the attractions and capabilities and service preparation, much lower than expected level. This is while for tourism planning and dynamism exact and updated information system is needed; IT is very effective in this respect. IT can play a great role in managing, planning, and marketing for tourism development. Emphasizing IT usage in tourism, some main applications of this technology like fast, cheap, and on time informing of electronic systems for service provision such as computer reservation systems (CRSs, global distribution systems (GDSs and Internet have been regarded in this paper.

  2. Government/industry response to questionnaire on space mechanisms/tribology technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    President Bush has proposed that the U.S. undertake an ambitious mission of manned and robotic exploration of the solar system. This mission will require advanced mechanical moving components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of such a mission. To attempt to answer this, NASA-Lewis has sent out a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Missions needs and goals. If they deemed that the technology base inadequate, they were asked to specify the areas of greatest need. The unedited remarks of those who responded to the survey are presented.

  3. Moving to Google Cloud: Renovation of Global Borehole Temperature Database for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole temperature comprises an independent archive of information on climate change which is complementary to the instrumental and other proxy climate records. With support from the international geothermal community, a global database of borehole temperatures has been constructed for the specific purpose of the study on climate change. Although this database has become an important data source in climate research, there are certain limitations partially because the framework of the existing borehole temperature database was hand-coded some twenty years ago. A database renovation work is now underway to take the advantages of the contemporary online database technologies. The major intended improvements include 1) dynamically linking a borehole site to Google Earth to allow for inspection of site specific geographical information; 2) dynamically linking an original key reference of a given borehole site to Google Scholar to allow for a complete list of related publications; and 3) enabling site selection and data download based on country, coordinate range, and contributor. There appears to be a good match between the enhancement requirements for this database and the functionalities of the newly released Google Fusion Tables application. Google Fusion Tables is a cloud-based service for data management, integration, and visualization. This experimental application can consolidate related online resources such as Google Earth, Google Scholar, and Google Drive for sharing and enriching an online database. It is user friendly, allowing users to apply filters and to further explore the internet for additional information regarding the selected data. The users also have ways to map, to chart, and to calculate on the selected data, and to download just the subset needed. The figure below is a snapshot of the database currently under Google Fusion Tables renovation. We invite contribution and feedback from the geothermal and climate research community to make the

  4. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  5. Contamination of boreholes water by 76 pesticides molecules in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user2

    76 residues of pesticides, especially insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, with accumulated contents which could average 0.350 or 350 μg/L per borehole. Indeed, all the prospected boreholes were contaminated. Every molecules of pesticides analyzed were present with at least 1 μg/L, some molecules concentration ...

  6. Comparative study of coliform contamination of public boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the coliform contamination of public boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and pipe borne samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique.

  7. Cadmium and lead content of packaged water and water boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lead and cadmium concentrations of borehole water samples were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than those from packaged water. The mean cadmium and lead concentrations of packaged water samples were below the WHO drinking water guidelines limits whereas those from boreholes were higher. Packaged water ...

  8. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine— (1...

  9. Comparison of Performance of Public and Private Boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last fifteen years, a remarkable increase in the number of privately owned. There has been an increase in the individually owned and operated boreholes within the state because it is claimed that government owned boreholes breakdown too often. Hence, this study is aimed at comparison of the performance of three ...

  10. Borehole heater test at KAERI Underground Research Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. K.; Cho, W. J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2009-09-01

    At HLW repository, the temperature change due to the decay heat in near field can affect the hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical behaviors and influence on the repository safety. Therefore, the understanding of the thermal behavior in near field is essential for the site selection, design, as well as operation of the repository. In this study, various studies for the in situ heater test, which is for the investigation of the thermo-mechanical behavior in rock mass, were carried out. At first, similar in situ tests at foreign URLs were reviewed and summarized the major conclusions from the tests. After then an adequate design of heater, observation sensors, and data logging system were developed and installed with a consideration of the site condition and test purposes. In order to minimize the effect of hydraulic phenomenon, a relatively day zone was chosen for the in situ test. Joint distribution and characteristics in the zone were surveyed and the rock mass properties were determined with various laboratory tests. In this study, an adequate location for an in situ borehole heater test was chosen. Also a heater for the test was designed and manufactured and the sensors for measuring the rock behavior were installed. It was possible to observe that stiff joints are developed overwhelmingly in the test area from the joint survey at the tunnel wall. The major rock and rock mass properties at the test site could be determined from the thermo-mechanical laboratory tests using the rock cores retrieved from the site. The measured data were implemented in the three-dimensional computer simulation. From the modeling using FLAC3D code, it was possible to find that the heat convection through the tunnel wall can influence on temperature distribution in rock. Because of that it was necessary to installed a blocking wall to minimize the effect of ventilation system on the heater test, which is carrying out nearby the tunnel wall. The in situ borehole heater test is the first

  11. Innovative Agro-food Technologies Implementation through Instructional Communication Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research represents the valorization of the dissemination the design framework of an interdisciplinary area of research, validated through SPAS European FP6 project and a national BIOSIG- PN2 and has as objective to channel communication on target market, through personalized solution of instructional communication mechanisms. The main objective of the national research grant being the implementation of innovative biotechnology on agro-food market, in order to improve the fish diet’s benefits, the prospects must be provided with valuable explicit information. This paper is about the commitment to embedding the actual consumer experience from PN2 fish market research and agro-food agents’ capitalization knowledge behavior from SPAS virtual platform, through designing the adequate communication framework, in order to support and accelerate the implementation of the innovation biotechnology, through improving the target market experience. The projected solution is mainly concerning to offer adequate solutions to insure against current consumers fragilities, but we also underline the vulnerabilities of the whole agro food value chain, in terms of communication strategy, which is lacking of adequate common interest coordination. The current research solution is regarding the rising awareness about the translation from consumer preferences to perceived detriment by integrating previous validated solution of agro food market analysis.

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, G.F.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove approximately98% of the waste, approximately3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing borehole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team

  13. Infrastructure, Technology and Applications of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Jakubczak, J.F.; Krygowski, T.W.; Miller, S.L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-07-09

    A review is made of the infrastructure, technology and capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories for the development of micromechanical systems. By incorporating advanced fabrication processes, such as chemical mechanical polishing, and several mechanical polysilicon levels, the range of micromechanical systems that can be fabricated in these technologies is virtually limitless. Representative applications include a micro-engine driven mirror, and a micromachined lock. Using a novel integrated MEMS/CMOS technology, a six degree-of-freedom accelerometer/gyroscope system has been designed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and fabricated on the same silicon chip as the CMOS control circuits to produce an integrated micro-navigational unit.

  14. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  15. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... of the spectrometer system were determined by calculating the average number of U and thorium (Th) counts per meter of borehole and comparing these with the U-Th concentrations in 1-m sections of analyzed drill core. The sensitivity and the background count rate in the uranium window varied appreciably from one hole...

  16. THE EFFECT OF GAS HYDRATES DISSOCIATION AND DRILLING FLUIDS INVASION UPON BOREHOLE STABILITY IN OCEANIC GAS HYDRATES-BEARING SEDIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, F.; Wu, N.; Jiang, G.; Zhang, L.

    2009-12-01

    Under the condition of over-pressure drilling, the solid-phase and liquid-phase in drilling fluids immediately penetrate into the oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment, which causes the water content surrounding the borehole to increase largely. At the same time, the hydrates surrounding borehole maybe quickly decompose into water and gas because of the rapid change of temperature and pressure. The drilling practices prove that this two factors may change the rock characteristics of wellbore, such as rock strength, pore pressure, resistivity, etc., and then affect the logging response and evaluation, wellbore stability and well safty. The invasion of filtrate can lower the angle of friction and weaken the cohesion of hydrates-bearing sediment,which is same to the effect of invading into conventional oil and gas formation on borehole mechnical properties. The difference is that temperature isn’t considered in the invasion process of conventional formations while in hydrates-bearing sediments, it is a factor that can not be ignored. Temperature changes can result in hydrates dissociating, which has a great effect on mechanical properties of borehole. With the application of numerical simulation method, we studied the changes of pore pressure and variation of water content in the gas hydrates-bearing sediment caused by drilling fluid invasion under pressure differential and gas hydrate dissociation under temperature differential and analyzed their influence on borehole stability.The result of simulation indicated that the temperature near borehole increased quickly and changed hardly any after 6 min later. About 1m away from the borehole, the temperature of formation wasn’t affected by the temperature change of borehole. At the place near borehole, as gas hydrate dissociated dramatically and drilling fluid invaded quickly, the pore pressure increased promptly. The degree of increase depends on the permeability and speed of temperature rise of formation around

  17. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  18. Grimsel test site. Investigation phase IV. Borehole sealing. Technical report 07-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, P.; Adams, J.

    2008-04-01

    Within the context of the phase IV (1994 - 1996) research and development activities at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), Nagra developed, in collaboration with the 'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs' (Andra), an investigation project for the sealing of boreholes drilled from underground. The project had the following goals: (i) sealing of boreholes drilled from underground facilities with a length of up to 500 m; (ii) sealing of boreholes with mainly irregular shape (e.g. breakouts of borehole wall); (iii) ensuring a hydraulic conductivity of 10 -11 - 10 -12 m/s for the seal; (iv) ensuring reliable quality control in routine production. Nagra's new concept developed in this project was to use highly compacted bentonite pellets or granular bentonite while Andra evaluated the use of a cylindrical block of bentonite. This report deals with Nagra's concepts only. The two techniques tested by Nagra were: 1. Pneumatic injection of granular bentonite into a borehole using a grain size distribution of 4-10 mm. 2. Emplacement using a modified core barrel (MACMET tool) for transport and compaction of bentonite pellets. Following a detailed literature study and the development of appropriate concepts, the necessary tools were developed and successively tested in the laboratory. An appropriate test field was established and characterized at GTS where both techniques were tested in situ to estimate their performance under realistic field conditions. The swelling pressures were monitored for 4 months after seal emplacement until an almost constant value was attained. Finally, the hydraulic and mechanical performances of the seals were tested. It was found that the conductivities measured across the seal were at least equivalent to the matrix properties of the surrounding rock (3-6·10 -12 m/s). The hydraulic testing also showed no linear preferential flow along the seals. (author)

  19. Research Group Introduction : Mechanical Control Engineering Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Shibaura Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    内村, 裕

    Mechanical Control Engineering Laboratory focuses on the control theory and implementation for the robotic applications. The research themes include network based tele-operation, mobile robots control for network relay, autonomous outdoor mobile robot and biped robot.

  20. Reservoir monitoring using borehole radars to improve oil recovery : Suggestions from 3D electromagnetic and fluid modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, F.; Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Hu, Xiangyun

    2018-01-01

    The recently developed smart well technology allows for sectionalized production control by means of downhole inflow control valves and monitoring devices. We consider borehole radars as permanently installed downhole sensors to monitor fluid evolution in reservoirs, and it provides the

  1. Borehole-to-borehole geophysical methods applied to investigations of high level waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    This discussion focuses on the use of borehole to borehole geophysical measurements to detect geological discontinuities in High Level Waste (HLW) repository sites. The need for these techniques arises from: (a) the requirement that a HLW repository's characteristics and projected performance be known with a high degree of confidence; and (b) the inadequacy of other geophysical methods in mapping fractures. Probing configurations which can be used to characterize HLW sites are described. Results from experiments in which these techniques were applied to problems similar to those expected at repository sites are briefly discussed. The use of a procedure designed to reduce uncertainty associated with all geophysical exploration techniques is proposed; key components of the procedure are defined

  2. Waste package emplacement borehole option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.

    1992-03-01

    This study evaluates the cost and thermal effects of various waste package emplacement configurations that differ in emplacement orientation, number of containers per borehole, and standoff distance at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In this study, eight additional alternatives to the vertical and horizontal orientation options presented in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report are considered. Typical panel layout configurations based on thermal analysis of the waste and cost estimates for design and construction, operations, and closure and decommissioning were made for each emplacement option. For the thermal analysis average waste 10 years out of reactor and the SIM code were used to determine whether the various configurations temperatures would exceed the design criteria for temperature. This study does not make a recommendation for emplacement configuration, but does provide information for comparison of alternatives

  3. Temperature profiles in the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1983-03-01

    Heat flow at Harwell is estimated at 45 mWm -2 (milli Watt per metre squared is the unit of heat flow). Thermal conductivity values for the formations penetrated range from 1.0 to 4.6 Wm -1 K -1 . The temperature profiles recorded in the boreholes enable the vertical groundwater flow patterns within two poorly permeable mudrock units to be evaluated. The two mudrock units act as leaky barriers each separating a pair of aquifer units which induce a vertical hydraulic gradient across the mudrocks. The flow velocity results for the upper mudrock units derived from the temperature profile are compatible with values for groundwater potential derived from hydraulic data (10 -9 ms -1 from the temperature profile and 10 -12 ms -1 from the hydraulic observations). The results from the lower mudrock sequence are incompatible and this may be due to some other overiding influence upon the temperature profile. (author)

  4. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  5. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment

  6. Modeling operation of mechanism of holistic management of technological processes at enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igorevich Shanin, Igor; Aleksandrovna Boris, Olga

    2018-03-01

    Enterprises applying modeling and technological process management approaches represent a sector of a new innovative economic system. First of all, they are innovators using innovative proposals and various resources to solve practical problems. Their work leads to balanced positive technological changes. In other words, they constitute industrial entrepreneurship with innovative goals and vice versa - innovative entrepreneurship with industrial objectives. It should be noted that the mechanism of holistic management of technological processes at the enterprise combines a traditional industrial organization of production, an innovative and technological enterprise. The enterprise borrows industrial targets from the latter one, an innovative component - from innovative activity and entrepreneurial approaches to holistic management - from a commercial firm.

  7. An application of interactive computer graphics technology to the design of dispersal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. J.; Welch, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics technology is combined with a general purpose mechanisms computer code to study the operational behavior of three guided bomb dispersal mechanism designs. These studies illustrate the use of computer graphics techniques to discover operational anomalies, to assess the effectiveness of design improvements, to reduce the time and cost of the modeling effort, and to provide the mechanism designer with a visual understanding of the physical operation of such systems.

  8. Mechanisms for International Low-Carbon Technology Cooperation. Roles and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazilian, M. [United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); De Coninck, H.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Cosbey, A. [International Institute for Sustainable Development IISD, Winnipeg (Canada); Neuhoff, K. [EPRG, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    International technology cooperation under the UNFCCC aims to provide the basis for large-scale and efficient mitigation action in developing countries. This paper characterises technology and enabling environment needs in developing countries and connects them to possible international mechanisms in order to arrive at appropriate and efficient international technology cooperation. This allows for a structured discussion of mechanisms for technology cooperation, and for a connection with nationally-focused technology mechanisms under discussion, such as low-carbon development strategies (LCDSs), Technology Needs Assessments (TNAs), technology action plans (TAPs), and nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs). Technology innovation is the process of technology development from its discovery or adoption to its wide-spread commercial use. Its success is dependent on many actors and on institutions that facilitate their effective interactions. The core reasons why domestic mitigation action does not occur in developing countries can often be found in the lack of this enabling environment. IPCC, IIASA, UNFCCC define 'enabling environment' as encompassing all the dimensions that are required to foster the uptake of a product or service. This includes well-trained operators and users, appropriate regulatory and institutional frameworks, markets, and robust physical infrastructure and maintenance capabilities. The challenge for the UNFCCC is the formulation of frameworks that connect domestic action with international mechanisms. Through NAMAs, developing countries would define domestic policies and actions required to create a conducive environment for the deployment of low-carbon technologies. These actions could be assisted, on demand, by international support mechanisms that enable technology cooperation, capacity building, strengthening of domestic institutions and financial transfers. To facilitate effective implementation, this paper suggests that

  9. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  10. Borehole sealing with highly compactd Na bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the use of highly compacted Na bentonite for borehole plugging. Bentonites have an extremely low permeability and a low diffusivity, and a swelling ability which produces a nonleaching boundary between clay and rock if the initial bulk density of the bentonite is sufficiently high. The suggested technique, which is applicable to long vertical, and inclined, as well as horizontal boreholes, is based on the use of perforated copper pipes to insert elements of compacted bentonite. Such pipe segments are connected at the rock surface and successively inserted in the hole. When the hole is equipped, the clay takes up water spontaneously and swells through the perforation, and ultimately forms an almost completely homogenous clay core. It embeds the pipe which is left in the hole. Several tests were conducted in the laboratory and one field test was run in Stripa. They all showed that a gel soon fills the slot between the pipe and the confinement which had the form of metal pipes in the laboratory investigations. Subsequently, more clay migrates through the perforation and produces a stiff clay filling in the slot. The redistribution of minerals, leading ultimately to a high degree of homogeneity, can be described as a diffusion process. The rate of redistribution depends on the joint geometry and water flow pattern in the rock. In the rock with an average joint frequence of one per meter or higher, very good homogeneity and sealing ability of the clay are expected within a few months after the application of the plug. (author)

  11. An Infrared Drill Borehole Spectrometer for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Foote, M.; Johnson, E.; Daly, J.; Loges, P.; Puscasu, I.; Gorevan, S.; Chu, P.; Granahan, J.

    2005-08-01

    The best clues to Mars past may be hidden below the surface of Mars. Long exposure to the sun, high winds and dust storms, large diurnal temperature excursions, and eons of space weathering combine to render a greatly modified surface, in many instances remarkable for its appearance of uniform composition. Drilling can provide access to the layers in the caps, to the permafrost and possibly, to pristine crustal material. The drilling process is complex with high demand on support resources. It is vital to make the drilling process as efficient as possible. A most promising approach is to instrument the drill string itself, thereby avoiding the complexity of sample handling, speeding and simplifying drill operations, and allowing examination of freshly exposed surfaces within the borehole. A solid-state IR spectrometer is being integrated with a blackbody source into a package to fit within an existing Mars drill design. The borehole IR spectrometer is used to monitor facies encountered throughout the drilling process. The spectrometer/IR combination is used in reflectance spectrometer mode to monitor H2O and CO2 content, as well as iron and carbonate mineralogies. Integration required adapting the existing spectrometer to fit within the drill -- including attaching the detectors directly to the spectrometer waveguide, developing the techniques required to seal the micro-thermopile detectors to the waveguide, implementing miniaturized digital conversion electronics, combining the spectrometer with the IR source and coupling them to a suitable window, implementing a suitable sealed package to fit within the drill, integrating and testing the package on a drill, and establishing the proper gain for both stimulus and spectrometer to permit reasonable range of Mars soil analogs. Tests have shown that both sapphire and diamond windows perform well in the drilling environment. Testing of the integrated spectrometer and drill will be completed in the coming year.

  12. Mapping the Viability, Time, and Cost of Manual Borehole Drilling in Developing Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Martínez-Santos; Miguel Martín-Loeches; Daniel Solera; Beatriz Cano; Silvia Díaz-Alcaide

    2017-01-01

    While access to water remains an issue in arid and semiarid regions across the world, aquifers have the potential to help millions of people out of poverty by providing a reliable source of drinking and irrigation water. Manual boreholes are increasingly advocated as a safe and cost-effective substitute to mechanized drilling, as well as to traditional excavation methods. This research banks on the assumption that field and remote sensing data can be integrated within a geospatial database in...

  13. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  14. The Impact of Technology on Hawaii's Automotive Mechanics: An Analysis with Recommendations. Technological Impact Study Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert

    Because of the increasing use of microelectronic componentry in automobiles, vocational educators must reexamine existing automotive mechanics curricula to ensure that they can continue to provide relevant job training. After examining recent trends in the impact of computers and electronics on automotive design and engineering, existing auto…

  15. Techniques for Field Operation of Straddle-packer System in Deep Borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Geon Young; Ji, Sung Hoon; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-05-01

    It is necessary to establish an appropriate hydro-testing tool for the qualified characterization of deep geological environments, especially for the hydraulic properties of rock formation. This research project had been initiated for the purpose of establishment of advanced infra-structures in KURT. The straddle packer system was developed for hydraulic characterization of geological formation using deep borehole. This technical report consists of design concept, basic requirements, function of each part, field operation procedures and techniques, detail design drawings, and specifications. The qualified hydro-testing tool, which is suitable for medium to low permeable formation, using large and deep borehole, has been developed. This tool will be applied for the research project on development of HLW disposal technologies and the site characterization activities of LILW disposal project. Prior to field operation using this hydro-testing equipment, every researchers should be well acquainted with this technical report

  16. The technique of coal mining and gas extraction by roadway retaining and borehole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, L. [Huainan Mining Co. Ltd., Huainan (China)

    2008-08-15

    A new method of coal mining and gas extraction was put forward to resolve the problems of low mining efficiency in deep multiple seams with high ground stress, high gas content and low permeability, and to overcome the problems of safety and technology during deep mining. The dynamic evolution of roof crannies in influenced mining zones and the formative rule of 'the vertical cranny-abundant area' along the gob-side were researched. The distribution of the air pressure field in the gob and the flowing law of pressure-relieved gas under Y-style ventilation were discovered. The new method of coal mining and gas extraction by roadway retention and borehole drilling was devised to replace the roadway and borehole drilling method. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  18. Let's push things forward: disruptive technologies and the mechanics of tissue assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-09-01

    Although many of the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue assembly in the embryo have been delineated, the physical forces that couple these mechanisms to actual changes in tissue form remain unclear. Qualitative studies suggest that mechanical loads play a regulatory role in development, but clear quantitative evidence has been lacking. This is partly owing to the complex nature of these problems - embryonic tissues typically undergo large deformations and exhibit evolving, highly viscoelastic material properties. Still, despite these challenges, new disruptive technologies are enabling study of the mechanics of tissue assembly in unprecedented detail. Here, we present novel experimental techniques that enable the study of each component of these physical problems: kinematics, forces, and constitutive properties. Specifically, we detail advances in light sheet microscopy, optical coherence tomography, traction force microscopy, fluorescence force spectroscopy, microrheology and micropatterning. Taken together, these technologies are helping elucidate a more quantitative understanding of the mechanics of tissue assembly.

  19. Proceedings of 18th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology was held on August 7-12, 2005 in Beijing, China, and Sponsored by International Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Chinese Nuclear Society, Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Tsinghua University. 486 abstracts are Collected. The contents includes: opening, plenary and keynote presentations; computational mechanics; fuel and core structures; aging, life extension, and license renewal; design methods and rules for components; fracture mechanics; concrete material, containment and other structures; analysis and design for dynamic and extreme loads; seismic analysis, design and qualification; structural reliability and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); operation, inspection and maintenance; severe accident management and structural evaluation; advanced reactors and generation IV reactors; decommissioning of nuclear facilities and waste management.

  20. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  1. Mechanically-Deployed Hypersonic Decelerator and Conformal Ablator Technologies for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wercinski, Paul F.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Hamm, Kenneth R.; Yount, Bryan C.; Makino, A.; Smith, B.; Gage, P.; Prabhu, D.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator, developed initially for high mass (40 MT) human Mars missions, is currently funded by OCT for technology maturation. The ADEPT (Adaptive, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) project has broad, game-changing applicability to in situ science missions to Venus, Mars, and the Outer Planets. Combined with maturation of conformal ablator technology (another current OCT investment), the two technologies provide unique low mass mission enabling capabilities otherwise not achievable by current rigid aeroshell or by inflatables. If this abstract is accepted, we will present results that illustrate the mission enabling capabilities of the mechanically deployable architecture for: (1) robotic Mars (Discovery or New Frontiers class) in the near term; (2) alternate approaches to landing MSL-class payloads, without the need for supersonic parachute or lifting entry, in the mid-term; and (3) Heavy mass and human missions to Mars in the long term.

  2. Some problems in mechanics of growing solids with applications to AM technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are an exciting area of the modern industrial revolution and have applications in engineering, medicine, electronics, aerospace industry, etc. AM enables cost-effective production of customized geometry and parts by direct fabrication from 3D data and mathematical models. Despite much progress in AM technologies, problems of mechanical analysis for AM fabricated parts yet remain to be solved. This paper deals with three main mechanical problems: the onset of residual stresses, which occur in the AM process and can lead to failure of the parts, the distortion of the final shape of AM fabricated parts, and the development of technological solutions aimed at improving existing AM technologies and creating new ones. An approach proposed deals with the construction of adequate analytical model and effective methods for the simulation of AM processes for fabricated solid parts.

  3. Impact of new computing systems on computational mechanics and flight-vehicle structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Storaasli, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in computer technology which may have an impact on computational mechanics and flight vehicle structures technology were reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario for future hardware/software environment and engineering analysis systems is presented. Research areas with potential for improving the effectiveness of analysis methods in the new environment are identified.

  4. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1993-08-01

    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  5. Mechanisms of change associated with technology-based interventions for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; Jarvis, Brantley; Marsch, Lisa; Xie, Haiyi

    2015-05-01

    Technology-based interventions (TBIs) for substance use disorders have been increasing steadily. The mechanisms by which TBIs produce change in substance use outcomes have not been reviewed. This article is the first review of the conceptual and empirical underpinnings of the mechanisms associated with TBIs for substance use disorders. We review the literature on potential mechanisms associated with TBIs targeting tobacco, alcohol, and poly-substance use. We did not identify TBIs targeting other drug classes and that assessed mechanisms. Research suggests that TBIs impact outcomes via similar potential mechanisms as in non-TBIs (e.g., in-person treatment), with the exception of substance use outcomes being associated with changes in the quality of coping skills. The most frequent potential mechanisms detected were self-efficacy for tobacco abstinence and perceived peer drinking for alcohol abstinence. Research on mechanisms associated with TBIs is still in a nascent stage. We provide several recommendations for future work, including broadening the range of mechanisms assessed and increasing the frequency of assessment to detect temporal relations between mechanisms and outcomes. We also discuss unique challenges and opportunities afforded by technology that can advance theory, method, and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison between results of detailed tectonic studies on borehole core vs microresistivity images of borehole wall from gas-bearing shale complexes, Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir

    2017-04-01

    Structural analysis of borehole core and microresistivity images yield an information about geometry of natural fracture network and their potential importance for reservoir stimulation. Density of natural fractures and their orientation in respect to the maximum horizontal stress has crucial meaning for hydraulic fractures propagation in unconventional reservoirs. We have investigated several hundred meters of continuous borehole core and corresponding microresistivity images (mostly XRMI) from six boreholes in the Pomeranian part of the Early Paleozoic Baltic Basin. In general, our results challenge the question about representatives of statistics based on structural analyses on a small shale volume represented by borehole core or borehole wall images and credibility of different sets of data. Most frequently, fractures observed in both XRMI and cores are steep, small strata-bound fractures and veins with minor mechanical aperture (0,1 mm in average). These veins create an orthogonal joint system, locally disturbed by fractures associated with normal or by gently dipping thrust faults. Mean fractures' height keeps in a range between 30-50 cm. Fracture density differs significantly among boreholes and Consistent Lithological Units (CLUs) but the most frequent means falls in a range 2-4 m-1. We have also payed an attention to bedding planes due to their expected coupling with natural fractures and their role as structural barriers for vertical fracture propagation. We aimed in construction for each CLU the so-called "mean brick", which size is limited by an average distance between two principal joint sets and between bedding fractures. In our study we have found out a discrepancy between structural profiles based on XRMI and core interpretation. For some CLUs joint fractures densities, are higher in cores than in XRMI. In this case, numerous small fractures were not recorded due to the limits of XRMI resolution. However, the most veins with aperture 0,1 mm

  7. Research borehole drilling activity for boreholes DH-18, DH-19, DC-12, DC-13, DC-14, DC-15, and deepening of existing borehole DC-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report is an environmental evaluation of the impacts of proposed borehole drilling activities at the Hanford Site, northwest of Richland, Washington. The proposed action is to drill six research boreholes ranging in depth from 137 to 1372 meters (m) [250 to 4500 +- feet (ft)]. In addition, an existing borehole (DC-7) will be extended from 1249 to 1524 m (4099 to 5000 +- ft). The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) borehole drilling activities is to collect data on in situ rock formations that are considered potentialy suitable for nuclear waste repositories. The technical program efforts necessary to identify and qualify specific underground waste facility sites in candidate rock formations include geologic and hydrologic studies (seismicity and tectonics, rock structure and stratigraphy, lithology, etc.). Borehole drilling is an integral part of the geological studies and is essential to a thorough understanding of potentially suitable geologic formations. The purpose of the proposed drilling activities is to obtain data for evaluating Columbia River basalts that are being evaluated by the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program to determine their suitability potential for nuclear waste repositories. Unavoidable impact to the environment is limited primarily to the clearing of land needed for access and drilling operations. Considerations exercised during site preparation, drilling, and subsequent site restoration will limit modification of the natural environment to the minimum required for accomplishment of test objectives

  8. A novel muon detector for borehole density tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard T.; Yamaoka, Jared; Rowe, Charlotte; Guardincerri, Elena; Durham, J. Matthew; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel C.; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Morley, Deborah J.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.; Bynes, James; Cercillieux, Julien; Ketter, Chris; Le, Khanh; Mostafanezhad, Isar; Varner, Gary; Flygare, Joshua; Lintereur, Azaree T.

    2017-04-01

    Muons can be used to image the density of materials through which they pass, including geological structures. Subsurface applications of the technology include tracking fluid migration during injection or production, with increasing concern regarding such timely issues as induced seismicity or chemical leakage into aquifers. Geological carbon storage, natural gas storage, enhanced oil recovery, compressed air storage, aquifer storage and recovery, waste water storage and oil and gas production are examples of application areas. It is thus crucial to monitor in quasi-real time the behavior of these fluids, and several monitoring techniques can be used. Among them, those that track density changes in the subsurface are the most relevant. Current density monitoring options include gravimetric data collection and active or passive seismic surveys. One alternative, or complement, to these methods is the development of a muon detector that is sufficiently compact and robust for deployment in a borehole. Such a muon detector can enable tomographic imaging of density structure to monitor small changes in density – a proxy for fluid migration – at depths up to 1500 m. Such a detector has been developed, and Monte Carlo modeling methods applied to simulate the anticipated detector response. The robustness of the detector design comes primarily from the use of polystyrene scintillating rods arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Testing and measurements using a prototype detector in the laboratory and shallow underground facilities demonstrated robust response. A satisfactory comparison with a large drift tube-based muon detector is also presented.

  9. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Stratigraphic Contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-01-01

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified

  10. Methodology for Radiological Risk Assessment of Deep Borehole Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Peretz, Fred(ORNL)

    2017-03-01

    The primary purpose of the preclosure radiological safety assessment (that this document supports) is to identify risk factors for disposal operations, to aid in design for the deep borehole field test (DBFT) engineering demonstration.

  11. Catalog of boreholes from Russia and Mongolia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This catalog of boreholes from across Russia and Mongolia includes those published in papers and monographs as well as other literature of limited circulation. The...

  12. Global Database of Borehole Temperatures and Climate Reconstructions - CA-0003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected from borehole site CA-0003. For an accurate assessment of the relative roles of natural variability and anthropogenic influence in the Earth's...

  13. Using GIS for spatial exploratory analysis of borehole data: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using GIS for spatial exploratory analysis of borehole data: a firsthand approach towards groundwater development. C. Gyamfi, J. M. Ndambuki, P. Y. Diabene, G. E. Kifanyi, C. R. Githuku, A. Alexander ...

  14. Core-logs of borehole VI down to 505 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.; Stejskal, V.

    1981-01-01

    In the hydrogeological program of the Stripa project the vertical borehole V1 has been drilled 505.5 m. The drillcore has been logged with regard to rock characteristic, fracture frequency, dipping and filling. The results presented as cumulative fracture diagram have formed the base for subdivision of the borehole according to fracture frequency. The variation in the fracture dipping was also taken into account. Chlorite is the most common of the infilling material in the fractures. For the borehole 0-466 m the average fracture frequency is 1.46 fractures/m. Below 466 m the core is highly fractured and crushed indicating that the borehole has entered a crushed zone. Because of this the drilling is temporarily stopped. (Auth.)

  15. The U-tube: A new paradigm in borehole fluid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, B. M.

    2009-10-01

    Fluid samples from deep boreholes can provide insights into subsurface physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Recovery of intact, minimally altered aliquots of subsurface fluids is required for analysis of aqueous chemistry, isotopic composition, and dissolved gases, and for microbial community characterization. Unfortunately, for many reasons, collecting geofluids poses a number of challenges, from formation contamination by drilling to maintaining integrity during recovery from depths. Not only are there substantial engineering issues in retrieval of a representative sample, but there is often the practical reality that fluid sampling is just one of many activities planned for deep boreholes. The U-tube geochemical sampling system presents a new paradigm for deep borehole fluid sampling. Because the system is small, its ability to integrate with other measurement systems and technologies opens up numerous possibilities for multifunctional integrated wellbore completions. To date, the U-tube has been successfully deployed at four different field sites, each with a different deployment modality, at depths from 260 m to 2 km. While the U-tube has proven to be highly versatile, these installations have resulted in data that provide additional insights for improving future U-tube deployments.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two Borehole Heat Exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S.......This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S....

  17. Borehole radar system for South African gold and platinum mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available for the very accurate timing required in stroboscopic systems and because it enjoys good titne efficiency (Wright etal, 1989). The GeoMole borehole radar used by Trickett et al (1999; 2000) follows this philosophy (Hargreaves, 1995). The good quality.... The operator controls data acquisition using dedicated keys on the computer, so no mouse is required in the field. Data can be exported in SFGY format for further processing and interpretation. Borehole access If development occurs in the footwall, almost...

  18. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  19. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS: Technology for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakov Tatjana A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS are miniturized devices that can sense the environment, process and analyze information, and respond with a variety of mechanical and electrical actuators. MEMS consists of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, electrical and electronics devices on a common silicon substrate. Micro-electro-mechanical systems are becoming a vital technology for modern society. Some of the advantages of MEMS devices are: very small size, very low power consumption, low cost, easy to integrate into systems or modify, small thermal constant, high resistance to vibration, shock and radiation, batch fabricated in large arrays, improved thermal expansion tolerance. MEMS technology is increasingly penetrating into our lives and improving quality of life, similar to what we experienced in the microelectronics revolution. Commercial opportunities for MEMS are rapidly growing in broad application areas, including biomedical, telecommunication, security, entertainment, aerospace, and more in both the consumer and industrial sectors on a global scale. As a breakthrough technology, MEMS is building synergy between previously unrelated fields such as biology and microelectronics. Many new MEMS and nanotechnology applications will emerge, expanding beyond that which is currently identified or known. MEMS are definitely technology for 21st century.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Steel P92 Welded Joints Obtained By TIG Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyla, P.; Havelka, L.; Schmidová, E.; Vontorová, J.

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical properties of P92 steel welded joints obtained using the TIG (141) technology have been studied upon post-welding heat treatment (PWHT). The microhardness, tensile strength, and impact toughness of metal in the weld and heat-affected zone are determined. The PWHT is shown to be obligatory.

  1. Problems and criteria of quality improvement in end face mechanical seal rings through technological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelnik, V.; Belous, A.; Antoszewski, B.; Zukov, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper are presented the recommendations for material’s selections of the mechanical seals rings and basic productive and operating requirements. The system of a directional selection of technology that ensures the required quality of working surfaces of the mechanical seals rings covers their entire life cycle. The mathematical frictional model is proposed as an instrument for calculating a linear and weighing abrasion of the mechanical seals rings and helps to improve selection’s criteria and the most rational method of strengthening.

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  3. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  4. A Case Study of Effective Support Working Resistance and Roof Support Technology in Thick Seam Fully-Mechanized Face Mining with Hard Roof Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-bin Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the engineering geological properties and roof control tecnology for a thick coal seam fully-mechanized face mining with hard roof conditions (THC at the Jinhuagong Coal Mine (JCM, northwest China. The effective support working resistance and appropriate roof control technology are two critical factors for safe and productive mining in the THC. The load-estimate-method (LOEM is the effective method to determine the support working resistance for normal working conditions (the mining height less than 3.5 m. In order to prevent support crushing accidents from happening and to ensure the safety and high-efficiency in the THC, the LOEM was modified based on the structure of the overlying strata in the THC. The strata which can form the voussoir beam structure in normal working conditions and will break in the form of cantilever beam in the THC is defined as the key strata in the immediate roof. Therefore, the hanging length of the key strata in the immediate roof was considered in the LOEM. Furthermore, a method for calculating the hanging length of the key strata in the immediate roof and its influencing factors were proposed using cantilever beam theory analysis of the structure of the overlying strata. Moreover, in order to fully fill the goaf area with caving roof to reduce the energy accumulation of main roof movement, it was decided to apply destress blasting technique (DEBT at the JCM to control the large hanging length of the hard roof, so as to reduce the impact of the hard main roof movement on the working face. The key technique parameters of the roof caving borehole were also proposed. The obtained results demonstrated that the theoretical analysis is reasonable, and the chosen support type and the DEBT could meet the roof control requirements. The THC has achieved safety and high-efficiency mining.

  5. Transactions of the 10th international conference on structual mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjian, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this book, a wide spectrum of subjects is covered, including theoretical developments in structural mechanics, loading conditions, behavior of materials, fluid mechanics, operating experience, accident sequences, and calculational procedures. As a result, problems of structural mechanics analysis are focused within the general context of the design, reliability, and safety of nuclear reactors. Operating plant performance and life extension, waste repository technology and regulatory research have been formalized as distinct Divisions. The papers are theoretical or applied, or they address both of these aspects to demonstrate application of developed methods to solve specific design problems and show how well actual behavior correlates with theory. These paper explore in detail the mechanical design and system integration of fusion power reactors; thermohydraulics, structural mechanics and life-time evaluations of reactor components as first wall diverter/limiter, plasma heating devices, breeding blanket and shielding, magnet coils and supports, and vacuum containment systems, and structural analysis and comparison with measured data

  6. Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA). A mechanism for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Muslim, N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the regional cooperation programs of the IAEA which have as purpose to promote the applications of peaceful uses of atomic energy and to transfer technology to the developing countries. The paper focusses on the (RCA) program for Asia and the Pacific, it is considered the most important mechanism for genuine technology transfer. The annex no 1 lists the full text of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (13 articles). The annex no.3 lists also the full text of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (14 articles). 11 refs., 17 tabs

  7. Coupled Thermo-Mechanical and Photo-Chemical Degradation Mechanisms that determine the Reliability and Operational Lifetimes for CPV Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauskardt, Reinhold H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2017-04-30

    This project sought to identify and characterize the coupled intrinsic photo-chemo-mechanical degradation mechanisms that determine the reliability and operational lifetimes for CPV technologies. Over a three year period, we have completed a highly successful program which has developed quantitative metrologies and detailed physics-based degradation models, providing new insight into the fundamental reliability physics necessary for improving materials, creating accelerated testing protocols, and producing more accurate lifetime predictions. The tasks for the program were separated into two focus areas shown in the figure below. Focus Area 1, led by Reinhold Dauskardt and Warren Cai with a primary collaboration with David Miller of NREL, studied the degradation mechanisms present in encapsulant materials. Focus Area 2, led by Reinhold Dauskardt and Ryan Brock with a primary collaboration with James Ermer and Peter Hebert of Spectrolab, studied stress development and degradation within internal CPV device interfaces. Each focus area was productive, leading to several publications, including findings on the degradation of silicone encapsulant under terrestrial UV, a model for photodegradation of silicone encapsulant adhesion, quantification and process tuning of antireflective layers on CPV, and discovery of a thermal cycling degradation mechanism present in metal gridline structures.

  8. Mapping the Viability, Time, and Cost of Manual Borehole Drilling in Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martínez-Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While access to water remains an issue in arid and semiarid regions across the world, aquifers have the potential to help millions of people out of poverty by providing a reliable source of drinking and irrigation water. Manual boreholes are increasingly advocated as a safe and cost-effective substitute to mechanized drilling, as well as to traditional excavation methods. This research banks on the assumption that field and remote sensing data can be integrated within a geospatial database in order to map the viability of manual boreholes based on factors such as rock type, water table depth, landforms, or water quality. The approach presents three main novelties in relation to methodological precedents: (1 outcomes are not only expressed in terms of technical feasibility, but also as a function of drilling time and cost; (2 maps refer to a specific drilling technique; and (3 results take into account borehole diameter, as this constrains both drilling time and cost. The method provides univocal outcomes that can be immediately useful for non-experts, donors, planners, or practitioners and that can be readily exported to other catchment-scale settings. Results were validated against geophysical data.

  9. Drop of canistered spent fuel segments into a deep borehole and subsequent aerosol release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bantle, S.; Herbe, H.; Miu, J.

    1991-09-01

    The source term of the released aerosols is estimated. First, the number of failing canisters is calculated for the case of an axial symmetric canister (POLLUX) pile, and then, for the case of a 'zig-zag' pile, as found in reality. The weight-specific energy acting on the fuel - a measure for the degree of fuel fractioning - is determined from the acceleration acting on the pin segments. In the borehole prevails a steady-state flow pattern which is stimulated by the heat of the disposed waste canister, and is also influenced by the ventilation of the drift above the borehole. Based on this stationary flow pattern flow velocities are calculated by means of fluid mechanical methods. Further investigations deal with the unsteady case which occurs during and immediately after the canister drop as well as with the wake behind the canister. The most relevant result is that under the considered boundary conditions no release form the borehole into the repository is to be expected. (orig./HP) [de

  10. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Thermal modelling of borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores; Zur thermischen Modellierung von Erdwaermesonden und Erdsonden-Waermespeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dan

    2011-07-15

    The thermal use of the underground for heating and cooling applications can be done with borehole heat exchangers. This work deals with the further development of the modelling of thermal transport processes inside and outside the borehole as well as with the application of the further developed models. The combination of high accuracy and short computation time is achieved by the development of three-dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for borehole heat exchangers. Short transient transport processes can be calculated by the developed model with a considerable higher dynamic and accuracy than with known models from literature. The model is used to evaluate measurement data of a thermal response test by parameter estimation technique with a transient three-dimensional model for the first time. Clear advantages like shortening of the test duration are shown. The developed borehole heat exchanger model is combined with a three-dimensional description of the underground in the Finite-Element-Program FEFLOW. The influence of moving groundwater on borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores is then quantified.

  12. Thermophysical parameters from laboratory measurements and tests in borehole heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Chiara; Giuli, Gabriele; Invernizzi, Chiara; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Besides the type of thermal regime, the performance of borehole heat exchangers relies on the overall thermal resistance of the borehole. This parameter strongly depends on the underground thermal conductivity, which accounts for most of the heat that can be extracted. The geometric configuration and the increase of thermal conductivity of the grout filling back the bore can yield a non-negligible enhancement in thermal performances. In this paper, we present a study on a pilot geothermal plant consisting of two borehole heat exchangers, 95 m deep and 9 m apart. Laboratory and in situ tests were carried out with the aim of investigating underground thermal properties, mechanisms of heat transfer and thermal characteristics of the filling grouts. Samples of grouting materials were analysed in the lab for assessing the thermal conductivity. An attempt to improve the thermal conductivity was made by doping grouts with alumina. Results showed that alumina large concentrations can increase the thermal conductivity by 25-30%. The in situ experiments included thermal logs under conditions of thermal equilibrium and thermal response tests (TRTs). The analysis of the temperature-depth profiles, based on the mass and energy balance in permeable horizons with uniform thermo-hydraulic and steady-state conditions, revealed that the underground thermal regime is dominated by conduction. TRTs were performed by injecting a constant heat rate per unit length into the boreholes for 60-90 hours. After TRTs, the temperature drop off (TDO) was recorded at 20-m-depth intervals for one week in both holes. The TRT time series were interpreted according to the classical model of the infinite line source (ILS), to infer the underground thermal conductivity. The TDO records allowed the inference of the underground thermal properties variation with depth. The results of thermal conductivity inferred with the ILS method are consistent with the values obtained from the TDO analysis.

  13. Fracture Modes and Identification of Fault Zones in Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, C.; Pan, H.; Zhao, P.; Qin, R.; Peng, L.

    2017-12-01

    After suffering from the disaster of Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008, scientists are eager to figure out the structure of formation, the geodynamic processes of faults and the mechanism of earthquake in Wenchuan by drilling five holes into the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone and Anxian-Guanxian fault zone. Fractures identification and in-situ stress determination can provide abundant information for formation evaluation and earthquake study. This study describe all the fracture modes in the five boreholes on the basis of cores and image logs, and summarize the response characteristics of fractures in conventional logs. The results indicate that the WFSD boreholes encounter enormous fractures, including natural fractures and induced fractures, and high dip-angle conductive fractures are the most common fractures. The maximum horizontal stress trends along the borehole are deduced as NWW-SEE according to orientations of borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures, which is nearly parallel to the strikes of the younger natural fracture sets. Minor positive deviations of AC (acoustic log) and negative deviation of DEN (density log) demonstrate their responses to fracture, followed by CNL (neutron log), resistivity logs and GR (gamma ray log) at different extent of intensity. Besides, considering the fact that the reliable methods for identifying fracture zone, like seismic, core recovery and image logs, can often be hampered by their high cost and limited application, this study propose a method by using conventional logs, which are low-cost and available in even old wells. We employ wavelet decomposition to extract the high frequency information of conventional logs and reconstruction a new log in special format of enhance fracture responses and eliminate nonfracture influence. Results reveal that the new log shows obvious deviations in fault zones, which confirm the potential of conventional logs in fracture zone identification.

  14. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  15. Design and fabrication of a micro parallel mechanism system using MEMS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Te

    A parallel mechanism is seen as an attractive method of fabricating a multi-degree of freedom micro-stage on a chip. The research team at Arizona State University has experience with several potential parallel mechanisms that would be scaled down to micron dimensions and fabricated by using the silicon process. The researcher developed a micro parallel mechanism that allows for planar motion having two translational motions and one rotational motion (e.g., x, y, theta). The mask design shown in Appendix B is an example of a planar parallel mechanism, however, this design would only have a few discrete positions given the nature of the fully extended or fully retracted electrostatic motor. The researcher proposes using a rotary motor (comb-drive actuator with gear chain system) coupled to a rack and pinion for finer increments of linear motion. The rotary motor can behave as a stepper motor by counting drive pulses, which is the basis for a simple open loop control system. This system was manufactured at the Central Regional MEMS Research Center (CMEMS), National Tsing-Hua University, and supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan. After the microstructures had been generated, the proceeding devices were released and an experiment study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed micro-stage devices. In this dissertation, the micro electromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies were introduced. The development of this parallel mechanism system will initially focus on development of a planar micro-stage. The design of the micro-stage will build on the parallel mechanism technology, which has been developed for manufacturing, assembly, and flight simulator applications. Parallel mechanism will give the maximum operating envelope with a minimum number of silicon levels. The ideally proposed mechanism should comprise of a user interface, a micro-stage and a non-silicon tool, which is difficult to accomplish by current MEMS technology

  16. Status of borehole plugging and shaft sealing for geologic isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Activities in programs devoted to disposal of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations are reported. Research on borehole plugging and shaft sealing is emphasized. Past and current activities related to penetration sealing were assessed through an exhaustive literature review and contacts with industrial, governmental, and research organizations. Cited references are included along with a bibliography assembled for this study. Evaluation of literature reviewed and presentation of information obtained from personal contacts are summarized. Technical considerations for penetration sealing as related to nuclear waste isolation, but which may differ from conventional technology, are presented and research needs are identified

  17. An in-well heat-tracer-test method for evaluating borehole flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, Stephen M.; Hart, David J.; Bahr, Jean M.

    2015-12-01

    An improved method is presented for characterizing vertical borehole flow conditions in open boreholes using in-well heat tracer tests monitored by a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system. This flow logging method uses an electrical resistance heater to warm slugs of water within bedrock boreholes and DTS monitoring of subsequent heat migration to measure borehole flow characteristics. Use of an electrical resistance heater allows for controlled test initiation, while the DTS allows for detailed monitoring of heat movement within the borehole. The method was evaluated in bedrock boreholes open to Cambrian sandstone formations in south-central Wisconsin (USA). The method was successfully used to measure upward flow, downward flow, and zero flow, and to identify changes in borehole flow rates associated with fracture flow and porous media flow. The main benefits of the DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer test method of borehole flow logging are (1) borehole flow direction and changes in borehole fluid velocity are readily apparent from a simple plot of the field data, (2) the case of zero vertical borehole flow is easily and confidently identified, and (3) the ability to monitor temperatures over the full borehole length simultaneously and in rapid succession provides detailed flow data with minimal disturbance of the borehole flow. The results of this study indicate that DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer tests are an effective method of characterizing borehole flow conditions.

  18. PBO Borehole Strainmeters and Pore Pressure Sensors: Recording Hydrological Strain Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M. H.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Van Boskirk, E.; Pyatt, C.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeters along the west coast of the United States and Vancouver Island, Canada as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the NSF-funded Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters are designed to detect variations in the strain field at the nanostrain level and can easily detect transient strains caused by aseismic creep events, Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events and seismically induced co- and post-seimic signals. In 2016, one strainmeter was installed in an Oklahoma oil field to characterize in-situ deformation during CO2 injection. Twenty-three strainmeter sites also have pore pressure sensors to measure fluctuations in groundwater pressure. Both the strainmeter network and the pore pressure sensors provide unique data against which those using water-level measurements, GPS time-series or InSAR data can compare possible subsidence signals caused by groundwater withdrawal or fluid re-injection. Operating for 12 years, the PBO strainmeter and pore pressure network provides a long-term, continuous, 1-sps record of deformation. PBO deploys GTSM21 tensor strainmeters from GTSM Technologies, which consist of four horizontal strain gauges stacked vertically, at different orientations, within a single 2 m-long instrument. The strainmeters are typically installed at depths of 200 to 250 m and grouted into the bottom of 15 cm diameter boreholes. The pore pressure sensors are Digiquartz Depth Sensors from Paros Scientific. These sensors are installed in 2" PVC, sampling groundwater through a screened section 15 m above the co-located strainmeter. These sensors are also recording at 1-sps with a resolution in the hundredths of hPa. High-rate local barometric pressure data and low-rate rainfall data also available at all locations. PBO Strainmeter and pore pressure data are available in SEED, SAC-ASCII and time-stamped ASCII format from the IRIS Data Managements Center. Strainmeter data are

  19. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  20. The space technological applications of the celestial mechanical Lagrange points in the protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.

    1993-01-01

    Space-technology can in the future help to solve two burning global problems of mankind: global warming and the storage of radioactive waste. In the space technological solution of these problems the celestial mechanical Lagrange points of the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems can play an important role. Therefore the celestial mechanical theory and computer simulation of the nature of Lagrange points have great importance in some aspects of the protection of the environment, too. The two examples given, propose: storage of radioactive wastes in the stable Lagrange points L 4 and L 5 reduction of the global warming by positioning satellites with large mirrors in the collinear Lagrange point L 2 thus shadowing the incoming solar radiation. (orig./HM)

  1. VHBORE: A code to compute borehole fluid conductivity profiles with pressure changes in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, F.V.; Tsang, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the code VHBORE which can be used to model fluid electric conductivity profiles in a borehole intersecting fractured rock under conditions of changing pressure in the well bore. Pressure changes may be due to water level variations caused by pumping or fluid density effects as formation fluid is drawn into the borehole. Previous reports describe the method of estimating the hydrologic behavior of fractured rock using a time series of electric conductivity logs and an earlier code, BORE, to generate electric conductivity logs under constant pressure and flow rate conditions. The earlier model, BORE, assumed a constant flow rate, q i , for each inflow into the well bore. In the present code the user supplies the location, constant pressure, h i , transmissivity, T i , and storativity, S i , for each fracture, as well as the initial water level in the well, h w (0), In addition, the input data contains changes in the water level at later times, Δh w (t), typically caused by turning a pump on or off. The variable density calculation also requires input of the density of each of the inflow fluids, ρ i , and the initial uniform density of the well bore fluid, ρ w (0). These parameters are used to compute the flow rate for each inflow point at each time step. The numerical method of Jacob and Lohman (1952) is used to compute the flow rate into or out of the fractures based on the changes in pressure in the wellbore. A dimensionless function relates flow rate as a function of time in response to an imposed pressure change. The principle of superposition is used to determine the net flow rate from a time series of pressure changes. Additional reading on the relationship between drawdown and flow rate can be found in Earlougher (1977), particularly his Section 4.6, open-quotes Constant-Pressure Flow Testingclose quotes

  2. PREFACE: International Scientific and Technical Conference ''Innovative Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Equipment and Materials-2014''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 3 to 5 December 2014 the city of Kazan hosted the International Scientific Conference ''Innovative mechanical engineering technologies, equipment and materials - 2014'' (ISC ''vIMETEM - 2014''). The event was followed by the 14th International specialized exhibition ''Engineering. Metalworking. Kazan'' The main objective of the annual conference was for participants to discuss scientific and technical achievements in the design and manufacture of engineering products, the expansion of cooperation between scientific organizations and enterprises of machine-building complex and the definition of perspective ways of creation and development of new techniques, technologies and materials. The conference ''IMETEM'' was devoted to the 90th anniversary of Fayzrahman Salahovich Yunusov, who made a great contribution in the field of aviation technology. Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  3. SCARLET I: Mechanization solutions for deployable concentrator optics integrated with rigid array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholz, James J.; Murphy, David M.

    1996-01-01

    The SCARLET I (Solar Concentrator Army with Refractive Linear Element Technology) solar array wing was designed and built to demonstrate, in flight, the feasibility of integrating deployable concentrator optics within the design envelope of typical rigid array technology. Innovative mechanism designs were used throughout the array, and a full series of qualification tests were successfully performed in anticipation of a flight on the Multiple Experiment Transporter to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. Even though the Conestoga launch vehicle was unable to place the spacecraft in orbit, the program effort was successful in achieving the milestones of analytical and design development functional validation, and flight qualification, thus leading to a future flight evaluation for the SCARLET technology.

  4. Radical Technological Innovations within the Mechanical Engineering Industry - An Empirical Study for Successful Realization

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfeil, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Based on a thorough qualitative and quantitative study, Florian Wohlfeil develops a critical success factors framework for the realization of radical technological innovations within the mechanical engineering industry. Furthermore, the author detects five clearly distinguishable innovation archetypes that are based on the project specific contextual circumstances. Finally, he provides an operational framework which serves as a hands-on tool to derive concrete recommendations for action.

  5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTS OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS PRODUCED USING ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Górski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of tests conducted on the elements of medical devices - slings used with medical lifts - manufactured using additive technologies. Project assumptions were: to produce 100 samples of clips with varying design, material and orientation parameter. Samples were manufactured using FDM and SLA processes and then tested for mechanical strength, load transmission and functionality, using certified equipment. Paper shows full methodology and obtained test results.

  6. Water quality analysis of the commercial boreholes in Mubi Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria: geographic information system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayomi, Ikusemoran; Elisha, Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    It is observed that most of the commercial boreholes in Mubi Metropolis are located along River Yedzeram which is the main river that runs across the town. Unfortunately, due to the geographical location of the town in savanna region with minimal water supply, water related small scale industries such as sachet water, block making, irrigation agriculture, cloth dying, car wash and other pollution activities such as mechanical workshops and public toilets are also located along the same River Yedzeram. Moreover, the inhabitants of the town either dump their refuse in the River or spread it on their farmlands as there is no provision of refuse dump site by the government. Therefore, five parameters (Nitrate, Magnesium, Copper, Calcium and Iron) were used to test thewater quality of water samples that were collected from twenty two commercial boreholes along the river, using the standard examination of water and waste water of the World Health Organization to determine the water quality of the boreholes. The study revealed that only eight out of the twenty two boreholes are of good quality, while the others are either of bad quality or not portable. ArcGIS 9.2 and ILWIS 3.3 software were used to analyze the laboratory results through the use of SQL queries. It was recommended that the government should provide portable water, establish water quality control board and make use of GIS for creation of database and analysis.

  7. Fracture zone analysis using the deep borehole in KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Yong Kwon

    2010-04-01

    This technical report are focussed on the obtaining the fracture zone from the results of geophysical logging and borehole televiewer in DB-01 borehole drilled inside KURT. At result, total 7 fracture zones were obtained in DB-01 borehole. Based on the directional analysis, there are 2 NW trending fracture zones, 4 EW trending fracture zones and 2 NS trending fracture zone. Among the 7 fracture zones, DB-01-3 fracture zones has two different direction, which are NS and NW trend. The widths of fracture zones were also calculated using the dip angle data of fracture zones, which were estimated by stereonet plot. The range of fracture zone width is 5 ∼ 15 m. And, the widths of two fault zones, DB-1-4 and DB-1-6, are 1.8 m and 14 m respectively. Especially, DB-1-6 fault zone can be considered as hydrogeological barrier of upper and lower part of groundwater in KURT

  8. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  9. A regularity-based modeling of oil borehole logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima

    2013-04-01

    Multifractional Brownian motions (mBms) are successfully used to describe borehole logs behavior. These local fractal models allow to investigate the depth-evolution of regularity of the logs, quantified by the Hölder exponent (H). In this study, a regularity analysis is carried out on datasets recorded in Algerian oil boreholes located in different geological settings. The obtained regularity profiles show a clear correlation with lithology. Each lithological discontinuity corresponds to a jump in H value. Moreover, for a given borehole, all the regularity logs are significantly correlated and lead to similar lithological segmentations. Therefore, the Hölderian regularity is a robust property which can be used to characterize lithological heterogeneities. However, this study does not draw any relation between the recorded physical property and its estimated regularity degree for all the analyzed logs. Keywords: well logs, regularity, Hölder exponent, multifractional Brownian motion

  10. Geophysical borehole logging. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhiainen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 meters in the year 1984. The report deals with geophysical borehole logging methods, which could be used for the studies. The aim of geophysical borehole logging methods is to descripe specially hydrogeological and structural features. Only the most essential methods are dealt with in this report. Attention is paid to the information produced with the methods, derscription of the methods, interpretation and limitations. The feasibility and possibilities for the aims are evaluated. The evaluations are based mainly on the results from Sweden, England, Canada and USA as well as experiencies gained in Finland

  11. Dynamics of technology shifts in the household sector-implications for clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper attempts to analyse the dynamics of energy end-use technology shifts in the household sector in India. The technology shifts can be categorized as naturally occurring shifts (with increasing household incomes and availability of energy carriers) and policy-induced shifts (by creating a favourable environment). Initially, the households energy usage patterns, types of energy carriers and the technologies in use are analysed using the data from the National Sample Survey (1999-2000). The energy consumption is disaggregated according to end-use activity and by income groups for rural as well as urban households. It is observed that large variations in energy use exist across different sections of households-urban/rural, low/high-income groups, etc. Further, the paper provides a methodological framework for the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies, and the implications of such diffusions for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It analyses the reasons for the gap between possible and practical implementation of energy-efficient measures, study the reasons for households not using the cost-effective technologies available to them, the benefits of innovation of energy efficiency, and the required policies and specific proposals for government intervention to achieve the potential for the CDM

  12. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  13. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  15. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  16. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2004-09-01

    This report contains geologic, geochemical, and physical characterization data collected on sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. The measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared to a nearby borehole 299-W10-196 placed through the plume from the 1973 T-106 tank leak. This report also presents the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the T Tank Farm. Sediment samples were characterized for: moisture content, gamma-emission radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, radionuclide and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We observed slight elevated pH values in samples from borehole C4104. The sediments from the three boreholes, C4104, C4105, and 299-W10-196 do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present below tank T-106 and have formed a salt plume. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms and slightly less than those from the most saline porewater found in contaminated TX tank farm sediments. The boreholes could not penetrate below the gravel-rich strata of the Ringold Formation Wooded Island member (Rwi) (refusal was met at about 130 ft bgs); therefore, we could not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. The moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, and technetium-99 profiles versus depth in the three

  17. Mechanisms of Communicating Health Information Through Facebook: Implications for Consumer Health Information Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menefee, Hannah K; Thompson, Morgan J; Guterbock, Thomas M; Williams, Ishan C; Valdez, Rupa S

    2016-08-11

    Consumer health information technology (IT) solutions are designed to support patient health management and have the ability to facilitate patients' health information communication with their social networks. However, there is a need for consumer health IT solutions to align with patients' health management preferences for increased adoption of the technology. It may be possible to gain an understanding of patients' needs for consumer health IT supporting their health information communication with social networks by explicating how they have adopted and adapted social networking sites, such as Facebook, for this purpose. Our aim was to characterize patients' use of all communication mechanisms within Facebook for health information communication to provide insight into how consumer health IT solutions may be better designed to meet patients' communication needs and preferences. This study analyzed data about Facebook communication mechanisms use from a larger, three-phase, sequential, mixed-methods study. We report here on the results of the study's first phase: qualitative interviews (N=25). Participants were over 18, used Facebook, were residents or citizens of the United States, spoke English, and had a diagnosis consistent with type 2 diabetes. Participants were recruited through Facebook groups and pages. Participant interviews were conducted via Skype or telephone between July and September 2014. Data analysis was grounded in qualitative content analysis and the initial coding framework was informed by the findings of a previous study. Participants' rationales for the use or disuse of a particular Facebook mechanism to communicate health information reflected six broad themes: (1) characteristics and circumstances of the person, (2) characteristics and circumstances of the relationship, (3) structure and composition of the social network, (4) content of the information, (5) communication purpose, and (6) attributes of the technology. The results of this

  18. Technology and Reflection: Mood and Memory Mechanisms for Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Artie; Tucker, Simon; Crane, John; Whittaker, Steve

    We report a psychologically motivated intervention to explore Technology Mediated Reflection (TMR), the process of systematically reviewing rich digital records of past personal experiences. Although TMR benefits well-being, and is increasingly being deployed, we know little about how one's mood when using TMR influences these benefits. We use theories of memory and emotion-regulation to motivate hypotheses about the relationship between reflection, mood, and well-being when using technology. We test these hypotheses in a large-scale month long real world deployment using a web-based application, MoodAdaptor. MoodAdaptor prompted participants to reflect on positive or negative memories depending on current mood. We evaluated how mood and memory interact during written reflection and measured effects on well-being. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from 128 participants who generated 11157 mood evaluations, 5051 logfiles, 256 surveys, and 20 interviews. TMR regulated emotion; when participants reflected on memories with valences opposite to their current mood, their mood became more neutral. However this did not impact overall well-being. Our findings also clarify underlying TMR mechanisms. Moods and memories competed with each other; when positive moods prevailed over negative memories, people demonstrated classic mechanisms shown in prior work to influence well-being. When negative moods prevailed over positive memories, memories became negatively tainted. Our results have implications for new well-being interventions and technologies that capitalize on the interconnectedness of memory and emotion.

  19. Final deposition of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this

  20. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  1. Boreholes and temperature logs from the Tibetan Plateau and Northeast China, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Four groups of borehole data from the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau are presented. 1) Boreholes at three sites, with sand surface, natural surface, and near a sand...

  2. Using RFID Positioning Technology to Construct an Automatic Rehabilitation Scheduling Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Sheng; Hung, Lun-Ping; Yen, Neil Y

    2016-01-01

    Accurately and efficiently identifying the location of patients during the course of rehabilitation is an important issue. Wireless transmission technology can reach this goal. Tracking technologies such as RFID (Radio frequency identification) can support process improvement and improve efficiencies of rehabilitation. There are few published models or methods to solve the problem of positioning and apply this technology in the rehabilitation center. We propose a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of positioning technology and provide information about turns and obstacles on the path; and user-centered services based on location-aware to enhanced quality care in rehabilitation environment. This paper outlines the requirements and the role of RFID in assisting rehabilitation environment. A prototype RFID hospital support tool is established. It is designed to provide assistance for monitoring rehabilitation patients. It can simultaneously calculate the rehabilitant's location and the duration of treatment, and automatically record the rehabilitation course of the rehabilitant, so as to improve the management efficiency of the rehabilitation program.

  3. Informing international UNFCCC technology mechanisms from the ground up: Using biogas technology in South Africa as a case study to evaluate the usefulness of potential elements of an international technology agreement in the UNFCCC negotiations process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of low carbon technologies to developing countries is 1 approach for tackling rising global emissions. An international technology transfer mechanism has been proposed under the UNFCCC; however, it remains unclear how this international mechanism would translate into local level technology implementation. This study uses biogas technology in South Africa to obtain empirical data inductively related to technology transfer. Observations and activities specific to the biogas sector in South Africa are put forward based on site visits and stakeholder discussions in South Africa, the UK, Germany and Sweden. This paper presents empirical findings on technology transfer in the biogas sector in South Africa and analyses the role of an international technology mechanism in supporting the uptake of biogas. Many of the barriers to biogas technology in South Africa are national level constraints such as lack of supportive policy environment, financial incentives and information sharing. This case study supports the argument that it will be unrealistic for international technology mechanisms to capture the necessary specificities of individual technologies at a country level. Therefore, as demonstrated through the example of biogas technology in South Africa, there is a need for both effective national and international engagement to support technology implementation. - Highlights: ► The UNFCCC technology mechanism aims to increase low carbon technology deployment. ► The interface of global technology frameworks and national implementation is unclear. ► Biogas is a widely used technology yet its uptake in South Africa (SA) is minimal. ► Empirical data is gathered from biogas sites in SA, UK, Germany and Sweden. ► Findings show biogas uptake in SA requires national and international support

  4. Numerical procedure for determining pressure limits on borehole instability problems; Procedimento numerico para determimacao dos limites de pressao em problemas de instabilidade de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, A.L. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Tecnologia em Computacao Grafica (TecGraf); Vargas Junior, E.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Vaz, L.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Estruturas; Goncalves, C.J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the boreholes projects, the minimization of the instability problems is extreme importance. In the boreholes instability analysis, two failure mechanisms are generally considered, namely, failure due to either tensile or compressive stresses. Considering these mechanisms, the correct determination of the lower and upper limits of pressures, generated by the drilling fluid in the walls of the boreholes, is an alternative for minimization of the instability problems. The mechanisms of compression or tensile failure can be described in terms of mechanical and fluid flow responses of the transient fluid mechanical coupling problem. This paper proposes a numerical procedure, using finite elements, of the coupled fluid mechanical processes, for automatically determining the lower and upper limits of pressures on the walls of borehole, to ensure, according assumptions and criteria of failure pre-established, the stability of the same. The automatic obtaining those values has the purpose of replace the approximate obtaining by trial and error processes. A hypothetical example of application is show, and from this, inferred considerations about the proposed procedure. (author)

  5. Borehole radar for oil production monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.

    2012-01-01

    The area of smart well technology, or closed-loop reservoir management, aims at enhancing oil recovery through a combination of monitoring and control. Monitoring is performed with a wide range of sensors deployed downhole or at the surface. These sensors allow for capturing changes in the reservoir

  6. Artificial Recharge via Boreholes Using Treated Wastewater: Possibilities and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Voudouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in artificial recharge of groundwater using pretreated wastewater continues to increase, especially in semi-arid countries. After the artificial recharge and natural treatment, the water could be extracted through boreholes pumping for direct irrigation. The selection of suitable locations for artificial recharge should be based on hydrogeological conditions, economic evaluation and environmental considerations. Clogging of boreholes that are used for artificial recharge is a serious problem and requires proper planning to reduce it. This paper deals with the investigation of the possibilities and prospects of aquifer recharge via boreholes using treated wastewater. Firstly, the aquifer recharge techniques, the proposed criteria of waste and the clogging effect are presented. Secondly, the possibility of application of artificial recharge in the South-Eastern Mesaoria aquifer of Cyprus is examined. Based on hydrogeological results, artificial recharge using tertiary treated wastewater via boreholes is one of the options available for increasing the groundwater reserves of this aquifer. The recycled water will infiltrate through gravel pack, providing favorable conditions for ventilation and laminar flow due to small water flow velocity. The treatment works include the removal of the fat, oil and grease (FOG and cyanides (CN− content in order to meet the upper acceptable limits.

  7. Surface waves in a cylindrical borehole through partially-saturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... viscous fluids. In the present work, a similar formulation is used to study the propagation of .... vanishing of aggregate radial stress as well as tangential stress at the boundary of porous solid. 140. Boreholes .... porous solid should travel with velocity smaller than all the four body waves in the medium. 194.

  8. Evaluation of Groundwater Potentials for Borehole Drilling by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Groundwater Potentials for Borehole Drilling by Integrated Geophysical. Mapping of ... drilling. Six lithologic formations were delineated which included the top soil, clay/shale, fine grained sand, coarse grained sand, fractured bedrock and fresh bedrock. ... properties, geological (composition) and fluid content.

  9. Analysis of Water Quality of the Commercial Borehols Along River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five parameters (Nitrate, Magnesium, Copper, Calcium and Iron) were used to test the quality of water samples collected from twenty two commercial boreholes along the River Yedzeram which is the main river that runs across the Mubi town, using the standard examination of water and waste water of the World Health ...

  10. Short communication: Dairy farm borehole water quality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most farms were compliant; however for combined nitrate and nitrite N, 37 of the farms exceeded the prescribed limit. Similarly, for total coliforms, 45, and for E. coli, 22 of the farms exceeded the acceptable limits. Nine of the farm boreholes were contaminated by N and E. coli. On two of the farms four of the chemical ...

  11. Microbiological quality and metal levels in wells and boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the drinking water suitability of 6 wells and 3 boreholes in periurban communities in Kumasi, between December 2003 and January 2005. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci were enumerated using the standard most probable number method and membrane filtration ...

  12. Borehole depth and regolith aquifer hydraulic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    “black-and-white granite” in the borehole logs were identified as biotite gneiss on the field (Figure 3) This rock type is a member of the migmatite-gneiss complex. It is fine- to medium-grained in texture and decomposes to produce an aquifer of fine- to medium-grained clayey sands or sandy clay. Grain size analysis on three.

  13. Determination of subsurface geological structure with borehole gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.R.; Hearst, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    Conventional gamma-gamma and gravimetric density measurements are routinely gathered for most holes used for underground nuclear tests. The logs serve to determine the subsurface structural geology near the borehole. The gamma-gamma density log measures density of the rock within about 15 cm of the borehole wall. The difference in gravity measured at two depths in a borehole can be interpreted in terms of the density of an infinite, homogeneous, horizontal bed between those depths. When the gravimetric density matches the gamma-gamma density over a given interval it is assumed that the bed actualy exists, and that rocks far from the hole must be the same as those encountered adjacent to the borehole. Conversely, when the gravimetric density differs from the gamma-gamma density it is apparent that the gravimeter is being influenced by a rock mass of different density than that at the hole wall. This mismatch can be a powerful tool to deduce the local structural geology. The geology deduced from gravity mesurements in emplacement hole, U4al, and the associated exploratory hole, UE4al, is an excellent example of the power of the method

  14. Elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole in a poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    studies are of great help in exploration seismology,. e.g., in exploration of oils, gases and hydro-carbons, etc. In the oil industry, acoustic borehole logging ...... We have also computed the group velocity U, through the well known formula given by U = c + k(dc/dk). The non-dimensional group velocity U/Vmin is computed for ...

  15. physicochemical quality of borehole water in abonnema and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    AND ITS PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE. GLORIA N. ... + 0.4, while conductivity values for Briggs and Obonoma compounds were 47.8 and 50.6 µs/cm respectively. However, the study ... boreholes, boiling and filtering of drinking water as well as improved sanitary conditions and personal hygiene were advocated.

  16. Hydrogeological investigations in two boreholes in the Stripa test station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, K.; Almen, K.-E.; Ekman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The investigations included the following: water injection tests in a horizontal core-borehole, Dbh 2; hydrostatic pressure tests in Dbh2; determination of permeability in a vertical core-borehole, Dbh VI. The results of the water injection tests gave very little information due to the fact, that an air cushion was trapped in the borehole. The hydrostatic pressure tests in Dbh 2 were made in that part of the borehole, which is situated beyond the drift (45 - 97 m). Most of the pressure curves were difficult to interpret. The hydrostatic pressure in the section 89 - 97 m (end of the hole) was calculated to 1,67 Mpa. Near the end of the drift (46.00 - 49.71 m) the pressure was 0.22 Mpa. The permeability tests in Dbh VI were performed by measuring the water-flow and hydrostatic pressure in different levels. The calculated average permeability was 6.5x10 -10 m/s

  17. Capture zone simulation for boreholes located in fractured dykes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-04-02

    Apr 2, 2002 ... For more complex flow situations where boundaries are considered, borehole capture zones or catchments ... settings is investigated in an x, y plane. Theory of capture zone simulation using linesink ... Integration of Eq. (2c) would give the pathline distribution, which may be used to backtrack isochrones or ...

  18. Comparing plume characteristics inferred from cross-borehole geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Binley, Andrew; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2012-01-01

    significantly influences results of the moment analysis. We compare results of three cross-borehole geophysical approaches for imaging tracer migration arising from a point injection of water in the unsaturated zone: three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), two-dimensional ground...

  19. Effective borehole design in difficult crystalline rock terrain; a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ebonyi State Police Headquarters, Abakaliki is within the area underlain by the pyroclastic rocks that are generally known to have low prospect for groundwater. Yet, a borehole with sustainable yield was required to supply part of the increased population of the barracks through a newly constructed 40,000 litres ...

  20. The application of sedimentology in the characterization of borehole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Produced sand thus must be stopped, while allowing formation fluid to pass into the borehole. Two measures of sand control for the Ajali and Nanka fluid production are discussed herewith; a screen placed at the reservoir interval and a gravel pack in the screen-hole annulus. Gravel pack character and screen slots design ...

  1. X-ray inspection for boreholes in intact trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Hemming, J.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray systems are commonly used for luggage inspection. The size of these systems is sufficient for inspection of intact trees. The first objective of this study is to determine whether such an X-ray system is able to visualise boreholes in intact trees. The present study is partly based on human

  2. Contamination of boreholes water by 76 pesticides molecules in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis campaign of underground water was done in 2010 on five boreholes water samples situated in agricultural cotton zone. The obtained results showed the presence of various active matters of at least 76 residues of pesticides, especially insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, with accumulated contents which could ...

  3. Surface waves in a cylindrical borehole through partially-saturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Sharma

    published online 14 February 2018. Propagation of surface waves is discussed in a cylindrical borehole through a liquid-saturated porous solid of infinite extent. ...... 1992). In the dictionary of exploration geophysics, pseudo-Rayleigh waves are identified as the ground roll, which is a particular type of surface wave that.

  4. Assessment of Heavy Metal Status of Boreholes in Calabar South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Heavy Metal Status of Boreholes in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. GN Njar, AI Iwara, RA Offiong, TD Deekor. Abstract. Although, many heavy metals are necessary in small amounts for the normal development of the biological cycles, most of them become toxic at high ...

  5. Concentration of Trace Metals in Boreholes in the Ankobra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentration of mercury was higher than 1.0 µg l-1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry season, suggesting anthropogenic origin for mercury in the groundwater. Other trace metals that occurred, but in ...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; and (2) Shots fired in anthracite mines for battery starting or for blasting coal overhangs. No person shall go inside a battery to start the flow of material. (b) Each borehole in coal for explosives shall.... (e) When blasting slab rounds off the solid, opener holes shall not be drilled beyond the rib line...

  7. Development of a geophysical methodology from boreholes for the study of granitic formation storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Masne, D.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization of the fracturation of a granitic formation by the examination of borehole environment. Two types of methods are used. Methods using one borehole only: well logging (electrical and nuclear). Didier logs (electric dipole-dipole), Eric probes (electromagnetic dipole-dipole) and methods between boreholes (grounding). These methods were applied to two boreholes of 500m and 1000 meters drilled into granite at Auriat (France)

  8. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  9. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Luleaa Technical University, Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [El-Tekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates, Goeteborg (Sweden); Ekman, Lennart [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding

  10. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar; Bockgaard, Niclas; Ekman, Lennart

    2011-09-01

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding investigation of the plugs

  11. Technology development for cutting a reactor pressure vessel using a mechanical cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Miyao, Hidehiko; Ooki, Arahiko; Ninomiya, Toshiaki; Koiwai, Masami

    2001-01-01

    On decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the thermal cutting technique such as an oxygen-acetylene gas cutting and a plasma arc cutting are generally used for cutting massive and thick steel structures in consideration with cutting speed and control performance. These techniques generate dust, smoke, aerosol and a large quantity of secondary waste. Mechanical cutting technique has an advantage of small amount of secondary waste, and the metal chips from the kerf recovered easily compared with these thermal cutting technique. The remote mechanical cutting system for highly activated RPV has been developed with the manner which achieves the safety and cost effectiveness. The development has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  12. Research on the mechanical behaviour of an airplane component made by selective laser melting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păcurar Răzvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the presented research consists in the redesign of an airplane component to decrease its weight, without affecting the mechanical behaviour of the component, at the end. Femap NX Nastran and ANSYS FEA programs were used for the shape optimization and for the estimation of the mechanical behaviour of a fixing clamp that was used to sustain the hydraulic pipes that are passing through an airplane fuselage, taking into consideration two types of raw materials – Ti6Al4V and AlSi12 powder from which this component could be manufactured by using the selective laser melting (SLM technology. Based on the obtained results, the airplane component was finally manufactured from titanium alloy using the SLM 250 HL equipment that is available at SLM Solutions GmbH company from Luebeck, in Germany.

  13. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (@@@ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste's decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  14. Climate reconstruction from borehole temperatures influenced by groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, B.; Irvine, D. J.; Tang, W.; Carey, S. K.; Ferguson, G. A. G.; Beltrami, H.; Bense, V.; McKenzie, J. M.; Taniguchi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole climatology offers advantages over other climate reconstruction methods because further calibration steps are not required and heat is a ubiquitous subsurface property that can be measured from terrestrial boreholes. The basic theory underlying borehole climatology is that past surface air temperature signals are reflected in the ground surface temperature history and archived in subsurface temperature-depth profiles. High frequency surface temperature signals are attenuated in the shallow subsurface, whereas low frequency signals can be propagated to great depths. A limitation of analytical techniques to reconstruct climate signals from temperature profiles is that they generally require that heat flow be limited to conduction. Advection due to groundwater flow can thermally `contaminate' boreholes and result in temperature profiles being rejected for regional climate reconstructions. Although groundwater flow and climate change can result in contrasting or superimposed thermal disturbances, groundwater flow will not typically remove climate change signals in a subsurface thermal profile. Thus, climate reconstruction is still possible in the presence of groundwater flow if heat advection is accommodated in the conceptual and mathematical models. In this study, we derive a new analytical solution for reconstructing surface temperature history from borehole thermal profiles influenced by vertical groundwater flow. The boundary condition for the solution is composed of any number of sequential `ramps', i.e. periods with linear warming or cooling rates, during the instrumented and pre-observational periods. The boundary condition generation and analytical temperature modeling is conducted in a simple computer program. The method is applied to reconstruct climate in Winnipeg, Canada and Tokyo, Japan using temperature profiles recorded in hydrogeologically active environments. The results demonstrate that thermal disturbances due to groundwater flow and climate

  15. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lester, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, B. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  16. Hydromechanical analyses of the hydraulic stimulation of borehole Basel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz R., Adrián E.; Renner, Jörg; Jung, Reinhard

    2011-06-01

    We analysed the response of the underground penetrated by borehole Basel 1 to two pumping sequences, a pre-stimulation test (flow rate up to 10 L min-1) followed by a step-up stimulation (starting from 10 L min-1 up to 3380 L min-1), performed to generate a heat exchanger at about 5 km depth. Throughout the test sequences an increase in flow rate resulted in an increase in injection pressure. Yet, sudden pressure drops (≲0.1 MPa) as well as a continuous decrease in pressure occurred at constant flow rates above 100 L min-1. Analysis of the pre-stimulation record strongly suggests the existence of a vertical fracture prior to stimulation. We focused on two contrasting scenarios in fracture height and normalized fracture conductivity out of the range of possible geometrical characteristics of this pre-existent fracture as constrained by numerical modelling. Independent of chosen scenario, the initially modest pressure increase can only be modelled by hydraulic properties that change with fluid-pressure. The spatio-temporal characteristics of the pressure distributions differ significantly for the two scenarios; the 'formation linear flow'-like pattern found for the scenario with the larger fracture height of 100 m matches geometrically better with the oblate seismic cloud than the 'radial flow'-like pattern found for the smaller fracture height of 10 m. It is problematic to explain the drops in pressure observed at constant flow rate by lateral or vertical extension of the pre-existent vertical fracture in classical tensile hydrofracturing mode considering the persistent increase in pressure with every step-up in flow rate throughout the entire stimulation and the lack of reproducible and distinct instantaneous shut-in pressures. We suggest shearing and wing-extension of the pre-existent fracture(s) as an alternative mechanism since this mechanism (a) is consistent with the absence of a distinct breakdown in pressure, (b) can be initiated at fluid pressures below

  17. Borehole plugging experiment in OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.

    2006-04-01

    Sealing of investigation boreholes has been studied by Svensk Koernbroenslehantering AB (SKB) and Posiva Oy (Posiva) as a part of final disposal research. The proposed principle is that investigation boreholes drilled at a site must not act as a continuous flow path for groundwater but be sealed to become as tight as the surrounding rock. As a part of the investigations SKB and Posiva started the third phase of the joint project 'Cleaning and sealing of investigation boreholes' in 2005. One of the sub-projects was the plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto. The aim of the experiment was to test all main procedures of borehole sealing concept in practise in a deep borehole. Borehole KR24 was drilled to the depth of 551.11 metres in 2003 and it was located inside the shaft profile in Onkalo. From the surface to the depth of about 120 m the borehole diameter is 98 mm. The rest of the borehole is 75.7 mm in diameter. The borehole is vertical and the inclination is quite accurately 90 degrees. The plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 consisted of four main activities: (1) cleaning of the borehole, (2) characterization of the borehole (3) selective stabilisation of the borehole, and (4) emplacement of plugs. The comprehensive cleaning of the borehole was to be done in the first stage to provide the basis for other activities. The aim of characterization was to study the borehole in order to determine the sections for selective stabilisation and the locations for plugs. The characterization phase consisted of caliper measurements, dummy probing and optical borehole imaging (OBI). The aim of selective stabilisation was to show that selected borehole sections can be stabilised using new techniques and methods. One borehole section was reamed from Ω 76 mm to Ω 98 mm. The reamed borehole section should have been filled with sufficient amount of cement-based material to achieve a stable 'concrete tube' after redrilling, but due to encountered problems and

  18. Construction of Interactive Teaching System for Course of Mechanical Drawing Based on Mobile Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching aim of Mechanical Drawing is to cultivate the students' graphics interpreting ability, plotting ability, inter-space imagination and innovation ability. For engineering students in China Universities, Mechanical Drawing course with the characteristics of 3D and 2D inter-space transformation, is often difficult to master. The ordinary dull teaching method is not enough for stimulating students’ spatial imagination capability, interest in learning, and cannot meet teachers’ teaching needs to explain complicated graphs relationships. In this paper, we design an interactive teaching system based on mobile augmented reality to improve the learning efficiency of Mechanical Drawing course. To check the effect of the proposed system, we carried out a case study of course teaching of Mechanical Drawing. The results demonstrate that the class for which interactive teaching system based on mobile augmented reality technology was adopted is significantly superior to the class for which the ordinary dull teaching approach was adopted with regard to the degree of proficiency of course key and difficult points content,spatial imagination capability, students’ interest in learning and study after class, especially in respect of students’ learning interest and spatial imagination capability.

  19. Analyzing Neutrophil Morphology, Mechanics, and Motility in Sepsis: Options and Challenges for Novel Bedside Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Molema, Grietje; Plötz, Frans B

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in neutrophil morphology (size, shape, and composition), mechanics (deformability), and motility (chemotaxis and migration) have been observed during sepsis. We combine summarizing features of neutrophil morphology, mechanics, and motility that change during sepsis with an investigation into their clinical utility as markers for sepsis through measurement with novel technologies. We performed an initial literature search in MEDLINE using search terms "neutrophil," "morphology," "mechanics," "dynamics," "motility," "mobility," "spreading," "polarization," "migration," and "chemotaxis." We then combined the results with "sepsis" and "septic shock." We scanned bibliographies of included articles to identify additional articles. Final selection was done after the authors reviewed recovered articles. We included articles based on their relevance for our review topic. When compared with resting conditions, sepsis causes an increase in circulating numbers of larger, more rigid neutrophils that show diminished granularity, migration, and chemotaxis. Combined measurement of these variables could provide a more complete view on neutrophil phenotype manifestation. For that purpose, sophisticated automated hematology analyzers, microscopy, and bedside microfluidic devices provide clinically feasible, high-throughput, and cost-limiting means. We propose that integration of features of neutrophil morphology, mechanics, and motility with these new analytical methods can be useful as markers for diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of sepsis and may even contribute to basic understanding of its pathophysiology.

  20. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Proceedings of the international conference on nascent technologies in the engineering fields of mechanical, electrical, electronics and telecommunication and computer/information technology: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This conference contains papers on grid computing, advanced networking, data mining, biometric technologies, social networks and social aspects of information technology, robotics and mechatronics, advances in manufacturing technology, modelling and simulation of mechanical systems, recent trends in refrigeration and air conditioning, energy conservation and alternative fuels and advances in vibration control and its techniques. It also addresses issues in the field of power generation transmission and distribution, energy management and energy efficiency, applications of power electronics and solid state devices, renewable energy technology, distributed generation and micro grid, drives, controls and automation and power quality. The electronics and telecommunication track received good response in the fields of wired and wireless communication, advanced communications, digital signal processing and its applications, optical and microwave communication, embedded and VLSI technology, micro electronics and nano-technology, antenna applications and solid state devices. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda, E-mail: nuraslinda@uniten.edu.my; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas, E-mail: anas@uniten.edu.my [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the β{sub min} is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the β{sub min}, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the β{sub min}. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  3. Assessment of rock mass quality based on rock quality designation and rock block index. Taking the Borehole BS01 in Beishan HLW disposal repository as example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jian; Wang Ju

    2006-01-01

    Rock mass quality assessment plays an important role in the security for all kinds of large-scale buildings, especially for the underground buildings. In this paper, based on two parameters of RQD and RBI, taking the Borehole BS01 as example, lots of measured data prove that the rock block index can reflect the integrity and corresponding variation of mechanical properties of core from Borehole BS01 to some extent. Meanwhile, the rock mass classification around the Borehole BS01 is given in this paper. Finally, comparison of the results for rock mass assessment between RBI and RQD is made. The research result shows that the rock block index has remarkable significance in engineering and advantages in rock mass quality assessment. (authors)

  4. Optimization of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System Design Using Comprehensive Coupled Simulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Formhals, Julian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) is a promising technology in the development of sustainable, renewable and low-emission district heating concepts. Such systems consist of several components and assemblies like the borehole heat exchangers (BHE), other heat sources (e.g. solarthermics, combined heat and power plants, peak load boilers, heat pumps), distribution networks and heating installations. The complexity of these systems necessitates numerical simulations in the design and planning phase. Generally, the subsurface components are simulated separately from the above ground components of the district heating system. However, as fluid and heat are exchanged, the subsystems interact with each other and thereby mutually affect their performances. For a proper design of the overall system, it is therefore imperative to take into account the interdependencies of the subsystems. Based on a TCP/IP communication we have developed an interface for the coupling of a simulation package for heating installations with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the underground installations. This allows for a co-simulation of all system components, whereby the interaction of the different subsystems is considered. Furthermore, the concept allows for a mathematical optimization of the components and the operational parameters. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system can be ensured and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be realized.

  5. Analysis of decision alternatives of the deep borehole filter restoration problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdildin, Yerkin G.; Abbas, Ali E.

    2016-01-01

    The energy problem is one of the biggest challenges facing the world in the 21st century. The nuclear energy is the fastest-growing contributor to the world energy and uranium mining is the primary step in its chain. One of the fundamental problems in the uranium extraction industry is the deep borehole filter restoration problem. This decision problem is very complex due to multiple objectives and various uncertainties. Besides the improvement of uranium production, the decision makers often need to meet internationally recognized standards (ISO 14001) of labor protection, safety measures, and preservation of environment. The problem can be simplified by constructing the multiattribute utility function, but the choice of the appropriate functional form requires the practical evaluation of different methods. In present work, we evaluate the alternatives of this complex problem by two distinct approaches for analyzing decision problems. The decision maker and the assessor is a Deputy Director General of a transnational corporation. - Highlights: • Analyzes 5 borehole recovery methods across the 4 most important attributes (criteria). • Considers financial, technological, environmental, and safety factors. • Compares two decision analysis approaches and the profit analysis. • Illustrates the assessments of the decision maker's preferences. • Determines that the assumption of independence of attributes yields imprecise recommendations.

  6. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  7. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG. The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  8. EXPERIENCES OF POLISH MECHANICAL HEAT TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLIED TO MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurand Damian Bień

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Poland and in several EU countries, the processing of mixed municipal waste is based on waste treatment in mechanical and biological installations and thermal processing plants. The experience gained from the operation of these installations, particularly in the aspect of material recycling, what is important in an aspect of the circular economy formulation is not satisfactory. To think about a high level of reuse and recycling of municipal waste, which is expected to be at least 65% by 2030, efforts to improve waste quality are needed. Certainly, one of the solution is a selective collection of waste at source, but here it is important to say that it should be conducted at a real high level. How costly it is, many countries already know. In search of other methods the UK countries are turning their attention to mechanical heat treatment technology. In Poland there is one such installation so the idea of this paper is discuss issues connected with it. The practical experience of operating of this installations shows so far that the process gives an ability to match good process parameters to a variable input. The very good quality of secondary raw materials obtained in the process has a higher attractiveness to the final consumer. Also levels of recycling for the four fractions of waste, such as: paper, metals, plastics and glass are high and exceeds significantly factors achieved in the process of mechanical and biological treatment.

  9. 3D joint inversion of gravity-gradient and borehole gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Meixia; Yang, Qingjie; Huang, Danian

    2017-12-01

    Borehole gravity is increasingly used in mineral exploration due to the advent of slim-hole gravimeters. Given the full-tensor gradiometry data available nowadays, joint inversion of surface and borehole data is a logical next step. Here, we base our inversions on cokriging, which is a geostatistical method of estimation where the error variance is minimised by applying cross-correlation between several variables. In this study, the density estimates are derived using gravity-gradient data, borehole gravity and known densities along the borehole as a secondary variable and the density as the primary variable. Cokriging is non-iterative and therefore is computationally efficient. In addition, cokriging inversion provides estimates of the error variance for each model, which allows direct assessment of the inverse model. Examples are shown involving data from a single borehole, from multiple boreholes, and combinations of borehole gravity and gravity-gradient data. The results clearly show that the depth resolution of gravity-gradient inversion can be improved significantly by including borehole data in addition to gravity-gradient data. However, the resolution of borehole data falls off rapidly as the distance between the borehole and the feature of interest increases. In the case where the borehole is far away from the target of interest, the inverted result can be improved by incorporating gravity-gradient data, especially all five independent components for inversion.

  10. Device useful as a borehole fluid sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.

    2018-01-09

    The present invention provides a device comprising: (a) a proximal end of the device comprises an inner first conduit within the lumen of an outer second conduit, (b) a distal end of the device comprises the outer second conduit in fluid communication with a third conduit and a fourth conduit through a Y-shaped, T-shaped or U-shaped junction, (c) the third conduit terminates in a triggering mechanism, and (d) the fourth conduit is in fluid communication through a one-way valve, wherein fluid can only convey in a direction from the fourth conduit towards the second outer conduit, with an aperture.

  11. Temporal and spatial changes of radon concentration in borehole water (Little Carpathians Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smetanová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The 222Rn activity concentration in ground water from four boreholes was investigated from January 2006 to June 2008. The boreholes are situated in the region of the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory in Modra-Piesok (Little Carpathians Mts., 40 km NW from Bratislava, Slovakia. Three boreholes have been drilled in Lower Triassic quartzite. Another borehole has been drilled in granodiorite of the Modra massif in which the quartzite is folded. Temporal and spatial differences in radon concentration were observed. Significant short-term variations were noticed in all boreholes. Precipitation caused the changes of water level and strongly affected the values of 222Rn activity concentration in less deep boreholes. The measured activities in boreholes ranged approximately over 1–240 kBq/m3.

  12. Infusion of Emerging Technologies and New Teaching Methods into the Mechanical Engineering Curriculum at the City College of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delale, Feridun; Liaw, Benjamin M.; Jiji, Latif M.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Yu, Honghui

    2011-01-01

    From October 2003 to April 2008 a systemic reform of the Mechanical Engineering program at The City College of New York was undertaken with the goal of incorporating emerging technologies (such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), intelligent systems) and new teaching methodologies (such as project based…

  13. Uranium borehole logging using delayed or prompt fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, G.; Wuerz, H.

    1977-04-01

    The measurement of induced fission neutrons using Cf 252 and 14 MeV neutrons is a sensitive method for an in situ determination of Uranium. Applying this methods requires a unique relation between concentration of Uranium and intensity of induced fission neutrons. A discussion of parameters influencing the determination of concentration is given. A simple method is developed allowing an elemination of the geochemistry of the deposit and of the borehole configuration. Borehole probes using the methods described are of considerable help during the phase of detailed exploration of uranium ore deposits. These on-line tools allow an immediate determination of concentration. Thus avoiding the expensive and time consuming step of core drilling and subsequent chemical analysis. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10 -16 m 2 to 10 -18 m 2 (10 -4 darcy to 10 -6 ). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ''heal'' or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required

  15. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  16. Review of geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil

    2013-09-01

    In this report a compilation of recent geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in Sweden is presented. The goal of the study has been limited to identifying and briefly describing such geoscientific information of relevance to disposal in deep boreholes that was not available at the time when previous compilations were made. Hence, the study is not to be regarded as a general up-date of new geoscientific information. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes has been studied in Sweden since the second half of the 1980s. The currently studied concept has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. In this concept the spent fuel elements are encapsulated in cylindrical steel canisters that are joined together in strings of 40 canisters and lowered into five kilometres deep boreholes. Ten such strings are stacked between three and five kilometres depth separated from each other by concrete plugs. The study started with a review of boreholes that have been reported after the previous reviews that were published in 1998 and 2004. A total of 12 boreholes of potential relevance were identified. Further study showed that only four out of these holes penetrated into crystalline rock. Two of these were deemed to be less relevant because they were drilled in areas with much higher geothermal gradient than in the parts of the Fennoscandian shield that realistically could host a Swedish deep borehole repository. Of the two remaining boreholes, only one, a geoscientific hole drilled at Outokumpu in Finland, is associated with a reasonably complete geoscientific data set. It is worth mentioning that a large part of this hole is drilled through meta sedimentary rock (mica schist) rather than granitic rock. The information collected and reviewed has been gathered under the headings hydraulic conditions, geothermal conditions, hydrogeochemical conditions, bacteriological activity and rock mechanical properties. Only

  17. Review of geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report a compilation of recent geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in Sweden is presented. The goal of the study has been limited to identifying and briefly describing such geoscientific information of relevance to disposal in deep boreholes that was not available at the time when previous compilations were made. Hence, the study is not to be regarded as a general up-date of new geoscientific information. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes has been studied in Sweden since the second half of the 1980s. The currently studied concept has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. In this concept the spent fuel elements are encapsulated in cylindrical steel canisters that are joined together in strings of 40 canisters and lowered into five kilometres deep boreholes. Ten such strings are stacked between three and five kilometres depth separated from each other by concrete plugs. The study started with a review of boreholes that have been reported after the previous reviews that were published in 1998 and 2004. A total of 12 boreholes of potential relevance were identified. Further study showed that only four out of these holes penetrated into crystalline rock. Two of these were deemed to be less relevant because they were drilled in areas with much higher geothermal gradient than in the parts of the Fennoscandian shield that realistically could host a Swedish deep borehole repository. Of the two remaining boreholes, only one, a geoscientific hole drilled at Outokumpu in Finland, is associated with a reasonably complete geoscientific data set. It is worth mentioning that a large part of this hole is drilled through meta sedimentary rock (mica schist) rather than granitic rock. The information collected and reviewed has been gathered under the headings hydraulic conditions, geothermal conditions, hydrogeochemical conditions, bacteriological activity and rock mechanical properties. Only

  18. Nitrates and nitrites content of water boreholes and packaged water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrate and nitrite levels were determined in forty-three water samples obtained from different locations in Calabar using colorimetric methods. Twenty-three of these samples were packaged water while twenty were borehole water. Nitrate levels were found to be 24.28 ± 9.30μg/ml and 34.57 ± 14.56µ/ml for packaged water ...

  19. High resolution temperature measurements in the borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, H.; Heidinger, P.; Šafanda, Jan; Čermák, Vladimír; Burkhardt, H.; Popov, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2004), s. 813-819 ISSN 1086-9379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0997; GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) WI687/17-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : temperature measurements * borehole * Mexico Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2004

  20. Bacteriological analysis of borehole water in Uli, Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from four different boreholes within Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria, were collected for five consecutive weeks for bacteriological analysis to assess the potability.The range of the means was from 1.5x102 to 5.9x104 cfu ml-1 for total aerobic bacterial load, 9 to 136 MPN per 100ml for total coliforms and 4 to 74 ...

  1. Physicochemical quality of borehole water in Abonnema and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical quality of borehole water in Abonnema and its public health importance. ... The result of the analysis showed that the pH values across the zones had a mean range of 6.2 + 0.2 to 6.8 + 0.4, while conductivity values for Briggs and Obonoma compounds were 47.8 and 50.6 μs/cm respectively. However, the ...

  2. Quality control of radioactive waste disposal container for borehole project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Azhar Azmi; Ilham Mukhriz Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explained quality control of radioactive disposal container for the borehole project. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) is one of the quality tool used for evaluating the product. The disposal container is made of 316L stainless steel. The suitable NDT method for this object is radiography, ultrasonic, penetrant and eddy current testing. This container will be filled with radioactive capsules and cement mortar is grouted to fill the gap. The results of NDT measurements are explained and discussed. (author)

  3. New insights into the molecular mechanisms of biomembrane structural changes and interactions by optical biosensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Hirst, Daniel J; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Biomolecular-membrane interactions play a critical role in the regulation of many important biological processes such as protein trafficking, cellular signalling and ion channel formation. Peptide/protein-membrane interactions can also destabilise and damage the membrane which can lead to cell death. Characterisation of the molecular details of these binding-mediated membrane destabilisation processes is therefore central to understanding cellular events such as antimicrobial action, membrane-mediated amyloid aggregation, and apoptotic protein induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilisation. Optical biosensors have provided a unique approach to characterising membrane interactions allowing quantitation of binding events and new insight into the kinetic mechanism of these interactions. One of the most commonly used optical biosensor technologies is surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and there have been an increasing number of studies reporting the use of this technique for investigating biophysical analysis of membrane-mediated events. More recently, a number of new optical biosensors based on waveguide techniques have been developed, allowing membrane structure changes to be measured simultaneously with mass binding measurements. These techniques include dual polarisation interferometry (DPI), plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy (PWR) and optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy (OWLS). These techniques have expanded the application of optical biosensors to allow the analysis of membrane structure changes during peptide and protein binding. This review provides a theoretical and practical overview of the application of biosensor technology with a specific focus on DPI, PWR and OWLS to study biomembrane-mediated events and the mechanism of biomembrane disruption. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas Permeability Evolution Mechanism and Comprehensive Gas Drainage Technology for Thin Coal Seam Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangtian Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A thin coal seam mined as a protective coal seam above a gas outburst coal seam plays a central role in decreasing the degree of stress placed on a protected seam, thus increasing gas permeability levels and desorption capacities to dramatically eliminate gas outburst risk for the protected seam. However, when multiple layers of coal seams are present, stress-relieved gas from adjacent coal seams can cause a gas explosion. Thus, the post-drainage of gas from fractured and de-stressed strata should be applied. Comprehensive studies of gas permeability evolution mechanisms and gas seepage rules of protected seams close to protective seams that occur during protective seam mining must be carried out. Based on the case of the LongWall (LW 23209 working face in the Hancheng coal mine, Shaanxi Province, this paper presents a seepage model developed through the FLAC3D software program (version 5.0, Itasca Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MI, USA from which gas flow characteristics can be reflected by changes in rock mass permeability. A method involving theoretical analysis and numerical simulation was used to analyze stress relief and gas permeability evolution mechanisms present during broken rock mass compaction in a goaf. This process occurs over a reasonable amount of extraction time and in appropriate locations for comprehensive gas extraction technologies. In using this comprehensive gas drainage technological tool, the safe and efficient co-extraction of thin coal seams and gas resources can be realized, thus creating a favorable environment for the safe mining of coal and gas outburst seams.

  5. Transactions of the 9th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology. Vol. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    More than 850 papers have been submitted for presentation during SMIRT-9. Most of these contributions will be published as usual in Volumes B to N of the Transactions. Volume A contains a comprehensive index covering all contributions included in the Transactions of SMIRT-9. The reader will thus find easily volume and page number of all contributions in this volume A. To further facilitate the use of the Transactions of SMIRT-9 during and after the conference an authors index has been prepared and is included in volume A. The more than 2000 authors are listed in alphabetical order. In many papers more or less commonly used abbreviations are used. We found that a certain number of abbreviations such as JGSCC or MSBR are widely used but not necessarily understood by all those interested in the field of structural mechanics in reactor technology. Sometimes the exact meaning of an abbreviation is familiar to a small group of experts exclusively. Therefore we prepared a list of frequently used abbreviations. SMIRT-Conferences traditionally bring together specialists coming from all different branches of mechanics in reactor technology. Hopefully this compilation will be useful for a more efficient interdisciplinary exchange of ideas. Finally 45 papers have arrived here after volumes B to N had been sent already for printing. These contributions are also included in volume A and they are regrouped according to the Division of the scientific program of SMIRT-9 in which they have been accepted for presentation. All these papers are separately indexed in the database. (orig./HP)

  6. Core-logs of the vertical borehole V2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Egerth, T.; Westlund, B.; Olsson, T.

    1982-08-01

    In the hydrogeological programme of the Stripa Project, borehole V2 was prolonged to a final depth of 822 m. The previous core from 0-471.4 m was relogged. The drill core was logged with regard to rock characteristics, fracture frequency, dipping and filling. The results are presented as core-logs and fracture diagrams. Borehole V2 shows similar characteristics as found in other drillings in the Stripa Mine. It penetrates Stripa granite to its full depth. recorded fractures shows a clear predominance of medium-steep fractures, while flat-lying fractures are more sparsly occuring, a fact which is even more pronounced below 400 m depth. Due to the vertical direction of the borehole, steeply dipping fractures are underestimated in the core. The mean fracture frequency, related to the total length of the core, is 2.1 fractures/m. Chlorite, calcite and epidote are the dominating coating minerals in the fractures, each making up about 25-30 percent of all coated fractures. (Authors)

  7. Pulsed neutron uranium borehole logging with prompt fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivens, H.M.; Smith, G.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    The gross count natural gamma log normally used for uranium borehole logging is seriously affected by disequilibrium. Methods for the direct measurement of uranium, such as neutron logging, which are not affected by disequilibrium have been the object of considerable effort in recent years. This paper describes a logging system for uranium which uses a small accelerator to generate pulses of 14 MeV neutrons to detect and assay uranium by the measurement of prompt fission neutrons in the epithermal energy range. After an initial feasibility study, a prototype logging probe was built for field evaluation which began in January 1976. Physical and operational characteristics of the prototype probe, the neutron tube-transformer assembly, and the neutron tube are described. In logging operations, only the epithermal prompt fission neutrons detected between 250 microseconds to 2500 microseconds following the excitation neutron pulse are counted. Comparison of corrected neutron logs with the conventional gross count natural gamma logs and the chemical assays of cores from boreholes are shown. The results obtained with this neutron probe clearly demonstrate its advantages over the gross count natural gamma log, although at this time the accuracy of the neutron log assay is not satisfactory under some conditions. The necessary correction factors for various borehole and formation parameters are being determined and, when applied, should improve the assay accuracy

  8. Analysis of groundwater from deep boreholes in Gideaa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, S.

    1983-03-01

    Groundwaters from two boreholes in granitic rock at an ivestigation site in Gideaa has been sampled and analysed. This is part of a larger program of geological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigations aimed at finding a suitable site for a high level radioactive waste respository. Five water-bearing levels in each borehole down to the deepest at about 500 m in the first and about 600 m in the second borehole were selected. Prior to sampling, the waterbearing level is isolated between packer sleeves. The water is then pumped to the surface where sensitive parameters such as redox potential, pH, sulphide and oxygen content are measured electrochemically on the flowing water in a system isolated from the air. Water, filter and gas samples are sent to several laboratories for further analysis. The present report is a presentation of the groundwater analysis. The reliability of the results is discussed but there is no evaluation relation to geology and hydrogeology. This report presents the basic results from the groundwater analyses to be further evaluated by experts in different fields. (Forf)

  9. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  10. Borehole disposal of spent radiation sources: 1. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blerk, J.J. van; Kozak, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Large numbers of spent radiation sources from the medical and other technical professions exist in many countries, even countries that do not possess facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, that have to be disposed. This is particularly the case in Africa, South America and some members of the Russian Federation. Since these sources need to be handled separately from the other types of radioactive waste, mainly because of their activity to volume ratio, countries (even those with access to operational repositories) find it difficult to manage and dispose this waste. This has led to the use of boreholes as disposal units for these spent sources by some members of the Russian Federation and in South Africa. However, the relatively shallow boreholes used by these countries are not suitable for the disposal of isotopes with long half-lifes, such as 226 Ra and 241 Am. With this in mind the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa initiated the development of the BOSS disposal concept - an acronym for Borehole disposal Of Spent Sources - as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) AFRA I-14 Technical Corporation (TC) project. In this paper, the principles of this disposal concept, which is still under development, will be discussed. (author)

  11. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ontario, current treatment for eligible patients who have an acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). However, there are some limitations and contraindications to IVT, and outcomes may not be favourable for patients with stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. An alternative is mechanical thrombectomy with newer devices, and a number of recent studies have suggested that this treatment is more effective for improving functional independence and clinical outcomes. The objective of this health technology assessment was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices (with or without IVT) compared to IVT alone (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature, limited to randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers and thromboaspiration devices for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) versus IVT alone (if eligible), calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios using a 5-year time horizon, and conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates. Results There was a substantial, statistically significant difference in rate of functional independence (GRADE: high quality) between those who received mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) and IVT alone (odds ratio [OR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88–3.04). We did not observe a difference in mortality (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07) or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.66–1.87). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, which had a 5 year time horizon, the costs and effectiveness for

  12. Can interactive educational technologies support the link between ultrasound theory and practice via feedback mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Linking theory to practice is an area of concern for ultrasound students, clinical mentors and academic staff. The link between theory and practice requires a robust clinical mentorship scheme in addition to careful curricula design considerations to improve student outcomes. The introduction of interactive technology in education provides ripe opportunity to improve feedback to students to support the link between theory and practice. A series of three interactive learning and teaching activities were designed and delivered to a PostGraduate Ultrasound cohort, after which, evaluation was performed to answer the research question: Which interactive technologies support the link between theory and practice through improved feedback mechanisms? An action research methodology was adopted involving an enquiry based literature review, planning, design and action process. Data were collected following action of three interactive teaching and learning sessions within the Medical Ultrasound cohort of 2013/2014 at Glasgow Caledonian University via a paper based questionnaire. A 100% response rate was achieved (n = 14). All three interactive learning and teaching sessions were considered with 100% highest point agreement to support the link between ultrasound theory and practice via feedback. Students found all three designed and facilitated sessions valuable and relevant to their learning, which in turn provided positive experiences which were perceived to support the link between theory and practice through feedback. These activities can be considered valuable in Postgraduate Ultrasound education.

  13. Miniaturized fiber-optic ultrasound probes for endoscopic tissue analysis by micro-opto-mechanical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannacci, E; Belsito, L; Mancarella, F; Ferri, M; Veronese, G P; Roncaglia, A; Biagi, E

    2014-06-01

    A new Micro-Opto-Mechanical System (MOMS) technology for the fabrication of optoacoustic probes on optical fiber is presented. The technology is based on the thermoelastic emission of ultrasonic waves from patterned carbon films for generation and on extrinsic polymer Fabry-Perot acousto-optical transducers for detection, both fabricated on miniaturized single-crystal silicon frames used to mount the ultrasonic transducers on the tip of an optical fiber. Thanks to the fabrication process adopted, high miniaturization levels are reached in the MOMS devices, demonstrating fiber-optic emitters and detectors with minimum diameter around 350 and 250 μm respectively. A thorough functional testing of the ultrasound emitters mounted on 200 and 600 μm diameter optical fibers is presented, in which the fiber-optic emitter with a diameter of 200 μm shows generated acoustic pressures with peak-to-peak value up to 2.8 MPa with rather flat emission spectra extended beyond 150 MHz. The possibility to use the presented optoacoustic sources in conjunction with the fiber-optic acousto-optical detectors within a minimally invasive probe is also demonstrated by successfully measuring the ultrasonic echo reflected from a rigid surface immersed in water with various concentration of scatterers. The resulting spectra highlight the possibility to discriminate the effects due to frequency selective attenuation in a very wide range of frequencies within a biological medium using the presented fiber-optic probes.

  14. Treatment technologies and mechanisms for three odorants at trace level: IPMP, IBMP, and TCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yong; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Odour episodes caused by algal metabolites are gaining more and more attention in recent years. Besides geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) have emerged to be important off-flavour sources. Their low odour threshold concentrations (several ng ·L(-1)), which are even lower than those of MIB and geosmin, pose challenges for treatment strategies. Hence, a practical and efficient mitigation technology is needed. The possible practical technologies, including powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and oxidation by chlorine and potassium permanganate, were investigated. The results indicated that chlorine and potassium permanganate oxidation of the three odorants were unfeasible while PAC adsorption was effective. As for adsorption, TCA, followed by IBMP and IPMP, was most easily removed by PAC. The Freundlich model could well describe the adsorption isotherm data. The adsorption capacities for IPMP, IBMP, and TCA were described as follows: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]. For five earthy/musty odorants including geosmin and MIB, octanol/water partition coefficient, molecular weight, and polarizability all promoted adsorption while aqueous solubility showed a negative influence. The hydrophobic interaction was believed to be the dominant force in the adsorption mechanism while the π-electron interaction enhanced adsorption when a benzene ring was present. This result could be used to predict the adsorption performance of emerging odorants.

  15. An Analysis of Change Mechanisms in Government Budgets on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies on policy changes have shown that there are limitations of incrementalism and that there no longer exists a general theory that can explain policy change. A number of studies have been conducted to examine policy changes in terms of drastic changes in budgets or policy agenda. According to the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), policy change is punctuated by long periods of stability, and large, but rare, changes due to shifts in society or the government. Although the reasons for these drastic changes are interpreted mainly from external events, the exact mechanisms of these changes are still not known. In this study, we assume that the punctuated budget changes are a result of not only external events but also the bureaucratic power of government departments. We attempt to identify the regularity of budget change pattern due to these internal characteristics (bureaucratic power). In order to understand budget changes caused by external events, especially for science and technology, the ARIMA-Intervention analysis was implemented. The results showed that the ARIMA-Intervention analysis explained the abrupt change in budget well. This means that a change in budget cannot be explained as incrementalism. Also, we analyzed the budget change kurtosis of government department along with various policy and organization types. Normally, a high kurtosis means there is a high probability of a punctuated equilibrium. The results show that science and technology agency as well as productive, delivery, and transfer agencies have a relatively high kurtosis.;

  16. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  17. Hemocompatibility of Axial Versus Centrifugal Pump Technology in Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibilsky, David; Lenglinger, Matthias; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Haller, Christoph; Walker, Tobias; Wendel, Hans Peter; Schlensak, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The hemocompatible properties of rotary blood pumps commonly used in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) are widely unknown regarding specific biocompatibility profiles of different pump technologies. Therefore, we analyzed the hemocompatibility indicating markers of an axial flow and a magnetically levitated centrifugal device within an in vitro mock loop. The HeartMate II (HM II; n = 3) device and a CentriMag (CM; n = 3) adult pump were investigated in a human whole blood mock loop for 360 min using the MCS devices as a driving component. Blood samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for markers of coagulation, complement system, and inflammatory response. There was a time-dependent activation of the coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin complexes [TAT]), complement (SC5b-9), and inflammation system (polymorphonuclear [PMN] elastase) in both groups. The mean value of TAT (CM: 4.0 μg/L vs. 29.4 μg/L, P centrifugal CM device showed significantly lower activation of coagulation and inflammation than that of the HM II axial flow pump. Both HM II and CM have demonstrated an acceptable hemocompatibility profile in patients. However, there is a great opportunity to gain a clinical benefit by developing techniques to lower the blood surface interaction within both pump technologies and a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump design might be superior. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  18. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  19. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country's coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently

  20. Geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging of the borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging surveys of the borehole OL-KR24 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 1.10.2005 - 4.10.2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are caliper survey and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of surveys, interpretation and processing of the data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  1. Express Control of the Mechanical Properties of High-Strength and Hard-to-Machine Materials at All Stages of the Technological Cycle of Producing Mechanical Engineering Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyunin, V. M.; Marchenkov, A. Yu.; Demidov, A. N.; Karimbekov, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    It is shown that depth-sensing indentation can be used to perform express control of the mechanical properties of high-strength and hard-to-machine materials. This control can be performed at various stages of a technological cycle of processing materials and parts without preparing and testing tensile specimens, which will significantly reduce the consumption of materials, time, and labor.

  2. Structures and Mechanisms Design Concepts for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Bryan C.; Arnold, James O.; Gage, Peter J.; Mockelman, Jeffrey; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    System studies have shown that large deployable aerodynamic decelerators such as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) concept can revolutionize future robotic and human exploration missions involving atmospheric entry, descent and landing by significantly reducing the maximum heating rate, total heat load, and deceleration loads experienced by the spacecraft during entry [1-3]. ADEPT and the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) [4] share the approach of stowing the entry system in the shroud of the launch vehicle and deploying it to a much larger diameter prior to entry. The ADEPT concept provides a low ballistic coefficient for planetary entry by employing an umbrella-like deployable structure consisting of ribs, struts and a fabric cover that form an aerodynamic decelerator capable of undergoing hypersonic flight. The ADEPT "skin" is a 3-D woven carbon cloth that serves as a thermal protection system (TPS) and as a structural surface that transfers aerodynamic forces to the underlying ribs [5]. This paper focuses on design activities associated with integrating ADEPT components (cloth, ribs, struts and mechanisms) into a system that can function across all configurations and environments of a typical mission concept: stowed during launch, in-space deployment, entry, descent, parachute deployment and separation from the landing payload. The baseline structures and mechanisms were selected via trade studies conducted during the summer and fall of 2012. They are now being incorporated into the design of a ground test article (GTA) that will be fabricated in 2013. It will be used to evaluate retention of the stowed configuration in a launch environment, mechanism operation for release, deployment and locking, and static strength of the deployed decelerator. Of particular interest are the carbon cloth interfaces, underlying hot structure, (Advanced Carbon- Carbon ribs) and other structural components (nose cap, struts, and

  3. Creating new products in mechanical engineering. Evaluation of the Masina Technology Programme; Uusia tuotteita koneenrakennusalalle. Masina-teknologiaohjelman loppuarviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjaenen, M.; Nikula, J.; Hiltunen, J.; Raivio, T.

    2008-07-01

    The Masina Technology Programme (2001- 2007) focused on developing Finnish mechanical engineering business and research through stimulating mechanical engineering expertise and research, increasing cooperation between enterprises and researchers as well as supporting product development and widening the business focus to service products. The programme aimed also at supporting applied research and broadening the technology platform towards ICT and material technology and service oriented technologies. The background motivation of the programme was to facilitate a transformation process from the traditional mechanical engineering industry to a modern business and research cluster. The programme included 89 corporate R and D projects and 26 public research project. The total volume of the programme was 114 million euro. In total, Tekes allocated 40.5 million to corporate projects and 11.2 million to research projects. It can be concluded that Masina Technology Programme was a successful but traditional programme. New product development was clearly emphasised as the concrete means for the renewal of the industry, and the programme succeeded in strengthening the competitive edge of Finnish mechanical engineering. The results related to new service business were moderate. The future role of technology programmes in the industry links to the new instrument called Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation. Majority of the Tekes programme funding is planned to be channeled through these centres in the future. The centres aim at promoting longer term strategic research activities in selected clusters and this would mean shifting the focus of programmes towards public research activities. At the same time the evaluation results underline the challenges in providing programme services for such a technology-wise fragmented and large audience as mechanical engineering industry

  4. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory ob-servations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and in-nate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with un-certainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  5. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-12-30

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory observations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and innate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with uncertainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  6. The multi-parameter borehole system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSITE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change, which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system is composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station uses the latest update technologies and design ideas to record "Earth tides" signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Additionally, a surface microearthquake observation array, consisting of 8-10 seismometers around the borehole is established to obtain continuous high resolution locations of micro-seismicity and to better understand the existing seismically active structures and their roles in local tectonic settings.Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is

  7. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and

  8. Rock Melt Borehole Sealing System, Final Technical Report for SBIR Phase I Grant No. DE-SC0011888

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osnes, John D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Vining, Cody A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Nopola, Jay R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Roggenthen, William M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Purpose of Research Deep borehole disposal is one option that has received attention in recent years as a possible strategy for long-term disposal of the tens of thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel. The feasibility of the deep borehole option relies upon designing and constructing an effective seal within the borehole to ensure that the waste package does not communicate with the shallow subsurface biosphere through the borehole itself. Some of the uncertainty associated with the long-term suitability of the deep borehole option is related to (1) the degradation of traditional sealing materials over time and (2) the inability of traditional sealing methods to adequately seal a Disturbed Rock Zone surrounding the borehole. One possible system to address these concerns consists of encapsulating the waste in a melt generated from either the waste itself or a plug above the waste. This current project expanded on previous work to further advance the deep borehole disposal concept. Research Objectives & Findings The overarching objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of constructing a downhole heater that is capable of meeting the technical and logistical requirements to melt rock. This ultimate objective was accomplished by two primary approaches. The first approach was to define the heater requirements and conceptually design a system that is capable of melting rock. The second approach was to determine the feasibility of conducting an in situ, field-scale melting experiment to validate the suitability of the rock melt seal concept. The evaluation and conceptual design of the heater system resulted in the following primary findings: • Borehole wall temperatures capable of producing a partial melt are achievable under most expected thermal conductivities with a 12-kilowatt heater. • Commercially available components have been identified that meet the requirements of the heater system, including resistive elements that are capable of providing the

  9. Analytical framework for borehole heat exchanger (BHE) simulation influenced by horizontal groundwater flow and complex top boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jaime; Blum, Philipp; Bayer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers (BHE) are the most widely used technologies for tapping low-enthalpy energy resources in the shallow subsurface. Analysis of these systems requires a proper simulation of the relevant processes controlling the transfer of heat between the BHE and the ground. Among the available simulation approaches, analytical methods are broadly accepted, especially when low computational costs and comprehensive analyses are demanded. Moreover, these methods constitute the benchmark solutions to evaluate the performance of more complex numerical models. Within the spectrum of existing (semi-)analytical models, those based on the superposition of problem-specific Green's functions are particularly appealing. Green's functions can be derived, for instance, for nodal or line sources with constant or transient strengths. In the same manner, functional forms can be obtained for scenarios with complex top boundary conditions whose temperature may vary in space and time. Other relevant processes, such as advective heat transport, mechanical dispersion and heat transfer through the unsaturated zone could be incorporated as well. A keystone of the methodology is that individual solutions can be added up invoking the superposition principle. This leads to a flexible and robust framework for studying the interaction of multiple processes on thermal plumes of BHEs. In this contribution, we present a new analytical framework and its verification via comparison with a numerical model. It simulates a BHE as a line source, and it integrates both horizontal groundwater flow and the effect of top boundary effects due to variable land use. All these effects may be implemented as spatially and temporally variable. For validation, the analytical framework is successfully applied to study cases where highly resolved temperature data is available.

  10. Development of next generation consumable technologies for chemical mechanical planarization of copper/low K devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Jason J.

    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has become the key planarization technology for the fabrication of ultra large-scale integration (ULSI) silicon devices that contain sub-quarter micron metal and dielectric lines. The rapid integration of copper as the interconnect material into IC production has placed a high demand on Cu CMP slurry development. Key issues in CMP today include reduction of surface defectivity and enhancement of planarization efficiency. More specifically, the polished surface should be free of defects such as scratches, pits, corrosion spots, trench copper loss, and residue particles. This dissertation will explore the use of Abrasive Free and Novel Abrasive systems as a plausible solution for the planarization Cu/low K devices. For copper/low K CMP, one of the most promising strategies to accomplishing these goals is an Abrasive-Free Process (AFP). By eliminating abrasive particles from the process, either free or fixed to the pad, it has been anticipated and realized that defects such as severe scratching, particle contamination and slurry instability via particle aggregation or settling will be significantly reduced. In addition, with proper formulation, an abrasive free process can also yield an excellent over polishing window and desired step function of pressure for material removal rate. Coupled with a supramolecular design, some of the characteristic advantages seen in abrasive containing systems, such as step height reduction efficiency, can be realized without the side effects often introduced from solid particles. The second portion of this dissertation deals with the use of novel hydrophobic particles such as diamond and boron nitride. Hydrophobic particles have received much less attention because of issues related to the stability when placed in an aqueous media as well as the inability of the particles to interact with the abraded material. In general the ability of the hydrophobic particle to interact with the oxidized or

  11. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  12. The State of the Art of the Borehole Disposal Concept for High Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung Hoon; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative of the high-level radioactive waste disposal in the subsurface repository, a deep borehole disposal is reviewed by several nuclear advanced countries. In this study, the state of the art on the borehole disposal researches was reviewed, and the possibility of borehole disposal in Korean peninsula was discussed. In the deep borehole disposal concept radioactive waste is disposed at the section of 3 - 5 km depth in a deep borehole, and it has known that it has advantages in performance and cost due to the layered structure of deep groundwater and small surface disposal facility. The results show that it is necessary to acquisite data on deep geologic conditions of Korean peninsula, and to research the engineering barrier system, numerical modeling tools and disposal techniques for deep borehole disposal.

  13. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Agricultural Technician Technology. (Program CIP: 01.0201 - Agricultural Mechanics and Equipment/Machine Technology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jeremy; Louwerens, Shane; Galey, Joe

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  14. Using stochastic borehole seismic velocity tomography and Bayesian simulation to estimate Ni, Cu and Co grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Lorenzo; Gloaguen, Erwan; Rondenay, Stephane; Leite, André; McDowell, Glenn; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In the mining industry, classic methods to build a grade model for ore deposits are based on kriging or cokriging of grades for targeted minerals measured in drill core in fertile geological units. As the complexity of the geological geometry increases, so does the complexity of grade estimations. For example, in layered mafic or ultramafic intrusions, it is necessary to know the layering geometry in order to perform kriging of grades in the most fertile zones. Without additional information on geological framwork, the definition of fertile zones is a low-precision exercise that requires extensive experience and good ability from the geologist. Recently, thanks to computer and geophysical tool improvements, seismic tomography became very attractive for many application fields. Indeed, this non-intrusive technique allows inferring the mechanical properties of the ground using travel times and amplitude analysis of the transmitted wavelet between two boreholes, hence provide additional information on the nature of the deposit. Commonly used crosshole seismic velocity tomography algorithms estimate 2D slowness models (inverse of velocity) in the plane between the boreholes using the measured direct wave travel times from the transmitter (located in one of the hole) to the receivers (located in the other hole). Furthermore, geophysical borehole logging can be used to constrain seismic tomography between drill holes. Finally, this project aims to estimate grade of economically worth mineral by integrating seismic tomography data with respectively drill core measured grades acquired by Vale Inco for one of their mine sites in operation. In this study, a new type algorithm that combines geostatistical simulation and tomography in the same process (namely stochastic tomography) has been used. The principle of the stochastic tomography is based on the straight ray approximation and use the linear relationship between travel time and slowness to estimate the slowness

  15. Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Licastro, P.H.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large-scale testing of the permeability by brine of a salt/grout sample designed to simulate a borehole plug was conducted. The results of these tests showed that a quantity of fluid equivalent to a permeability of 3 microdarcys was collected during the course of the test. This flow rate was used to estimate the smooth bore aperture. Details of this test ware presented in Volume 1 of this report. This report, Volume 2, covers post-test characterization including a detailed study of the salt/grout interface, as well as determination of the physical/mechanical properties of grout samples molded at Terra Tek, Inc. at the time of the large-scale test. Additional studies include heat of hydration, radial stress, and longitudinal volume changes for an equivalent grout mixture

  16. [Screening of anti-aging active ingredients and mechanism analysis based on molecular docking technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ye, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Wen-Kang; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Dampness evil is the source of all diseases, which is easy to cause disease and promote aging, while aging could also promote the occurence and development of diseases. In this paper, the relationship between the dampness evil and aging would be discussed, to find the anti-aging active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and analyze the anti-aging mechanism of dampness eliminating drug. Molecular docking technology was used, with aging-related mammalian target of rapamycin as the docking receptors, and chemical components of Fuling, Sangzhi, Mugua, Yiyiren and Houpo as the docking molecules, to preliminarily screen the anti-aging active ingredients in dampness eliminating drug. Through the comparison with active drugs already on the market (temsirolimus and everolimus), 12 kinds of potential anti-aging active ingredients were found, but their drug gability still needs further study. The docking results showed that various components in the dampness eliminating drug can play anti-aging activities by acting on mammalian target of rapamycin. This result provides a new thought and direction for the method of delaying aging by eliminating dampness. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Polarimetric borehole radar measurement near Nojima fault and its application to subsurface crack characterization; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru Nojima danso shuhen no chika kiretsu keisoku jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Miwa, T.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, R. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Makino, K. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Practical application of subsurface crack characterization by the borehole radar measurement to which the radar polarimetric method was introduced was attempted to measuring objects for which the borehole radar has not been much used, for example, the inside of low loss rock mass or fracture zone where cracks tightly exist. A system was trially manufactured which makes the radar polarimetric measurement possible in the borehole at a 1000m depth and with a about 10cm diameter, and a field experiment was conducted for realizing the subsurface crack characterization near the Nojima fault. For the measuring experiment by the polarimetric borehole radar, used were Iwaya borehole and Hirabayashi borehole drilled in the north of Awaji-shima, Hyogo-ken. In a comparison of both polarization systems of Hirabayashi borehole, reflected waves at depths of 1038m and 1047m are relatively stronger in both polarization systems than those with the same polarization form and at different depths, whereas reflected waves around a 1017m depth are strong only as to the parallel polarization system. Characteristics of the polarization in this experiment indirectly reflect crack structures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy carried out optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2006. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and the data processing. This report describes the field operation, the equipment as well as the processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and PDF format. (orig.)

  19. Model Regulations for Borehole Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication is designed to assist in the development of an appropriate set of regulations for the predisposal management and disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources and small volumes of associated radioactive waste using the IAEA borehole disposal concept. It allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference by those States developing regulations for the first time. The model regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of the existing national legal and regulatory framework and other local conditions in the State.

  20. Detection of unexploded ordnance by PGNAA based borehole-logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Kettler; RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen; Eric Mauerhofer; Marco Steinbusch

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a borehole-logging system, based on prompt-gamma-neutron-activation-analysis (PGNAA), for explosive detection was studied by Monte-Carlo simulations. The prompt gamma of nitrogen, which is a constituent of common explosive, was used to identify the unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our results show that the minimum counting time depends on the soil moisture, the cladding thickness and the explosive composition. In conjunction with the standard detection by magnetometry, the PGNAA is a promising analytical technique for definitive identification of deep buried UXOs. (author)

  1. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Method for detecting cement voids or borehole washouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention, rather than relying on a measure of the thermal neutron population, uses a measurement of the epithermal neutron population by means of two spaced neutron detectors longitudinally spaced from a neutron source with a relatively high intensity neutron flux. Special detectors discriminate against the detection of thermal neutrons. By comparing the compensated porosity measurement using the dual speed detectors with an uncompensated porosity measured by using only one detector the location of borehole washouts or cement voids can be found. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  3. TV borehole inspection and vacuum testing of roof strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herget, G.

    1982-01-01

    To improve quality control of roof conditions, a program was carried out at Elliot Lake uranium mines in Ontario, Canada to test a portable TV camera system. This camera has a 29 mm diameter probe and is capable of identifying crack locations, crack width and approximate dip direction. The extent of fractures in the roof was checked with the aid of a vacuum system by placing packers in various boreholes and checking for communication. The removal of some rock bolts indicated an increase in fracture extent

  4. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included

  5. Determination of Vertical Borehole and Geological Formation Properties using the Crossed Contour Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyde, Brian P; Klein, Sanford A; Nellis, Gregory F; Skye, Harrison

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new method called the Crossed Contour Method for determining the effective properties (borehole radius and ground thermal conductivity) of a vertical ground-coupled heat exchanger. The borehole radius is used as a proxy for the overall borehole thermal resistance. The method has been applied to both simulated and experimental borehole Thermal Response Test (TRT) data using the Duct Storage vertical ground heat exchanger model implemented in the TRansient SYstems Simulation software (TRNSYS). The Crossed Contour Method generates a parametric grid of simulated TRT data for different combinations of borehole radius and ground thermal conductivity in a series of time windows. The error between the average of the simulated and experimental bore field inlet and outlet temperatures is calculated for each set of borehole properties within each time window. Using these data, contours of the minimum error are constructed in the parameter space of borehole radius and ground thermal conductivity. When all of the minimum error contours for each time window are superimposed, the point where the contours cross (intersect) identifies the effective borehole properties for the model that most closely represents the experimental data in every time window and thus over the entire length of the experimental data set. The computed borehole properties are compared with results from existing model inversion methods including the Ground Property Measurement (GPM) software developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Line Source Model.

  6. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research on the bedrock at great depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge

    2006-05-01

    New knowledge in hydrogeology and boring technology have opened the possibility to use deep boreholes as a repository for the Swedish high-level radioactive wastes. The determining property is that the repository can be housed in the stable bedrock at levels where the ground water has no contact with the biosphere and disposal and sealing can take place without disturbing the ground water stratification outside the disposal area. An advantage compared to a shallow repository of KBS-3 type, that is now being planned in Sweden, is that a borehole repository is likely to be technologically more robust, since the concept 'deep boreholes' seems to admit such a deep disposal that the entire disposal area would be surrounded by stable density-layered ground water, while a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by moving ground water in contact with level close to the surface. This hydrological difference is of great importance for the safety in scenarios with leaching of radioactive substances. A deep repository is also less vulnerable for effects from natural events such as glaciation and earthquakes as well as from technological mishaps and terrorist actions. A crucial factor is, however, that the radioactive waste can be disposed of, in a secure way, at the intended depth, which will require new research and technology development

  7. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of disused sealed radioactive sources and other smaller quantities of radioactive waste and to identify areas were further work needs to be undertaken. This report discusses the general considerations related to the safe disposal of disused sealed sources, and other limited quantities of radioactive waste, in boreholes facilities. It is particularly aimed at Member States who do not plan to develop other types of disposal facility for nuclear fuel cycle waste. It is recognized that internationally agreed safety guidance is needed in this area but further development and consultation is required to establish broad international consensus on the appropriate technology and safety requirements

  8. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400

  9. The Development of Productivity Practical Management Model at Automotive Mechanical Technology Skill Program in Semarang Vocational Schools, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadromi; Rachman, Maman; Soesanto; Kartana, Tri Jaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop automotive Mechanical Technology Skill Program (TMO) in Vocational School. The Research and Development (R&D) object was done in SMK 1, 4 and 7 Semarang, Indonesia. The result was achieved productivity Practical Management Final Model at TMO skill Program in Vocational school named momanticproter.…

  10. Specific Pressure and Mechanical Properties of the Alternator Flange from EN AC 47100 Alloy in HPDC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gaspar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The technology HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting of metals represents accurate casting which approximates the most ideal effort of direct change of basic material to finished product. The die casting itself is characterized by mechanical method of casting with the molten metal being forced-in under high pressure (specific pressure into the divided metal mould by a plunger acting upon the melt in the filling chamber. The HPDC technology has in recent years achieved an expansive growth in the volume as well as the range of production and that is particularly in aviation and automobile industry. The presented paper deals with the experimental assessment of the impact of specific pressure on the mechanical properties of the alternator flange from EN AC 47100 in HPDC technology.

  11. a Borehole-Dilution Method for Quantifying Vertical Darcy Fluxes in the Hyporheic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, S. D.; Annable, M. D.; Cho, J.

    2017-12-01

    The borehole dilution method has consistently and successfully been used for estimating local water fluxes, however, this method can be relatively labor intensive and expensive. The focus of this research is aimed at developing a low-cost, borehole dilution method for quantifying vertical water fluxes in the hyporheic zone at the surface-groundwater interface. This would allow for the deployment of multiple units within a targeted surface water body and thus produce high-resolution, spatially distributed data on the infiltration rates over a short period of time with minimal set-up requirements. The device consists of a 2-inch, inner diameter PVC pipe containing short, screened sections in its upper and lower segments. The working unit is driven into the sediment and acts as a continuous flow reactor creating a pathway between the subsurface pore-water and the overlying surface water where the presence of a hydraulic gradient facilitates vertical movement. We developed a simple electrode and tracer-injection system housed within the unit to inject and measure salt tracer concentrations at the desired intervals while monitoring and storing those measurements using open-source Arduino technology. Preliminary lab and field scale trials provided data that was fit to both zero and first order reaction rate functions for analysis. The field test was conducted over approximately one day within a wet retention basin. The initial results estimated a vertical Darcy flux of 113.5 cm/d. Additional testing over a range of expected Darcy fluxes will be presented along with an evaluation considering enhanced water flow due to the high hydraulic conductivity of the device.

  12. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Development of a borehole directional antenna at VHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.T.; Scott, L.

    1984-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing a directional VHF (30 MH/sub z/ to 300 MH/sub z/) antenna to physically fit into a small borehole is investigated. The study was carried out in a test chamber containing a 15 cm diameter borehole surrounded by sand which can be moistened with water or brine to adjust the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. Electric field measurements were made for an eccentrically positioned monopole, a corner reflector and a two-element array for a number of possible configurations. Using an eccentric monopole, the best beamwidth obtained was 78/sup 0/ and the front-to-back ratio was 3.5 db. The front-to-back ratio was increased to 8.5 db when two element arrays were arranged in such a way as to provide the optimum radiation pattern. However, the best results were achieved using a corner reflector: 60/sup 0/ beamwidth and 13 db front-to-back ratio. It is concluded that a directional VHF antenna can be designed for downhole application.

  14. Study of observed microearthquakes at Masada Deep Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, A.; Malin, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seismological measurements, conducted at great depths of several hundred of meters or even a few km, can provide useful information that one cannot get while conducting the measurements on the surface. We take advantage of Masada Deep borehole (MDBI), an abandoned oil well, for the installation of a seismometer at a large depth of 1,256 m (1,516 bsl). The station is located in the near vicinity of the East Masada fault, part of the Western Boundary Fault of the Dead Sea basin. We present seismic observations of microearthquakes which occurred along the Dead Sea fault (DSF). Many of them were not recorded by the Israel Seismic Network (ISN). The quiet site of the station has an obvious advantage in detection and identification of earthquakes and explosions. For example, the station detects about 30% more quarry explosions as compared to observations of the ISN. We demonstrate that borehole seismograms are clearer than the on-surface observations of nearby seismometer. We lowered the magnitude scale of observed events down to about M≈-3. Many of the earthquakes, sometimes clusters, occurred underneath the MDBI at depths of 10-25 km, having special signature. Using the cross-correlation technique we present several series of seismic activity either underneath the station or along the DSF. Frequency-magnitude relationship, known also as Gutenberg-Richter relationship, is somewhat higher than the determined value for the whole Dead Sea Fault.

  15. Borehole sealing. Final report, March 1, 1973--October 31, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    A program to evaluate existing materials and techniques to permanently plug boreholes penetrating salt strata near prospective radioactive waste depository sites is described. A new subcontract No. 78X-33542C has been issued to seal a borehole near Lyons, Kansas, using the materials and techniques recommended in this report. It is recommended that the well be thoroughly cleaned including removing any casing penetrating the critical salt strata. Following this, any fluid-bearing zones should be grouted using the best grout available. Silica gel was recommended for porous zones backed up by Portland cement to seal fractures and vugs. Recommendations were made to use sulfate resistant Chem Comp or sulfate resistant regular Portland (Type V) as the primary sealing material in the areas where anhydrite strata are present such as the existing wells at Lyons, Kansas, or the prospective wells near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This would be modified to meet existing conditions such as salt saturated slurry through the salt strata or added powdered silica in the zones which might exceed 230/sup 0/F at any time. A short epoxy plug was recommended at the top and bottom of the salt strata and a short Seal Ring plug at the base of any extensive water zones. Extensive water zones are not expected in the New Mexico area, however.

  16. Measuring in-situ stress in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The hydrofracturing method of in-situ stress measurement is the only technique which has been proven to be reliable in boreholes below depths of 300 m. The method has been used in a variety of applications at depths of up to 5000m, and in a range of borehole diameters. The equipment used is composed of standard components from proven and long-established oil industry well-logging tools and is simple to operate. This is preferable to the delicate electrical devices used in the overcoring stress measurement method. Electrical components are difficult to waterproof, very small strains are monitored and the tendency of electrical circuits to drift, due to a variety of effects, makes interpretation of the results difficult. However, the interpretation of hydrofracturing test results is often not easy. Many factors can prevent ideal fracturing behaviour from occurring, in which case conventional analyses will yield incorrect answers. The complete state of stress can often not be determined and sweeping assumptions are commonly made about principal stress direction, which cannot always be subsequently verified. (author)

  17. Innovative Technology of Mechanized Wet Underwater Welding of High-Alloy Corrosion Resistant Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakhovskyi, M.Yu.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the practice of welding-repair technology using self-shielded flux-cored wire for wet underwater welding of high-alloy stainless steels type 18-10 are presented. The application of the technology allows reducing human participation in welding process under the extreme conditions. The practical value of the technology consists in the possibility of welding-repair works directly under water without any additional assembly works.

  18. The role of the clean development mechanism in facilitating the application of biomass renewable energy technologies in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheng, Wong Hwee; Hvid, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian Government's move to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in September 2001 reaffirms the country's support to combat global climate change. Although Malaysia is not bound by any commitments to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, the opportunities that exist through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be two-fold: to contribute to the country's sustainable development objectives and to improve the energy supply security through the application of clean energy technologies such as renewable energy technologies. Malaysia is very dependent on fossil fuel based technologies for electricity generation and energy production. In 2001 almost 90% of the total energy input to power stations was derived from fossil fuels. Although the energy mix will continue to be predominantly based on fossil fuels, indigenous renewable energy resources may come to play a noticeable role in complementing the depleting fossil fuels. This paper focuses on how best to utilize the oil palm residues for electricity generation and energy production as these residues are the 'low hanging fruits' that are readily available. It compares the use of two different technological uses of residues: distributes power generation and co-firing with coal in large-scale power plants. The paper analyses the financial, economic and environmental impacts of these technologies, and it discusses the relative benefits of the technologies. In addition, the paper look into the barriers associated with each of the technologies, and it suggests possible policy interventions to be adopted in order to promote a viable and environmentally efficient use of the limited biomass resources. (au)

  19. Geothermal technology publications and related reports: A bibliography, January 1986 through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, C.D. (ed.)

    1988-08-01

    Sandia publications resulting from DOE programs in Geothermal Technologies, Magma Energy and Continental Scientific Drilling are listed for reference. The RandD includes borehole-related technologies, in situ processes, and wellbore diagnostics.

  20. Remotely sensing the thickness of the bushveld complex UG2 platinum reef using borehole rada.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simmat, CM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available are translated by electro-dynamic modelling into a prediction that platinum reef thinning can be sensed remotely by footwall borehole radars. This proposition sheds light on the results of a recent borehole radar survey that was shot in ~180 m long AXT (48 mm...

  1. Strengthening Borehole Configuration from the Retaining Roadway for Greenhouse Gas Reduction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Nong; Feng, Xiaowei; Zheng, Xigui; Kan, Jiaguang

    2015-01-01

    A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1) of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at the depth of 5~10 m along the casing and with a distance of 2~14 m behind the coal face, while boreholes 9~11 with a special thick-walled high-strength oil casing did not fracture during the whole extraction period. The gas extraction volume is closely related to the boreholes stability. After the stability of boreholes 9~11 being improved, the average gas flow rate increased dramatically 16-fold from 0.13 to 2.21 m3/min, and the maximum gas flow rate reached 4.9 m3/min. Strengthening boreholes configuration is demonstrated to be a good option to improve gas extraction effect. These findings can make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal mining industry. PMID:25633368

  2. Strengthening borehole configuration from the retaining roadway for greenhouse gas reduction: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xue

    Full Text Available A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1 of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at the depth of 5~10 m along the casing and with a distance of 2~14 m behind the coal face, while boreholes 9~11 with a special thick-walled high-strength oil casing did not fracture during the whole extraction period. The gas extraction volume is closely related to the boreholes stability. After the stability of boreholes 9~11 being improved, the average gas flow rate increased dramatically 16-fold from 0.13 to 2.21 m3/min, and the maximum gas flow rate reached 4.9 m3/min. Strengthening boreholes configuration is demonstrated to be a good option to improve gas extraction effect. These findings can make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal mining industry.

  3. An analysis of the lithology to resistivity relationships using airborne EM and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian A.S.; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Møller, Ingelise

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the relationship between dense airborne skyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Understanding the resistivity structure of the subsurface is of great importance to hydrogeological surveys and to ensure a high standard for groundwater quality. Borehole...

  4. Fiber-optic data-transmission system for borehole logging. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the system is to provide signal transmission media for transmission of digital data from a borehole logging probe (and associated processor-electronics) to a borehole logging truck at the surface. This fiber optic transmission system is specifically designed for use on the Bendix Field Engineering Corp. (BFEC) R and D logging truck

  5. Concentration of trace metals in boreholes in the Ankobra Basin, Ghan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roughly 25% of the boreholes had manganese concentration higher than 500 mg l-1, which is the WHO maximum acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentration of mercury was higher than 1.0 mg l-1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry ...

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo; Murugesan, Karthik; Ragab, Adham

    2011-09-13

    As a net shape process, die casting is intrinsically efficient and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. A casting that is distorted and fails to meet specified dimensional requirements is typically remelted but this still results in a decrease in process yield, lost productivity, and increased energy consumption. This work focuses on developing, and expanding the use of, computer modeling methods that can be used to improve the dimensional accuracy of die castings and produce die designs and machine/die setups that reduce rejection rates due to dimensional issues. A major factor contributing to the dimensional inaccuracy of the casting is the elastic deformations of the die cavity caused by the thermo mechanical loads the dies are subjected to during normal operation. Although thermal and die cavity filling simulation are widely used in the industry, structural modeling of the die, particularly for managing part distortion, is not yet widely practiced. This may be due in part to the need to have a thorough understanding of the physical phenomenon involved in die distortion and the mathematical theory employed in the numerical models to efficiently model the die distortion phenomenon. Therefore, two of the goals of this work are to assist in efforts to expand the use of structural modeling and related technologies in the die casting industry by 1) providing a detailed modeling guideline and tutorial for those interested in developing the necessary skills and capability and 2) by developing simple meta-models that capture the results and experience gained from several years of die distortion research and can be used to predict key distortion phenomena of relevance to a die caster with a minimum of background and without the need for simulations. These objectives were met. A detailed modeling tutorial was

  7. Analyzing Neutrophil Morphology, Mechanics, and Motility in Sepsis : Options and Challenges for Novel Bedside Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Molema, Grietje; Plötz, Frans B

    Objective: Alterations in neutrophil morphology (size, shape, and composition), mechanics (deformability), and motility (chemotaxis and migration) have been observed during sepsis. We combine summarizing features of neutrophil morphology, mechanics, and motility that change during sepsis with an

  8. Cost effectiveness analysis of the SEAMIST trademark membrane system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Booth, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the cost and performance characteristics of SEAMIST trademark, an innovative technology that facilitates measurements of contaminants in both vertical and horizontal vadose zone boreholes. This new technology consists of an airtight membrane linear that is pneumatically emplaced inside the borehole structure. Sampling ports with attached tubing, absorbent collectors, or various in situ measuring devices can be fabricated into the linear and used for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, herbicides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, or radioactive substances. In addition, small instruments can be guided through the lined borehole and measurements taken inside at specified intervals

  9. Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

  10. RNA Silencing in Plants: Mechanisms, Technologies and Applications in Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qigao; Liu, Qing; Smith, Neil A; Liang, Guolu; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA, intrinsic direct repeat, 3' UTR inverted repeat, artificial trans-acting siRNA, and virus-induced gene silencing technologies. Some of these RNA silencing technologies, such as the hairpin RNA technology, have already been widely used for genetic improvement of crop plants in agriculture. For horticultural plants, RNA silencing technologies have been used to increase disease and pest resistance, alter plant architecture and flowering time, improve commercial traits of fruits and flowers, enhance nutritional values, remove toxic compounds and allergens, and develop high-value industrial products. In this article we aim to provide an overview of the RNA silencing pathways in plants, summarize the existing RNA silencing technologies, and review the current progress in applying these technologies for the improvement of agricultural crops particularly horticultural crops.

  11. Study on the Geological Structure around KURT Using a Deep Borehole Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    To characterize geological features in study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drilling since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep borehole of 500 m depths was drilled to confirm and validate the geological model at the left research module of the KURT. The objective of this research was to identify the geological structures around KURT using the data obtained from the deep borehole investigation. To achieve the purpose, several geological investigations such as geophysical and borehole fracture surveys were carried out simultaneously. As a result, 7 fracture zones were identified in deep borehole located in the KURT. As one of important parts of site characterization on KURT area, the results will be used to revise the geological model of the study area

  12. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km 2 (1-mi 2 ) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported

  13. 200-ZP-1 operable unit borehole summary report for FY 1995 and FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrach, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    This document details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation fluvial unit E gravels as encountered in 16 boreholes in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. These boreholes were drilled by Water Development Hanford Corporation during fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Two of the sixteen boreholes were abandoned; the remaining 14 boreholes were completed as functioning production and compliance wells. The borehole logs and well summary sheets included as Appendices A and B of this document, respectively, depict and describe the vadose zone stratigraphic units encountered during the course of drilling. Appendix C contains the results of sieve analyses conducted on samples obtained via resonant sonic coring and standard split-spoon methods. The sieve analyses were the driver behind the majority of the well designs. Also, for completeness, Appendices D and E contain the well design calculations and the well development process

  14. Experimentally achieving borehole antenna radar directivity in the time domain in the presence of strong mutual coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available published borehole radar antennas have achieved directivity by post processing data received in the frequency domain, or by constructing an aperture antenna, where borehole dimensions allowed this. In this paper, a time-domain technique is investigated...

  15. Influence of borehole and formation characteristics on elemental standard spectra in geochemical logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensheng; Yue, Aizhong; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Shusheng; Fan, Dechang

    2017-10-01

    Accurate acquisition of elemental standard spectra is one of the key links in geochemical elemental logging. Because elemental standard spectra are affected by borehole and formation characteristics, it is necessary to study the borehole and formation conditions required for the acquisition of ideal spectra. For these, we constructed a model comprising instruments, borehole and formation; applied the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code to simulate elemental standard spectral responses under different borehole and formation conditions; and performed a comparative analysis of these responses. The results demonstrate that, for the standard capture spectra of an element, a fresh water borehole yields spectra with good statistical properties and significant characteristic peaks. For elements with a high capture cross section and prominent characteristic peaks, a borehole of small diameter yields ideal spectra; conversely, a borehole of slightly larger diameter is suitable for elements with a low capture cross section and insignificant characteristic peaks. A formation containing a certain number of pores full of fresh water can yield better standard spectra except for elements that have a giant capture cross section such as Gd. A formation composed of various compounds of an element yields standard spectra with different effects, which means that an elemental compound has to be selected to get an ideal standard spectrum. For the standard inelastic spectrum of an element, the influence of the borehole fluid or pore fluid should be avoided as much as possible except for oxygen; formations composed of an elementary substance, or chlorides or hydrides of an element yields a better standard spectrum than one composed of its oxides, carbonates or other compounds containing elements with a large inelastic cross section. The compactness of the formation influences the characteristic peaks and statistical properties of the standard spectra. The simulation method takes fully

  16. MULTI-YEAR MONITORING OF RADON IN BOREHOLES AT THE MODRA GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, SLOVAKIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, I; Steinitz, G; Holý, K

    2017-11-01

    Long-term radon monitoring was performed in two boreholes, at a depth of 13 m in the 40 m deep V-2 borehole (August 2003-September 2005), and at 3 m depth in the 10 m deep V-3 borehole (August 2003-April 2008). Diurnal, multi-day and annual variations in radon time-series were observed. Daily average of radon activity in V-2 borehole was significantly higher and ranged from 6.5 to 383.7 kBq/m3, while in V-3 borehole only between 1.2 and 139.4 kBq/m3. The seasonal pattern was more pronounced in V-3 time series, with the maximum occurring from October to March. Multi-day variations (2-10 days) were registered in V-2 and V-3 mostly simultaneously, with higher discrepancy in spring and summer periods, when radon activity in V-3 borehole was low. Diurnal radon variations with two maxima and two minima per day were registered in both boreholes. The influence of meteorological parameters on radon concentrations was investigated. The overall impression is that seasonal variation in radon in V-3 borehole seems to be connected with the temperature variation. Multi-day variations of radon in both boreholes coincided with the atmospheric pressure changes. An increase in radon activity was observed in V-3 borehole after the rainfall in spring and summer seasons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  18. Benefits of Precision Farming Technologies for Mechanical Weed Control in Soybean and Sugar Beet—Comparison of Precision Hoeing with Conventional Mechanical Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kunz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed infestations and associated yield losses require effective weed control measures in soybean and sugar beet. Besides chemical weed control, mechanical weeding plays an important role in integrated weed management systems. Field experiments were conducted at three locations for soybean in 2013 and 2014 and at four locations for sugar beet in 2014 to investigate if automatic steering technologies for inter-row weed hoeing using a camera or RTK-GNSS increase weed control efficacy, efficiency and crop yield. Treatments using precision farming technologies were compared with conventional weed control strategies. Weed densities in the experiments ranged from 15 to 154 plants m−2 with Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvulus, Polygonum aviculare, Matricaria chamomilla and Lamium purpureum being the most abundant species. Weed hoeing using automatic steering technologies reduced weed densities in soybean by 89% and in sugar beet by 87% compared to 85% weed control efficacy in soybean and sugar beet with conventional weeding systems. Speed of weed hoeing could be increased from 4 km h−1 with conventional hoes to 7 and 10 km·h−1, when automatic steering systems were used. Precision hoeing technologies increased soybean yield by 23% and sugar beet yield by 37%. After conventional hoeing and harrowing, soybean yields were increased by 28% and sugar beet yield by 26%.

  19. Integrating borehole logs and aquifer tests in aquifer characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Reese, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the surficial aquifer system in and around Big Cypress National Preserve in eastern Collier County, Florida. Borehole flowmeter tests provide qualitative permeability profiles in most of 26 boreholes drilled in the Study area. Flow logs indicate the depth of transmissive units, which are correlated across the study area. Comparison to published studies in adjacent areas indicates that the main limestone aquifer of the 000000Tamiami Formation in the study area corresponds with the gray limestone aquifer in western Dade County and the water table and lower Tamiami Aquifer in western Collier County. Four strategically located, multiwell aquifer tests are used to quantify the qualitative permeability profiles provided by the flowmeter log analysis. The hydrostratigraphic model based on these results defines the main aquifer in the central part of the study area as unconfined to semiconfined with a transmissivity as high as 30,000 m2/day. The aquifer decreases in transmissivity to less than 10,000 m2/day in some parts of western Collier County, and becomes confined to the east and northeast of the study area, where transmissivity decreases to below 5000 m2/day.Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the

  20. Calibration and control modules for gamma-ray borehole loggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A calibration pad for quantitative evaluation of gamma-ray logs, developed and constructed by CNEA is described. The facility is composed of a set of mineralized modules with which it is intended to reproduce the natural variable conditions found in boreholes drilled for uranium mineral exploration, such as the ore concentration, rock's density and porosity, water content, etc. The facility is able to operate under different radiometric models, as follow: 1) gross-count gamma-ray models; 2) gamma-spectrometer models; 3) neutronic-fission models, and 4) models for determination of magnetic susceptibility, density, neutron-neutron, etc. The gathered information allows the adequate quantitative radiometric evaluation of the ore bodies crossed by exploration holes, and also allows the correlation of gamma-ray logs obtained by different logger-equipments. The paper includes the description of the project development and the standards established for the facility's operation. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. A new model for the sonic borehole logging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1990-12-01

    A number of models for the sonic borehole logging tool has earlier been developed. These models which are mainly based on experimental data, are discussed and compared. On this background the new model is developed. It is based on the assumptions that the pores of low porosity formations and the grains of high porosity media may be approximated by cylinders, and that the dimension of these cylinders are given by distribution functions. From these assumptions the transit time Δt p of low porosity formations and Δt g of high porosity media are calculated by use of the Monte Carlo method. Combining the Δt p and Δt g values obtained by use of selected weighting functions seems to permit the determination of the transit time Δt for the full porosity range (0 ≤ φ ≤ 100%). (author)

  2. Application of Multiphysics Coupling FEM on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Remaining Strength in an Incomplete Borehole in Deep Salt Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Hua; Guo, Daqiang; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Drilling and completing wells in deep salt stratum are technically challenging and costing, as when serving in an incomplete borehole in deep salt formation, well casing runs a high risk of collapse. To quantitatively calculate casing remaining strength under this harsh condition, a three-dimensional mechanical model is developed; then a computational model coupled with interbed salt rock-defective cement-casing and HPHT (high pressure and high temperature) is established and analyzed using m...

  3. Investigate Fundamentals and Performance Improvements of Current In-Line Inspection Technologies for Mechanical Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    This Phase I report provides a comprehensive and in-depth review of the current status of in-line inspection technologies, including, but not limited to, Magnetic (Axial MFL, Circumferential MFL), Ultrasonic (UT), and Geometrical (Caliper) methods, i...

  4. Analysis of Air-Based Mechanization and Vertical Envelopment Concepts and Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grossman, Jon

    2001-01-01

    .... RAND specifically investigated the use of tilt-rotor aircraft for vertical envelopment concepts, with particular emphasis on survivability implications and the potential enabling role that technology can play...

  5. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Eva

    2011-05-01

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  6. Analysis of Borehole-Radar Reflection Data from Machiasport, Maine, December 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole-radar reflection logs in two boreholes in Machiasport, Maine. These bedrock boreholes were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation of the area surrounding the former Air Force Radar Tracking Station site on Howard Mountain near Bucks Harbor. The boreholes, MW09 and MW10, are located approximately 50 meters (m) from, and at the site of, respectively, the locations of former buildings where trichloroethylene was used as part of defense-site operations. These areas are thought to be potential source areas for contamination that has been detected in downgradient bedrock wells. This investigation focused on testing borehole-radar methods at this site. Single-hole radar-reflection surveys were used to identify the depth, orientation, and spatial continuity of reflectors that intersect and surround the boreholes. In addition, the methods were used to (1) identify the radial depth of penetration of the radar waves in the electrically resistive bimodal volcanic formation at the site, (2) provide information for locating additional boreholes at the site, and (3) test the potential applications of borehole-radar methods for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of source-area remediation efforts. Borehole-radar reflection logging uses a pair of downhole transmitting and receiving antennas to record the reflected wave amplitude and transit time of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. For this investigation, 60- and 100-megahertz antennas were used. The electromagnetic waves emitted by the transmitter penetrate into the formation surrounding the borehole and are reflected off of a material with different electromagnetic properties, such as a fracture or change in rock type. Single-hole directional radar surveys indicate the bedrock surrounding these boreholes is highly fractured, because several reflectors were identified in the radar

  7. Mechanical pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: towards facile and environmentally sound technologies for biofuels production

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Abdellatif; MAYER, Claire; Solhy, Abderrahim; Arancon, Rick A. D.; DE VRIES, Hugo; Luque, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels represents an interesting and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel for the near future. However, one still faces some major challenges for the technology to be fully realized including feedstock costs, novel pretreatment processes, production, transportation, and environmental impact of the full chain. The development of new technologies focused to increase the efficiency of cellulose conversion to biofuels determines successful im...

  8. Foresight as the design technology of the future: the latest mechanisms of interaction of public authorities, business and civil companies

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Kvitka

    2016-01-01

    The article examines theoretical approaches to technology foresight and the possibility of its use to strengthen the cooperation of public authorities, business structures and public institutions on the design of the future and joint action to achieve it.. The definition of the formats and mechanisms of strategic forecasting is a relevant topic for Ukraine in terms of structural socio-political and socio-economic crisis. The author pays special attention to the possibilities of combining effo...

  9. The effects of reimbursement mechanisms on medical technology diffusion in the hospital sector in the Italian NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro Castro, Massimo; Guccio, Calogero; Pignataro, Giacomo; Rizzo, Ilde

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the differences across the regional reimbursement mechanisms and in particular the use of the DRGs impact on the level in the high technology equipment diffusion. Based on hospital sector data at a regional level we build up indicators to measure the regional diffusion of high technological medical equipment in the period 1997-2007. These indicators are regressed on regional healthcare characteristics to investigate the relationship between the different reimbursement systems offered by Italian regions and the level of high technological medical equipment. Our results suggest that the per-case payment system is generally associated with a lower level of regional technology endowment per million of inhabitants, especially for the complex and expensive medical equipment. Our findings cast some doubts that an effective regulation of reimbursement mechanisms cannot limit the excessive diffusion of medical equipment that is a relevant driver of the increase in expenditure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mining Pribram in science and technology. Proceedings of Session R - Mechanization of mine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.; Bernatik, O.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 30 papers of which two deal with uranium mine problems, viz.: ''Current and prospective orientation of mechanized driving of mines and underground infrastructures'' and ''The operation of rail-less mine mechanization in the Hamr area''. (J.B.)

  11. Teaching Reform of Course Group Regarding Theory and Design of Mechanisms Based on MATLAB Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Yuan, Mingxin; Wang, Mingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the course group regarding theory and design of mechanisms is characterized by strong engineering application background and the students generally feel very boring and tedious during the learning process, some teaching reforms for the theory and design of mechanisms are carried out to improve the teaching effectiveness in this…

  12. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures

  13. Thermal Impact of Medium Deep Borehole Thermal Energy Storage on the Shallow Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Schulte, Daniel O.; Rühaak, Wolfram; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Borehole heat exchanger arrays are a well-suited and already widely applied method for exploiting the shallow subsurface as seasonal heat storage. However, in most of the populated regions the shallow subsurface also comprises an important aquifer system used for drinking water production. Thus, the operation of shallow geothermal heat storage systems leads to a significant increase in groundwater temperatures in the proximity of the borehole heat exchanger array. The magnitude of the impact on groundwater quality and microbiology associated with this temperature rise is controversially discussed. Nevertheless, the protection of shallow groundwater resources has priority. Accordingly, water authorities often follow restrictive permission policies for building such storage systems. An alternative approach to avoid this issue is the application of medium deep borehole heat exchanger arrays instead of shallow ones. The thermal impact on shallow aquifers can be significantly reduced as heat is stored at larger depth. Moreover, it can be further diminished by the installation of a thermally insulating materials in the upper section of the borehole heat exchangers. Based on a numerical simulation study, the advantageous effects of medium deep borehole thermal energy storage are demonstrated and quantified. A finite element software is used to model the heat transport in the subsurface in 3D, while the heat transport in the borehole heat exchangers is solved analytically in 1D. For this purpose, an extended analytical solution is implemented, which also allows for the consideration of a thermally insulating borehole section.

  14. Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.L.; Howard, C.L.; Jones, R.L.; Peterson, T.P.

    1993-03-01

    Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations

  15. Chemical Genomics and Emerging DNA Technologies in the Identification of Drug Mechanisms and Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2012-01-01

    and validate therapeutic targets and to discover drug candidates for rapidly and effectively generating new interventions for human diseases. The recent emergence of genomic technologies and their application on genetically tractable model organisms like Drosophila melanogaster,Caenorhabditis elegans...... critical roles in the genomic age of biological research and drug discovery. In the present review we discuss how simple biological model organisms can be used as screening platforms in combination with emerging genomic technologies to advance the identification of potential drugs and their molecular...... and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided momentum to cell biological and biomedical research, particularly in the functional characterization of gene functions and the identification of novel drug targets. We therefore anticipate that chemical genomics and the vast development of genomic technologies will play...

  16. Patient Outcomes as Transformative Mechanisms to Bring Health Information Technology Industry and Research Informatics Closer Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krive, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fast pace of recent innovation within the health information technology and research informatics domains, there remains a large gap between research and academia, while interest in translating research innovations into implementations in the patient care settings is lacking. This is due to absence of common outcomes and performance measurement targets, with health information technology industry employing financial and operational measures and academia focusing on patient outcome concerns. The paper introduces methodology for and roadmap to introduction of common objectives as a way to encourage better collaboration between industry and academia using patient outcomes as a composite measure of demonstrated success from health information systems investments. Along the way, the concept of economics of health informatics, or "infonomics," is introduced to define a new way of mapping future technology investments in accordance with projected clinical impact.

  17. Chemical Genomics and Emerging DNA Technologies in the Identification of Drug Mechanisms and Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2012-01-01

    and validate therapeutic targets and to discover drug candidates for rapidly and effectively generating new interventions for human diseases. The recent emergence of genomic technologies and their application on genetically tractable model organisms like Drosophila melanogaster,Caenorhabditis elegans...... and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided momentum to cell biological and biomedical research, particularly in the functional characterization of gene functions and the identification of novel drug targets. We therefore anticipate that chemical genomics and the vast development of genomic technologies will play...... critical roles in the genomic age of biological research and drug discovery. In the present review we discuss how simple biological model organisms can be used as screening platforms in combination with emerging genomic technologies to advance the identification of potential drugs and their molecular...

  18. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  19. Research on offense and defense technology for iOS kernel security mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sijun; Wu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    iOS is a strong and widely used mobile device system. It's annual profits make up about 90% of the total profits of all mobile phone brands. Though it is famous for its security, there have been many attacks on the iOS operating system, such as the Trident apt attack in 2016. So it is important to research the iOS security mechanism and understand its weaknesses and put forward targeted protection and security check framework. By studying these attacks and previous jailbreak tools, we can see that an attacker could only run a ROP code and gain kernel read and write permissions based on the ROP after exploiting kernel and user layer vulnerabilities. However, the iOS operating system is still protected by the code signing mechanism, the sandbox mechanism, and the not-writable mechanism of the system's disk area. This is far from the steady, long-lasting control that attackers expect. Before iOS 9, breaking these security mechanisms was usually done by modifying the kernel's important data structures and security mechanism code logic. However, after iOS 9, the kernel integrity protection mechanism was added to the 64-bit operating system and none of the previous methods were adapted to the new versions of iOS [1]. But this does not mean that attackers can not break through. Therefore, based on the analysis of the vulnerability of KPP security mechanism, this paper implements two possible breakthrough methods for kernel security mechanism for iOS9 and iOS10. Meanwhile, we propose a defense method based on kernel integrity detection and sensitive API call detection to defense breakthrough method mentioned above. And we make experiments to prove that this method can prevent and detect attack attempts or invaders effectively and timely.

  20. Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinematics analysis method of a novel 3-DOF wind tunnel mechanism based on cable-driven parallel mechanism is provided. Rodrigues' parameters are applied to express the transformation matrix of the wire-driven mechanism in the paper. The analytical forward kinematics model is described as three quadratic equations using three Rodridgues' parameters based on the fundamental theory of parallel mechanism. Elimination method is used to remove two of the variables, so that an eighth-order polynomial with one variable is derived. From the equation, the eight sets of Rodridgues' parameters and corresponding Euler angles for the forward kinematical problem can be obtained. In the end, numerical example of both forward and inverse kinematics is included to demonstrate the presented forward-kinematics solution method. The numerical results show that the method for the position analysis of this mechanism is effective.

  1. Deep Borehole Disposal Concept: Development of Universal Canister Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research; Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research

    2016-08-01

    This report documents key elements of the conceptual design for deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste to support the development of a universal canister concept of operations. A universal canister is a canister that is designed to be able to store, transport, and dispose of radioactive waste without the canister having to be reopened to treat or repackage the waste. This report focuses on the conceptual design for disposal of radioactive waste contained in a universal canister in a deep borehole. The general deep borehole disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rock to a depth of about 5 km, emplacing WPs in the lower 2 km of the borehole, and sealing and plugging the upper 3 km. Research and development programs for deep borehole disposal have been ongoing for several years in the United States and the United Kingdom; these studies have shown that deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste could be safe, cost effective, and technically feasible. The design concepts described in this report are workable solutions based on expert judgment, and are intended to guide follow-on design activities. Both preclosure and postclosure safety were considered in the development of the reference design concept. The requirements and assumptions that form the basis for the deep borehole disposal concept include WP performance requirements, radiological protection requirements, surface handling and transport requirements, and emplacement requirements. The key features of the reference disposal concept include borehole drilling and construction concepts, WP designs, and waste handling and emplacement concepts. These features are supported by engineering analyses.

  2. Development of dual field magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection technology to detect mechanical damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report details the development and testing of a dual magnetization in-line inspection (ILI) : tool for detecting mechanical damage in operating pipelines, including the first field trials of a : fully operational dual-field magnetic flux leakage...

  3. Drilling technologies in hydrogeological survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vorlíček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the drilling technologies used in hydrogeology. The main aim of the work is to explore types of drilling technologies used at hydrogeological drilling wells and modern technologies that could potentially be used in the future. The work also summarizes a historical development of drilling techniques, a drilling process procedure, information obtained from boreholes and the most common types of drilling fluids.

  4. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom. Part I: Teaching Mechanics and Thermodynamics with Antiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of bringing technology into the classroom has been the subject of many recent presentations at conferences and papers in physics teaching journals. The use of devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, and clickers is rising in today's classrooms and laboratories. PhET simulations have been available online for over a decade. A…

  5. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...... in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high-resistivity materials from information held in the resistivity model and borehole observations, respectively....

  6. The measurement of the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity in single cased and uncased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Noy, D.J.; Brightman, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The project summarised in the paper aimed to assess the different existing methods of measuring vertical hydraulic conductivity in single boreholes by carrying out some actual field testing. The measurements are relevant to the disposal of radioactive waste into argillaceous rocks, where the primary geological barrier to potential leachate migration is the mudrock. Also the prime parameter of interest in the assessment of mudrocks is the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity. A description of the methods of test analysis and interpretation is given. The experimental programme for open borehole testing and cased borehole testing is described, along with the practical and theoretical considerations. (U.K.)

  7. The boreholes and geology of the Down Ampney fault research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.; Hallam, J.R.; Ambrose, K.; Horton, A.

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory programme of core drilling confirmed the location of a major fault with a 50-m throw and 70 0 dip and provided geological reference sections. These data enabled a measurement array of boreholes to be planned and constructed for the geophysical and hydrogeological characterization of the fault. Full details are given of the design, drilling, coring, completion and surveying of the 22 boreholes. The geological sequence is described, together with the structure of the fault zone, which was penetrated by eight boreholes

  8. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Lillie, J.T.

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area

  9. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

  10. Microwave Extraction of Water from Boreholes in Regolith, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Resources Extraction Technology, Inc. is developing and testing microwave technology for extracting water (along with other volatiles) from planetary...

  11. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  12. Miniinvasive technologies in surgery of gallstone disease complicated by mechanical jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikonenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ntry. Mechanical jaundice is frequent complication of gallstone disease both in urgent and in planned surgery. In the last few years the increase of amount of patients with mechanical jaundice, especially persons of elderly and senile age, is marked and the results of their treatment don’t satisfy surgeons fully. A similar situation cannot remain regardless and requires the search of new ways of decision of this problem. Research aim. Determination of the most optimal methods of diagnostics and treatment of patients with the gallstone disease complicated by mechanical jaundice and estimation of efficiency of their application. Materials and research methods. The results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 3054 patients with gallstone disease and its complications are analyzed. Experience of surgical treatment of 297 (9,7% patients with gallstone disease complicated by mechanical jaundice is presented. The most frequent complications were: choledocholithiasis, mechanical jaundice - in 290 (9,5% patients, combination of choledocholithiasis with stenosis of large duodenal papilla - in 218 (7,1%, stricture of choledoch - in 7 (0,2%. Endoscopic papillosphincterotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for 263 (8,6% patients with mechanical jaundice. Research results. On the I stage of treatment of mechanical jaundice in 263 (8,6% patients with choledocholithiasis and combination of choledocholithiasis with stenosis of large duodenal papilla endoscopic papillosphincterotomy was performed. On the II stage of treatment of patients laparoscopic cholecystectomy was conducted. It was performed on the 2-7 days after endoscopic papillosphincterotomy and verification of the absence of stones in choledoch. The new method of implementation of laparoscopic cholecystectomy the key moment of which is subserosal coagulation of branches of cystic artery is described. The curatively-diagnostic algorithm of treatment of patients with gallstone disease

  13. The Effect of Technological Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi17Cu4 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw PIĄTKOWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties (HB, HV, R0.2, Rm and plastic properties (A5, Z of AlSi17Cu4 alloy when exposed to chosen technological processes, such as modification, overheating and rapid cooling, are presented in this paper. The best combination of properties was noticed in alloy overheated for 40 minutes at 920 oC and casted into a metallic mould submerged in liquid nitrogen. Moreover, the technological stability and homogeneity of alloys were evaluated based on spread of results, expressed by standard deviation. It was proven, based on microstructure analysis, that the best effect of refinement was achieved by intensive cooling of alloy preceded by its overheating. The XRD analysis indicated that the intermetallic phases, mainly θ(Al2Cu and γ1(Al4Cu9 caused hardening of the solution, improvement in mechanical properties and technological stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8490

  14. Effect of technological parameters and microstructure on mechanical strength of UO2 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of various peculiarities of tablet microstructure namely, sammury porosity (tablet density), grain size and pore distribution over sizes on technological parameters, is studied. It is shown that density decrease leads to a fast reduction of UO 2 tablet strength. The maximum effect on strength is produced by pore distribution over sizes, characterized by a median size, and not by the grain size, though a combined effect of those two factors is also observed. The important role of the technology of tablet production manifests itself in the fact that all operations bringing about the increase of pore or grain sizes leads to a reduction of strength. Such factors as powder origin, granule sizes, U 3 O 8 content and the amount of additions do not cause any considerable changes in the strength of tablets. Bend tests under conditions of biaxial loading should be considered as an ideal method of determining fuel tablets strength [ru

  15. Magnetorheological technology for fabricating tunable solid electrolyte with enhanced conductivity and mechanical property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gangrou; Ge, Yu; Ding, Jie; Wang, Caiyun; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua

    2018-03-01

    Ionogels are a new class of hybrid materials where ionic liquids are immobilized by macromolecular support. The excessive amount of crosslinking polymer enhances the mechanical strength but compromises the conductivity. Here, we report an elastomeric magnetorheological (MR) ionogel with an enhanced conductivity and mechanical strength as well. Following the application of magnetic nanoparticles into an ionic liquid containing minimum cross-linking agent, the formation, thus physical properties, of MR ionogels are co-controlled by simultaneously applied UV light and external magnetic field. The application of MR ionogels as solid electrolytes in supercapacitors is also demonstrated to study electrochemical performance. This work opens a new avenue to synthesize robust ionogels with the desired conductivity and controllable mechanical properties for soft flexible electronic devices. Besides, as a new class of conductive MR elastomers, the proposed MR ionogel also possesses the potential for engineering applications, such as sensors and actuators.

  16. RNA Silencing in Plants: Mechanisms, Technologies and Applications in Horticultural Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qigao; Liu, Qing; Smith, Neil A.; Liang, Guolu; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing ...

  17. The Role of Planetary Dust and Regolith Mechanics in Technology Developments at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASA's long term goals continues to be the exploration of other planets and orbital bodies in our solar system. Our sustained presence through the installation of stations or bases on these planetary surfaces will depend on developing properly designed habitation modules, mobility systems and supporting infrastructure. NASA Glenn Research Center is involved in several technology developments in support of this overarching goal. Two key developments are in the area of advanced filtration and excavation systems. The first addresses the issues posed by the accumulation of particulate matter over long duration missions and the intrusion of planetary dust into spacecraft and habitat pressurized cabins. The latter supports the operation and infrastructure of insitu resource utilization (ISRU) processes to derive consumables and construction materials from the planetary regolith. These two developments require a basic understanding of the lunar regolith at the micro (particle) to macro (bulk) level. Investigation of the relevant properties of the lunar regolith and characterization of the standard simulant materials used in. testing were important first steps in these developments. The fundamentals and operational concepts of these technologies as well as descriptions of new NASA facilities, including the Particulate Filtration Testing and the NASA Excavation and Traction Testing facilities, and their capabilities for testing and advancing these technologies will be presented. The test data also serves to validate and anchor computational simulation models.

  18. Advanced Propfan Engine Technology (APET) definition study, single and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Single-rotation propfan-powered regional transport aircraft were studied to identify key technology development issues and programs. The need for improved thrust specific fuel consumption to reduce fuel burned and aircraft direct operating cost is the dominant factor. Typical cycle trends for minimizing fuel consumption are reviewed, and two 10,000 shp class engine configurations for propfan propulsion systems for the 1990's are presented. Recommended engine configurations are both three-spool design with dual spool compressors and free power turbines. The benefits of these new propulsion system concepts were evaluated using an advanced airframe, and results are compared for single-rotation propfan and turbofan advanced technology propulsion systems. The single-rotation gearbox is compared to a similar design with current technology to establish the benefits of the advanced gearbox technology. The conceptual design of the advanced pitch change mechanism identified a high pressure hydraulic system that is superior to the other contenders and completely external to the gearboxes.

  19. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  20. The mechanics of bacterial cluster formation on plant leaf surfaces as revealed by bioreporter technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria that colonize the leaves of terrestrial plants often occur in clusters whose size varies from a few to thousands of cells. For the formation of such bacterial clusters, two non-mutually exclusive but very different mechanisms may be proposed: aggregation of multiple cells or clonal

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-7, Pressure Vessel Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiec, Chet; Espy, John

    This seventh in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection is devoted to the design and fabrication of the reactor pressure vessel. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  2. Application of Inkjet-Printing Technology to Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    827–829. [10] Byung Mook Weon and Jung Ho Je. “Self-Pinning by Colloids Confined at a Contact Line”. In: Physical Review Letters 110 (2) (Jan. 2013...structural support from a thick frame to compensate for its lack of mechanical strength [1]. Figure 5.2 shows the schematic of an archetypal microshell

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-6, Protective Coating Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes the duties of the nuclear quality assurance/quality control technician that are associated with protective coatings, and the national standards that govern the selection, application, and inspection of protective coatings for the reactor containment…

  4. Considerations on thermic and mechanic processes that appear when 3D printing using ABS fused deposition modelling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amza, Catalin Gheorghe; Niţoi, Dan Florin

    2018-02-01

    3D printers are of recent history, but with an extremely rapid evolution both in technology and hardware involved. At present excellent performances are reached in applications such as 3D printing of various Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic parts for house building using Fused Deposition Modelling technology. Nevertheless, the thermic and mechanic processes that appear when manufacturing such plastic components are quite complex. This aspect is very important, especially when one wants to optimize the manufacturing of parts with certain geometrical complexity. The Finite Element Analysis/Modelling (FEA/FEM) is among the few methods that can study the thermic transfer processes and shape modifications that can appear due to non-seamar behavior that takes place when the ABS plastic material is cooling down. The current papers present such an analysis when simulating the deposition of several strings of materials. A thermic analysis is made followed by a study of deformations that appear when the structure cools down.

  5. Adaptive Opportunistic Cooperative Control Mechanism Based on Combination Forecasting and Multilevel Sensing Technology of Sensors for Mobile Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile Internet of Things, there are many challenges, including sensing technology of sensors, how and when to join cooperative transmission, and how to select the cooperative sensors. To address these problems, we studied the combination forecasting based on the multilevel sensing technology of sensors, building upon which we proposed the adaptive opportunistic cooperative control mechanism based on the threshold values such as activity probability, distance, transmitting power, and number of relay sensors, in consideration of signal to noise ratio and outage probability. More importantly, the relay sensors would do self-test real time in order to judge whether to join the cooperative transmission, for maintaining the optimal cooperative transmission state with high performance. The mathematical analyses results show that the proposed adaptive opportunistic cooperative control approach could perform better in terms of throughput ratio, packet error rate and delay, and energy efficiency, compared with the direct transmission and opportunistic cooperative approaches.

  6. Calibration models for density borehole logging - construction report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Two machined blocks of magnesium and aluminum alloys form the basis for Hanford's density models. The blocks provide known densities of 1.780 ± 0.002 g/cm 3 and 2.804 ± 0.002 g/cm 3 for calibrating borehole logging tools that measure density based on gamma-ray scattering from a source in the tool. Each block is approximately 33 x 58 x 91 cm (13 x 23 x 36 in.) with cylindrical grooves cut into the sides of the blocks to hold steel casings of inner diameter 15 cm (6 in.) and 20 cm (8 in.). Spacers that can be inserted between the blocks and casings can create air gaps of thickness 0.64, 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 cm (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in.), simulating air gaps that can occur in actual wells from hole enlargements behind the casing

  7. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. A feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1975-05-30

    The possibility of forming borehole plugs by hydrothermal transport was examined with respect to five systems, utilizing available literature data. In general, it would appear possible to create plugs with hydrothermal cements, with hydrothermally transported quartz, and with carbonates precipitated in-situ using carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide and water as reacting fluids. Hydrothermal cements appear to be most feasible from an engineering and economic point of view using a slurry with a lime-alumina-silica composition carried into the hole in a single pipe at temperatures in the range of 200/sup 0/C and requiring only enough pressure to drive the mixture into the hole. Quartz or chalcedony plugs would be the most impervious, have the lowest chemical reactivity with groundwater, the lowest thermal expansion, and be most compatible with the wall rock. Deposition is likely to be slow, and there are severe engineering problems associated with a single pipe system carrying silica-rich solutions at temperatures in excess of 500/sup 0/C at pressure of 2000 bars (30,000 psi). Calcite plugs could be formed as compatible plug materials in contact with a limestone or dolomite wall rock. It is not known whether non-porous plugs can be readily formed and there is also a problem of chemical reaction with percolating groundwater. The clay-water and sulfur-water systems do not appear to be viable plug systems. In-situ reconstitution of the wall rock does not appear to be an economically feasible possibility.

  8. Handbook on nuclear data for borehole logging and mineral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear geophysics, an extension of the nuclear data available for reactor and shielding calculations, is required. In general, the problems and the methods of attack are the same, but in nuclear geophysics the environment is earth materials, with virtually all the natural elements in the Periodic Table involved, although not at the same time. In addition, the geometrical configurations encountered in nuclear geophysics are very different from those associated with reactor and shielding design, and they can impose a different demand on the required accuracy of the nuclear data and on the dependence on the calculational approach. Borehole logging is a very good example, since an experimental investigation aimed at varying only one parameter (e.g. moisture content) whilst keeping all the others constant in a geologically complex system that effectively exhibits 'infinite geometry' for neutrons and γ rays is virtually impossible. An increasingly important are of nuclear geophysics is the on-line analysis of natural materials such as coal (e.g. C, H, O, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Cl, S, N,) the raw materials of the cement industry (S, Na, K, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ti, P, Mg, F, O), and mined ores of Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Ni, Ag and Au, amongst others. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Borehole-inclusion stressmeter measurements in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.W.; Ames, E.S.

    1980-07-01

    Sandia purchased borehole-inclusion stressmeters from a commercial supplier to measure in situ stress changes in bedded salt. However, the supplied stressmeters were difficult to set in place and gave erratic results in bedded salt. These problems were overcome with a new extended platen design. Also a straingaged transducer was designed which can be read with a conventional data logger. Due to the nonlinear behavior of bedded salt under uniaxial loading, a new empirical calibration scheme was devised. In essence, the stressmeters are calibrated as force transducers and this calibration curve is then used to determine the relationship between uniaxial stress changes in bedded salt and the gage's output. The stressmeter and calibration procedures have been applied under mine conditions and produced viable results. Future work will involve finite element analysis to calculate the observed behavior of the stressmeters. The response of the stressmeters in bedded salt is neither that of a true stressmeter or of a true strainmeter. However, repeatable calibrations make the gages very useful

  10. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. A feasibility report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of forming borehole plugs by hydrothermal transport was examined with respect to five systems, utilizing available literature data. In general, it would appear possible to create plugs with hydrothermal cements, with hydrothermally transported quartz, and with carbonates precipitated in-situ using carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide and water as reacting fluids. Hydrothermal cements appear to be most feasible from an engineering and economic point of view using a slurry with a lime-alumina-silica composition carried into the hole in a single pipe at temperatures in the range of 200 0 C and requiring only enough pressure to drive the mixture into the hole. Quartz or chalcedony plugs would be the most impervious, have the lowest chemical reactivity with groundwater, the lowest thermal expansion, and be most compatible with the wall rock. Deposition is likely to be slow, and there are severe engineering problems associated with a single pipe system carrying silica-rich solutions at temperatures in excess of 500 0 C at pressure of 2000 bars (30,000 psi). Calcite plugs could be formed as compatible plug materials in contact with a limestone or dolomite wall rock. It is not known whether non-porous plugs can be readily formed and there is also a problem of chemical reaction with percolating groundwater. The clay-water and sulfur-water systems do not appear to be viable plug systems. In-situ reconstitution of the wall rock does not appear to be an economically feasible possibility

  11. Response of borehole extensometers to explosively generated dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Brough, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available, hydraulically anchored, multiple-point borehole extensometers (MPBX) were evaluated with respect to response to dynamic loads produced by explosions. This study is part of the DOE-funded Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C), currently being conducted in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. The SFT-C is an investigation of the feasibility of short-term storage and retrieval of spent nuclear reactor fuel assemblies at a plausible repository depth in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies are stored at a depth of 420 m for three to five years, and will then be retrieved. MPBX units are used in the SFT-C to measure both excavation-induced and thermally induced rock displacements. Long-term reliability of extensometers in this hostile environment is essential in order to obtain valid data during the course of this test. Research to date shows conclusively that extensometers of this type continue to function reliably even though subjected to accelerations of 1.8 g; research also implies that they function well though subjected to accelerations in excess of 100 g. MPBX survivability during the first four months of testing at ambient temperatures was about 90 percent

  12. Application of borehole radar to South Africa’s Ultra-Deep gold mining environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trickett, JC

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Borehole Radar has been identified as the most immediately applicable electromagnetic technique to delineate disruptions to gold reef in the South African Deepmine environment. The economically important Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR) has...

  13. Annual Layers at Siple Dome, Antarctica, from Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers gathered data on annual snow layers at Siple Dome, Antarctica, using borehole optical stratigraphy. This data set contains annual layer depths and firn...

  14. Borehole and environmental protection descriptive and numerical data, Yamal Peninsula, Russia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This database of selected borehole records from the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, contains environmental descriptions (textual and numerical) of the units on the index...

  15. Temperature Profile of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Deep Borehole, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports depth versus temperatures in the fluid-filled portion of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS–D) deep borehole (70 to 3328 meters depth)....

  16. Study on structural plane characteristics of deep rock mass based on acoustic borehole TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiyong; Su Rui; Chen Liang; Tian Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Deep rock mass structural plane characteristics are one of the basic data for evaluating the quality of rock mass. Based on acoustic borehole TV, the structural plane quantity, density, attitude, dominant set, structural plane aperture of deep rock mass in boreholes BS15 # and BS16 # located in Beishan granite rock mass of Gansu Province have been calculated and compared with the results of geological documentation of drill core. The results indicate that acoustic borehole TV has the effect in study on characteristics of structural plane. But as a kind of technique of geophysical logging, the acoustic borehole TV has certain defect, and need to combine with the analysis of the other geological materials in applications. (authors)

  17. Method for simultaneous measurement of borehole and formation neutron decay-times employing iterative fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of making in situ measurements of the thermal neutron decay time of earth formations in the vicinity of a wellbore. The borehole and earth formations in its vicinity are repetitively irradiated with pulsed fast neutrons and, during the intervals between pulses, capture gamma radiation is measured in at least four, non-overlapping, contiguous time intervals. A background radiation measurement is made between successive pulses and used to correct count-rates representative of thermal neutron populations in the borehole and the formations, the count-rates being generated during each of the time intervals. The background-corrected count-rate measurements are iteratively fitted to exponential curves using a least squares technique to simultaneously derive signals representing borehole component and formation component of the thermal neutron decay time. The signals are recorded as a function of borehole depth. (author)

  18. The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of borehole temperature data to resolve past climatic events is investigated using Backus-Gilbert inversion methods. Two experimental approaches are considered: (1) the data consist of a single borehole temperature profile, and (2) the data consist of climatically-induced temperature transients measured within a borehole during a monitoring experiment. The sensitivity of the data's resolving power to the vertical distribution of the measurements, temperature measurement errors, the inclusion of a local meteorological record, and the duration of a monitoring experiment, are investigated. The results can be used to help interpret existing surface temperature histories derived from borehole temperature data and to optimize future experiments for the detection of climatic signals. ?? 1992.

  19. Videos of Basal Ice in Boreholes on the Kamb Ice Stream in West Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a collection of video data of basal ice taken in a borehole on the Kamb Ice Stream in West Antarctica. Ice streams are an expression of the inherent...

  20. Surface and Subsurface Geodesy Combined with Active Borehole Experimentation for the Advanced Characterization of EGS Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsworth, Derek [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Guglielmi, Yves [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mattioli, Glen [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). UNAVCO

    2016-11-14

    We explore the utility of combining active downhole experimentation with borehole and surface geodesy to determine both the characteristics and evolving state of EGS reservoirs during stimulation through production. The study is divided into two parts. We demonstrate the feasibility of determining in situ reservoir characteristics of reservoir size, strain and fracture permeability and their dependence on feedbacks of stress and temperature using surface and borehole geodetic measurements (Part I). We then define the opportunity to apply the unique hydraulic pulse protocol (HPP) borehole tool to evaluate reservoir state. This can be accomplished by monitoring and co-inverting measured reservoir characteristics (from the HPP tool) with surface geodetic measurements of deformation, tilt and strain with continuous measurements of borehole-wall strain (via optical fiber and fiber Bragg gratings) and measured flow rates (Part II).