WorldWideScience

Sample records for technological social political

  1. Political and social aspects of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    The political and social aspects of radiation technology are presented. The importance of radiation processing to economies dependent on the storage, transportation and sale of produce is emphasised. Efforts by pressure groups in Canada, to discredit food irradiation processes are discussed. Methods used to overcome objections to food irradiation and radiation technology by public information and education through the media are presented. (U.K.)

  2. Social and political amplification of technological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibitayo, Olurominiyi O.; Mushkatel, Alvin; Pijawka, K. David

    2004-01-01

    Using an industrial explosion in Henderson, Nevada, as a case study, this paper examines three main issues: the efficacy of a technological hazard event in amplifying otherwise latent issues, the extent to which the hazard event can serve as a focusing event for substantive local and state policy initiatives, and the effect of fragmentation of political authority in managing technological hazards. The findings indicate that the explosion amplified several public safety issues and galvanized the public into pressing for major policy initiatives. However, notwithstanding the amplification of several otherwise latent issues, and the flurry of activities by the state and local governments, the hazard event did not seem to be an effective focusing event or trigger mechanism for substantive state and local policy initiatives. In addition, the study provides evidence of the need for a stronger nexus between political authority, land-use planning and technological hazard management

  3. Marketing Social Service Programs Using Political Campaign Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how human services agencies can use strategies and information technologies similar to those used in political campaigns to identify needs and attitudes for social services campaigns. Marketing for social services programs is described, and the use of computers for a political campaign and for a teenage pregnancy program is compared.…

  4. The Social Shaping of Technology: A New Space for Politics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaka, Yutaka; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2003-01-01

    effects, which are non-neutral and distributed, as the processes of shaping themselves have been. The chapter develops the notion of SST through socio-technical spaces. Here a heterogeneous set of elements, comprising of techniques, social actors, attribution of meanings, and problem definitions, etc...... on the socio-technical processes entailed in technology development and change. Our perspective is based on the understanding that technological development unfolds through processes with political implications, involving actors, their occasions and strategies that help bring about transitions in technological...... change. We identify a new perspective on political processes, with a broader focus on the political dimensions of technological decision-making, and a broader treatment of socio-technical space, maintaining a focus on inclusion and exclusion of actors, salient issues and how they are dealt...

  5. Political Minimalism and Social Debates: The Case of Human-Enhancement Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcázar, Javier

    2017-09-01

    A faulty understanding of the relationship between morality and politics encumbers many contemporary debates on human enhancement. As a result, some ethical reflections on enhancement undervalue its social dimensions, while some social approaches to the topic lack normative import. In this essay, I use my own conception of the relationship between ethics and politics, which I call "political minimalism," in order to support and strengthen the existing social perspectives on human-enhancement technologies.

  6. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  7. Political construction of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheze, A.A.A. de la.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970s radioactive waste disposal became a controversial scientific and social issue in the United States, after the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) charged with the development, regulation and promotion of nuclear technology, had tried to implement its disposal technology near Lyons, Kansas. This study traces the emergence of this controversy as part of the long-term development of the US radioactive waste disposal technology. Radioactive waste was not always considered a problem, and different meanings were attached to radwaste in the 1940s and early 1950s. Problem definitions and technical designs that underlaid this technology can be reconstructed, and its possible to show how some definitions received attention and others not, and how some became, and remained, dominant. During the process of problem definition, views compete, agendas are built, resources are allocated, and boundaries are created and maintained between 'inside' and 'outside world'. This is a political process, and by heuristically using concepts from political science and recent technology studies, the Political Construction of US radioactive waste disposal technologically can be reconstructed. (author). 301 refs.; 3 figs.; 15 tabs

  8. SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN SUCIU; DALIA PETCU

    2012-01-01

    Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

  9. Technological innovations and public politics: social environmental analyses in the context of sugar-ethanol industrial activities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Maria C. de Ávila Plaza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at discussing the importance of the technological innovations as propellers of the economic development of the nations as well as the role of the public politics directed toward the socioeconomics and institutional agents who are a part of the productive and innovative chain of the country. We try to analyze the sugar-ethanol sector and its consequences concerning the environmental aspects, being emphasized the State of Goiás and the “Cerrado” bioma. In the social aspects, we demonstrate the necessity to conciliate economic development with social-environmental sustainability, to propitiate a healthy environment and improvement of the working conditions and life for the citizens who perform the functions of sugar cane cutters of this sector. It is important to emphasize that the article does not intend to underestimate the economic practices of the sugar-ethanol companies, but to analyze certain aspects concerning the environment and the social factor, so that consistent politics is implemented in order to promote sustainability, balanced with enterprise and governmental responsibilities and commitments allied to the tripod: economy, environment and society. Key-words: Technological innovation; Public Politics; Sustainable Development; Sugar-ethanol Sector; Biofuels

  10. The Use Of Information And Communication Technology And Social Networking Sites In Political Governance Of East African Legislative Assembly Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainebyona Robert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research project was carried out to ascertain the use of Information and Communication Technologies and Social Networking Sites in political governance of East African Legislative Assembly Parliament. The research project was based on the conviction that in this era of globalization use of ICTs and SNSs are fundamentally important and will have tremendous impact on governance leadership and legislation now and in the near future. The specific objective of this study was intended a To evaluate the use of Social Networking Sites in enhancing the political governance of East African Legislative assembly Parliament. The findings from the research showed that that all the respondents 100 were subscribed to social networking sites and used them from time to time. Additionally the EALA parliamentarians had a disparity when it came to use of SNSs to interact with constituents 73.3 of the respondents indicated that they have used SNSs to interact with constituents on matters affecting the community from time to time however 26.7 showed that they did not use Social Networking sites to interact with constituents. Lastly the use of ICTs and SNSs by EALA has also made it possible for citizens to view Assembly proceedings in real time and hence where able to view their representatives in the course of carrying out their duties in the political arena.Lastly the world is changing in a dynamic fashion SNSs are among the tools leading the transformation and it is about time Parliamentarians in Africa embrace SNSs as major tools in changing how leaders interact and remain accountable to their constituents a practice thats been a myth in Africa.

  11. SCALS: a fourth-generation study of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joe; Hughes, Gemma; Lynch, Jenni; A'Court, Christine; Hinder, Sue; Fahy, Nick; Byrne, Emma; Finlayson, Alexander; Sorell, Tom; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2016-02-15

    Research to date into assisted living technologies broadly consists of 3 generations: technical design, experimental trials and qualitative studies of the patient experience. We describe a fourth-generation paradigm: studies of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context. Fourth-generation studies are necessarily organic and emergent; they view technology as part of a dynamic, networked and potentially unstable system. They use co-design methods to generate and stabilise local solutions, taking account of context. SCALS (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions) consists (currently) of 5 organisational case studies, each an English health or social care organisation striving to introduce technology-supported services to support independent living in people with health and/or social care needs. Treating these cases as complex systems, we seek to explore interdependencies, emergence and conflict. We employ a co-design approach informed by the principles of action research to help participating organisations establish, refine and evaluate their service. To that end, we are conducting in-depth ethnographic studies of people's experience of assisted living technologies (micro level), embedded in evolving organisational case studies that use interviews, ethnography and document analysis (meso level), and exploring the wider national and international context for assisted living technologies and policy (macro level). Data will be analysed using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Research ethics approval for the first 4 case studies has been granted. An important outcome will be lessons learned from individual co-design case studies. We will document the studies' credibility and rigour, and assess the transferability of findings to other settings while also recognising unique aspects of the contexts in which they were generated. Academic outputs will include a cross-case analysis and

  12. Social Media & the Arab Spring: How communication technology shapes socio-political change

    OpenAIRE

    Hanska Ahy, Maximillian

    2016-01-01

    Although social media was not insignificant, we need to take a wider view examining the interac- tion between interpersonal communication, social media, and satellite TV to understand how the Arab Spring was documented and witnessed by local and global audiences, and how the protests were mobilised. Social media was a clearly important catalyst for the uprisings, but it may also ex- plain why the Arab Spring failed in the medium-term: Multimedia and multi-platform communica- tion environments...

  13. Social Media and Political Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Ito-Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utility of information and communication technologies (ICT becomes increasingly more essential in modern societies, and the new public space provided by ICT gives opportunities for people who previously did not have tools to be heard, to discuss, to meet and to start social movements, as happened in the case of «Occupy Wall Street» or «Arab Spring». Recently the similar phenomenon has been observed in Japan, a country with the existence of weak civil society, little interest of citizens to protest, and the lack of active social movements. Yet lately, new groups against the government appear taking advantage of the use of ICT, especially social networks. In this research we aim to study the impact, the application, and the advantages and disadvantages of social networks in these protest movements in order to increase better political education. The methodology to be used is case study (process-tracing method, analyzing data and information collected from various digital communication sources. After the study we conclude that the use of social networks contributes to the activation of Japanese civil society.

  14. Critical Theory and Political Socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIK, Domonkos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the relevance of critical theories of modernity in the research of memory transmission and political socialization. Firstly, the relevant concepts of Habermas, Giddens and Bourdieu are overviewed. Secondly, the notion of political culture and memory transmission are reinterpreted from the perspective of these theories, revealing different sources and forms of radicalism. Finally, divergent constellations of modernization are reintroduced as the broadest context of the processes of political formation.

  15. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Kolios, Athanasios J.; Read, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the la...

  16. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  17. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  18. Socialism as an African Social and Political Philosophy: Senghor's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socialism as an African Social and Political Philosophy: Senghor's Paradigm. ... What is the distinguishing factor of African Socialism? What is the direction of African socio-political philosophy? ... Socialism can be applied as a means of economic, social and political advancement in any society. Although situation and ...

  19. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  20. The political responsibility of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Zamanillo Peral

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to try to recover a critical dialog between the politics and the social work. In this paper it argued that the politics is a dimension of the identity of the social work of which we cannot avoid. In this way, the politics and the social work, are doubly tied. On the one hand, the political power exercise corresponds to every citizen of the polis. And, on the other hand, the social work is narrowly tied to the social politics by means of its object of study. Our arguments it’s construct from a diagnosis of the social reality and professional that is held in this specific relationship. We claim to contribute with elements of analyses that help, not only to understand, but also answering politically as professionals of the social work and as citizen in the society.

  1. Politics, Political Culture and Socialization: Re-inventing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A general point of consensus among many Nigerians is that the nation's development as a political entity has been hampered by the way and manner politics is practised in the country. There have, therefore, been calls, often clamorous and confused, even tongue-in-cheek, by and for Nigerians to be socialized in an ...

  2. New social movements as a political subculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.) [de

  3. International Political Sociology Beyond European and North American Traditions of Social and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huysmans, Jef; Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to 'Forum' on 'International Political Sociology Beyond European and North American Traditions of Social and Political Thought'......Introduction to 'Forum' on 'International Political Sociology Beyond European and North American Traditions of Social and Political Thought'...

  4. Handbook of political citizenship and social movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    This Handbook uniquely collates the results of several decades of academic research in these two important fields. The expert contributions successively address the different forms of political citizenship and current approaches and recent developments in social movement studies. Salient social

  5. Management of Technology - a political process approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Most management of technology writings fail to address enterprise developments as political processes, where visions, coalitions and emergence are central features. The paper report of a participants observation study of management of technology processes.......Most management of technology writings fail to address enterprise developments as political processes, where visions, coalitions and emergence are central features. The paper report of a participants observation study of management of technology processes....

  6. Political anthropology and social order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author discusses the role of democracy in the post-global context. By “post-global” he intends that the grands récits (systems of thought and ideologies which according to Lyotard were doomed to disappear in the post-modern era are still present and active but that they are not obvious anymore: they work underground within the processes of economic, social, political production. The author proceeds by examining the three principles on which societies order themselves: the sharing and establishment of blood ties – or time ties –, the sharing and establishment of space ties – or territorial ties – and, finally, the sharing of common action such as planning actions for the future. The author argues that democracy is the only form of political organization which is able to guarantee the possibility to these three principles of ordering the world to co-exist in such a way that none of the three principles can survive or prosper at the expense of the other two. But today this balance is threatened by a new element which sprouts from the third principle – the sharing of common action – in this case, the order of the market: a new transnational order which is also juridical, the order produced by the relations between economic actors becomes juridical. The State, intended here as expression of the territorial principle of organization of a society, is contractually week in this new context which the author calls the post-global context, and transnational holdings easily colonize the Lebenswelt. According to the author, it is not possible to practice democracy, to have strength as territorial unit, without the public and visible discussion of other ties, which are not territorial. The practice of assembly dialogue is therefore essential. He further states that democracy is a tension and not a guaranteed condition or state that one can keep to oneself

  7. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party) through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistribut...

  8. Traversing a Political Pipeline: An Intersectional and Social Constructionist Approach Toward Technology Education for Girls of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Patricia; Scott, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    First, this paper argues that applications of SCOT in feminist science and technology studies have largely focused on analyzing how gender and technology are coproduced, resulting in lack of scholarship that examines the mutually constitutive relationship between technology, gender and other intersecting categories, such as race, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, and ability. Second, this paper argues that an intersectional view of technology can dismantle the language of objectivity deep...

  9. Gender, Social Trust And Political Socialization In Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The raison d'etre of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of families, religious leaders, teachers, political leaders, mass media and peer groups in the shaping boys and girls into political beings using the case of the Wa Municipality of Ghana. This was undertaken because the task of political socialization is very crucial ...

  10. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kolios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project.

  11. Iraq: Tribal Structure, Social, and Political Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Services Group Summary For centuries the social and political organization of many Iraqi Arabs has centered on the tribe. Socially, tribes were divided...describes the political orientation of several Iraqi Arab tribes, including the Shammar, Dulaym, and Jibur tribes. This report will be updated as...Relations,” at [http://www.cfr/publication/7681/iraq/html#12], accessed Feb. 23, 2007. Tribal Origin. Many Arab tribes in Iraq are believed to

  12. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  13. Political Power and Social Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studies of colonialism and empire have increasingly drawn attention to the problem of conceptualizing the political logic of colonial projects and the circumstances of state formation in colonial contexts. Concepts such as ‘colonial governmentality’ (Prakash, Thomas, Scott, Legg), ‘state effect...

  14. Social media, parties, and political inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, K.T.E.; Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines how social media have transformed politics in established democracies. Specifically, the authors examine the influence of the unique qualities of social media on the power balance between and within parties. They present a general theory as well as an in-depth case study of the

  15. Social technologies and socialization of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Leijten

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether we like it or not, and how many difficulties this may pose, scientific research and technology are becoming the “property” of everybody and increasingly will become subject of public guidance and political decision making. Socialization happens because what people think, want and do has become central to the development of science and technology. Socialization of research is simply happening because it is the development characteristic of a society in which knowledge is becoming the main driving force. And just like in agricultural or industrial societies in the past it leads to (re-invent the institutions and mechanisms which allow the knowledge society to function properly.This note will further explore the developments contributing to the socialization of research and their impact on research and research institutes. It will focus more on technologies than on science per se, because applications and usage will become the main drivers.

  16. Political strategies concerning technological development after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    1986-01-01

    The twelve contributions compiled in this book are intended to show political as well as technological conclusions to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident. The material presented stands up to the arguments put forward by the nuclear lobbyists, and explains reasons calling for a nuclear shut-down, backing out of the fast breeder reactor technology and of the fusion technology. Brown coal is stated to be the energy source of choice. (DG) [de

  17. Rationalizing social technologies

    OpenAIRE

    V V Scherbina

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the problem of defining the specifics and types of social technologies (hereinafter ST). The author pursues the following objectives: first, to clarify the specific features of social technologies; second, to identify the grounds for classifying the existing types of social technologies; third, to describe the basic characteristics (functions, tasks, tools, the scope and limits of application, and ideological bases) of social technologies; fourth, to identify the basic f...

  18. The global politics of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Carpes, Mariana; Knoblich, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of scholars have begun to see science and technology as relevant issues in International Relations (IR), acknowledging the impact of material elements, technical instruments, and scientific practices on international security, statehood, and global governance. This two-volume collection brings the debate about science and technology to the center of International Relations. It shows how integrating science and technology translates into novel analytical frameworks, conceptual approaches and empirical puzzles, and thereby offers a state-of-the-art review of various methodological and theoretical ways in which sciences and technologies matter for the study of international affairs and world politics. The authors not only offer a set of practical examples of research frameworks for experts and students alike, but also propose a conceptual space for interdisciplinary learning in order to improve our understanding of the global politics of science and technology.

  19. Social Movements and Their Technologies: Wiring Social Change. - Paperback edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Now in paperback for the first time, Social Movements and their Technologies explores the interplay between social movements and their 'liberated technologies'. It analyzes the rise of low-power radio stations and radical internet projects ('emancipatory communication practices') as a political

  20. The Politics and Anti-Politics of Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    connectivity? How do resource flows from development and humanitarian aid that religious actors may access then affect relationships of power and authority in African societies? How does religious mobilization on AIDS reflect contestation over identity, cultural membership, theology, political participation......, and citizenship? Addressing these questions, the authors draw on social movement theories to explore the role of religious identities, action frames, political opportunity structures, and resource mobilization in African religions’ reaction to the AIDS epidemic. The book’s findings are rooted in fieldwork......This book explores the nature, significance and consequences of the religious activism surrounding AIDS in Africa. While African religion was relatively marginal in inspiring or contributing to AIDS activism during the early days of the epidemic, this situation has changed dramatically. In order...

  1. Social Media Use & Political engagement in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Schwartz, Sander Andreas; Rossi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    . » Younger Danes are more active and present on social media platforms than older generations. The generation between 20 and 39 years is most likely to use Facebook in order to discuss politics with strangers. » When specifically looking at how users understand their communication on Facebook, it turns out...... that many of them view their communication as private. Especially the social network Facebook is used for private communication, e.g. exchanging messages with close friends and family. » In general, it is not very common for Danish citizens to actively engage in political debates online with strangers......Main findings of the survey » Social media use is a daily practice in Denmark, however, frequency and type of use differ greatly. » Danes use social media primarily to read content; it is less frequently used for producing original content or for interacting with content produced by others...

  2. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  3. Gateway Political Behaviors: The Frequency and Consequences of Low-Cost Political Engagement on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Bode

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine to what extent engagement in easy political behaviors on social media occurs across the range of political interest, what predicts such engagement, and what effect such engagement may have on other political behaviors. It pits the idea that social media may activate the politically uninterested against the idea that social media is just another outlet for the politically interested to demonstrate their engagement. Analyzing survey data collected by the Pew Research Center, it concludes that many people, including the politically uninterested, do engage in easy political behaviors like liking and commenting on political content on social media. When they do, it can lead to greater political activity offline. However, those most likely to engage in easy political behaviors are also those who engage in harder political behaviors, offering support for both the interest and activation hypotheses.

  4. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  5. The Impact of Political Advertising through Social Networking Sites on Egyptians’ Political Orientations and Choices

    OpenAIRE

    khaled A. Gad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of political advertising through social networking sites on Egyptians’ political orientations and choices. The objective of this paper is to determine how Egyptians’ social networking sites users are interested in political promoting campaigns and how they deal with such campaigns. Also the paper measures the impact of these campaigns in influencing the current political events, the individuals’ political choices and orientations, and the extent to which they...

  6. Political Transistion and Social Transformation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Tökés

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary’s postcommunist society of the 1990s is a work in progress revealing a prodemocratic yet economically unsure population coming to grips with the effects of a series of elite-managed political, socio-economic and institutional transformations. The country’sprocess of reconcilliation and change has been driven by strategies and choices that have come about between, on one hand, the public’s expectations surrounding political freedoms, the market economy and the rule of law and, on the other, the nation’s political actors’and institutions’ capacity for systemic reform. From a “functionalist” and “geneticist” approach, this paper examines the legacy of four decades of communist rule on present-day Hungary, highlighting Janos Kádár’s political regime, the “golden years” of socialism in the 1960s, and the National Rountable Agreement of 1989. While the accumulated effects of forty years of corruption, abuse ofpower and a diminished civic competence since the failed revolt in 1956 still influence the elites’ attempts to bring about systemic stability in the nation, the emerging civil society shows confidence in free enterprise and democracy. However, this confidence exists despite the fact that the political candidates the citizens have to choose from are too often inept and constrained by the Kádárist institutional legacy.

  7. Family Grant: social policy or political marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.

  8. Technology, world politics, and American policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiuk, V.

    1977-01-01

    This book concentrates on modern technology, analyzing its present and future impact on international relations. Beginning with the socio-political impact of technological trends around the world, Dr. Basiuk examines the aspects of future military (nuclear and ''conventional'') technology that will likely reinforce the growing stalemate between the U. S. and USSR. He surveys the integrative power of technology which is ''shrinking'' the modern world into global interdependence devoting detailed chapters to an assessment of the major strengths and weaknesses that characterize the ability of the United States, the Soviet Union, Western Europe, and Japan to deal with the problems arising from future developments in science and technology. As technology changes societies, ''power over'' people is becoming less important, while ''power toward,'' the ability to lead people and mobilize resources for the solution of contemporary problems and toward new frontiers of human achievement, tends to gain. Although technological impact can modify the international system, leading to transnationalism and a proliferation of actors on the global scene, nation-states will remain a principal element in world politics for some time to come. The current role of technology in America's domestic, foreign, and security policies is discussed. The final section examines the complexities of the postindustrial society. Projecting the direction of societal development well into the twenty-first century, Dr. Basiuk identifies two seemingly contradictory trends: the need for strengthening scientific and technological policy to achieve higher levels of material capability, accompanied by a reorientation in values to a limited-growth, semistationary society which de-emphasizes material rewards.

  9. High political participation, high social capital? A relational analysis of youth social capital and political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teney, Celine; Hanquinet, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    Social capital has been alleged to increase the capacity for political mobilization. Yet, until now, the empirical debate has not succeeded in rendering a detailed account of the relationships between social capital and political participation partly because of the use of a reductive conception and operationalization of both concepts. Using a multidimensional and relational technique (multiple correspondence analysis) and a detailed youth survey data from Belgium, the article demonstrates that youth draw on diverse forms of social capital and that these forms vary along socio-economic status and ethnic origin. Six classes based on the forms of social capital were identified. Two of them - the 'Committed' and 'Religious' are highly political active. The 'Committed' Class, based on a diversified social capital, consists mainly of non-immigrant youth with a high socio-economic background undertaking a large diversity of political activities. The 'Religious' Class, based on a narrow social capital built around religious activities, is mostly composed of ethnic minority youth with a low SES involved in more specific political activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Political Socialization of Right-Wing Conservative Politicians in Turkey: On The Factors of Their Political Belonging and Political Background

    OpenAIRE

    Suveren, Yaşar

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the processes which shape the political belonging and political socialization of the right-wing conservative politicians in Turkey is crucial for clarifying right wing political tradition and the series of factors influencing political views of the politicians who belonged to this specific tradition. Figuring out these factors would at least make it possible to explain and evaluate the political culture in Turkey by focusing on a single dimension constituted by the politi...

  11. Declining cleavages and political choices : the interplay of social and political factors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Nan Dirk de; Heath, Anthony; Need, Ariana

    2001-01-01

    Many social scientists believe that in the Netherlands there has been a decline in the political impact of traditional class and religious divisions over the last quarter-century. In understanding the evolving political impact of social divisions it is important to recognise that political behaviour

  12. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    This volume of materials is part of the report on 'Technological risks and social conflicts. Political risk strategies in the field of nuclear power'. The interested reader who wants to deepen his knowledge on the results and reasoning of the main report, will here find detailed explanations and brief drafts of subprojects; fundamental aspects of problems are presented in detail, and theoretical-conceptional, methodological and scientific-political points of view are explained. Furthermore it contains general reflections on the application-oriented research by order, a review of the status of risk research, historical considerations on the nuclear energy conflict, and finally explanations are attempted for the nuclear energy conflict. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. The politics and anti-politics of social movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.; Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics...... in its provision of services. Case studies that illustrate these themes and demonstrate the multi-faceted interactions between religion and HIV/AIDS are included....

  14. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  15. The influence of social media in Vietnam's elite politics

    OpenAIRE

    BUI, Thiem Hai

    2016-01-01

    There has been a notable rise of social media in Vietnam’s politics in recent years. The use of social media in generating and exchanging content for public consumption has become increasingly complex and sophisticated. The development of social media has led to the public being better informed about key political and economic issues of public concern. Social media is also playing a visible role in the competition among political factions. Increased exposure and public scrutiny has had a grea...

  16. Conspicuous political brand interactions on Social Network Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Ben; Marchant, Caroline; Archer-Brown, Chris; Yau, Amy; Colliander, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Acquiring ‘Likes’ for a political party or candidate’s Facebook pages is important for political marketers. For consumers these ‘Likes’ are conspicuous, making their political affiliation visible to their network. Our study examines the roles of the undesired social-self and visibility (conspicuous vs. inconspicuous) in predicting consumers’ intention to ‘Like’ political brands. We extend knowledge on the undesired social-self, transference of theory from general marketing to a politi...

  17. Syrian Kurdish Political Activism: A Social Movement Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietse van den Berge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Syrian Kurdish politics is complex. While the political parties appear rather similar in terms of their goals, fierce inter-party rivalry exists, nonetheless. Shedding some light on Syrian Kurdish politics using Social Movement Theory as a theoretical framework, this article deals with how and why Syrian Kurds choose a specific political party. Interviews with Syrian Kurdish political activists in Iraqi Kurdistan provide the data. The interviews point out that a striking cleavage exists: Respondents sympathizing with the dominant political party preferred social equality, while interviewees belonging to other parties have a preference for non-violence.

  18. Engaging Adolescents in Politics: The Longitudinal Effect of Political Socialization Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintelier, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a political socialization perspective, this study examined the development of political participation during adolescence and early adulthood. We explore the effect of parents, peers, school media, and voluntary associations on political participation. Self-reported data were collected from 3,025 Belgian adolescents at three points in…

  19. Bridging the social and the biomedical: engaging the social and political sciences in HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan C; Holt, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-09-27

    This supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society focuses on the engagement of the social and political sciences within HIV research and, in particular, maintaining a productive relationship between social and biomedical perspectives on HIV. It responds to a number of concerns raised primarily by social scientists, but also recognized as important by biomedical and public health researchers. These concerns include how best to understand the impact of medical technologies (such as HIV treatments, HIV testing, viral load testing, male circumcision, microbicides, and pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis) on sexual cultures, drug practices, relationships and social networks in different cultural, economic and political contexts. The supplement is also concerned with how we might examine the relationship between HIV prevention and treatment, understand the social and political mobilization required to tackle HIV, and sustain the range of disciplinary approaches needed to inform and guide responses to the global pandemic. The six articles included in the supplement demonstrate the value of fostering high quality social and political research to inform, guide and challenge our collaborative responses to HIV/AIDS.

  20. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  1. The power of likes: Social media logic and political communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsnes, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Political communication on social media is the topic of this dissertation. The Internet and social media platforms have provided participants in the public sphere with new ways to connect, communicate and distribute information. This study examines how and why the three main actor groups within political communication – political actors, media actors and citizens – connect and interact on social media during the electoral process in Norway in 2013. This hybrid media landscape is characterized...

  2. Technology, power and the political economy of inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guy, Frederick; Skott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Technology can affect the distribution of income directly via its influence on both the bargaining power of different parties and the marginal product of different factors of production. This paper focuses mainly on the first route. The role of power is transparent in the case of medieval choke...... points but modern network technologies have similar features. There is also substantial evidence --from truckers and retail clerks to CEOs -- that power affects the determination of wages. But power relations inevitably have institutional dimensions; regulatory frameworks influence industry structures...... and the market power of large companies as well as the parameters that determine the earnings of different groups of workers. The institutional framework is arrived at through complex social and political processes; technology, however, may exert some influence on the course of those processes....

  3. Social media analysis during political turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakaki, Despoina; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; V Samaras, Christos; Pratikakis, Polyvios; Ioannidis, Sotiris; Fragopoulou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    Today, a considerable proportion of the public political discourse on nationwide elections proceeds in Online Social Networks. Through analyzing this content, we can discover the major themes that prevailed during the discussion, investigate the temporal variation of positive and negative sentiment and examine the semantic proximity of these themes. According to existing studies, the results of similar tasks are heavily dependent on the quality and completeness of dictionaries for linguistic preprocessing, entity discovery and sentiment analysis. Additionally, noise reduction is achieved with methods for sarcasm detection and correction. Here we report on the application of these methods on the complete corpus of tweets regarding two local electoral events of worldwide impact: the Greek referendum of 2015 and the subsequent legislative elections. To this end, we compiled novel dictionaries for sentiment and entity detection for the Greek language tailored to these events. We subsequently performed volume analysis, sentiment analysis, sarcasm correction and topic modeling. Results showed that there was a strong anti-austerity sentiment accompanied with a critical view on European and Greek political actions.

  4. Researching new social (political movements as protagonists of social engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Uroš V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a retrospective of the theoretical research of the sociologist Slobodan Antonic dedicated to evolution and strengthening of two important social (political movements: radical-feminist and -LGBT. Contesting the scientific-methodological basis of theories that 'explain' them, the author emphasizes the importance of the neoliberal ideological platform on which these theories and derived movements are based. At the same time, numerous dangers that social engineering for which their members plead for are pointed out. Regardless the radical changes of social consciousness, social values and power relations in the contemporary society for which these movements plead for, they actually represent pro-systematic movements that help in preservation of neoliberal capitalism with their demands.

  5. Political activities of social workers: addressing perceived barriers to political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political participation. Since the late 1990s, organizational and legal issues have surfaced more prominently as barriers to political participation by social workers. This article addresses barriers to participation, such as not feeling competent to perform policy-related tasks and perceived legal barriers.It then analyzes the actual restrictions that nonprofit 501(c)(3) organizations and publicly employed social workers face in lobbying and partisan politics. The article summarizes the activities that are legally allowed in these areas and concludes that social workers can be more politically active than they often realize.

  6. An Appraisal of the Utilisation of Social Media for Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Ho 1: Voter's choice of political candidates in the 2011 presidential election was not influenced by political communication on ... Ho 3: Electorate voting pattern during the 2011 elections was not influenced by their exposure to political messages on social ...... Studies.1 (2), 161- 173. Sherman, A. (2010). The problem with ...

  7. Means-Tested Public Assistance Programs and Adolescent Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.

  8. Social Shaping in Danish Technology Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe; Clausen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The term ‘social shaping of technology’ has been used broadly as a response to techno-economic deterministic understandings of the relations between technology and society. Social shaping has brought together analysts from different backgrounds who share a common interest in the role of social an...... in these projects contributed to new insights into the processes of technological change and thus to policy formulation. The social shaping perspective and technology assessment experiences are suggested as important guides to future technology strategies....... and political action for technology change. The authors of this article suggest that the social shaping perspective draws on lessons from technology assessments of earlier decades, lessons about the role of technology debate, participation and democratic control. We suggest that these are important......The term ‘social shaping of technology’ has been used broadly as a response to techno-economic deterministic understandings of the relations between technology and society. Social shaping has brought together analysts from different backgrounds who share a common interest in the role of social...

  9. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  10. Rethinking Youth Political Socialization: Teenage Activists Talk Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hava R.; Taft, Jessica K.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws from the experiences and narratives of teenage activists throughout the Americas in order to add a needed dimension, that of peer political socialization, to the larger political and civic socialization literature. The authors argue that although the existing literature emphasizes the roles and responsibilities of adults in…

  11. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL WORKERS IN ZIMBABWE'S POLITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2017-12-28

    Dec 28, 2017 ... POLITICAL DISCOURSE. MUCHANYEREI, Babbot. ABSTRACT. The silence by the majority of Zimbabwean social work practitioners in particular, in the wake of the socio-political challenges currently bedeviling the country is worrying. Social work practitioners should be seen as torchbearers of peace and ...

  12. Agropolis : The Social, Political and Environmental Dimensions of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agropolis : The Social, Political and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture. Couverture du livre Agropolis : The Social, Political, and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture. Directeur(s):. Luc J.A. Mougeot. Maison(s) d'édition: Earthscan, CRDI. 2 juillet 2005. ISBN : 1844072320. 308 pages. e-ISBN :.

  13. Third Space, Social Media and Everyday Political Talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Scott; Graham, Todd; Jackson, Daniel; Bruns, Axel; Skogerbø, Eli; Christensen, Christian; Larsson, Anders Olof; Enli, Gunn Sara

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research into online politics to date has primarily focused on what might be called formal politics or on how activists and social movements utilize social media to pursue their goals. However, in this chapter, we argue that there is much to be gained by investigating how

  14. Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

  15. Online Social Systems, Social Actions, and Politics: A Narrative Analysis of the Role of Social Media in Revolutionary Political Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Rozan Omar

    2017-01-01

    One of the demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution tweeted "We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world," thus acknowledging and establishing the fundamental role of social media in the political unrest and revolution against the regime in Egypt. Information Systems (IS) have…

  16. New Media and Social Media in the Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Momoc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the 2009 Romanian presidential elections and the way in which thecandidates interacted with the new communication technologies. After the first research conducted on the2004 online electoral campaigns, we noticed that, in Romania, the degree of alphabetization and politicalparticipation (the number of people knowing how to read and write, or the number of those effectivelyparticipating at the poll is just as small as it was after the mass internet was introduced and after thenumber of internet subscribers increased. We observed that the websites and blogs with the highest trafficare the entertainment dedicated ones, the tabloids, and not the cultural ones, not the quality online press.This research intends to clear up whether in Romania social media are rather helping the moderatecandidates or the extremist candidates – from an electoral point of view. This article will be incorporated inthe research called Electoral Communication in Romania after 1989. Old and New Technologies inPresidential Campaigns which is part of the post-doctoral program POSDRU/89/1.5/S/62259, Sociohumanand political applied sciences. Post-doctoral training program and post-doctoral researchscholarships in the field of the socio-human and political sciences.

  17. Social media in political communication and the use of twitter in the 2011 general elections in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktutan, Günseli; Binark, Mutlu; Çomu, Tuğrul; Doğu, Burak; İslamoğlu, Gözde; Telli Aydemir, Aslı

    2012-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive research supported by TÜBİTAK SOBAG (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey - Social Sciences and Humanities Research Grant Group), which investigates with quantitative and qualitative methods the practices involved in the usage of the social media by political parties and political party leaders as a channel/area for political communication. The aim for this study is to demonstrate, within the framework of the developing citizenshi...

  18. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  19. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker

    2011-01-01

    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  20. Election technologies and political advertising as a tool of political leader formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Zelman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article talks about process of becoming a political leader by the use of electoral technologies, including political advertising. The experience of American specialists in the field of advertising indicates the possibility of effective application methods. These methods have been successfully used in commercial advertising in the US the first half of the twentieth century. They shows the effectiveness of proven methods of commerce. Of particular relevance becomes the question of electoral technologies in the context of elections in Ukraine. Political leaders simultaneously no support among the population. The fact that they are the message addressed voters often do not converge with the needs of the latter. The experience of almost every election campaign speaks only about the external aspects of electoral technologies. It’s too little and too primitive to obtain the vote for political candidates or specific political force. Of particular relevance becomes the question of electoral technologies in the context of elections. Political leaders simultaneously no support among the population. The fact that they are the message addressed voters often do not converge with the needs of the latter. The experience of almost every election campaign speaks only about the external aspects of electoral technologies. It’s too little and too primitive to obtain the vote for political candidates or specific political force. The article analyzed the practice of election campaigns and the use of voting technology experts in the field of advertising during the first half of the twentieth century the United States. Considered proven techniques that worked in his time.

  1. Social and Psycho-Political Impacts in the Social Construction of Political Memory of the Brazilian Military Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansara, Soraia

    2015-01-01

    This article refers to a research on the political memory of the military dictatorship in Brazil, held in three Brazilian cities (Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and São Paulo) in which we analyzed the social and psychopolitical impacts caused by the dictatorship as well as the redemocratization process in building the political memory of community and…

  2. Online Marketing in Indian Politics: Role of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kareena Bhatia Kakkar; Vivek Singh Student, GD Goenka University, Sohna (Haryana) India

    2014-01-01

    Indian Politics has always been a field of importance for every individual, organization and nation. There is a lot of contribution of the young politicians and voters in politics. The research was conducted to find out how social media has influenced the young voters towards politics and whether it has an impact on them or not. The research was conducted by adopting primary and secondary method for collecting data and the result was favorable that social media has a powerful impact on the yo...

  3. A mathematics course for political and social research

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Will H

    2013-01-01

    Political science and sociology increasingly rely on mathematical modeling and sophisticated data analysis, and many graduate programs in these fields now require students to take a ""math camp"" or a semester-long or yearlong course to acquire the necessary skills. Available textbooks are written for mathematics or economics majors, and fail to convey to students of political science and sociology the reasons for learning often-abstract mathematical concepts. A Mathematics Course for Political and Social Research fills this gap, providing both a primer for math novices in the social s

  4. Governance in Blockchain Technologies & Social Contract Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Reijers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is placed in the context of a growing number of social and political critiques of blockchain technologies. We focus on the supposed potential of blockchain technologies to transform political institutions that are central to contemporary human societies, such as money, property rights regimes, and systems of democratic governance. Our aim is to examine the way blockchain technologies canbring about - and justify - new models of governance. To do so, we draw on the philosophical works of Hobbes, Rousseau, and Rawls, analyzing blockchain governance in terms of contrasting social contract theories. We begin by comparing the justifications of blockchain governance offered by members of the blockchain developers’ community with the justifications of governance presented within social contract theories. We then examine the extent to which the model of governance offered by blockchain technologies reflects key governance themes and assumptions located within social contract theories, focusing on the notions of sovereignty, the initial situation, decentralization and distributive justice.

  5. Managing for Political Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Andreas Georg; Rasche, Andreas; Palazzo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This article takes stock of the discourse on ‘political CSR’ (PCSR), reconsiders some of its assumptions, and suggests new directions for what we call ‘PCSR 2.0’. We start with a definition of PCSR, focusing on firms’ contribution to public goods. We then discuss historical antecedents...... to the debate and outline the original economic and political context. The following section explores emerging changes in the institutional context relevant to PCSR and reconsiders some of the assumptions underlying Habermas’ thesis of the postnational constellation. This highlights some neglected issues...

  6. The Struggle for Technology : Towards a Realistic Political Theory of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    Pieter Lemmens’ neo-Marxist approach to technology urges us to rethink how to do political philosophy of technology. First, Lemmens’ high level of abstraction raises the question of how empirically informed a political theory of technology needs to be. Second, his dialectical focus on a “struggle”

  7. Social media: implications for everyday life, politics and human agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jansson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the current saturation of digital devices in contemporary society, the boundaries between humans and machines have become increasingly blurred. This digitalization of everyday life both obscures and reminds us of the fact that identity, agency and power cannot be attributed to the individual or the machine alone: rather, they are the outcome of interactions and negotiations within a network of actors. Social media, such as Facebook, blogs, Twitter and YouTube, show clearly that the ‘meaning’ or ‘effect’ of digital technologies is formed through the practices in which they are used and the social relations and institutions that develop around them. This article presents views expressed during a panel discussion on the implications of social media for everyday life, politics and human agency at the Aboagora Symposium, held on 14th August 2013. The panel was organized as a dialogue between the participants and the discussion was structured around three questions, presented below. The participants in the panel were; Professor André Jansson (Karlstad University, Professor Susanna Paasonen (University of Turku and adjunct Professor Johanna Sumiala (University of Helsinki. The panel was chaired by Professor Mia Lövheim (Uppsala University.

  8. Technology assessment and social science research on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, V. von

    1983-01-01

    In a first step this bibliography wants to overcome the want of systematic scientific data compilations and evaluations of experiences in studies on technology assessment. It concentrates on the social and political aspects of the development of technologies and the decision on their utilization by presenting titles which have been published in English- and German-speaking countries in the past decade. The bibliography is divided into various chapters and subchapters. The index part contains authors' indexes and publishers' indexes, subject indexes, other bibliographies and selected periodicals. (orig.) With 1647 refs [de

  9. Online Social Media for Radical Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askanius, Tina; Uldam, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, political attention was turned towards the 15th UN Climate Conference, COP15. For the Global Justice Movement (GJM) this provided an opportunity to promote their agenda. The use of online media conjured up memories of the success of alternative media in mobilising large...

  10. Social marketing: dimensions of power and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S

    1982-01-01

    The effective us of marketing strategies by nonprofit organizations necessitates involvement in political activities, i.e., mobilizing power to influence others. Most nonprofit groups and marketing experts who work for nonprofit groups are not sufficiently aware of the value of using the tactics of politics to win support for their causes. The experiences of a voluntary group which used politics and power to develop a program aimed at assisting unemployed black youth were presented. The group wanted to establish a workshop to provide training for hard core unemployed youth. The group needed to raise funds to set up the workshop. The 1st step was to identify a target group of potential donors, and then to develop a strategy for selling their product, i.e., the worthiness of the workshop project. The group decided to direct its fund raising activities toward organizations in the community rather than individuals. The market was segmented, and the product was presented differently to differ groups. Initially, the voluntary group was powerless. Political tactics were subsequently used to legitimate the group and its product. A network of influencial sympathizers, primarily clergymen and politicians, was established. This network helped the group garner the support of the targeted donor organizations. The threat of sanctions was used to gain support for the project, but sanctions were applied with considerable care. For example, the support of local politicians was obtained partially by implicitly threatening them with the possibility of bad publicity if they failed to promote the project. Voluntary organizations are not immune to internal conflict and competition. In introducing a marketing perspective into a voluntary organization, internal politics must be taken into account. In the case presented here, the marketer had to decide who in the organization to align himself with and then develop strategies to increase his influence and the influence of his allies. In

  11. Played or Player: Education, Technologies and Organisational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lily, Abdulrahman Essa

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary work lies at the intersection of education, technology and political sociology. It is intended to contribute to the politicisation of educational technologies, something that so far seems not to have explicitly constituted a major component of the international contemporary theoretical literature. It addresses the research…

  12. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...

  13. An appraisal of the utilisation of social media for political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey aimed at examining the utilisation of social media for political communication during the 2011 presidential election in Nigeria. The rationale behind the study was to determine whether voters' choice of presidential candidates was influenced by their social media use. 249 respondents selected through ...

  14. Analysing Memoir Topic Trends in the Social and Political Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysing Memoir Topic Trends in the Social and Political Sciences in the Faculty of Arts, Media and Social Sciences at NUR. ... The causal mechanism evolves from popular discussion in the media, leading to student interest, and eventually to student-selected research topics. The most obvious examples were government ...

  15. Faith, Social Activism and Politics : Role of Faith Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Faith, social activism and politics : a study of the role of faith based organisations in influencing public policy in Lebanon; a final research report. Études. Role of sectarian and religious organizations in the Lebanese social policies: literature review [Arabic language]. Études. Role of sectarian and religious organizations in ...

  16. Social Technologies in Shipbuilding Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Social technology refers to innovative organizations of work and human resource management practices employed in experimental or quasi-experimental settings for the purpose of improving performance...

  17. Health technology assessment in four countries: response from political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinitz, David

    2004-01-01

    Four studies, each on health technology assessment (HTA) in a different country, are presented in this volume. Conveying differing levels of sensitivity to political aspects of HTA, their storylines are similar in terms of the importance of the institutional structures that produce HTA and mediate its influence on health policy decision making. Regarding the internal politics of HTA, the latter appears to have developed in a relatively depoliticized environment, supported by a dense and varied web of institutional sites for funding, production, and consumption of HTA, buffered from the capricious impacts of electoral politics. Regarding external politics, HTA in all the countries began with relatively politically innocuous studies of technologies recognized to be of major import to national health systems or researcher-initiated studies. However, with increased focus in health systems on explicit determination of health benefits baskets, the role of HTA has become more high profile. This means that political accountability for the entire HTA process will increase. The implication is that future management of HTA programs will require self-conscious attention to the building of institutions capable of handling the delicate process of integrating science and politics in health policy.

  18. Managing for Political Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Andreas Georg; Rasche, Andreas; Palazzo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This article takes stock of the discourse on ‘political CSR’ (PCSR), reconsiders some of its assumptions, and suggests new directions for what we call ‘PCSR 2.0’. We start with a definition of PCSR, focusing on firms’ contribution to public goods. We then discuss historical antecedents to the deb......This article takes stock of the discourse on ‘political CSR’ (PCSR), reconsiders some of its assumptions, and suggests new directions for what we call ‘PCSR 2.0’. We start with a definition of PCSR, focusing on firms’ contribution to public goods. We then discuss historical antecedents...... to the debate and outline the original economic and political context. The following section explores emerging changes in the institutional context relevant to PCSR and reconsiders some of the assumptions underlying Habermas’ thesis of the postnational constellation. This highlights some neglected issues...... in previous works on PCSR, including the influence of nationalism and fundamentalism, the role of various types of business organisations, the return of government regulation, the complexity of institutional contexts, the efficiency of private governance, the financialization and digitalization of the economy...

  19. The Politics and Situatedness of Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, D.M.; Dijkstra, Anne M.; Fautz, C.; Guivant, J.S.; Konrad, Kornelia Elke; Shelley Egan, Clare; Woll, S.

    2017-01-01

    [R]evolutionary technologies are rapidly making their way into the market, bringing with them greater precision, enhanced flexibility and — at least when compared to some conventional approaches — lower costs. The pace at which these new technologies, their tools and applications, are making their

  20. Politics 2.0: The Use of Social Networks in Argentinean Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Romina Dominguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a doctoral thesis that analyzes the political use of the communication 2.0, specifically of Facebook and Twitter. The political agent chosen is the President, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in the pre electoral period of the first Simultaneous Open and Compulsory Primary. It is important to mention that she is the first Argentinean president to use the social networks with electoral purposes in pursuit of her reelection, given that the development of these communicational tools is recent and previous presidents did not count with them. In order to analyze the use of social networks by the President in a pre-election period, political discourse was analyzed and compared the treatment of electoral information of three traditional mass media-La Nacion, Clarin and Página/12- and the political material, or management review published, shared and retweeted by the political agent chosen. The study found that the agent used its social networking times during the period. The electoral messages aimed to list the qualities of his first management through specific government measures without making campaign promises. Meanwhile, the media published a significant amount of notes linked to the President but was tiny references to electoral publications on social networks.

  1. The Political Socialization of Adolescent Children of Immigrants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. Methods We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. Results We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation young adults. Conclusions The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors. PMID:24489413

  2. Information and Communication Technologies in Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Harry O.; Glass, Joseph E.; Margerum-Leys, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research. PMID:21691444

  3. Information and Communication Technologies in Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Perron

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research.

  4. Information and Communication Technologies in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E; Taylor, Harry O; Glass, Joseph E; Margerum-Leys, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research.

  5. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN CREATING POLITICAL AWARENESS AND MOBILIZING POLITICAL PROTESTS : A Focus on Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, Ender

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, the internet penetration, social media production and consumption have increased dramatically all over the world. This increase has affected the politics in most parts of the world in many ways. Social media became a tool for politicians to carry out their political campaigns and for activists to create awareness on political issues and mobilize protests. Today almost in all social movements in the countries with high rate of internet access, the role of social media is b...

  6. Peaceful Protest, Political Regimes, and the Social Media Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    does portend that democracies will experience insignificant increases in peaceful protests as social media usage increases. The finding is promising...AND THE SOCIAL MEDIA CHALLENGE by Geoffrey D. Childs Randolph J. Fleming, II June 2016 Thesis Advisor: T. Camber Warren Second Reader...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PEACEFUL PROTEST, POLITICAL REGIMES, AND THE SOCIAL MEDIA CHALLENGE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  7. Technology and social communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    For centuries advances in what we now term media have generated concerns about the effect these advances have on values and morality-books, stage drama, movies, TV, and now computer-based fantasy and Internet-based distribution. These media comprise some of the most powerful agents for developing our fundamental strategies for living. Computer-based fantasy can provide waves of sensations that everyday life does not prepare us for; they create a wow effect. The implications are especially, strong for adolescents. Wow effects come to seem ordinary. We can easily overdose on them with a subsequent dulling of sensibility that motivates one to seek the next level. As the wow effect is numbed, socializing restrictions break down. A psychological strategy of distancing is one defense against enhanced imagery - a strategy of cool as antidote. The wow-cool dipole can foster a role as spectator that inhibits empathy and a fundamental distancing from the self. Technology - the source of our concerns-can also help to counteract them. The most powerful drive in children is to learn mastery of the world. New input and output devices and especially properly designed software can enhance the capacity to learn and to be creative, i.e. to gain mastery over the world. These powerful new modes of communication not only give us great access to the world, they give the world great access to us. We must supplant what is now mostly a passive broadcast system with interactive exploration and two-way communication.

  8. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  9. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  10. Sports, Global Politics, and Social Value Change: A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role in forging, constructing and self-ascribing social identities and shaping popular culture, sports have long been a marginalized subject of social science inquiry, cultural studies, and research on international politics. Only in recent years this has begun to change. The article seeks to advance the still nascent but emerging cross-disciplinary field of research on sports and global politics in two ways: first, by addressing largely unexplored issues of sports, politics, and social conflicts, putting the spotlight on sociopolitical arenas beyond commercialized sports mega events, which have attracted most scholarly attention in contemporary research; and second, by generating hypotheses on the indirect political effects of sports cultures, in particular on the relationship between local social identities—reinforced through sports—and cosmopolitan value change. These interlinked spatial and substantive claims ground a new critical research framework and agenda: it examines sports as profoundly embedded in socioeconomic, cultural and political forms of rule and domination but also seeks to disclose sports’ emancipatory and subversive potential in advancing globalization from below.

  11. Social and Psycho-political Impacts in the Social Construction of Political Memory of the Brazilian Military Dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Soraia Ansara

    2015-01-01

    This article refers to a research on the political memory of the military dictatorship in Brazil, held in three Brazilian cities (Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and São Paulo) in which we analyzed the social and psychopolitical impacts caused by the dictatorship as well as the redemocratization process in building the political memory of community and union leaders. The study revealed two important legacies that were found in the reports of interviewees: the first one refers to police repression, i...

  12. On the history of political diversity in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Kevin R; Sears, David O

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the history of political diversity in social psychology may be better characterized by stability than by a large shift toward liberalism. The branch of social psychology that focuses on political issues has defined social problems from a liberal perspective since at least the 1930s. Although a lack of ideological diversity within the discipline can pose many of the problems noted by Duarte et al., we suggest that these problems (a) are less apparent when the insights of social psychology are pitted against the insights from other social science disciplines, and (b) are less pressing than the need for other types of diversity in the field, especially ethnic and racial diversity.

  13. Present challenges of research and technology politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulow, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Research and technology in Germany are discussed. The rapid transfer of scientific knowledge and techniques from the laboratory to the manufacturing and industrial communities is identified as a priority. It is recommended that the government give maximum support to the aviation and space flight industries.

  14. Measuring the Effects of Social Media Participation on Political Party Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  15. Measuring the effects of social media participation on political party communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, T.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  16. ""Delicious" Politics"--The Use of Social Bookmarking in Politics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This case study highlights the use of the social bookmarking site "Delicious" on a Level 2 module "Governing the EU." The nature of politics as a discipline is that it is constantly evolving such that new developments and policies emerge almost every day. It is therefore imperative that the students keep on top of these…

  17. The social and political impact of animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B

    2006-01-01

    The twenty-first century is characterised by 'epidemiological globalisation' on an unprecedented scale with resulting impacts at the interface of economic, scientific, social and political forces arising from the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. Throughout history, animals have served as a source to humankind of food, transportation, medicines, entertainment, clothing, fuel, military advantage and financial security. It is therefore not at all surprising that animal diseases have resulted in significant social and political impacts that have shaped and continue to shape the course of national and international events. The social impacts can be expressed as indirect health consequences or behavioural changes, changes in societal values and changes in social standing and can be felt at the individual, family or community level. The political impact of major disease outbreaks can include loss of public and consumer confidence, resistance to investments in disease surveillance, reluctance to report disease detections in a timely or transparent manner, failure to implement science-based international standards for safe trade (which protect animal, human and ecosystem health) and the removal of government officials. The magnitude of these impacts would support that social and political impacts warrant their inclusion in the consequence assessment of a robust animal disease risk analysis framework.

  18. Changing politics of Canadian social policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, James J; Prince, Michael J

    2000-01-01

    ... in the 1990s. Globalization and the concomitant corporate mobility affect government's ability to regulate the distribution of wealth, while the increasing diversity of the population puts increasingly complex demands on an already overstressed system. Yet in the face of these constraints, the system still endures and is far from irrelevant. Some social progr...

  19. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  20. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...... education research to question whether conventional research approaches, foci and theoretical approaches are sufficient in a world of science education that is neither politically neutral, nor free of cultural values. Attention is not only on the individual learner but on the cultural, social and political...

  1. Understanding Islamist political violence through computational social simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.

  2. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Canikalp, Ebru; Unlukaplan, Ilter

    2017-01-01

    A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise ca...

  3. Political discourse as social actions: A study of selected campaign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linguistic and discourse approaches are adopted to describe how campaign utterances constitute discourse acts. Insights from the Speech Act Theory (Austin, 1962 and Searle, 1969) provide the theoretical standpoint, from which the essay describes political campaign utterances as social actions. The data set for the study ...

  4. Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Social Inequality and Politics in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Social Inequality and Politics in Latin America. Paradoxically, Latin America has some of the most stringent legal restrictions against and highest rates of abortion in the world. The co-existence of legal restrictions and unsafe abortions affects society unequally. While middle- and upper-class ...

  5. Politics without "Brainwashing": A Philosophical Defence of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Social justice education (SJE) is a ubiquitous, if inconsistently defined, component of contemporary education theory and practice. Recently, SJE has come under fire for being politically biased and even "brainwashing" children in the public education system. In a liberal democracy such as our own, it is important that state-sponsored…

  6. Faith, Social Activism and Politics : Role of Faith Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Collective for Research and Training for Development - Actions (CRTD.A) to examine the role (positive or negative) that ... Outputs. Reports. Faith, social activism and politics : a study of the role of faith based organisations in influencing public policy in Lebanon; a final research report. Download PDF.

  7. Thinking Political Emancipation and the Social Sciences in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-08

    Jun 8, 2014 ... There is a deep yearning both by intellectuals and other people in general ..... within neo-liberal discourse, the dark side of which was said to be the state. The post-colonial state, it was maintained, .... facilitated by what has become known as the 'language turn' in social. 7- NEOCOSMOS- Thinking Political ...

  8. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Canikalp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise cash benefits, direct in-kind provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes.The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between political structure, i.e. government fragmentation, ideological composition, elections and so on, and the social expenditures in Greece. Employing data from the Comparative Political Dataset (CPDS and the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX, a time series analysis was conducted for Greece for the 1980-2014 period. The findings of the study indicate that voter turnout, spending on the elderly population and the number of government changes have positive and statistically significant effects on social expenditures in Greece while debt stock and cabinet composition have negative effects.

  9. Partitioning and Transmutation - Physics, Technology and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear reactions can be effectively used to destroy radio toxic isotopes through transmutation processes transforming those isotopes into less radio toxic or stable ones Spent nuclear fuel, a mixture of many isotopes with some of them being highly radio toxic for many hundred thousands of years, may be effectively transmuted through nuclear reactions with neutrons. In a dedicated, well designed transmutation system one can, in principle, reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel to a level, which will require isolation from the biosphere for the period of time for which engineered barriers can be constructed and licensed (not more than 1-2 thousands of years). En effective transmutation process can not be achieved without a suitable partitioning. Only partitioning of the spent nuclear fuel into predetermined groups of elements makes possible an effective use of neutrons to transmute long-lived radioactive isotopes into short-lived or stable one. However, most of the chemical separation/partitioning processes are element- not isotope-specific, therefore the transmutation of the elements with an existing isotope composition is a typical alternative for transmutation processes. Isotope-specific separation is possible but still very expensive and technologically not matured

  10. Social Media Participation and Local Politics: A Case Study of the Enschede Council in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tambouris, E.; Macintosh, A.

    Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are often seen as political game changers. Yet little is known of the effects of social media on local politics. In this paper the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM) is introduced for studying the effects of social media on local political

  11. Social Media Participation and Local Politics: A Case Study of the Enschede Council in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Tambouris, Efthimios; Macintosh, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are often seen as political game changers. Yet little is known of the effects of social media on local politics. In this paper the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM) is introduced for studying the effects of social media on local political

  12. Animal Ethics and Politics Beyond the Social Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Reynolds

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into three sections. First, I describe the wide plurality of views on issues of animal ethics, showing that our disagreements here are deep and profound. This fact of reasonable pluralism about animal ethics presents a political problem. According to the dominant liberal tradition of political philosophy, it is impermissible for one faction of people to impose its values upon another faction of people who reasonably reject those values. Instead, we are obligated to justify our political actions to each other using reasons that everyone can accept. Thus, in the second section I suggest that our condition of reasonable pluralism inspires us to turn toward some form of contractarianism. The social contract tradition emerged precisely as an attempt to think about how a society characterized by deep moral disagreement could nonetheless agree about the basic principles of justice. I will show, in this section, that although the social contract tradition would seem to contain the best tools for thinking about how to deal with moral disagreement, it fails to help us think through the important issues of animal ethics. In the concluding section, I suggest some ways in which political philosophy might move beyond contractarianism when thinking about this issue, including embracing an agonistic style of politics.

  13. What’s Political about Solar Electric Technology? The User’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars in science and technology studies have debated the various ways in which technologies are (or are not political. Here, I examine how users themselves understand and articulate the politics of a specific technology—residential solar electric technology—and how understandings of politics interact with motivations to adopt. Based on interviews with 48 individuals in 36 households across the state of Wisconsin who have adopted residential solar electric technology, I consider the user’s perspective on the question: “What’s political about residential solar electric technology use?” These users were asked about the politics of this technology and how their understanding of the technology’s politics shaped their own motivation for adoption. These solar electric technology adopters saw solar electric technology as both imbued with political character based on the current national political scene and as inherently, innately political. They described how solar electric technology interacts with the politics of environmentalism, challenges “politics-as-usual” and can bring about decentralization and redistribution of wealth. In short, to the users of solar electric technology, this technological artifact is, indeed, political; it both interacts with, and offers an alternative to, current American political structures. Further, their perspectives on the politics of solar technology shaped their understandings of motivations for and limitations to adoption of this alternative technology.

  14. The effects of social media on political party perception and voting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, Peter; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; de Zeeuw, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine to what extent social media influences political party perception (PPP) and political voting behavior. Based on literature a conceptual model was developed which measures political interest, political trust, religion and the use of social media and their effects on PPP

  15. A Matter of Politics: The Effects of the Political Context on Social Work in Norway and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Tuastad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To which extent do dysfunctional political systems lead to everyday challenges for social workers? Moreover, how do social workers benefit from working in well-ordered democracies?  The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how the interplay between the political context and social work actually operates. Our main question is: How do accountability and state capacity levels affect daily social work? This interplay frequently becomes associated with levels of democracy and redistribution. We also draw attention to how social workers’ are dependent on the capacity of the state to implement policies. We compare social work and the political and legal contexts in two widely different polities – Norway and Bolivia. Our primary findings indicate that the effects of generally unfavourable political conditions permeate the possibilities for effective social work in previously unforeseen ways. Coordination problems, clientelism and political rivalry lead to everyday challenges on the ground, as many problems seem to reflect the overall institutional system and political culture. In well-ordered political systems, these problems are hardly an issue. In our concluding discussion, we address how the nature of the institutional system and political culture apparently might call for a differentiated approach towards reform strategies. For instance, progressive politicians, citizens and social workers advocating a policy transfer could face severe hindrances in polities, thus comprising weak state capacities.

  16. Political Correctness—Between Fiction and Social Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lichev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays political correctness (PC is blamed by its opponents because of a failed model of multiculturalism, an influx of migrants and the threat of terrorist acts. Obviously, a definition of tolerance given by UNESCO in 1995 has lost its meaning. In order to argue a possibility of a global ethos based on new understandings of PC, the authors refer to contemporary achievements of semiotics, hermeneutics and philosophical anthropology. We use a critical method developed in the hermeneutical tradition of P. Ricoeur, J. Kristeva, Tz. Todorov and others. Criticism is directed at (1 paradoxes of postmodern philosophical attempts for justification the idea of political correctness; (2 the way of introducing new terminology, as on a language level it leads, not to inclusion, but to exclusion, of disadvantaged people because as E. Benveniste states, the third person is rather the non-person. The conclusion is that politically correct speech should be grounded on a basis which takes into account the three persons of verb conjugation. Similar philosophical and ethical ideas can be found in works of J. Kristeva, Tz. Todorov, P. Ricoeur. An example is given for how these ideas can be implemented in the fields of film and art. This is one of the possible ways of overcoming the exclusion of disadvantaged people who are only named in politically correct terms, and not as participants, in social and political dialogue.

  17. Social Investment after Neoliberalism: Policy Paradigms and Political Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Christopher; Smyth, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The concept of the 'social investment state' refocuses attention on the productive function of social policy eclipsed for some time by the emphasis on its social protection or compensation roles. Here we distinguish between different social investment strategies, the Nordic 'heavy' and the Liberal 'light', with particular reference to the inclusive growth approach adopted in Australia. In 2007, social democrats in Australia returned to government with a clear mandate to reject the labour market deregulation and other neoliberal policies of its predecessor, and to tackle entrenched social and economic disadvantage in Australian society. For the last five years, social investment and inclusive growth has been at the centre of the Australian social policy agenda. Against this background, the article examines and critically assesses the (re)turn to 'social investment' thinking in Australia during Labor's term in office (2007-13). Analysis focuses not just on what was actually achieved, but also on the constraining role of prevailing economic and political circumstances and on the processes that were used to drive social investment reform. In many ways, the article goes some way to exposing ongoing tensions surrounding the distinctiveness of 'social investment' strategies pursued by leftist parties within the (neo)liberal state.

  18. Employment Status, Social Capital, and Political Participation: A Comparison of Unemployed and Employed Youth in Geneva

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzini, Jasmine; Giugni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between employment status, social capital, and the participation of young people in different kinds of political activities such as contacting, consumer, and protest activities. We focus on the role of social capital for political participation, addressing three related questions: Do unemployed and employed youth display different levels of social capital and political participation? Does social capital favor the political participation of unemployed and ...

  19. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  20. Social Media Use and Online Political Participation Among College Students During the US Election 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei “Chris” Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4,556 US college students were surveyed immediately after Election 2012 to investigate what social media–related psychological and behavioral factors predicted their online political participation. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical multiple regression results showed that online social capital, political self-efficacy, and Facebook group participation were positive predictors of online political participation, while social trust did not directly influence online political participation. General political use of Facebook and Twitter was a positive predictor of online political participation; however, extensive Facebook and Twitter use was a negative predictor. Implications for research and political practice are discussed.

  1. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2008-03-01

    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  2. Plasma technology: a technical economical and political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, V.A. de; Vicente, L.C.; Bender, O.W.; Sanches Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    To survey the State of the Art and Technic in Material, Process and Products by Plasma, it was needed to assemble economic, political and managerial variables that will affect the absortion and implantation of this technology in Brazil. Through a survey in industries, universities, research centers, energy agencies and financial and forster institutions it was possible to build a frame that gave us conditions to forecasting and suggest some mesures to Plasma sector. (author) [pt

  3. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the turbulent year of 2016, with deep geopolitical changes, the new year of 2017 promises to be full of challenges in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. The key events of the last year (the Brexit, the elections in the USA, the events in Turkey, the force demonstrations of Russia, the situation of the migration wave etc. shall have an impact on the global economic development and on the repositioning of its main actors. This paperwork intends to analyze the main consequences of the recent events on the short term progress in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. We hereby intend to review the facts and the main potential progress on the economic status of this year which was so complicated, both for the European Union and for every member of it.

  4. Enduring politics: the culture of obstacles in legislating for assisted reproduction technologies in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Allison

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology has become a normalized part of reproductive medicine in many countries around the world. Access, however, is uneven and inconsistent, facilitated and restricted by such factors as affordability, social and moral acceptance or refusal and local cultures of medical practice. In Ireland, assisted reproductive technology has been available since 1987 but remains unregulated by legislation. This creates an uncertain and untenable legal circumstance given the contested issues related to constitutional protection of the right to life of the unborn and the indeterminate legal status of embryos in vitro. This paper examines the impact of an enduring political impasse. It explores how clinical assisted reproductive technology services in Ireland operate both inside and outside dominant institutional frameworks, meeting a pronatalist and pro-family social and political agenda, while sometimes contradicting the pro-life politics that has continued to shape women’s reproductive lives. The medical approaches to infertility thus intersect with the ongoing debates around abortion, the failure of the government to regulate, and notions of embodied motherhood and responsibility within changing meanings of family and kinship. At the same time women and their partners seek assisted reproductive technology treatment in other countries throughout the European Union where laws differ and availability of services varies. A decade has passed since the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction in Ireland released its recommendations; the enduring legislative vacuum leaves women, families and practitioners in potential legal limbo.

  5. Social networks, politics and Commitment 2.0: Spanish MPs on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sixto, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a technologically and sociologically advanced society, the organizations that do not use the new media and the cyber communication techniques are probably doomed to failure. In this virtual sphere the social networks constitute a suitable resource and channel for the implementation of political marketing 2.0, as it provides a scenario where the interaction with users is possible. From this perspective, we verified their presence of the 350 members of the Spanish Congress on Facebook, the country’s most popular social network, in order to establish the predominant typologies, updating frequency, contents, resources, and the types of information posted in this spaces.This article also examines the interactivity of MPs in what we have termed Commitment 2.0: political communication in personal contexts such as social networks requires going from the participatory attitude to the participatory action; that is, to accept the interaction 2.0 as the correct behaviour on the network.

  6. Economic and Political Governance in Germany's Social Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Horst Siebert

    2004-01-01

    Germany's system of economic and political governance strongly relies on group decision-making and consensus to solve economic issues. This approach relates to a wide spectrum of decisions, including the social partners with the trade unions and the employers' associations in wage formation, the trade unions in the governance of firms through codetermination and the workers' councils in the operation of firms, but also to relationship banking and to the steering of the university system by co...

  7. Social Security in Germany: A Prey of Political Opportunism?

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas Potrafke

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how politicians influenced social security policy in Germany. Using yearly data from the German Pension Insurance from 1957 to 2005, revenues as well as expenditures are analysed in linear regression models, respectively. In accordance with opportunistic political behaviour, revenues from contributions decreased in pre-election years. Most important, pension expenditures increased in election years. Interestingly, the CDU/FDP governments provided higher subsidies to the so...

  8. Democracy, Citizenship and Youth : Towards Social and Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 oct. 2009 ... Couverture du livre Democracy, Citizenship, and Youth : Towards Social and Political Participation in ... à la formation du réseau des chercheurs, aux réactions des jeunes interrogés, à la stratégie de relations-médias couronnée de succès et aux partenariats stimulants qui ont émané de cette recherche.

  9. Gender, ageing, and injustice: social and political contexts of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, S

    2005-05-01

    There has been considerable work in bioethics addressing injustice and gender oppression in the provision of healthcare services, in the interaction between client and healthcare professional, and in allocation of healthcare services within a particular hospital or health service. There remain several sites of continued injustice that can only be addressed adequately from a broader analytical perspective, one that attends to the social and political contexts framing healthcare policy and practice. Feminist bioethicists have a strong track record in providing this kind of analysis. Using current Australian aged care and welfare policy this paper demonstrates some of the ways in which issues of gender, age, and social inequity shape bioethical debate, policy, and practice in the areas of aged care and welfare provision. The author develops an argument that demonstrates the gender injustice underlying health care and welfare policy. This argument recognises the inevitability of human dependency relations, and questions the adequacy of current political theories to address the requirements for full and equal citizenship. The author shows that an adequate analysis of the ethics of aged healthcare depends on sufficient consideration of the social and political context within which healthcare policy is framed and an adequate understanding of human dependency.

  10. An Introduction to Social Semantic Web Mining & Big Data Analytics for Political Attitudes and Mentalities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schatten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The social web has become a major repository of social and behavioral data that is of exceptional interest to the social science and humanities research community. Computer science has only recently developed various technologies and techniques that allow for harvesting, organizing and analyzing such data and provide knowledge and insights into the structure and behavior or people on-line. Some of these techniques include social web mining, conceptual and social network analysis and modeling, tag clouds, topic maps, folksonomies, complex network visualizations, modeling of processes on networks, agent based models of social network emergence, speech recognition, computer vision, natural language processing, opinion mining and sentiment analysis, recommender systems, user profiling and semantic wikis. All of these techniques are briefly introduced, example studies are given and ideas as well as possible directions in the field of political attitudes and mentalities are given. In the end challenges for future studies are discussed.

  11. Public attitudes toward political and technological options for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delshad, Ashlie B.; Raymond, Leigh; Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores detailed public attitudes regarding the expanding range of biofuels technologies and policy options. Subjects from 34 in-depth focus groups in central Indiana were fairly knowledgeable about biofuels technologies, but uninformed about biofuels policies despite being from a state where biofuels are a salient political issue. A narrow majority was supportive of biofuels in general, but expressed greater enthusiasm about 'second generation' biofuels. Subject beliefs about biofuels' economic and environmental impacts were most important in shaping these opinions, rather than concerns about energy independence or other issues. In terms of policy options, subjects were most supportive of an alternative fuels standard and least supportive of a fixed subsidy and a cap and trade policy. In contrast to arguments about technologies, participants primarily framed their attitudes toward policies in terms of fairness. Although discussion did not substantially change aggregate preferences for most policies, it did increase support significantly for at least one policy proposal-a variable subsidy for ethanol. It is particularly noteworthy that subjects generally did not support the most common biofuel technology-corn-based ethanol-or the most prominent biofuels policy option-the fixed subsidy-despite residing in a state hosting a strong corn industry and staunch political advocates for both positions.

  12. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  13. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  14. Technological Dynamics and Social Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Jan; Feldman, Maryann; Srholec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    for the sample as a whole between 1998 and 2008. The results indicate that social capabilities, such as well-developed public knowledge infrastructure, an egalitarian distribution of income, a participatory democracy and prevalence of public safety condition the growth of technological capabilities. Possible...... effects of other factors, such as agglomeration, urbanization, industrial specialization, migration and knowledge spillovers are also considered....

  15. Undergraduates, Technology, and Social Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Betsy; Boniek, Susan; Turner, Elena; Lovell, Elyse D'nn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the spectrum of undergraduate students' social interactions and related technological tools. Qualitative methods were used for this phenomenological study exploring 35 in-person interviews, with horizonalization in an open coding system secured by in-depth analysis which revealed nuanced themes and…

  16. Political socialization of the contemporary Russian intelligentsia: the experience of theoretical-methodological conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartumian Arushan Arushanovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a typology of the concepts of political socialization of the Russian intelligentsia in the context of formation of modern political culture. The author substantiates the decisive role of the microenvironment in the relationship “person – politically organized society”; is actualized the thesis about the stable and homogeneous nature of the political system is actualized.

  17. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-03

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358507-08$15.00/0.

  18. The social shaping of nuclear energy technology in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rennkamp, Britta; Bhuyan, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the question why the South African government intends to procure nuclear energy technology, despite affordable and accessible fossil and renewable energy alternatives. We analyse the social shaping of nuclear energy technology based on the statements of political actors in the public media. We combine a discourse network analysis with qualitative analysis to establish the coalitions in support and opposition of the programme. The central arguments in the debate are cost, s...

  19. Information Communication Technology and Politics: A Synthesized Analysis of the Impacts of Information Technology on Voter Participation in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuma, Clive Katiba

    2011-01-01

    The availability of political information throughout society made possible by the evolution of contemporary information communication technology has precipitated conflicting debate regarding the effects of technology use on real life political participation. Proponents of technology argue that the use of new information technology stimulates…

  20. New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Luzia M.

    This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial

  1. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  2. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2016-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  3. Political Technologies in Strengthening Ethnopolitical (Inter-Ethnic and Inter-Confessional Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk Vadim Vitalyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Situations with uncertain developments and results are more often taking place in the world of politics. In this regard, the role of actors who are interested in the implementation of plans for peaceful conflict resolution and non-violence is becoming more urgent. The modern world is replete with situations in which a decision should be made only by qualified intermediaries (mediators, whose purpose is to resolve the conflict by the most effective and painless method. This article discusses the main aspects of the technology which is new for the political reality – political mediation as a vital means for solving complex inter-ethnic and interconfessional problems. The author attempts to identify general and specific characteristics of the conflict field that are peculiar for both international and inter-ethnic contradictions arising in the process of multilateral relations of nations with each other and between ethnic groups in multi-ethnic space. At this, the attention is focused on the fact that the conflicts arise out of the contradictions between the interests of these social organisms. The article provides the system of argumentation of the thesis that the use of mediation technologies helps to achieve the combination of the parties’ autonomy and to guarantee a mutually beneficial result on a common ground. For this purpose the conflicting parties endow a third party with certain powers – the mediator, who is involved in order to look at the conflict from the side and help conflicting actors to get rid of excessive emotion and bias in a dispute. Thus, political mediation is a form of alternative expert and political dispute resolution and settlement, voluntarily elected by conflicting communities on the basis of their desire to reach agreement and political objectivity.

  4. Climate change dilemma: technology, social change or both?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Sudhir Chella

    2006-01-01

    Time is fast running out for formulating a viable global climate policy regime even as it seems obvious that the major initiative will have to come from the United States, which currently appears indisposed to take any meaningful action at all. This paper reviews the prospects for emissions reductions in the US passenger transport sector and the technical, economic, social, and political barriers to developing policies that focus solely on technology or pricing. Using scenarios it shows that, in order to meet stringent emissions targets over the coming half-century, technology and pricing policies may have to be supplemented by strategies to change life-styles and land uses in ways that effectively reduce car dependence. In the medium to long term, bold initiatives that treat vehicle users as citizens capable of shifting their interests and behaviour could form kernels of social change that in turn provide opportunities for removing many of the social and political constraints

  5. The Deliberative Potential of Social Media: Face Threat and Face Support in Online Political Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Anjelica Marie

    2016-01-01

    Engaging in productive political discussion has long been a valued aspect of American democratic life. Due to ease of access and the potential for exposure to diverse views, the Internet and social media may support mediated political talk. Literature on the concept of face and politeness theory provides a framework for understanding interpersonal interactions, both online and offline. To understand if social media has the potential to host political discussion among millennials, a survey (N ...

  6. The Social Media Political Subject Is an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Karatzogianni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Any random sampling of a Facebook timeline or Twitter feed, to take the obvious examples, provides a prepackaged view of global politics. It is restrictive because we choose it to reflect our own pet subjects, groups, likes, and world interests. The lens is prejudiced to reflect our race, class, gender, sexuality, ideology, and affective positionality. We enter a social media world as many as 10 or 50 times a day that has ourselves as the center of the universe. This communication world is similar to an infant’s world: Someone else decides what we can see, what we can consume, what is that extra treat we can earn, if we are good: in social media terms, if we pay for it by reputational capital, or simply, if we spend enough money.

  7. Social Media and Political Change in the 21st century: the African Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaechi M. Chidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology no doubt is the engine that drives the modern world, both for destruction and good; and one of the wonders of modern technology is the computer and the allied internet. Modern communication network now relies on the internet using the computer and mobile telephones. In fact, there is no place to hide with the internet and the handy smart phones with which calls are made and pictures and videos recorded and transmitted across boundaries and continents. The advancements in the computer and internet systems in the last decade of the 20th century produced radical changes in both internet connectivity and features available to users through which people are linked across the globe. The three most basic of these internet features that have radically shaped modern communication are, Facebook, Twitters, and the U-Tube, among others. The three are the most popular and core elements of the social media compartment of our modern internet system. Computer technology has broken the boundaries of closed societies and systems, making actions and activities in such systems open and available to the wider world. Through the internet and its core elements, repressive regimes have been exposed and activities going on in liberal societies are shared. Interestingly, Africa became the starting point for the agitation for political change, which was bolstered by the social media. The so-called “Arab Spring”, which first started in Africa through expositions of social media, saw the dismantling of three despotic and ruthless regimes in Arab North Africa, thus giving vent to agitations for an end to dictatorship and illiberality in other Arab states. The paper will examine the role of the social media in political transformation and change of dictatorial regimes in Africa and the consequences such would have on the overall political template of Africa.

  8. The politics of corruption, inequality, and the socially excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Salas, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In this article, the production of knowledge in the context of socially excluded people exposed to inequality, oppression, and exploitation is problematized. The analysis follows Enrique Dussel's philosophical exegesis of the politics of power and corruption and his vision of a critical transformation of the social political order. The argument is also informed by the work of critical educator Paulo Freire, who elucidates the conditions of oppression and marginalization and highlights the importance of conscientization to develop a critical awareness of these conditions. Hannah Arendt's work on the politics of understanding totalitarianism also assists in the elucidation of the machinery that operates behind oppression to sustain power and inequality. The article emphasizes the need to recognize the inequality of conditions that exists between the producer of knowledge and those who live through inequality and oppression in their lived corporality. A critical transformation of the process of production of knowledge is needed to both acknowledge the conditions that sustain this endeavour in the first place and avoid the corruption of knowledge. A work of conscientization is also necessary among knowledge producers to undertake a critical analysis of inequality that exposes the corruption of power. This analysis needs to examine and unmask the hidden mechanisms that perpetuate inequality and oppression and serve only the interests of a few. The abysmal gaps between the wealthy and the poor within and among countries bespeak a degree of human indifference that reflects a most serious and complex phenomenon that perverts something profoundly human in our societies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Managing the Business of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeretta Horn Nord

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A greater number of consumers use social technologies-social media, social networking, and social relevance-than organizations. Economically, however, companies have much to gain by taking the plunge. Results show that organizations that have made the effort to increase their knowledge and build social technology platforms have experienced astounding results. The purpose of this article is to discuss social technology categories and present a strategy for knowledge management so that organizations may successfully implement these technologies. A huge growth is expected in the number of companies whose management will make a decision or have already made a decision to develop social technology platforms in the near future. This article provides a straight forward approach accompanied by examples of real companies who have used social technologies and experienced real returns–many in the millions of dollars. The intention is to provide a concise, up-to-date social technologies knowledge management guide.

  10. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People--The German Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Holger; Lange, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Due to social and political change the process of young citizens' political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which…

  12. Mischaracterizing social psychology to support the laudable goal of increasing its political diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.

  13. WHEN THE PRESENT GETS US ... GLOBALIZATION: NEW TECHNOLOGIES, STRATEGY AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martín Fragachán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current phase of the capitalist world development receives the name of globalization and has brought a series of consequences: a few positive and great very denials, some of which will try to be analyzed by me in the lines that continue later, insisting, very specially, in those who say to the development of new technologies of communication, to the called “social networks” and to the consequences that the same ones have had both for the communication and for the development of new modalities of political strategy.

  14. Unemployment and citizenship: social and political participation of unemployed youth in Geneva

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzini, Jasmine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the social and the political participation of long-term unemployed youth in Geneva. The research analyses participation in social networks, both associational and interpersonal, as well as the political participation and the personal well-being of unemployed youth in order to assess the impact of long-term unemployment on citizenship. Results show that although unemployed youth suffer from a reduced personal well-being, they remain socially and politically active. The thr...

  15. Social Media Use and Online Political Participation Among College Students During the US Election 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei “Chris” Yang; Jean L. DeHart

    2016-01-01

    A total of 4,556 US college students were surveyed immediately after Election 2012 to investigate what social media–related psychological and behavioral factors predicted their online political participation. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical multiple regression results showed that online social capital, political self-efficacy, and Facebook group participation were positive predictors of online political participation, while social trust did not directly influence online politica...

  16. Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gone are the days when researchers, politicians, private sector actors, and citizens can ignore the impact of Internet-based communication technologies on decision-making. This project could contribute knowledge, from the perspective of a middle-income country, about how social media is helping to define societies and ...

  17. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  18. The New Totalitarians: Social Identities and Radical Islamist Political Grand Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Douglas J

    2007-01-01

    ... of the ideologically-driven grand political strategy of the Islamist extremists, which represents a totalitarian, transnational, and, in many versions, universalist social revolutionary movement...

  19. Political Skill and Work Attitudes: A Comparison of Multiple Social Effectiveness Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Christina M; Meriac, John P

    2015-01-01

    In the realm of social effectiveness constructs, political skill has seen increased attention as a predictor of work performance and attitudes. However, the extent that political skill is distinct from related variables in this area remains an important question. The current study examined the proportion of variance explained by political skill in job satisfaction and turnover intentions above and beyond other social effectiveness variables (i.e., social intelligence, emotional intelligence, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results indicated that political skill was the strongest predictor of these outcomes, and explained a significant proportion of variance in them, beyond the other four social effectiveness constructs.

  20. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  1. Social determinants, political contexts and civil society action: a historical perspective on the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Orielle; Irwin, Alec

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate opportunities for action on social determinants of health (SDH) requires a historical perspective. Plans for addressing SDH should be developed with an awareness of past similar efforts and factors that contributed to their success or failure. Review of published historical literature on analysis and action on SDH, in particular from the Latin American social medicine movement. In the period since World War II, global public health has oscillated between a social vision of health and a more individualistic, technological and medicalised model. Action on SDH was central to comprehensive primary health care as promulgated at the 1978 Alma-Ata conference and championed by the movement for 'Health for All by the Year 2000'. Subsequently, commitment to addressing SDH declined under the impact of restrictive interpretations of 'selective primary health care' and the pressure of neo-liberal economic and health policies. Through its critique of politically naive medical and public health approaches and of neo-liberal ideology, the Latin American social medicine tradition offers important lessons for today's efforts to advance action on SDH. Key lessons concern: (1) the model of praxis, consciously uniting reflection and action for political change; and (2) the importance of civil society and community participation in action on SDH.

  2. Talking Politics on Twitter: Gender, Elections, and Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C. McGregor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As campaign discussions increasingly circulate within social media, it is important to understand the characteristics of these conversations. Specifically, we ask whether well-documented patterns of gendered bias against women candidates persist in socially networked political discussions. Theorizing power dynamics as relational, we use dialectic configurations between actors as independent variables determining network measures as outcomes. Our goal is to assess relational power granted to candidates through Twitter conversations about them and whether they change depending on the gender of their opponent. Based on more than a quarter of a million tweets about 50 candidates for state-wide offices during the 2014 US elections, results suggest that when a woman opposes a man, the conversation revolves around her, but she retains a smaller portion of rhetorical share. We find that gender affects network structure—women candidates are both more central and more replied to when they run against men. Despite the potential for social media to disrupt deeply rooted gender bias, our findings suggest that the structure of networked discussions about male and female candidates still results in a differential distribution of relational power.

  3. USING SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra-Ioana ANDRONICIUC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim at gaining insight into the Romanian president’s online campaign during the 2014 elections. Although there is a growing body of literature on online political campaigns in Western democracies, little research exists on using Social Media in an emergent economy like Romania. In order to take a closer look at the president’s online communication strategy, we conducted a content analysis on the posts published on the president’s official Facebook page over the two weeks leading up to Election Day. This study is the first of this kind and it indicates that president Iohannis used close-ended messages to control the speech, while reaching out to emotion to gain users’ support.

  4. Political participation as public pedagogy : The Educational Situation in Young People´s Political Conversations in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Maria; Andersson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that young people’s political participation in the social media can be considered ‘public pedagogy’. The argument builds on a previous empirical analysis of a Swedish net community called Black Heart. Theoretically, the article is based on a particular notion of public pedagogy, education and Hannah Arendt’s expressive agonism. The political participation that takes place in the net community builds up an educational situation that involves central characteristics: co...

  5. Using social constructionist thinking in training social workers living and working under threat of political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2003-10-01

    This article describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence such as war and terrorism. The author used a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a recognition of the personal and professional knowledge acquired in the daily experience. The author used qualitative methods to evaluate the process and outcome. The narrative-holistic analysis focused on reconstructing meaning and adapting it to the new situation, the main thrust of the program. From the thematic analysis four main themes emerged: (1) loss as a result of political violence; (2) meaning of strength and weakness in situations of political violence; (3) preparation for terrorist attacks; and (4) definition of a safe place. The outcome evaluation describes the meaning of this kind of training program to the participants. The specific context of the training program is discussed as well as possibilities of using it in different contexts.

  6. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.Research type—general review.

  7. Science and Technology Parks in the Context of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Leichteris

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a new approach to science and technology park concept and the development prospects in the context of social technologies. Globalization and the spread of social technologies are expanding the influence of science and technology parks on national innovation systems. It opens new directions for research in this area, as well as the practical use of social technologies in the development of science and technology parks. The paper also examines the science and technology park as an institutionalized concept of social technology. In this article the interdisciplinary approach for analyzing the complex concept of science and technology parks is used to explore the theoretical relationships with the social technologies concept. The possible links are identified and illustrated by practical examples ofLithuanian science and technology parks. Finally suggestions for further research are made. Based on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature in both fields (science and technology parks; social technologies three possible theoretical links are established: a the use of social technologies in science and technology parks b the role of a science park as an intermediate body in the humanization and socialization of technologies c science and technology parks as an institutionalized concept of social technology. The theoretical model is supported by empirical illustrations from the development of Lithuanian science and technology parks, therefore further research in all three directions is feasible and needed. As this research takes a merely theoretical approach to the social systems investigation, it can be qualified only as a preparational stage for further research. The practical examples used in the article are more illustrative than evidence based and shall not be considered as case studies. The research offers an initial framework for researching science and technology parks in the context of social technologies

  8. Science and Technology Parks in the Context of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Leichteris

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This article aims to present a new approach to science and technology park concept and the development prospects in the context of social technologies. Globalization and the spread of social technologies are expanding the influence of science and technology parks on national innovation systems. It opens new directions for research in this area, as well as the practical use of social technologies in the development of science and technology parks. The paper also examines the science and technology park as an institutionalized concept of social technology. In this article the interdisciplinary approach for analyzing the complex concept of science and technology parks is used to explore the theoretical relationships with the social technologies concept. The possible links are identified and illustrated by practical examples of Lithuanian science and technology parks. Finally suggestions for further research are made. Based on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature in both fields (science and technology parks; social technologies three possible theoretical links are established: a the use of social technologies in science and technology parks b the role of a science park as an intermediate body in the humanization and socialization of technologies c science and technology parks as an institutionalized concept of social technology. The theoretical model is supported by empirical illustrations from the development of Lithuanian science and technology parks, therefore further research in all three directions is feasible and needed. As this research takes a merely theoretical approach to the social systems investigation, it can be qualified only as a preparational stage for further research. The practical examples used in the article are more illustrative than evidence based and shall not be considered as case studies. The research offers an initial framework for researching science and technology parks in the context of social

  9. THE NEED OF CONNECTING THE TECHNOLOGY, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Merdzhanovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the need of connecting the technology, political and cultural system in the right way to achieve the companies’ goals in terms of globalization and changes. The leaders have the main role in realizing the company’s strategy. They must be strategy focused and they are responsible for connecting the employees, processes and technologies. In the beginning of the paper, the characteristics of strategy focused leadership are analyzed. The available tools of strategy focused leadership through the model are presented. The matrix of strategy management can be used like a manual which helps the management in connecting systems with managerial instruments: mission and strategy, organization structure and management of human resources. The goal of the paper is to show that with professional approach, the strategy focused leaders play the main role in connecting and changing the existing systems in companies. This is the way of reaching the best performance of companies and surviving at the global world market.

  10. The Influence of Social Media in Vietnam’s Elite Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiem Hai BUI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable rise of social media in Vietnam’s politics in recent years. The use of social media in generating and exchanging content for public consumption has become increasingly complex and sophisticated. The development of social media has led to the public being better informed about key political and economic issues of public concern. Social media is also playing a visible role in the competition among political factions. Increased exposure and public scrutiny has had a great impact on the way the political apparatus operates and the closed-door preparations made by party-state elites to select top leadership. This paper examines the patterns of use of social media and highlights some of its prominent features and roles in Vietnam’s politics. I investigate the impact that social media exerts, as well as the constraints on its use for the public.

  11. Political personal branding in social media under the European Parliamentary Elections 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Malmi, Anni

    2014-01-01

    This thesis commissioned by MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen concerns political personal branding in social media. The focus is on adjusting personal branding efficiently in social media particularly in the political field. The thesis is a qualitative study. The study method used is benchmarking with the primary data of expert interviews. The secondary data includes other researches on the topic, books and online publications that are analyzed from the political personal branding point of view. Besides ...

  12. Political Socialization of Young Children in Intractable Conflicts: Conception and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Tal, Daniel; Diamond, Aurel Harrison; Nasie, Meytal

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the political socialization of young children who live under conditions of intractable conflict. We present four premises: First, we argue that, within the context of intractable conflict, political socialization begins earlier and faster than previously suspected, and is evident among young children. Second, we propose that…

  13. A Social Role Theory Perspective on Gender Gaps in Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    Men and women tend to espouse different political attitudes, as widely noted by both journalists and social scientists. A deeper understanding of why and when gender gaps exist is necessary because at least some gender differences in the political realm are both pervasive and impactful. In this article, we apply a social role theory framework to…

  14. The sources of political orientations in post-industrial society: Social class and education revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werfhorst, H.G. van de; Graaf, N.D. de

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of social class and education on political orientation. We distinguish the 'old' middle class from a new class of social/cultural specialists. However, the difference in their political orientation may especially be related to the level and field of education; the new

  15. Political Socialization in the Family and Young People's Educational Achievement and Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large-scale survey of Norwegian youth, the study examines the relationships that the performance in key academic subjects and aiming for higher education have with political socialization at home. The more often adolescents aged 13-16 talk with parents about politics and social issues, the better their performance is and the more…

  16. "Political" Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickert, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    “Political” corporate social responsibility (CSR) involves businesses taking a political role to address “regulatory gaps” caused by weak or insufficient social and environmental standards and norms. The literature on political CSR focuses mostly on how large multinational corporations (MNCs) can

  17. Theoretical and methodological bases of studying the symbolization of social and political reality in transit societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Slavina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to form a methodological foundation to explore the process of symbolic constructioning of reality in the political systems in a state of democratic transition. From the author’s point of view, such transit systems differ with the phenomenal features of transitional type of sign-symbolic context. There are the most significant of them: the confrontation of symbols of old and new, and the formation of public anxiety due to violation of the established values (significant symbols. The result of these processes is the emergence of the conditions for increasing capacity of perception of new symbols (re-symbolization, transmigration of symbolic forms, the appearance of spontaneous symbolic interactions in the community in the form of political protests, rallies, and panic. In this regard, it is necessary to understand the possibilities of the productive management of the collective consciousness in transit period to achieve mental solidarity of concrete society with democratic values. To perform this task, author develops the appropriate tools, which are based on the phenomenological theory, the Schutz’s theory of the constitution of the multiple realities, the philosophy of symbolic forms of E. Cassirer, the theory of social construction of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, as well as Lotman’s semiotic concept. It is concluded that in the collision of alternative symbolic projects of social order it is advisable to resort to controlled symbolization (the production of special symbolic codes of political legitimation. At the same time it is important to understand the mechanisms of auto- symbolization of the society (changing of mass consciousness by virtue of the progressive development of the political culture of people. Careless use of these technologies in the countries with non-consolidated democracy may become a factor of destabilization and formation of the conditions for authoritarian rollback.

  18. Social-ecological systems, social diversity, and power: insights from anthropology and political ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fabinyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A social-ecological system (SES framework increasingly underpins the "resilience paradigm." As with all models, the SES comes with particular biases. We explore these key biases. We critically examine how the SES resilience literature has attempted to define and analyze the social arena. We argue that much SES literature defines people's interests and livelihoods as concerned primarily with the environment, and thereby underplays the role of other motivations and social institutions. We also highlight the SES resilience literature's focus on institutions and organized social units, which misses key aspects of social diversity and power. Our key premise is the importance of inter- and multi-disciplinary perspectives. To illustrate this, we draw attention to the critique of earlier ecological anthropology that remains relevant for current conceptualizations of SESs, focusing on the concepts of social diversity and power. And we discuss insights from social anthropology and political ecology that have responded to this critique to develop different ways of incorporating social diversity and power into human-environment relations. Finally, we discuss how these social science perspectives can help improve the understanding of the "social" in SES resilience research.

  19. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  20. The social, cultural and political dimensions of contemporary war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, D

    1997-01-01

    There have been more than 160 wars and armed conflicts since 1945, almost all in the Third World, and more than 50 currently. More than 90% of these are internal rather than between sovereign states. There has been a sixfold increase in the number of war refugees worldwide since 1970, who now number 1% of the global population. Ninety per cent of all casualties are civilians. A key element of modern political violence is the creation of states of terror to penetrate the entire fabric of grassroots social relations as a means of control. The valued institutions and ways of life of whole populations are routinely targeted for destruction. In the 1980s many such wars were played out on a terrain of subsistence economies. The back-drop is of environmental degradation, poverty, embedded social injustice, pressure on the nation-state, a global rise in food insecurity and a widening gulf between the wealthiest 20% and the poorest 20% in the world. The World Health Organization is warning of a health catastrophe, with life expectancy in the world's poorest countries falling by the year 2000 and one-third of the world's children undernourished. Understanding a complex and evolving set of causes and effects surrounding war is a considerable challenge to the international humanitarian field, not least the health professions. In recent years there has been a burgeoning interest in the psychological impact of the atrocities of war, and in trauma programmes based on Western psychological concepts and techniques. This individualistic focus risks neglecting the core issue: the role of a social world, invariably targeted in war and yet still embodying the capacity of survivor populations to manage their suffering, adapt and recover on a collective basis. Using the example of Mozambique, Guatemala and others, this paper will discuss the way in which contemporary war damages social and cultural forms, and the range of traditions, values and understandings which these carry. However

  1. Political Parties and Interest Groups Members' Patterns of Social Network Site Usage in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elira Turdubaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan, with a high level of political participation and an avant-garde position regarding internet access in Central Asia, broadband and social media penetration in the population, is a critical case for studying social network sites (SNSs in relation to political participation. This study analyzes the practices and attitudes of SNS users in Kyrgyzstan. Two types of users – members of political parties and members of interest organizations – are interviewed in focus groups about their practices and attitudes towards political content in the social network site Facebook. The findings indicate that, to some extent, the political engagement is indeed occurring within the Facebook environment, suggesting that the popular social networking sites (SNSs are an avenue for young people to express and share their political views. Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. Participants’ perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific types of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.

  2. Citizenship beyond politics: the importance of political, civil and social rights and responsibilities among women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Coffé, Hilde

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that men are more engaged as citizens than are women. Yet, little is known about gender cleavages across a variety of citizenship norms. To what extent do men and women define citizenship differently? To address that question, this study examines the importance men and women assign various citizenship rights and responsibilities using 2004 ISSP data from 18 Western, industrialized nations. Using a disaggregated approach to understanding definitions of citizenship, we examine political, civil, and social rights and responsibilities. After controlling for a variety of demographic and attitudinal influences, we find that men and women are not different in their views regarding the importance of political responsibilities. However, women do view political rights as significantly more important than do men. Further, in comparison to men, women view both civil and social responsibilities and rights domains as significantly more important.

  3. Political Participation as Public Pedagogy--The Educational Situation in Young People's Political Conversations in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Olson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that young people's political participation in the social media can be considered "public pedagogy". The argument builds on a previous empirical analysis of a Swedish net community called Black Heart. Theoretically, the article is based on a particular notion of public pedagogy, education and Hannah Arendt's…

  4. Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie

    This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited...

  5. Socialization and Political Culture of Women in Positions of Popular Election. Municipality Presidents in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Chávez Arellano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the forms of socialization and political culture of some women who had positions of representatives of municipalities in rural communities in Tlaxcala, México. We presume that the ways of assuming and exercising power are closely linked to a  political culture that begins in the family and secured in various social spaces such as school, political parties or unions. The analysis in this paper is based on testimonies obtained from 14 women who were municipal presidents between 1992 and 2010, a period that frames the beginning of political alternation in Mexico.

  6. The social function of technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of preserving the uneasy balance between a dynamic society and the equilibrium of man-environment society is discussed. Four sets of activities involved in technology assessment are considered: (1) Technology forecasting is necessary to warn of future dangers and opportunities, for effective timing, and to identify tradeoffs and alternatives. But forecasting is also chancy at best. (2) Social indicators need to be developed for the characterization of social status and measurement of social progress, as well as a better understanding of social needs. (3) With respect to technology assessment, the conflict between profitable directions of innovations and socially desirable directions is described, and a systematic way is needed to determine in advance what is technologically feasible to meet social needs. (4) National goals with respect to scientific and technological developments are also required.

  7. Legal, political and social change - The case of sexual and gender minorities in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Eirin Winsnes

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the recent legal, political and social changes for sexual and gender minorities in Nepal. The empirical data were produced during field work in Nepal in 2010. In a short period of time the sexual and gender minorities have experienced a significant improvement in rights as well as increased inclusion in political processes. However, this study shows that they still experience social challenges such as discrimination and harassment. Although positive social changes like in...

  8. The Rhetoric of Networked Publics. Studying Social Network Sites as Rhetorical Arenas for Political Talk

    OpenAIRE

    Vatnøy, Eirik

    2017-01-01

    As social network sites have become a central part of the modern media landscape, they have also become important arenas for political talk between citizens. The possibilities these new arenas offer for social interaction and public participation have generated what social theorists describe as a restructuring of publics into “networked publics”. Numerous studies and theories suggest how the emergence of networked publics influences political participation and democracy. Still, we...

  9. The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Kholid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to examine the political par- ticipation of social media users particularly of Facebook and Twitter during the 2014 Indonesian presidential election. The data collection was per- formed through survey with accidental sampling methods. Samples were taken from population of undergraduate students of political and social sci- ences faculty at five universities in Yogyakarta namely UGM, UIN Sunan Kalijaga, UMY, UNY and UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta. Using statistic descriptive, this research conceptualizes the political participation of social media users while the relations of social me- dia and political participation is analyzed through OLS Regression. The findings indicated that the level of political participation of the social media users during the election was categorized as good. How- ever, the facilities offered by the two social media applications were not maximally used to supporting political participation activities. On the other hand, the result OLS regression shows that there were positive and significant correlations and influences of social media towards the political participation of its users during the election even though the per- centage was small.

  10. Challenges for Social-Ecological Transformations: Contributions from Social and Political Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Görg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transformation has become a major topic of sustainability research. This opens up new perspectives, but at the same time, runs the danger to convert into a new critical orthodoxy which narrows down analytical perspectives. Most research is committed towards a political-strategic approach towards transformation. This focus, however, clashes with ongoing transformation processes towards un-sustainability. The paper presents cornerstones of an integrative approach to social-ecological transformations (SET, which builds upon empirical work and conceptual considerations from Social Ecology and Political Ecology. We argue that a critical understanding of the challenges for societal transformations can be advanced by focusing on the interdependencies between societies and the natural environment. This starting point provides a more realistic understanding of the societal and biophysical constraints of sustainability transformations by emphasising the crisis-driven and contested character of the appropriation of nature and the power relations involved. Moreover, it pursues a transdisciplinary mode of research, decisive for adequately understanding any strategy for transformations towards sustainability. Such a conceptual approach of SET is supposed to better integrate the analytical, normative and political-strategic dimension of transformation research. We use the examples of global land use patterns, neo-extractivism in Latin America and the global water crisis to clarify our approach.

  11. Politeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  12. Political Socialization and the Future of Democracy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a thorough understanding of the political system and possession of relevant political knowledge and attitude the various factors that hinder appropriate pratice of democracy and development of enlightened citizenship are gradually nipped in the bud. SOPHIA: An African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 8 (2) 2006: pp. 133- ...

  13. Social and Technological Development in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    This papers studies the processes developing technology and its social "sorroundings", the social networks. Positions in the debate on technological change is discussed. A central topic is the enterprise external development and decision processes and their interplay with the enterprise internal...

  14. The challenges and factors of political socialization of the contemporary youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N М Belgarokova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the conditions and results of the processes of political culture development and political socialization of the contemporary youth in the frame of sociological research. The analysis of the conflicting influences of the agents of political socialization (family, system of education, mass media, the difficult circumstances and the challenging economic status of the contemporary Russian youth as well as the macropolitical environment in the country provides an opportunity to arrive at the conclusion concerning the socialization crisis of youth in contemporary Russia.

  15. Social Touch Technology: A Survey of Haptic Technology for Social Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies, it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial

  16. Theorizing political psychology: Doing integrative social science under the condition of postmodernity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Shawn W.

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...

  17. Expertise against politics: Technology as ideology on Capitol Hill, 1966 - 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Sylvia Doughty

    1972-01-01

    Exploration of three thematic problems--the meaning of 'technology', technology as historical destiny, and the compatability of technology with democratic politics--must be a part of any effort to develop an overview of the significance of technology for twentieth-century American ideology. Ambivalence toward technology has become a well-established theme in studies of the mechanization of America. Various aspects and examples with respect to technology as ideology are presented in this historical perspective.

  18. Handbook of social network technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a concept that has existed for a long time; however, with the explosion of the Internet, social networking has become a tool for people to connect and communicate in ways that were impossible in the past. The recent development of Web 2.0 has provided many new applications, such as Myspace, Facebook, and LinkedIn. The purpose of ""Handbook of Social Networks: Technologies and Applications"" is to provide comprehensive guidelines on the current and future trends in social network technologies and applications in the field of Web-based Social Networks. This handbook includes

  19. Social Touch Technology: A Survey of Haptic Technology for Social Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies, it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial social agents. Social touch research has inspired research into technology mediated social touch, and this line of research has found effects similar to actual social touch. The importance of haptic stimulus qualities, multimodal cues, and contextual factors in technology mediated social touch is discussed. This survey is concluded by reflecting on the current state of research into social touch technology, and providing suggestions for future research and applications.

  20. Who's Who in Internet Politics: A Taxonomy of Information Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, before the tech boom collapsed and the digital economy bubble burst, it seemed to some that issues surrounding information technology (IT) might be central to the politics of the early 21st century. But after September 11, 2001, with so much else on everyone's minds, "digital politics" seemed a boring sideshow. Technocrats,…

  1. The Philosophy of Science and Technology in China: Political and Ideological Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanlin

    2014-01-01

    In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book "Dialektik der Natur." DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN)…

  2. The Role of the Technology Supplier in the Politics of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between the technology supplier and the customer factory as an element of the politics of production. It is initially argued that labour process theory cannot limit itself to the analysis of individual enterprises. The politics in production is actually impacted...

  3. Producing and Consuming the Controversial--A Social Media Perspective on Political Conversations in the Social Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Teachers find it difficult to conduct political controversial conversations in the social science classroom and due to an increased use of social media in educational settings new challenges and possibilities are raised. The use of social media causes fundamental changes to the role of the learner who becomes a producer and consumer--a…

  4. Apathy or fear? The role of social workers in Zimbabwe's political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This commentary therefore interrogates the commitment, preparedness and readiness of Zimbabwean social workers to actively participate in the country's political discourse. It further challenges them to intervene in the socio-political crises engulfing the nation rather than remain as armchair critics. The argument is that ...

  5. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt: The Scope of Newspapers and Social Network Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Shehata

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing and mobilizing the public, they eventually failed to empower new political actors, and this was because old actors, supported by newspapers and other mainstream media, managed to obstruct the new actors’ progress.

  6. Women in transnational migrant activism: supporting social justice claims of homeland political organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions

  7. Oil Politics and its social implications in the Niger Delta: A study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil Politics and its social implications in the Niger Delta: A study of Obari Gomba's Pearls of the Mangrove. Tambari Ogbonanwii Dick. Abstract. The oil politics in the Niger Delta has assumed a global dimension. It is stronger and more complex by the day. It is now a diplomatic weapon even more deadly and efficient than ...

  8. Tipping the Balance of Power : Social Media and the Transformation of Political Journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd; Bruns, Axel; Skogerbø, Eli; Christensen, Christian; Larsson, Anders Olof; Enli, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media in politics has changed the relationship between political journalists and politicians. Especially Twitter has developed into a regular news beat. Journalists use it to build relationships with politicians and quote their tweets in coverage. For many politicians, tweeting

  9. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  10. The social construction of risk and the controversial Brazilian Nuclear Program: among scientific, political and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelo, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) stating as reference the Fukushima nuclear accident. Its main purpose is to analyze how the Japanese accident impacted the PNB. Therefore, the program will be analyzed within 10-years (2004-2014) in order to answer this question. The discussion launched in this thesis is based on the framework of the Social Studies of Science and Technology, which enables the understanding of socio-technical controversies beyond the social or technological determinism. Through the discussion of the concepts of framing, socio-technical imaginary, risk and governance of science and technology, the research shows how the controversy in focus has resulted in the opportunity to consider not only economic, technological, environmental issues about nuclear energy, but also its political dimensions and challenges. Among these challenges, and from very different perspectives, arise questions about the role nuclear energy plays in the Brazilian context, the future of the program and the decision making process on these issues. Despite the central purpose of this study is essentially on risks, PNB and on the Brazilian context, it should be pointed that it is impossible to consider it in isolation of what is happening internationally (considering interests, tensions, relations between actors, etc.) The research thereby identifies key implications of Fukushima in the international context, but focuses on the disputes regarding possible review of the PNB. It also highlights how the socio-technical controversies, such as the nuclear energy, demand or impose a discussion on the governance of science and technology, risk and on the engagement of different sectors and actors in decision-making on issues, that are at the same time about energy, technology and nationality relevance. All this reflection is made from multi-sited analysis, which allowed following the controversy surrounding nuclear energy, reheated by the Fukushima

  11. Tensions and Challenges: Interrelationships between Social Movements and Progressive Institutional Politics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro M. Bacallao-Pino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is the scenario of both significant counterhegemonic social movements and allegedly progressive (or even anti-capitalist governments. The article aims to analyse the interrelationships between those collective agents and institutional politics in that scenario. Based on a general approach to some relevant social movements from the region, the positions of some particular Latin American governments and its leaders, as well as the examination of secondary sources, the text examines three main aspects that mediate the interrelationships between social movements and progressive institutional politics: the singular way in which social movements understand the sense of “politics”, the postures with respect to those collective agents assumed by those governments and the importance of autonomy for social movements. Social movements understand politics not as a separate dimension, but as a process of accumulation from sociability, in a continuity between social and political dimensions based on everyday experience of life, including this way social practices traditionally located outside established political institutions. Autonomy is a central value for those social actors, defining their position with regard to political parties, labour unions, churches and other traditional organisations. It is a value that crosses all their practices and the possibility of articulation to projects developed from governments, from the local level to the Latin American one. Against this, the vision on social movements of allegedly progressive (or even anti-capitalist governments is mediated by the purpose of understanding them from the point of view of traditional political rules, and two significant attitudes towards those social agents are some purposes of criminalisation and co-optation.

  12. Political Learning by Social Engagement? Chances and Risks for Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohnig, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    More and more programs of citizenship education in Germany (and other countries) tend to advance democratic citizenship through social learning in communities. A strong emphasis is put on social engagement to get young people involved in politics as well as to teach them participation. A qualitative analysis of selected German social learning…

  13. The Chinese Politics of Communication Technology: Utility, State Building and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an examination into the formulation and construction of information and communication technology policy in China. It traces the rise of information technology and the "informatization" drive in China's political rhetoric, and identifies the changes and trajectory of information and communication technology in China's…

  14. Residents' Class Status and Social Political Attitude: Two Cases of Middle-Class Community in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Lipeng  ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    According to the data in two type of middle class community, this paper finds out that differences on residents' objective class status exist, so does subjective class status. The type of the community, occupation, and annual household income influences residents' subjective class status. This paper also compares people's social political attitude in two types of communities. People value some social political issues according to their subjective class status.

  15. International political communication and influence of information and communication technologies on contemporary international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International political communication can be seen as an auxiliary but also constitutive discipline of the International relations in the wider field of the Political science. At the very core of International relations is Political communication through which the most important actors of world politics realize political goals. This paper presents a short genesis of the development of the International political communication and relation to the International relations. The key terms have been defined, the most important theories have been given and today's global character of International communication has been highlighted. The changes in International politics were analyzed as the consequence of the information and communication revolution and the emergence of modern Information and communication technologies that change the very nature of International relations. An overview of the new communication technologies impact on the main actors (subjects/entities of International relations was made, thus analyzing the impact of this factor on both state and non-state actors. We looked back at the impact of information and communication technologies on an individual who, thanks to the global communications network, became a real actor of world politics. There is also a section of the main theories of International relations and their relation to the challenges brought by the Informatics revolution (IT revolution and the Digital age.

  16. Revolutionary Networks. Women's Political and Social Activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfiglioli, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my dissertation, I show the liveliness of women’s political and social activism in Italy and Yugoslavia in the early Cold War period (1945-1957), demonstrating that women’s antifascist organizations played...

  17. The politics of nursing care: correcting deviance in accordance with the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave

    2009-05-01

    Despite numerous theories, models, and philosophies describing what nurses are and what they do, nursing care is often presented as an apolitical process which primarily focuses on patient needs and priorities. However, it is our position that nursing practice-in all regards-is political. To support this argument, we have drawn on works describing of soft/hard power, pastoral power, stigma, deviance, and governmentality, in addition to explaining our institutional social contract conceptualization of politics. In using these concepts, our political perspective reframes nursing practice as a means by which an individual's potential or actual deviance (meaning a deviation from social norms) can be identified and then corrected.

  18. Technological change as social proces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The article distinguishes between different meanings that technology has as well as the different 'roles' that technologies play in society. udfoldes tre forståelser af teknologisk forandring. Der sigtes på at fremstille forskellige meningsdannelser, som i sit samspil konstituerer et samfunds opf...

  19. Social Media Technology Management in College of Technology in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Himanshu; Pillai, Sunil Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the constructs--utilitarian, hedonic and social value on the perceptions of the full-time instructors related to their social media technology (SMT) management for learning and teaching practices at workplace. Design/methodology/approach: A survey is used to gather the data from 180…

  20. The Interaction of the Individual's Social Environment, Attention and Interest, and Public Affairs Media Use on Political Knowledge Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettey, Gary R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the interplay between an individual's social environment and the individual's own motivations for political knowledge, such as political interest and attention to public affairs media. Finds that the perception of one's social environment made a significant contribution to the respondent's level of political knowledge. (MS)

  1. [The influence of current social, medical, and political trends on the future of otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, D; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    All medical specialties are changing permanently, including otorhinolaryngology. Analyzing trends in social changes, medical progress, and political decisions will allow the effects of these on ENT medicine to be at least partially anticipated. Demographic changes and medical progress lead to an increasing demand for medical treatments. In addition, increasing numbers of female physicians are observed, as are many changes in the lifestyles of young physicians. Medical treatment will develop toward more individualized therapies in the future. ENT surgery will become a more ambulatory medical specialty. Driven by political decisions, digital medicine will become more important. Particular services once provided by physicians will be delegated to non-physician professionals. The lack of physicians and the progress in medicine require better networking between in- and outpatient services in the future. The potential of such collaborations is currently not completely realized. However, these developments will also increase the cost of health care. These trends will develop otorhinolaryngology into a conservative and surgical ambulatory care driven medical specialty. Embedded in decentralized networks and cooperations, and supported by IT technologies and specialized non-physician professionals, ENT physicians will work in hospitals as well as in practices on a permanent basis. Nevertheless, the question of funding these changes has yet to be clarified.

  2. The sources of political orientations in post-industrial society: social class and education revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Werfhorst, Herman G; de Graaf, Nan Dirk

    2004-06-01

    This paper studies the impact of social class and education on political orientation. We distinguish the 'old' middle class from a new class of social/cultural specialists. However, the difference in their political orientation may especially be related to the level and field of education; the new middle class is more highly educated and often in fields of study that extensively address social competencies, characteristics independently affecting political outcomes. Analyses on Dutch data showed that education is more important in the prediction of 'cultural' liberal issues than social class. Economically-oriented issues are more strongly affected by social class. This means that interests of the new middle class are served by liberal standpoints relating to a strong government and income redistribution policies, but not relating to cultural issues.

  3. Nuclear waste and social planning - in the need of sustainable political legitimacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Urban; Andren, Mats [Goeteborg Univ. (SE). Centre for Public Sector Research (CEFOS)

    2006-09-15

    The proposition in this paper is that handling nuclear waste in an efficient, democratic and legitimate way presupposes a thorough reflection on the limits and possibilities of social planning and legitimacy, and a deliberate extension of the meaning of these concepts. The central point consists in an analysis of the concept political legitimacy. When the concept was established in the period after 1799, it had meanings of both legality and morality. A legitimate solution could be justified either in terms of (national) law or specified norms. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, legitimacy dealt mainly with the issues of legal foundations and moral justification based in institutions and discourses. This conception of legitimacy is inadequate when applied to the issue of nuclear waste as a social phenomenon. The time aspect is much longer than the period we reasonably can make predictions regarding the design of social institutions. How can we make guarantees that will endure for a period of time that is so long that we cannot possibly say anything about the very existence of human societies, and far less make predictions about the stability of social institutions 100,000 years into the future? Likewise, the comparatively short time period of implementation, during which the planned nuclear waste repositories are to be built and finally shut tight, is far more extended than any other societal project. When neither the ideological, nor the institutional and technological stability are possible to secure, the main question will be: Who/what grants legitimacy to the societal handling of nuclear waste? We tentatively maintain that the social handling of nuclear waste demands that social planning and legitimacy be linked with a clear and distinct assumption of responsibility. It must be a geographically and temporally universalistic assumption of responsibility. In addition, the management of nuclear waste in a sustainable and legitimate manner requires both a

  4. Nuclear waste and social planning - in the need of sustainable political legitimacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Urban; Andren, Mats

    2006-01-01

    The proposition in this paper is that handling nuclear waste in an efficient, democratic and legitimate way presupposes a thorough reflection on the limits and possibilities of social planning and legitimacy, and a deliberate extension of the meaning of these concepts. The central point consists in an analysis of the concept political legitimacy. When the concept was established in the period after 1799, it had meanings of both legality and morality. A legitimate solution could be justified either in terms of (national) law or specified norms. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, legitimacy dealt mainly with the issues of legal foundations and moral justification based in institutions and discourses. This conception of legitimacy is inadequate when applied to the issue of nuclear waste as a social phenomenon. The time aspect is much longer than the period we reasonably can make predictions regarding the design of social institutions. How can we make guarantees that will endure for a period of time that is so long that we cannot possibly say anything about the very existence of human societies, and far less make predictions about the stability of social institutions 100,000 years into the future? Likewise, the comparatively short time period of implementation, during which the planned nuclear waste repositories are to be built and finally shut tight, is far more extended than any other societal project. When neither the ideological, nor the institutional and technological stability are possible to secure, the main question will be: Who/what grants legitimacy to the societal handling of nuclear waste? We tentatively maintain that the social handling of nuclear waste demands that social planning and legitimacy be linked with a clear and distinct assumption of responsibility. It must be a geographically and temporally universalistic assumption of responsibility. In addition, the management of nuclear waste in a sustainable and legitimate manner requires both a

  5. Multidisciplinary studies of the social, economic and political impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology. Volume 6: Executive summary. [technological forecasting spacecraft control/attitude (inclination) -classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the technological impact of modern satellite weather forecasting for the United States is presented. Topics discussed are: (1) television broadcasting of weather; (2) agriculture (crop production); (3) water resources; (4) urban development; (5) recreation; and (6) transportation.

  6. The politics of (Dis-)engagements with technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    Technological optimism and the technological development within nearly all sectors in the industrial world the last 20 years shows that technology use in the workplace is here to stay and involves most workplaces. More specifically research within the health care sector dealing within how new...... technologies change practices and professions (e.g. Berg; Mol; Orlikowski; Vikkelsø) and research on technological literacy (Dakers; Garmire; Dupret & Hasse) focusing on what it takes to learn and master new technologies suggest that professionals perform creative invisible ‘work-arounds’ when dealing...... with technologies. This paper adds to the research on how working practices that are sustained and stabilised through technological efficacy and smoothness can be challenged by invisible work (e.g. Star 1991). It takes the perspective that certain types of disengagements are not necessarily caused by alienation...

  7. Criticism of the Press: Its Social, Psychological and Political Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; And Others

    This study examines data from several national polls about press coverage during the Watergate scandal, in order to assess the origins of press criticism. The polls were conducted between 28 September and 6 October 1973, during June 1974, and in August 1974. The data suggest that political variables--particularly support of Nixon, party…

  8. The financial crisis in the Baltics: social and political lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the features of the global financial crisis in the Baltic states, shows the differences between the countries in the process of its development, and examines changes in the mass consciousness of the political establishment in the countries considered.

  9. Continuity and Change in Political Socialization in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomczynski, Kazimierz M.; Shabad, Goldie

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of Polish teachers who volunteered to introduce civic education about democracy, along with parents, and students aged 13-14 examined individual-level support for democracy and a market economy in relation to three psychological dimensions widely thought to affect political and economic attitudes: valuing of self-direction, authoritarian…

  10. Class voting, social changes and political changes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Need, Ariana

    2011-01-01

    To what extent can the decline of class voting in the Netherlands be explained by sociological factors (compositional changes, the evolution of the class structure and economic progressivism) and political factors (a party-merger and changing party positions)? Multinomial logit (MNP) and conditional

  11. Social Justice and Political Education through Non-Formal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Renuka H.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that college students could begin to repay their debt to society during their studies by participating in a nonformal system of community education and outreach. Describes how this strategy was implemented in India to provide political education for older members of society. (DMM)

  12. Examining Social Political Contexts in Teacher Preparation in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ilham; Wong, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teaching English as a foreign language in the West Bank, Palestine. It investigates the perspectives of a group of faculty, preservice, and in-service teachers about teaching and learning English in the primary grades under the overarching harsh realities of political conflict and instability. The study demonstrates the…

  13. A review of literature on evaluating the scientific, social and political impact of social sciences and humanities research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reale, Emanuela; Avramov, Dragana; Canhial, Kubra; Donovan, Claire; Flecha, Ramon; Holm, Poul; Larkin, Charles; Lepori, Benedetto; Mosoni-Fried, Judith; Oliver, Esther; Primeri, Emilia; Puigvert, Lidia; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Schubert, Andràs; Soler, Marta; Soòs, Sàndor; Sordé, Teresa; Travis, Charles; Van Horik, René

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need to contribute to the evaluation of the scientific, social, and political impact of Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) research has become a demand of policy makers and society. The international scientific community has made significant advances that have transformed the impact

  14. Do technologies have politics? The new paradigm and pedagogy in networked learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Chris

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between the technologies deployed in networked and e-Learning and the pedagogies and politics associated with them. Networked learning and the related move to e-Learning are coincident with the globalisation, commodification and massification of Higher Education. It examines the hard and soft forms of technological determinism (TD) found in the current advocacy of technological futures for Higher Education. Hard TD claims that new technologies bring about...

  15. Who is the Troll?: The Construction of Political Identities on Social Media in the Peruvian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cerna Aragón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One can easily find discrediting accusations between users with different political affiliations or ideological orientations on social media. The objective of this article is to affirm that these practices are neither superfluous nor secondary, but rather fundamental in the formation and consolidation of political identities of those who participate in these discussions. This article reviews up-to-date academic literature about three recent trends in the dynamics of political discussion on social media (the polarization of the political debate, the focus on personalities and figures, and the trolls’ practices and, using tools taken from Netnography, it explores and applies these concepts to the Peruvian context. Consequently, the article offers an outline about the daily political dynamics on social media, how users take sides and disputes happen, and how this serves to the (reproduction of political identities. The results of this investigation show a scenario where two characteristics prevail: the polarization between different political stances and the uncertainty about the information and identities in circulation.

  16. Medical technologies: flows, frictions and new socialities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardon, A.; Moyer, E.

    2014-01-01

    While social scientists often highlight the way medical technologies mediate biomedical hegemony, this special issue focuses on the creative and often unexpected ways in which medical technologies are appropriated by diverse actors in homes, clinics and communities. The authors highlight key

  17. Social media, new technologies and history education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees; Haydn, Terry; Carretero, Mario; Berger, Stefan; Grever, Maria

    This chapter explores the implications of recent developments in technology and social media, having a significant impact on the way in which young people learn history in schools and outside schools. New technology not only has a positive influence on education, it also has unintended negative

  18. The politics of (Dis-)engagements with technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    Technological optimism and the technological development within nearly all sectors in the industrial world the last 20 years shows that technology use in the workplace is here to stay and involves most workplaces. More specifically research within the health care sector dealing within how new...... with technologies. This paper adds to the research on how working practices that are sustained and stabilised through technological efficacy and smoothness can be challenged by invisible work (e.g. Star 1991). It takes the perspective that certain types of disengagements are not necessarily caused by alienation...

  19. Faith, Social Activism and Politics : Role of Faith Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Role of sectarian and religious organizations in the Lebanese social policies: literature review [Arabic language]. Rapports. Role of sectarian and religious organizations in the Lebanese social policies [Arabic language]. Rapports. Role of sectarian and religious organizations in the Lebanese social policies: Preliminary ...

  20. Building social implications into technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    We are intuitively aware of the privacy issues involved in telemonitoring and telemedicine. The actual details, however, can only be determined by investigating the socio-legal aspects involved and the manner in which patients adopt the new technology. For Lynsey Dubbeld, it is vital to establish a

  1. Innovations: Scientific, Technological, and Social.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Dennis

    Dr. Gabor, the inventor of holography (lenseless photography), defines "innovation" as a methodical creation of the human spirit, a novelty that once created can be usefully and repeatedly applied. He describes and evaluates 100 important technological and biological inventions that can probably be expected within the next 50 years. He also…

  2. Plant gene technology: social considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    exogenous fertilizers. This process, in addition to increasing yield, may maintain the soil ecosystem undisturbed by chemical fertilizers. Modern ... money that was used to buy insecticidal chemicals, this technology is environmentally very friendly. Improving the quality of food products: It has become possible to delay the ...

  3. American Indians Today. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, J. Milton, Ed.; Simpson, George Eaton, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of social change among American Indians and in the relationships of Indians to government and the larger society are examined in the collection of articles by 12 political and social scientists. Focusing on recent developments, this look at American Indians today encompasses rapid population growth, urbanization of the Indian population,…

  4. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  5. Social Media Is the New Player in the Politics of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Political debate about the Common Core State Standards (the first major education policy initiative in the social media age) ramped up quickly on social media, particularly on Twitter. However, while the increased and intense conversation influenced many states to disavow Common Core in name, those states ended up adopting standards that were…

  6. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Espelt (Albert); C. Borrell (Carme); M. Rodriguez-Sanz (Maica); C. Muntaner (Carles); M.I. Pasarin (María Isabel); J. Benach (Joan); M.M. Schaap (Maartje); A.E. Kunst (Anton); V. Navarro (Vicente)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare inequalities in self-perceived health in the population older than 50 years, in 2004, using Wright's social class dimensions, in nine European countries grouped in three political traditions (Social democracy, Christian democracy and Late democracies). Methods:

  7. Political Correctness, Social Work, and the Breakdown of the Child Abuse System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Howard Jacob; Stoesz, David

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between political correctness, social work, and breakdown of the child abuse system. Examines groups that stand to gain from perpetuating the myth of classlessness. Investigates high turnover rates among social workers, declassification of public welfare jobs, and problems in screening and provision of services to…

  8. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  9. Inside the Social Open Method of Coordination: The hard politics of ‘soft’ governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhercke, B.W.R.

    2016-01-01

    The process of European integration has irreversibly altered the configuration of national welfare states. In spite of formidable institutional and political hurdles, incremental European social regulation led to the development of a genuine EU social policy. This PhD is mainly concerned with one

  10. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

  11. The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Ferguson, Laura; Aggleton, Peter; Mane, Purnima; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Giang, Le Minh; Barbosa, Regina M; Caceres, Carlos F; Parker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges.

  12. Network interventions - How citizens’ social media networks influence their political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    Social media platforms are special places of information exposure because they are structured around a user’s social network and not around content, like other news media. Studies could show that news exposure on social media can affect citizens’ political participation due to the personalized......, targeted, & inadvertent exposure. However, previous research did not strongly focus on how the characteristics of a citizens’ social media network might alter this relationship. We tests how political information exposure via three different media channels affects political participation among Danish...... citizens and examine possible moderation effects of users network size, network diversity and the newly introduced parameter of perceived network activity. To this end, a two-wave online survey (n=858) among the Danish population was conducted, applying a smartphone-based media diary study. We find strong...

  13. Transformations of the Political Communication in Social Media Era – from Mediatization to Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Tasente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The political communication in media era performs on two dimensions: the horizontal dimension – between political actors and journalists – and on vertical dimension – the media product is decentralized to the consumer public. In Social Media Era, the horizontal dimension completely disappears and the communication is routed by the online opinion leaders in the social groups. Thus, in the new public space, the main communication actors are not journalists and politicians, but publicreceptor, which plays the role of opinion leaders. In Social Media, we can talk a lot about “the power of the receptor”, that is decentralizing, without intermediaries, the political message to discuss it in the social groups to which they belong.

  14. Social Media and Political Participation : Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Hillegersberg, van J. ( ); Huibers, T. (Theo)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes

  15. Social Media and Political Participation: Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.

    This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes

  16. The social origins and political uses of popular narratives on Serbian disunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumović Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The text offers an examination of socio-political bases, modes of functioning, and of the consequences of political instrumentalisation of popular narratives on Serbian disunity. The first section of the paper deals with what is being expressed and what is being done socially when narratives on Serbian disunity are invoked in everyday discourses. The next section investigates what political actor sty, by publicly replicating them, or by basing their speeches on key words of those narratives. The narratives on Serbian disunity are then related to their historical and social contexts, and to various forms of identity politics with which they share common traits. The nineteenth century wars over political and cultural identity, intensified by the struggle between contesting claims to political authority, further channeled by the development of party politics in Serbia and radicalized by conflicts of interest and ideology together provided the initial reasons for the apparition of modern discourses on Serbian disunity and disaccord. Next, addressed are the uninnally solidifying or misinterpreting really existing social problems (in the case of some popular narratives on disunity, or because of intentionally exploiting popular perceptions of such problems (in the case of most political meta-narratives, the constructive potential related to existing social conflicts and splits can be completely wasted. What results is a deep feeling of frustration, and the diminishing of popular trust in the political elites and the political process in general. The contemporary hyperproduction of narratives on disunity and disaccord in Serbia seems to be directly related to the incapacity of the party system, and of the political system in general, to responsibly address, and eventually resolve historical and contemporary clashes of interest and identity-splits. If this vicious circle in which the consequences of social realities are turned into their causes is to be

  17. Political Economy of the New Technology Based Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Güler Aydın

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New technology based firms are effective not only changes in economic but also in institutional areas. These firms provide continuous technological innovations (creative entrepreneur in Schumpeterian sense rather than the rationalization process that routinizes the entrepreneur in big firms. The aim of this study is to denote that the Schumpeterian analysis is appropriate framework for the new technology based firms and to introduce the effects of technological innovations of these firms both economic and institutional areas. This study is composed of two parts. In the first part, the basic characteristics of new technology based firms will be examined by the help of the literature. In the second part of the study, the appropriateness of the Schumpeterian framework for these firms will be displayed and Schumpeter's views on the process of capitalist development within the context of new technology based firms will be re-questioned

  18. Policy without politics: the limits of social engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    The extent of coverage provided by a country's health services is directly related to the level of development of that country's democratic process (and its power relations). The United States is the only developed country whose government does not guarantee access to health care for its citizens. It is also the developed country with the least representative and most insufficient democratic institutions, owing to the constitutional framework of the political system, the privatization of the electoral process, and the enormous power of corporate interests in both the media and the political process. As international experience shows, without a strong labor-based movement willing to be radical in its protests, a universal health care program will never be accepted by the US establishment.

  19. Removing Dams, Constructing Science: Coproduction of Undammed Riverscapes by Politics, Finance, Environment, Society and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Grabowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dam removal in the United States has continued to increase in pace and scope, transitioning from a dam-safety engineering practice to an integral component of many large-scale river restoration programmes. At the same time, knowledge around dam removals remains fragmented by disciplinary silos and a lack of knowledge transfer between communities of practice around dam removal and academia. Here we argue that dam removal science, as a study of large restoration-oriented infrastructure interventions, requires the construction of an interdisciplinary framework to integrate knowledge relevant to decision-making on dam removal. Drawing upon infrastructure studies, relational theories of coproduction of knowledge and social life, and advances within restoration ecology and dam removal science, we present a preliminary framework of dams as systems with irreducibly interrelated political, financial, environmental, social, and technological dimensions (PFESTS. With this framework we analyse three dam removals occurring over a similar time period and within the same narrow geographic region (the Mid-Columbia Region in WA and OR, USA to demonstrate how each PFESTS dimension contributed to the decision to remove the dam, how it affected the process of removing the dam, and how those dimensions continue to operate post removal in each watershed. We conclude with a discussion of a joint research and practice agenda emerging out of the PFESTS framing.

  20. Internal Social and Political Developments: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    that spectacular increases in the price of crude petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, and olive oil during 1973-74 may serve each regime as a functional...export earnings from phosphates, petroleum, and olive oil provide a cushion for the regime, much as decolonization once did.. Indeed, though there.is...well informed, can report. Educated Moroccans and Tunisians get absorbed, usually as counter-elites, into their respective political cultures, but in

  1. Disentangling the Importance of Psychological Predispositions and Social Constructions in the Organization of American Political Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K; Eaves, Lindon J

    2012-06-01

    Ideological preferences within the American electorate are contingent on both the environmental conditions that provide the content of the contemporary political debate and internal predispositions that motivate people to hold liberal or conservative policy preferences. In this article we apply Jost, Federico, and Napier's (2009) top-down/bottom-up theory of political attitude formation to a genetically informative population sample. In doing so, we further develop the theory by operationalizing the top-down pathway to be a function of the social environment and the bottom-up pathway as a latent set of genetic factors. By merging insights from psychology, behavioral genetics, and political science, we find strong support for the top-down/bottom-up framework that segregates the two independent pathways in the formation of political attitudes and identifies a different pattern of relationships between political attitudes at each level of analysis.

  2. Women in Transnational Migrant Activism: Supporting Social Justice Claims of Homeland Political Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Mügge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions found in this article include a leftist and a Kurdish women organization supporting the communist cause in the 1980s and the Kurdish struggle in the 1990s in Turkey, respectively. In both organizations gender equality was subordinated to broader ideologies of political parties in their homeland. Leftist activists in the cold war era supported a narrow definition of the "politics of redistribution," while and Kurdish activists, combined classical features of the latter with those of traditional identity politics.

  3. Problems, policies and politics: making the case for better assistive technology provision in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha

    2015-05-01

    Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice.

  4. Exploring Affordances of Facebook as a Social Media Platform in Political Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Dyrby, Signe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have witnessed political parties adopting social media as part of their election campaign strategy to encourage citizen participation and involvement. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what Facebook as a social media platform is perceived to afford political parties...... in their campaign strategy and how these intentions are reflected in the actual actions during the campaign. Based on a case study of political parties’ use of Facebook in the Danish general election in 2011, our findings reveal that the medium is perceived to afford: 1) facilitation of direct communication...... to promote political interests and enable dialogue, 2) projection of an image of authenticity through informal media and 3) creating interaction and involvement through dynamic relationships with supporters. A closer look at the parties’ actual use of Facebook shows that the majority of the intended...

  5. The effect of political generation on identity and social change: Age cohort consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rohlinger, Deana A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how political generation affects the ways in which diverse individuals come together and change their social and personal identities. Drawing on 52 in-depth interviews with members of the Red Hat Society, we show that women draw on their political generation, and the gains of the women's movement specifically, to oppose cultural constructions of aging. The Red Hat Society provides a "free space" for women to foster a collective identity that both visibly challenges aging norms and provides its members new standards for self-approval. We conclude by highlighting the importance of focusing on political generation to understand collective action over the life course and call for more scholarship on the function of political generation in social change.

  6. Technological utopia: political alibi, making citizen childish or brighter future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A first set of contributions discusses the possibilities and opportunities some technological domains, innovations and concepts might give to energy: hydrogen, genetics, ITER, fourth generation nuclear reactors, decentralized photovoltaic energy in developing countries. Then, some authors propose critical and rather philosophical reflections about the blind trust in technology, about the relationship between scientists, journalists and citizens

  7. Limited = Limiting Reading of Social Constructionism: A Reply to Carl Ratner's "Epistemological, Social, and Political Conundrums in Social Constructionism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Dey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RATNER's "Epistemological, Social, and Political Conundrums in Social Constructionism" provides ample illustration of how a grossly negligent, read both limited and limiting, exegesis of social constructionism has the demonstrable effect of installing the impression of the subject matter forming a homogeneous unity and an utmost negative one at that. The present commentary will show that the irony of RATNER's article is not that it has gotten social constructionism completely wrong but that it conceals that he himself is a (hyperreal constructionist and that his account might be used for pinpointing how the construction of (hyperreality works in textual practice. To rebut RATNER's assertion that social constructionist theorizing engenders a relativistic worldview of "everything goes" on the basis of his own account, it will be shown that though his truth is (partly random, temporary and thus alterable it does have real implications (both existent and potential for those referring to it, in either positive or negative terms. The commentary will close with tentative suggestions for an ethos of reading that seeks to cultivate a sensitivity towards the singular spirit of social constructionist writings as well as the necessity of creative inheriting and hence invention. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801474

  8. Political Entrepreneurialism: Reflections of a Civil Servant on the Role of Political Institutions in Technology Innovation and Diffusion in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Bitange Ndemo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper narrates how an innovative political institution in Kenya gained support from private sector players in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT sector. The paper is centered on the reflections of a top civil servant who leveraged Lewin’s theoretical foundations and leadership to propel Kenya from obscurity to global renown in the ICT arena. The paper details the leadership of key players in the political system explaining on how their tolerance for risk encouraged ICT diffusion and innovation in Kenya. The paper delves into the details of executive decision making and how those decisions influence different stakeholders. The analysis reveals why Kenya succeeded where its neighbours did not. It shows that Kenya’s continued success in ICTs depends upon its stability – endemic corruption and previous political decisions could threaten this. The paper will also highlight the emergence of a new crop of innovators developing new applications across all sectors including education, health, agriculture and financial services.

  9. LEVELS AND TYPES OF MANIFESTATIONS OF SOCIAL-POLITICAL “AGREEMENT-DISAGREEMENT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Nekrasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic levels and types of manifestation of social and political agreement and disagreement. An original model of levels and types of dichotomy "agreement and disagreement" on the basis developed typology of political subjects. In the abovementioned dichotomy such typos of agreement and disagreement as “solidarity - egocentrism”, “consensus - protest”, “constructive active - destructive active” independently.

  10. Feminist critiques of new fertility technologies: implications for social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchin, A

    1996-10-01

    This essay aims to show how feminist theoretical and practical perspective have enriched and deepened debate about moral and social issues generated by the proliferation and commodification of new reproductive techniques. It evaluates alternative feminist appraisals beginning with the first group to organize a collective response to the medicalization of infertility and explores several weaknesses working within their assessment: objectification of infertile women, naturalizing constructions of motherhood, hostility to technology, and an overly simplistic conception of power relations. Next, it shows how subsequent feminists have reframed the issues to overcome these weaknesses, drawing on themes prominent in recent theoretical debates: the need to reclaim women's agency, to revalue mothering, and to reappraise power relations. Lastly, it weighs the prospects for a collaborative politics that is sensitive to the social marginalization of vulnerable women and suggests practical strategies for responding to mounting pressures to procreate at any price.

  11. Social media, cyber-dissent, and constraints on online political communication in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Brian; Freedman, Eric; Blom, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Recent world events have demonstrated that the Internet-and social media tools in particular-are increasingly useful for political organizing, not merely frivolous virtual spaces for youthful publics to connect socially. Rather, social media is touted as "the crucible in which repressed civil societies can revive and develop." For the people of Central Asia-where free expression is curtailed and news outlets are under official or non-state, non-official government censorship-information and c...

  12. POLITICAL CHARACTER OF THE SOCIAL ACTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Derya; DEMİRHAN, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Globalization’s attribution of blurring the boundaries is not restricted to the economical and cultural terms. It is also notable for the questions of what is social, what is ecological and what is political. Due to the increase of ecological risks in the global world, some spontaneous social movements have developed to prevent the causes and negative effects of these dangers. Mostly, these movements are seen as in the respect of ecological and social actions. Today it is rather difficu...

  13. The Evolving Politics of Race and Social Work Activism: A Call across Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapal, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Social work has engaged with and led the revolutionary social movements of the past century. Yet today, as activism by and for racial others unfolds across the United States and Canada, our discipline remains largely silent. This article considers new ways for social workers to conceptualize social work activism, challenge the existing erasures within the profession, and construct innovative strategies to locate social work within the critical social movements of our time. Recognizing the continuity of histories of colonialism, slavery, and genocide, the author argues that social workers must engage with racialized communities' resistance through their legacy of exclusion and displacement. The author demonstrates the significance of an evolving politics of race and social justice for social work practice. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  14. Political Acclamation, Social Media and the Public Mood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    -theoretical, historical and sociological investigations and regards acclamation as a ‘social institution’ following Mauss. Acclamation is a practice that forms publics, whether as the direct presence of the ‘people’, mass-mediated ‘public opinion’, or a ‘public mood’ decipherable through countless social media postings...

  15. Political participation of female social workers in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By virtue of their profession, social workers world over are nomadic; often deployed round the society to prevent as well as manage psycho-social problems. The deployments and redeployments can be both intra and international, depending on the organization they work for, and can take them away even during periods ...

  16. Social Networks on Spanish Politics: Twitter on 2011 Election Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Izquierdo Labella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitter broke during the campaign of the Spanish regional and municipal elections of May 2011 with great strength as a field over the electoral battle. Most of the communication equipment of the leading candidates made extensive use of this new tool making it an additional tool to conventional media. Thus it was found inthe race for the presidency of the Community of Madrid and the mayor at City Hall of Madrid. Five months later, his strength was multiplied during the November elections, consolidating Twitter as another tool for candidates, journalists and citizens in the political debate.

  17. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  18. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  19. Information and Communication Technologies in Creating Political Media Reality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Yu. Pavlyutenkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores intended use of infocomms in creation of political media reality, acting as a virtual environment, effectively replacing reality. A noteworthy detail is that mainstreaming of information and communication technologies into political sphere substantially increases the authoritative potential for the media discourse. Those forces that assert their own media versions of events and media images for their participants have been winning in the competitive struggle amidst media discourses today. Furthermore, all available communication channels (television, media, Internet resources, mobile telecommunications are used to set up a political pseudo-environment for their information consumers, replacing political reality. The article shows what way new media resources, initially aimed at manipulating the mass consciousness in the pre-election race are being incorporated today. In particular, impressive manipulative media effects are demonstrated when a fake discourse is included in the media space. In addition, computer attacks, hacking, and the prime of independent cyber organizations fighting against the “world evil” are in effect as an instrument in the political struggle, in obtaining compromising material and interstate opposition. The work records the inclusion of graphic elements, emoji, clips in the media discourse. In general, symbols, encroaching into the politics space, become a part of the political mainstream, change the style of political demonstrations, discussions, chats that unite adherents to influence the actions of the authorities. It follows that the political media reality design, supported by the latest information and communication technologies tools, directly affects the perception of what is happening on a global scale, quickly formatting the mass consciousness.

  20. Social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice across the political spectrum, but social issues are most divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie

    This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited and inade......This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited...... arrangements, positive research evidence and civil society advocacy and litigation. Moreover, the introduction of a health insurance scheme is relatively more complex (politically, institutionally and technically), compared to expanding an already existing social cash transfer programme. In our analysis, we...... of health insurance, ideological narratives are pitted against each other: the concept of health as a common good against health as a commodity, and market-oriented strategies for delivery against state-centric approaches....

  2. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    Research on acceptance, perception and assessment of risks clearly shows that perception of risk by the public is based more on subjective assessments than on scientifically objective risk values. Risk perception by the public is influenced by a number of factors. Risk is still a central point in the conflict and always plays a major role in the opposition toward dangerous technologies. Risk forms the thematic focus for the controversy. The development of the actual conflict, the positions, interests, adaptation problems and processes of the various societal institutions, the conditions, prospects, and forms of antinuclear protest and the subjects and structures, symmetries and changes of argument in the public discussion on nuclear energy are analyzed and represented in detail in this report. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Using enterprise social media for knowledge sharing in bureaucratic settings : a case study on how power and political activities influence sensemaking processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bristøl, Morten Lysgaard; Holcman, Geir

    2014-01-01

    In response to the call for more research on intra-organizational usage of enterprise social media, and the insufficient addressing of how power effect knowledge sharing in organizational life, this thesis adopts a sensemakingapproach in order to capture power-dynamics that influence deployment of enterprise social media-technology. The aim of the thesis is to explore how power and political activities influence employee’s sensemaking processes for how to utilize enterprise ...

  4. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ICPSR maintains a data archive of more than 500,000 files of research in the social sciences. It hosts 16 specialized collections of data in education, aging,...

  5. Social dumping and the politics of scale in civil aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Charles Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the scalar nature of social dumping in civil aviation. Through the use of documents and interviews, this thesis investigates the labor strategies of Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA. This thesis has two goals. The first is to create a deeper understanding of the concept of social dumping, a concept which lacks a common definition or understanding in the literature. This thesis provides an overview of the concept, and also provides a scalar framework of so...

  6. Education in Health and Social Work: A strategic political instrument in professional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alves Santos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Education about healthcare is one of the main instruments of the professional work of social assistants in the field of healthcare. It therefore uses ethical-political, theoretical-methodological and technical-operatives, which are dimensions that guide the professional action of social workers and that are essential to a critical understanding of the professional reality and to supporting the intervention of social work. This article raises some elements for the debate about education in health as one of the working instruments of social workers in the field of healthcare. To do so, it addresses the historic trajectory of education in health within Brazilian healthcare policy, highlights the main paradigms that have guided the actions of healthcare in the country and raises some questions for reflection about the ethical-political dimension of education in health as a field of intervention of social workers.

  7. [Technology development as social process: prospects and frontiers of social scientific elucidation of technological advancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, M

    1990-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the new developments in social scientific technology research which have changed considerably as a result of public debate and reactions to the importance of advancements in technology. The shift in emphasis, away from the effects of technology to its shaping, is described and certain hypotheses and concepts of advancement in the study of the social conditions underlying technical development processes are presented.

  8. Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrauf Aishat Adebisi; binti Abdul Hamid Norsiah; bin Ishak Mohd Sobhi

    2017-01-01

    The role of political knowledge in engendering political participation among youths in a society cannot be overstated. Yet, there is scarcity of research in this area. Thus, this study assessed the moderating role of political knowledge in the relationship between Access to Political Information on Facebook and Twitter (APIFT), Political Interest (PI) and Policy Satisfaction (PS) with Online Political Participation on Facebook and Twitter (OPPFT). A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238...

  9. Considerations on the US A science and technology politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Wilma S.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the evolution of Science and Technology policy in USA is analyzed in its three phases, after the Second World War. The financial policy for Research and Development during the governments Reagan, Bush and Clinton is also delineated and, finally, Latin America situation is exposed in this scenery (author)

  10. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...... responses, albeit in ways that go beyond traditional partisan theory.We show that the partisan conflict and the impact of parties are conditioned by existing welfare state configurations. In less generous welfare states, the party composition of governments plays a decisive role in shaping the direction...

  11. The political economy of the assessment of value of new health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, Jonathan; Edney, Laura; Afzali, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    Health technology assessment provides a common framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of new health technologies to inform decisions on the public funding of new pharmaceuticals and other health technologies. In Australia and England, empirical analyses of the opportunity costs of government spending on new health technologies suggest more quality adjusted life years are being forgone than are being gained by a non-trivial proportion of funded health technologies. This essay considers the relevance of available empirical estimates of opportunity costs and explores the relationship between the public funding of health technologies and broader political and economic factors. We conclude that the benefits of a general reduction in the prices paid by governments for new technologies outweigh the costs, but evidence of informed public acceptance of reduced access to new health technologies may be required to shift the current approach to assessing the value of new health technologies.

  12. The Social Construction of Imported Technologies: Reflections on the Social History of Technology in Modern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub

    2017-01-01

    Can imported technologies be socially constructed? Starting from this puzzling question, this essay reflects on the various methodologies with which one can narrate the stories of technology in modern Korea. A focus on technological innovations and how they have been shaped by their societal milieu forces one to leave out a large part of the technological experience, especially when the bulk of the technologies-in-use have been imported from abroad. This poses a serious problem for the history of technology in Korea, a nation that relied heavily on foreign technologies as it went through rapid economic growth in the latter twentieth century.

  13. Participation, politics and technology : agrarian development in post-neoliberal Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Córdoba Blandón, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The election of Morales – an indigenous and cocalero leader – and his Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) party became the most important political milestone in Bolivia’s recent history. The MAS promised to represent the most excluded sectors of the country, challenging the foundations of liberal

  14. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  15. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles

  16. Understanding the impact of political violence in childhood: a theoretical review using a social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Orla T

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. © 2013.

  17. Social Enterprise, education and the new political economy of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a research agenda for studying social enterprise (SE) initiatives in education reform. Whilst based on research experiences gained in Nepal, the discussion here is relevant for similar SE efforts in other ‘developing’ countries as well as high-income contexts that are increa......This article presents a research agenda for studying social enterprise (SE) initiatives in education reform. Whilst based on research experiences gained in Nepal, the discussion here is relevant for similar SE efforts in other ‘developing’ countries as well as high-income contexts...

  18. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  19. Religious and Ethnic Discrimination: Differential Implications for Social Support Engagement, Civic Involvement, and Political Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Ysseldyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.

  20. Social Studies and the Language of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John K.; Bennett, Clifford

    1999-01-01

    Provides definitions of the following words and phrases that are related to technology and its use in the social sciences classroom: CD-ROM, database, discussion group, e-mail, hypertext and hypermedia, Internet, simulation, spreadsheets, virtual field trip, and World Wide Web. (AEF)

  1. The Social Shaping Approach to Technology Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Clausen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    herein: structure versus contingency, actor-network approach, laboratory programmes, techno-economic networks, actor worlds, development arenas. Experiences based on a recent Danish green technology foresight project concerned with environmental risks and opportunities related to nano-, bio......The social shaping of technology (SST) approach has been developed as a response and extension to the ideas of techno-economic rationality and linear conceptions of technology development and its consequences. The SST approach seems especially promising in areas of technology where visions...... are manifold, societal interests conflicting, and applications and markets are non-existing or still under construction. The emerging high technology areas and several areas of more sustainable development like organic food production and renewable energy are examples of this kind, where techno...

  2. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  3. Democracy, Citizenship and Youth: Towards Social and Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-12

    Oct 12, 2009 ... The first three chapters examine the most important aspects of young people's social participation, the importance of school, and the resulting challenges for creating public policies. The remaining chapters consider the study process, the choices made relating to the methodology, how the network of ...

  4. Social networks as anti-revolutionary forces: Facebook and political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The much celebrated Arab Spring has championed social media as an organizing force. This led to the celebration of a new revolutionary force for people seeking more justice and accountability from their leaders. Maghreb became the example to follow for others across Africa especially given the central role youth played ...

  5. Legal pluralism and social justice in economic and political development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, von F.

    2001-01-01

    Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a

  6. Power, Order, and the Politics of Social Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    I discuss the use of power to safeguard political stability by policymakers in four post-communist cases: Hungary and Poland, and Estonia and Latvia. My treatment is in line with traditional path dependency and 'generous' or 'emergency' welfare state interpretations, but adds a more strategic....... Building on Laitin (1998, 2007), Bloom (2008), and others, my two Baltic cases in turn discuss the use of political power along yet another dimension - ethnicity. Recent advances in political economy (Alesina and La Ferera 2005) and social capital theory (Putnam 2007) have documented the manifold negative...... effects of ethno-linguistic heterogeneity on variables such as public good provision, and other forms of social solidarity. Here I point out how the new Baltic elites proactively remodeled the distribution of transition winners and losers along ethnic lines. Power-holders thereby designed public policies...

  7. Connected Activism: Indigenous Uses of Social Media for Shaping Political Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Elena Duarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies describe digital tactics as specific strategies actors apply within broader repertoires of contention, specifically in social and political contexts. A comparison of EZLN, Idle No More, and the ongoing Rio Yaqui water rights movement reveals the kinds of community knowledge work that has to happen prior to and around activating digital tactics in Indigenous rights movements, including choices in messaging and discourses of Indigeneity, targeting of movement opponents, and selection of digital tools and techniques. Activists harness these communicative affordances to practice a politics of visibility, cultivate solidarity, diffuse an Indigenous consciousness, enforce dominant governments’ trust and treaty responsibilities, and remind many of the irrevocable injustice of colonialism. Designing methodologies that account for specific Indigenous social and political contexts as well as the affordances of various digital environments is part of the future work of Indigenous media theorists.

  8. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...

  9. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    between different roles and mobilize different types of knowledge depending on the context; the consultant is a navigator in the sense of knowing how to navigate in the complex organization surrounding the technological change process. The competencies of a political reflective navigator are outlined...

  10. Political risk of social security: the case of the indexation of benefits in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    -, Č. 318 (2007), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : social security * political risk * pension reform Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp318.pdf

  11. Collegiate Diversity Experiences and Students' Views Regarding Social and Political Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eugene T., III; Trolian, Teniell L.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study examines the relationship between engagement in diversity experiences during college and student attitudes about the importance of being socially and politically involved at the end of their fourth year of college. Findings suggest a positive link between…

  12. The problems of translation the text containing the social-politic vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Amangeldiyeva, N.; Yeskermessova, S.

    2011-01-01

    Text dealing with social-politic matters are singled out among other informative materials because in they may feature elements more commonly used in literary text which can not but influence the translator's strategy. More often, however, they are regarded as a kind of newspaper materials

  13. The Comparative Impacts of Social Justice Educational Methods on Political Participation, Civic Engagement, and Multicultural Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Amy; Austic, Elizabeth A.; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M.; Dirksen, Kaleigh E.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional, repeated measures, quasi-experimental study evaluates changes in college students' commitment toward, and confidence in, political participation, civic engagement, and multicultural activism. Our sample (n = 653) consisted of college students in a Midwestern university who participated in one of three social justice education…

  14. CANDIDATES IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA (2014: THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLITICAL MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Patrut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of social media has drawn the attention of the specialists from the political marketing because it contributes quickly and efficiently to the increase of the political product’s visibility and appeals to its supporters for content creation and viral promotion of the political messages. In addition, the candidate can communicate directly with the citizens and may involve them in creating virtual communities. In our study we briefly present the way in which social media was used, timidly at first, during the campaign for the 2008 parliamentary elections, for the 2009 presidential elections and for the 2012 local and parliamentary elections. The importance of social media increased during the 2012 Romanian presidential impeachment referendum and contributed decisively to rallying voters to go to the polls and, implicitly, to the Klaus Iohannis’s victory in the 2014 presidential elections. We have focused especially on Facebook, as social network, because it has managed to attract the largest number of users in Romania. The success of the 2.0 political actors does not imply (only to use the network as an alternative news channel, but especially to establish the bidirectional connection and constant interaction with virtual friends.

  15. Theory of Systems and Social-Political Realities of Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Annikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the process of forming the theory of systems as a scientific paradigm of social-humanitarian cognition. Focusing their attention on the interpretations of the structural composition of a political system, the authors analyze the relations between the state and the citizens of modern Russia, the actually effective mechanisms of interaction between the authorities and public associations.

  16. Growing apart : the comparative political economy of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, Stefan Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, most OECD countries witnessed a widening of the income distribution. This doctoral thesis collects five studies that provide insight into determinants and political and economic consequences of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries. The

  17. Political Education and Social Reconstructionism: Contextualizing the Philosophy of Sri Aurobindo

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The modernist era of world history has been defined as the age of internationalism. Conversely, globalization is an academic concept that is used to define postmodern world history. Globalization is theoretically framed from varied perspectives. Most specifically it is analyzed as political, social, and economic phenomena but also within the…

  18. "Place" as an integrating concept in natural resource politics: propositions for a social science research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony S. Cheng; Linda E. Kruger; Steven E. Daniels

    2003-01-01

    This article lays out six propositions centering on a relationship between peopleplace connections and strategic behavior in natural resource politics. The first two propositions suggest a strong and direct connection between self-identity, place, and how individuals perceive and value the environment. The third, fourth, and fifth propositions tie together social group...

  19. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of Ethnicity, Family Communication, and Media on Adolescents' Socialization to U.S. Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Nelson, C. Leigh

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of social cognitive theory and the role of television focuses on a study that investigated the influences of ethnic group membership and family communication environment variables on adolescents' knowledge, efficacy, and values related to politics. Highlights include the nature of family influences via the media and effects of media…

  1. The Social and Political Role of the Russian Orthodox Church as Perceived by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, L. A.; Andreeva, L. K.

    2015-01-01

    The article compares the data from a survey reflecting college students' perception of the social and political role of the Russian Orthodox Church with the results of nationwide Russian surveys for the purpose of determining the degree to which the basic conclusions coincide or differ. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  2. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  3. Society and Social Justice: Problems of Political Education in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Siegfried

    1981-01-01

    Discusses social justice in West Germany within the context of the experience of Nazism, the economic disaster after World War II, and the successful development of the economy and welfare state since 1949. Refers to various textbooks and recent empirical studies on the political attitudes of students in West Germany. (Author/KC)

  4. Citizenship Education as a Response to Colombia's Social and Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Rosario; Mesa, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the difficult social, economic and political problems that Colombia faces, such as inequality, discrimination, weak civil society--fuelled by illegality and drug trafficking--the Colombian Ministry of Education has embarked on an ambitious citizenship education program, with the hope of strengthening the role of education by…

  5. Towards a de-biased social psychology: The effects of ideological perspective go beyond politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable conservatives are in short supply and will not arrive to save social psychology any time soon. The field needs to save itself through de-biasing. The effects of a liberal worldview permeate and distort discussion of many topics that are not overtly political, including behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, the fundamental attribution error, and the remarkably persistent consistency controversy.

  6. The effects of social and political openness on the welfare state in 18 OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, F.

    2008-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between globalisation and the welfare state tend to focus on the effects of economic dimensions of globalisation, the extent to which a country is part of the world market. Globalisation also has social and political dimensions and the effects of these on welfare

  7. Cyberactivisim in the Process of Political and Social Change in Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soengas-Pérez, Xosé; Assif, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This research analyses the contribution of cyberactivism to the political and social change in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, as well as the opinion of young Arabs on the present context. Meaningful information has been extracted from regular interviews to 30 undergraduates over a five-year period. These students had already participated in the process…

  8. Communication Media, Memory, and Social-Political Change in Eric Havelock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronbeck, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to rehearse E. Havelock's arguments about relationships among communication modes or media, memory, and social-political change to specify his primary contributions to the so-called orality-literacy theorems, or to what is now beginning to be called theories of media ecology. Describes Havelock's evolutionary journey from the late 1950s to…

  9. An Aspect of Social Interaction in Communication: Politeness Strategies and Contrastive Foreign-Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Cazacu, Tatiana

    A discussion of communicative interaction focuses on the knowledge needed to achieve politeness in different languages, especially how that body of knowledge differs across languages and can be taught in foreign language instruction. It is noted that oral communication must accommodate the existing social order by use of appropriate registers.…

  10. Applied Developmental Science, Social Justice, and Socio-Political Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…

  11. News Media, Political Socialization and Popular Citizenship: Towards a New Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, David

    1997-01-01

    Notes that news media use has declined in recent years, particularly among young people. Offers a critical review of research on the changing role of journalism in political socialization. Evaluates calls for popular alternatives to conventional forms of news and for a postmodern conception of citizenship and the public sphere. Concludes that more…

  12. Teacher quality in a political and social setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical contributions and empirical data the article examines the relationship between educational paradigms in the school debate as well as their presence as tools for reflection and choice of action in teaching practice. Special attention is paid to the role of knowledge and skills...... as a vehicle for social emancipation. Finally, a few implications for the recent Danish teacher education reform are indicated....

  13. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  14. Social, biological, and political considerations on fertility in Arab populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, C; Bernis, C

    1988-01-01

    In analyzing fertility in the Arab countries, crude birth rate, total fecundity rate, and age specific fertility rates were measured. The data was obtained from United Nations, UNICEF, and the World Bank. In the early 1980's 13 of the countries had birth rates 40/1000. The majority of countries showed a decline in their crude birth rate (CBR) between 1960-83, except Somalia, which increased. The United Arab Emirates (UAE), Tunisia, Lebanon, and Kuwait, had the largest CBR decreases, followed by Morocco, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. The global fecundity rate (GFR) shows the number of expected births a woman lives through her reproductive period, having children at the prevailing rate for each age. The GFR in these countries is much higher than those of non Moslem countries in the area. Results show that the fertility of Arab countries are in a gradual decline, but remain high, and many have a CBR over 40/1000. In the last 20 years Saudi Arabia, with the largest population of oil producing countries, has had a decreasing CBR. It is not in agreement with its high GFR, but this can be attributed to the large number of immigration workers in the country. The UAE showed a decrease in CBR from 46/1000 to 27/1000, the largest decrease in these countries. This decline coincided with the economic development due to oil production. Kuwait had a 25.5% decrease in CBR but less than Tunisia and Lebanon. The fertility decline in Kuwait intensified in the middle 1970's; the decline in northern Africa began in the late 1960's. There were declines in birth rates in the North African countries in the early 1970's except for Tunisia. The rapid declines in fertility can be attributed to the countries' socioeconomic and political situations.

  15. Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Aishat Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of political knowledge in engendering political participation among youths in a society cannot be overstated. Yet, there is scarcity of research in this area. Thus, this study assessed the moderating role of political knowledge in the relationship between Access to Political Information on Facebook and Twitter (APIFT, Political Interest (PI and Policy Satisfaction (PS with Online Political Participation on Facebook and Twitter (OPPFT. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. Questionnaire was used to collect data which was analysed using Partial Least Squares-MultiGroup Analysis (PLS-MGA. Results revealed that political knowledge moderated the relationship between access to political information on Facebook and Twitter and political interest with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. However, it did not moderate the relationship between policy satisfaction with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. Generally, these findings suggests that political knowledge plays a significant role in youth online political participation in Malaysia. Consequently, this study has added empirical evidence to predictors of political participation while at the same time contributing to the body of knowledge on online political participation.

  16. A widening gap? The political and social organization of childcare in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur, Eleonor

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how social policies and programmes implemented in Argentina shape the political and social organization of childcare. The author seeks to analyse how welfare institutions are currently responding to emerging needs, and to what extent they facilitate the defamilialization of childcare for different social classes. Because Argentina lacks a truly unified ‘care policy’, four different kinds of facilities and programmes are examined: employment-based childcare services; pre-school schemes; social assistance care services; and poverty reduction strategies. It is argued that far from offering equal rights and services with a universalist cast, these ‘caring’ institutions reflect the ethos of the current welfare model in Argentina: a fragmented set of social policies based on different assumptions for different social groups, which in turn filter down to the social organization of childcare.

  17. A Trigger or a Muffler? - Examining the Dynamics of Crosscutting Exposure and Political Expression in Online Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Young Bae

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of online social media to serve as a sphere for political discourse and investigates the extent to which everyday uses of online social networking sites can expose citizens to politically diverse viewpoints.  In addition, this study asks whether such crosscutting exposure in online social networks will act as a trigger or a muffler for political expression – that is, whether exposure political difference will stimulate or discourage political discussions.  With analyses of a sample of online social networking site users in the context of the 2012 presidential election in South Korea, this study explicates the link between crosscutting exposure and citizens’ political expressions in social media.  Results reveal that contrary to the predictions in previous literature, exposure to politically incongruent viewpoints in online social networking sites does not seem to undermine users’ expressive behaviors but instead positively contribute to political expression.  In addition, this study shows the significant role of citizens’ perceptions of candidate support in their own networks, and illustrates that the dynamics of political expression differ significantly depending on the users’ age.

  18. It may be harder than we thought, but political diversity will (still) improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Duarte, José L; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Stern, Charlotta; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.

  19. Social Movements and Political Agency in the Digital Age: A Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kavada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital media pose a dual challenge to conventional understandings of political agency. First, digital media destabilize long-held assumptions about the nature of collective action, about social movements and their capacity to effect change. This is because digital media are thought to facilitate more decentralized, dispersed, temporary and individualized forms of political action that subvert the notion of the collective as singular, unified, homogeneous, coherent, and mass. One way of resolving this challenge is to view the collective in looser terms, as a process rather than as a finished product, a conceptualization that can be influence our understanding not only of social movements, but also of other political actors and of society as a whole. Second, digital media highlight the need to take communication seriously in how we conceptualize both collective action and political agency. Placing communication at the centre allows us to develop this looser and more processual understanding of the collective by studying it as a process that is constituted in and through communication. Inspired by organizational communication and particularly the work of Taylor and van Every (2000, this essay proposes a conception of collective action as emerging in conversations and solidified in texts. This conceptualization allows for a more multiplex and variegated view of political agency that takes into account the specific context where agency is exercised and the power that different actors can exert in a communicative process of negotiation, persuasion and claim-making.

  20. Social Enterprise, education and the new political economy of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a research agenda for studying social enterprise (SE) initiatives in education reform. Whilst based on research experiences gained in Nepal, the discussion here is relevant for similar SE efforts in other ‘developing’ countries as well as high-income contexts that are increa......This article presents a research agenda for studying social enterprise (SE) initiatives in education reform. Whilst based on research experiences gained in Nepal, the discussion here is relevant for similar SE efforts in other ‘developing’ countries as well as high-income contexts...... that are increasing adopting SE strategies that have been tested elsewhere. The paper outlines how changing processes of governance position SE initiatives as potential solutions to a range of problems that have structural roots in conflicts related to ethnicity, gender and class. However, whilst SE is a new mode...... of organizing our understanding of such issues, it also has the potential to re-inscribe historic marginalities in new ways. A research agenda focused on exploring the lived experience of SE aims to expose such possibilities and dangers....

  1. Is Political Activism on Social Media an initiator of Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Safoor, Iqra; Khurshid, Nawal; Aslam, Aakash; Zaid, Farhan; Muzaffar, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i.e. Cohen Perceived Stress-10) were distributed via non-probability convenient sampling among a total sample size of 237. Sample size was calculated using WHO sample size calculator and data was analyzed in STATA version 12. The mean age of participants was 21.06±1.425 years. Out of the 237 participants, 150 (63.3%) were males and 87 (36.7%) females. Regarding their occupation, 13 (51.9%) were military cadets, 8 (3.4%) were consultant, 47 (19.8%) medical officer, 3 (1.3%) PG students and 56 (23.6%) MBBS students. Significant association of occupation was established with both political activism and psychological stress (p=0.4 and p=0.002 respectively). Among 237 individuals, 91 (38.4%) were stressed out and 146 (61.6%) were not. Among whole sample, political activists on SNS were found to be 23 (9.7%). Out of these 23 individuals who were politically active, 15 (65.2%) were stressed out and 8 (34.7%) were not. A significant association between stress and political activism was established (p=0.005). Political activism via social networking sites is playing significant role on adult person's mental health in terms of stress among different occupation.

  2. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  3. Selling the Space Telescope - The interpenetration of science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.

  4. Editorial: Financial, Economic and Political Crises - Carrying Social Science Education on as Before?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Hedtke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Journal of Social Science Education deals with the financial and economic crises, its causes and the consequences which could be drawn for civic and economic education. As far as economic and civic educators are expected to behave like communicators of established scientific knowledge received from economics or political science, they also are hit by the crisis of these two disciplines which is induced by their severe shortcomings in the crisis. The conventional wisdom of economics or of political science failed to provide an early warning system of potentially dangerous institutions, policies or outcomes. On the contrary, among the main causes of the financial crisis and its political and economic failures are: policy recommendations delivered by the Chicago school of economics, beliefs and decisions of the economic and political elites encouraged by mainstream economics and economic liberalism, and, last but not least, an increasing self-restraint of the state towards the market, fed by political theories based on the idea that (financial markets should best control themselves. The financial-economic-political crisis cannot be understood without its ideological, institutional and political framework, and this framework cannot be understood without taking into account its foundations in mainstream economics and the economic mode of thinking which is also flourishing in political science. The significant shift of power in favour of the international financial industries has to be considered, too. Disentangling the intricate causes of the intertwined crises and discussing its consequences – also for education at universities – is a challenging task taken up by the authors of this and the next issue of the JSSE.

  5. Ukraine-NATO relations in the Russian social and political thought in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kostiuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the attitude of the Russian public and political elite to the political and military cooperation between Ukraine and NATO during the 1990s. The issues relate to the internal debate arose by Russia around the political and military cooperation between Ukraine and NATO. It is determined that Ukraine and Russia, after the Soviet collapse and organization of political contacts with NATO, take part in the formation of a collective security system in Europe. For Ukraine cooperation with NATO also made it possible to strengthen its national homeland security. Determined that the attitude of the Russian political elite of Ukraine’s cooperation with NATO was changing and depended on Ukraine’s participation in integration projects initiated by the Russian Federation. The reluctance of Ukraine to participate in common military projects with the Russian military structures, being members of SND, against cooperation with NATO, the majority of Russian politicians regarded as part of the hostile policy of the neighbor country.  It proved that the policy of NATO expansion in Central and Eastern Europe had great influence on relations between Ukraine and Russian Federation. Substantiates that the policy of developing NATO-Ukraine relations was one of the main arguments of opponents of signing Ukrainian-Russian bilateral Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Conducting joint military exercises to deepen political cooperation between Ukraine and NATO were regarded as a direct challenge to Russian security. Conclusions that political contacts between Ukraine and NATO were constantly on the agenda of Ukrainian-Russian relations and caused special interest of the social-political environment.

  6. Neoliberalism, Conservative Politics, and ‘Social Recapitalization’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Although embedded neoliberalism takes different forms, it is nonetheless defined by its commitment to ‘roll back’ the state in terms of its role as a social provider, as a mediator between capital and labour, and as an ameliorator of perceived market failure. Having said this, the British state...... and voluntary effort in place of state provision. Such projects seemed to offer the promise of redefining the relationship between the individual and the state. Yet, while often seen as communitarian and thereby the antithesis of neoliberalism, such projects constitute a counterpart or corollary. Nonetheless...... have been pursued, the ‘Big Society’ itself has made only a limited impact. The history of neoliberalism suggests that the shrinkage of the British state may therefore, as a consequence, be vulnerable to later ‘roll back’....

  7. The Political Future of Social Medicine: Reflections on Physicians as Activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H Jack

    2017-03-01

    The academic discipline of social medicine has always had a political and policy advocacy component, in addition to its core functions of research and teaching. Its origins lie in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the work of Johann Peter Frank and Rudolph Virchow, among others. Virchow's dictum that "politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale" highlights that most social determinants of health are politically determined and shape population health. Yet despite intense epidemiological and sociological research on the social determinants of health, less attention has been paid to this political and policy dimension.During the 1960s, the author and many other clinicians were directly involved in attempts to use health care institutions to foster structural change. However, the author argues that efforts to assist individual patients and more effectively manage their interactions with the health care system, as described in the articles in this issue's special collection on "structural competency," while worthy and useful, do not confront root causes. Going forward, efforts to effect structural change must take place outside the arena of the clinical encounter and involve interprofessional teams and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations. They should intervene directly on the structures that contribute to illness such as poor housing, income and wealth inequality, inferior education, racism and residential segregation, and toxic concentrations of extreme poverty in urban areas. Collectively, these efforts-within and outside the spheres of medicine-represent the real operative form of structural competency.

  8. More tweets, more votes: social media as a quantitative indicator of political behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Digrazia

    Full Text Available Is social media a valid indicator of political behavior? There is considerable debate about the validity of data extracted from social media for studying offline behavior. To address this issue, we show that there is a statistically significant association between tweets that mention a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives and his or her subsequent electoral performance. We demonstrate this result with an analysis of 542,969 tweets mentioning candidates selected from a random sample of 3,570,054,618, as well as Federal Election Commission data from 795 competitive races in the 2010 and 2012 U.S. congressional elections. This finding persists even when controlling for incumbency, district partisanship, media coverage of the race, time, and demographic variables such as the district's racial and gender composition. Our findings show that reliable data about political behavior can be extracted from social media.

  9. New Ways of Interaction in Social Media: Political Participation of Young People in Mexico and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barredo-Ibáñez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The media crisis is linked to the crisis of public institutions. This shows the emergence of social practices focused on user activation and consequently, we can observe a decline of vertical mediation. However, these phenomena do not extend horizontally at a global level. With this study, we compare the results of a survey of more than two thousand university students from Mexico and Ecuador, in which we question the perceptions of these strategic groups about phenomena such as political participation on and offline, and political information consumption.

  10. Social technologies : Cross-disciplinary reflections on technologies in and from the social sciences Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten; Vikkelso, Signe; Beaulieu, Anne

    In this introduction, we explore the relevance to critical psychology of the ideas about technology that have come from science and technology studies (STS), which we argue allow a new look at a classic theme in critical approaches in psychology. Rather than seeing psychical and social reality as

  11. Social technologies: Cross-disciplinary reflections on technologies in and from the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten; Vikkelsø, S.; Beaulieu, Julianie

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction, we explore the relevance to critical psychology of the ideas about technology that have come from science and technology studies (STS), which we argue allow a new look at a classic theme in critical approaches in psychology. Rather than seeing psychical and social reality as

  12. How Does Football Influence the Political System and Juridify Social Movements? Brazil, June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Schwartz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to current trends in the analysis of new social movements, protests are related to economic issues or social inequalities, particularly those of a religious or ethnic nature which, in turn, produce new communications directed at the political system. The present study aims to determine the relationship between football and the social movements that occurred in Brazil in June 2013, as well as investigate the responses of the political system to these social grievances, centered primarily on the juridification of these social spheres. Thus, it focuses on how the legal and political systems absorb these communications into their self-referential logic. To that end, the methodology used is based on the structural functionalism of Niklas Luhmann and his theory of autopoietic social systems. The results demonstrate that both systems – political and legal – were significantly influenced by football, specifically by the substantial investments allocated to hosting the 2014 World Cup in Brazil which, when contrasted with the low return of public services in the country, reveal the root causes of June 2013. Según las tendencias actuales en el análisis de los nuevos movimientos sociales, las protestas están relacionadas con cuestiones económicas o desigualdades sociales, en particular las de carácter religioso o étnico que, a su vez, producen nuevas comunicaciones dirigidas al sistema político. Este estudio pretende determinar la relación entre el fútbol y los movimientos sociales que se produjeron en Brasil en junio de 2013, así como investigar las respuestas del sistema político a estas demandas sociales, centradas principalmente en la juridificación de estas esferas sociales. Por lo tanto, se centra en cómo los sistemas legales y políticos absorben estas comunicaciones en su lógica autorreferencial. Para ello, la metodología empleada se basa en el funcionalismo estructural de Niklas Luhmann y su teoría de los sistemas

  13. Wild about Social Media and Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santascoy, S. J.

    2011-09-01

    It's tempting to jump on the social media bandwagon and insist your organization needs Facebook, twitter, etc. But, when funds are limited, social media and related publicity must be carefully thought out. The NASA Night Sky Network, which is managed by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, has developed widgets for websites and blogs, an iPhone app, and a Facebook presence. This is all to attract, inform, and reach the next generation of amateur astronomers, with no additional work needed from the amateur astronomy community who are members of the Night Sky Network. Outreach professionals will gain valuable insight from our experience, and may replicate this model to design their own social media and technology plan.

  14. Social movements, politics and heterochrony in a Sicilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardino Palumbo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In questo scritto, attraverso l’analisi di un caso siciliano intendo, da un lato, riflettere intorno ai rapporti tra crisi economico-politica e possibilità di costruzione di pratiche e immaginari politici innovativi; dall’altro vorrei provare ad indagare le complesse contraddizioni che, operando all’interno di una scena politica locale, nazionale e globale disarticolata e conflittuale, hanno interessato un movimento sociale divenuto all’improvviso governo di una città. Avendo presenti alcune recenti analisi della dimensione temporale propria dei movimenti sociali e della conflittualità politica nei sistemi del tardo-capitalismo, vorrei inoltre mostrare l’operare, nella scena politica contemporanea di una città meridionale, di molteplici e asincroni ritmi temporali che la crisi economico istituzionale degli ultimi anni ha reso evidenti, consentendo l’elezione a sindaco di un totale outsider. Più in particolare mi soffermerò sulla tensione tra un tempo che definisco messianico e altre due temporalità, quella “burocratica” e quella “strutturale” che appaiono consustanziali ad una diversa “economia”, legata all’operare della macchina amministrativa.

  15. Social-political factors influencing the expansion of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    As humanity marches closer to entering a new millennium, it is crucial that we nuclear professionals take renewed stock in the importance of our role in public interactions. The lack of public support has been very influential in bringing the once robust nuclear power construction program in America, Europe and Russia to a grinding halt. In trying to understand the key forces that shape public opinion on technologies such as ours, it becomes clear that the major force is the media enterprise. If we compare the basic driving forces behind successful media with the basic drivers behind successful science, we quickly come to the realization that the media are fundamentally in the entertainment business. Capturing instant attention and holding it are the principal ingredients of success for newspapers, radio, and television. Recognizing that these success drivers are diametrically opposite of those governing good science, we can readily understand why the antinuclear movement has been so successful in orchestrating their message in a package ideally suited to a receptive media enterprise. However, before blaming all our woes on the media, we need to assess at least four technical areas where additional professional work could be of substantial value. These include determining the real health effects of low-level radiation, further developing intrinsic robustness to enhance reactor safety, refining and articulating the environmental ethic associated with the recycling of nuclear waste, and exposing the myth that burying plutonium solves our nuclear non-proliferation problems. We suggest six key ingredients as necessary steps that merit strong consideration in regaining public support for nuclear power. These include 1) seriously addressing the four technical issues summarized above; 2) expressing our key issues and results in language understandable at the high school (or lower) level; 3) continually striving for an open and honest management of the Industry; 4

  16. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Petrica

    1997-01-01

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Earnings Management: The Role of Political Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Yip

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Francis, Nanda and Olsson (2008 proposed that earnings quality influence firms’ disclosure decisions. We examine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure is related to earnings management and if the relationship is mitigated by political cost considerations or by the firm’s ethical predisposition. We argue that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is context-specific and we consider one particular context, the political environment. We test our hypotheses by regressing earnings management on CSR disclosure while controlling for other factors that may affect the level of earnings management. We find a significant relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management, and more specifically, we find evidence of a negative (complementary relationship in the oil and gas industry while we find evidence of a positive (substitutive relationship in the food industry. The evidence supports the view that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is affected by the political environment and not by ethical considerations.

  18. Motivations for Social Media Use and Impact on Political Participation in China: A Cognitive and Communication Mediation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Chan, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Integrating uses and gratifications theory and the cognitive/communication mediation model: this study examines Chinese students' use of social media and subsequent impact on political participation. An integrative framework is proposed where media use, political expression, and political cognitions (efficacy and knowledge) play important mediating roles between audience motivations and participation. Structural equation analyses showed support for the integrated model. Guidance and social utility motivations exhibited different indirect effects on online and offline participation through social media news, discussion, and political efficacy. Entertainment motivations exhibited no direct or indirect effects. Contrary to expectations and previous literature, surveillance motivations exhibited negative direct and indirect effects on offline participation, which may be attributed to the particular Chinese social and political context. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. The Philosophy of Science and Technology in China: Political and Ideological Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanlin

    2014-09-01

    In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book Dialektik der Natur. DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN) has been an obligatory course for master's degree students who study natural science or technology. In 1987, DN was renamed PST by the Chinese government in order to communicate and do research. The IDN teachers constitute most of the scholars who research PST. Nowadays, in China, PST includes philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, philosophy of technology, sociology of science, sociology of technology, "science, technology and society," history of science, history of technology, management of science, and management of technology due to having too many IDN teachers. In fact, it is neither a branch of philosophy, nor a subject. The number of the IDN teachers has been increasing since 1981, which makes PST a miscellaneous collection of many branches or subjects. Finally, PST is facing two new challenges: the reduction of IDN and academic corruption.

  20. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People – the German Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Onken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to social and political change the process of young citizens’ political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which influence the individual propensity to participate in politics. The impact of the financial and economic crisis in Europe on political attitudes will also be considered, taking in account sociological aspects. Based on the empirical findings we discuss implications for civic education. In contrast to many discussions in literature about this issue, in which the focus is on the need to put the various influences of political socialization into a broader context, we argue that the parental social background is the crucial upstream factor, prior to e.g. civic education. The conclusion indicates that a group‐specific educational approach, taking into account the social background, is the most promising one for reaching the normative goal of civic education: Politically self‐determined citizens. Aufgrund der sozialen und politischen Veränderungen ist die politische Sozialisation Jugendlicher in den Westeuropäischen Demokratien auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt worden. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir Aspekte dieser Entwicklung und zeigen, welche Folgen sich aus diesen ergeben. Wir analysieren empirische Befunde aus Deutschland mit dem Schwerpunkt auf die Frage, welche sozialen Faktoren relevant sind für die individuelle politische Partizipationsbereitschaft. Der Einfluss der Finanz‐ und Wirtschaftskrise in Europa auf politische Einstellungen wird dabei ebenfalls betrachtet. Dies geschieht unter Berücksichtigung der soziologischen Aspekte. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse Fragen wir nach den Folgen für die politische Bildung. Im Gegensatz zu dem in der Literatur häufig vertretenen Ansatz, die politische

  1. The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges.

  2. [Social and political actors in the formulation of health reform in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etviti, J E; Leyva, R F

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the participation of social and political actors in the process of formulating health policy allows one to understand the specific characteristics of the organization and operation of a health system. This study analyzes the drafting process for the General Health Act (LGS) in Spain with the purpose of establishing the relationship between social, political, and economic actors in both the formulation of the Act itself and the organization of the Spanish Health System. A case study was carried out from 1982 through 1986. Documentary parliamentary data, the medical press, national magazines and journals, and press reports by political, social, and public health actors were analyzed. The first version of the General Health Act presented by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) proposed a health system with funding and public administration aimed at achieving universal health coverage, integrated care, community participation, and health education. This proposal was submitted to a complex negotiating process with business groups, unions, and health professionals. The General Health Act as finally approved excludes the principles of equity and incorporates private interests in health: "free choice of doctor and hospital", public funding and private administration of the health system, and the establishment of Social Security as the core of the entire health system.

  3. BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION VS. SOCIAL POLITICS: AN ASSESSMENT WITH REGARD TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.Sozer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of business administration has close relations with the disciplines of economics, law, behavioral sciences, statistics and mathematics. The manager of an enterprise should not only manage the sources of capital securing the maximum profit, but also he/she should have knowledge on how to manage the people working for the enterprise (workers and other personnel. Social politics is the discipline which analyses the human relations arising from economic affairs. Thus the main concern of this discipline is the influence of economics on human beings and society as well as the social problems arising from economic affairs. The aim is the general harmony between all the segments of the society, i.e. creation and maintenance of social balance. Globalization has shown its effects also on the existing disciplines. For instance business administration has adopted the concept of social responsibility enlarging its field of interest. As a result of this enlargement, social politics and social responsibility have largely corresponded to each other in terms of scope. However this correspondence is valid only for partners, but not for actors and instruments involved.

  4. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    The relationship between the citizens, the media, and political actors in democracies has changed over the last decade, particularly in response to changes in the media environment, which are amplified by digital communication. Nowadays it’s nothing new that online media play a main role...... in citizens’ political media diet. Especially social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube offer an up-to-date stream of information, easy to tune in and with personalized content citizens (or at least their network) are interested in. A recent study by PEW (Mitchell, Gottfried & Matsa, 2015...... for young citizens in an election campaign. Second, it will concentrate on their social media use to gain not only gain information about the platform first time voters use, but digging deeper to distinguish between types of content their social media exposure to political information consists of. Third...

  5. New Social Media and Politics in Thailand: The Emergence of Fascist Vigilante Groups on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Facebook has become a battleground between competing political camps in Thailand. Facebook groups like the Social Sanction group, tellingly abbreviated as SS, and the Rubbish Collector Organization, which was founded in 2014 and has attracted more than 200,000 members, have played a crucial role in the process of political radicalization. The aim of these groups is to expose political opponents by accusing them of lèse-majesté, which can result in a prison sentence of 15 years or more. The groups also serve as fora for hate speech and are increasingly used as a tool of mobilization for state-sponsored mass events by the authoritarian regime that came to power with the coup d’état of May 2014. Contrary to its popular perception as a tool for democratization, Facebook has been successfully used by political groups reminiscent of fascist vigilante groups. This paper analyses the genesis of these groups and discusses the phenomenon in a broader political and historical context.

  6. The Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility: Techniques of Neutralization, Stakeholder Management and Political CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna; Collin, Jeff; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Since scholarly interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has primarily focused on the synergies between social and economic performance, our understanding of how (and the conditions under which) companies use CSR to produce policy outcomes that work against public welfare has remained comparatively under-developed. In particular, little is known about how corporate decision-makers privately reconcile the conflicts between public and private interests, even though this is likely to be relevant to understanding the limitations of CSR as a means of aligning business activity with the broader public interest. This study addresses this issue using internal tobacco industry documents to explore British-American Tobacco's (BAT) thinking on CSR and its effects on the company's CSR Programme. The article presents a three-stage model of CSR development, based on Sykes and Matza's theory of techniques of neutralization, which links together: how BAT managers made sense of the company's declining political authority in the mid-1990s; how they subsequently justified the use of CSR as a tool of stakeholder management aimed at diffusing the political impact of public health advocates by breaking up political constituencies working towards evidence-based tobacco regulation; and how CSR works ideologically to shape stakeholders' perceptions of the relative merits of competing approaches to tobacco control. Our analysis has three implications for research and practice. First, it underlines the importance of approaching corporate managers' public comments on CSR critically and situating them in their economic, political and historical contexts. Second, it illustrates the importance of focusing on the political aims and effects of CSR. Third, by showing how CSR practices are used to stymie evidence-based government regulation, the article underlines the importance of highlighting and developing matrices to assess the negative social impacts of CSR.

  7. Political Content in Social Work Education as Reported by Elected Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    As a profession, social work has encouraged its members to run for public office to translate the values and ethics of social work into public policy. This study of 416 elected social workers around the country provides insight into the experiences of these elected social workers in their social work education. The classes, skills, activities,…

  8. BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION VS. SOCIAL POLITICS: AN ASSESSMENT WITH REGARD TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    A.N.Sozer; D.A.Yemisci

    2007-01-01

    The discipline of business administration has close relations with the disciplines of economics, law, behavioral sciences, statistics and mathematics. The manager of an enterprise should not only manage the sources of capital securing the maximum profit, but also he/she should have knowledge on how to manage the people working for the enterprise (workers and other personnel). Social politics is the discipline which analyses the human relations arising from economic affairs. Thus the main conc...

  9. RHETORIC VERSUS REALITY IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE: POLITICAL, NEOLIBERAL AND NEW MANAGERIAL INFLUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini, Thembeni TrueLove

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a study of the experiences of social workers employed in a public service organisation in the Ethekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and the profession of social work commit to the pursuit of human rights, social justice and a better life for all. However, an increasing shift towards neoliberalism and new managerialism impacts on the functions and levels of satisfaction of social workers as they deal with the ideal aspirations of the profession and the realities of their day-to-day practice. Informed by critical theory, the research was inspired by the desire for social workers to use the research process to engage in ethical political resistance.

  10. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  11. Transitional justice as social control: political transitions, human rights norms and the reclassification of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Ron

    2017-09-12

    This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies. Building on the work of Stanley Cohen, the article contends that the core transitional problem is the denial of human rights violations, and consequently that the common purpose of all transitional justice mechanisms is to reclassify the past: redefining as deviant some acts and individuals which prior to the transition were considered 'normal'. The article identifies and analyses three themes in the application of a social control framework to transitional justice: (1) truth, memory and retroactive social control, pertains to the way truth-seeking transitional justice mechanisms reclassify past events by engaging in social control of and through memory; (2) censure, celebration and transitional social control refers to the reclassification of categories of individuals through expressions of both social disapproval and praise; and (3) civil society and social control from below concerns the role of social movements, organizations and groups as informal agents of social control during transitions. The concluding section recaps and briefly explores the concept of 'good moral panic' in the context of political transitions. While the concept of social control tends to have negative connotations for critical sociologists, this work suggests that efforts to categorize, punish and disapprove certain behaviours as deviant may not only be viewed as supporting a conservative status-quo, but also as promoting fledging human rights norms.

  12. System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Turek, M.G.; Eubanks, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

  13. Modeling Social Pressures Toward Political Instability in the United Kingdom after 1960: A Demographic Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ortmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, we investigate the predictive ability of Goldstone’s demographic structural model. In particular we seek to apply Turchin’s version of it to modeling the social pressures for political instability in the UK. It is then demonstrated that Turchin’s analysis of ‘demographic structural’ pressures in the US presents similar conditions that developed under neoliberalism during the same time periods in both countries. It is also demonstrated that the modeling of social pressures toward political instability in the UK and the USA performed by Peter Turchin and us can throw some light on the factors and patterns of the global sociopolitical destabilization wave of the 2010s. Thus, Goldstone’s demographic structural model might have some predictive potential not only at the national level, but also global scale.

  14. Feministas en el Foro Feminists at the World Social Forum: challenges for a new political culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Celiberti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El articulo trata sobre la forma de incursión de expresiones significativas de la pluralidad feminista en el Foro Social Mundial expresa. Estas incursiones expresan los cambios en las subjetividades y en las estrategias de lucha que comienzan a desarrollar los movimientos feministas en particular y los movimientos sociales en general, en el marco de un mundo globalizado y en el nuevo milenio. Es un proceso inédito, que esta impulsando el desarrollo de nuevos paradigmas para la acción colectiva, que combina lo local y lo global, la interconexión de múltiples agendas y la recuperación de una dimensión mas profunda de la justicia económica, social, cultural y simbólica, ampliando, en este proceso, el concepto de la política, lo político y el poder. El articulo coloca en debate las formas de hacer política de los movimientos sociales que confluyen en el Foro - que arrastran viejas dinámicas y al mismo tiempo recrean los nuevos paradigmas - y que abren la posibilidad de reinventar un mapa emancipatorio y un imaginario social, capaz de competir con el consenso neoliberal y el pensamiento único, recuperando la diversidad y la pluralidad de sujet@s y actor@s sociales.The article deals with the ways of incursion of the feminist plurality's significant expressions in the World Social Forum. These incursions express the changes in the subjectivities and in strategies of struggle that feminist movements in particular and social movements in general begin to develop, in the frame of a globalised world and in the new millennium. It's an unprecedented process, that is promoting the development of new paradigms for collective action, that combines local and global issues, the interconnection of multiple agendas and the recovery of a more profound dimension of economic, social, cultural and symbolic justice, broadening, in this process, the concept of politics, the political and the power. The article sets discussion around the ways in which social

  15. Entrepreneurship as a source of economic, political, and social improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rabarijaona, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A three-country case study was used to analyze the economic, political, and social impacts of entrepreneurship, and the development of entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa was studied through the lens of five entrepreneurial factors (freedom, labor, infrastructure, governance, and business environment). An increase of foreign direct investments, growing economic freedom for citizens, and a higher gross domestic product per capita wer...

  16. Exploring the social and political aspects of talent management in organisations.

    OpenAIRE

    Zesik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Talent management has been an area of significant organisational focus since 1997 when McKinsey and Company first introduced the concept of the ‘war for talent’. What appears to have been neglected in many subsequent talent management publications, however, is the tension between the rhetoric and reality of talent management. The objective of the research is to explore this tension in the context of the social and political aspects of managing talent in organisations and to gain a deeper unde...

  17. Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Patrick Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.

  18. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  19. Democracy as a social technology on schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    " democracy. The democratic influence in schools thus spans from "big" parliamentary democracy to small participatoruy democracy - a dichotomy schooll leadership must maneuvre within using democratic procedures and leadership as social technologies. This article argues that a positive coinnectiion exists......On a formal level, the influence og "big" parlamentary democracy is enhanced because parliamentary control in individual schools has become stronger; and the formal democratic influence of parents has been strengthned by their membership on school boards, the latter being an example of "small...

  20. Social and technological aspects of disaster resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, Alexandra; Sparf, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Large scale projects tasked with designing infrastructures and urban networks resilient to disasters face a common challenge, i.e. the need to address concomitant technological issues and social problems. What is more, conflicting technologies and the diverse philosophical underpinnings of distinct...... academic disciplines pose difficulties in the collaboration among experts of different fields. These difficulties and possible ways to tackle them have been highlighted by a questionnaire developed in the framework of an EU project named ANDROID (Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimize...... Educational Development). More specifically, the project investigated the level of interdisciplinary work in current research and educational projects within the field of disaster resilience. Findings illustrate the number and types of disciplines involved in disaster resilience projects and suggest...

  1. Geothermal technology in Australia: Investigating social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Anne-Maree; Boughen, Naomi; Ashworth, Peta; Carr-Cornish, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Issues of social acceptance, such as lack of awareness and negative community perceptions and reactions, can affect low emission energy technology development, despite general support observed for reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Negative community reactions and lack of understanding have affected geothermal developments, as demonstrated by the fearful community reactions and negative media experienced in response to seismic disturbances caused by 'hot rock' geothermal energy generation in Switzerland and Germany. Focusing on geothermal energy, this paper presents the results of using a participatory action research methodology to engage diverse groups within the Australian public. A key finding is that the majority of the Australian public report limited the knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology and have various concerns including water usage and seismic activity instigated by geothermal drilling. However, geothermal energy receives general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources in preference to traditional forms of energy generation and controversial technologies. This paper also demonstrates the effectiveness of using an engagement process to explore public understanding of energy technologies in the context of climate change, and suggests a way forward for governments and industry to allocate resources for greatest impact when communicating about geothermal technology. - Highlights: → Majority of Australians have limited knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology. → Various concerns, including water usage and seismic activity instigated by drilling, were raised. → Geothermal energy has general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources. → Methodology shows the effectiveness of an engagement process to explore public understanding. → Participants expressed intention to change behaviours, which can be a catalyst for change.

  2. Technology, socio-political acceptance, and the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.; Domenech, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The technology which is required to develop and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the 1990's is available today. The push for best available technology is a response to the political difficulties in securing public acceptance of the site selection process. Advances in waste management technologies include development of High Integrity Containers (HIC), solidification media, liquid volume reduction techniques using GEODE/sub sm/ and DeVoe-Holbein technology of selective removal of target radioisotopes, and CASTOR V storage casks. Advances in technology alone, however, do not make the site selection process easier and without socio-political acceptance there may be no process at all. Chem-Nuclear has been successful in achieving community acceptance at the Barnwell facility and elsewhere. For example, last June in Fall River County, South Dakota, citizens voted almost 2:1 to support the development of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In Edgemont, the city nearest the proposed site, 85% of the voters were in favor of the proposed facility

  3. Social Technologies to Jump Start Geoscience Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; Martinez, Cynthia; Gonzales, Leila

    2010-05-01

    Collaborative and social technologies have been increasingly used to facilitate distributed data collection and observation in science. However, "Web 2.0" and basic social media are seeing limited coordinated use in building student and early-career geoscientists knowledge and understanding of the profession and career for which they have undertaken. The current generation of geology students and early career professionals are used to ready access to myriad of information and interaction opportunities, but they remain largely unaware about the geoscience profession, what the full scope of their opportunities are, and how to reach across institutional and subdisciplinary boundaries to build their own professional network. The American Geological Institute Workforce Program has tracked and supported the human resources of the geosciences since 1952. With the looming retirement of Baby Boomers, increasing demand for quality geoscientists, and a continued modest supply of students entering the geosciences, AGI is working to strengthen the human resource pipeline in the geosciences globally. One aspect of this effort is the GeoConnection Network, which is an integrated set of social networking, media sharing and communication Web 2.0 applications designed to engage students in thinking about careers in the geosciences and enabling them to build their own personal professional network. Developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI), GeoConnection links practicing and prospective geoscientists in an informal setting to share information about the geoscience profession, including student and career opportunities, current events, and future trends in the geosciences. The network includes a Facebook fan page, YouTube Channel, Twitter account and GeoSpectrum blog, with the goal of helping science organizations and departments recruit future talent to the geoscience workforce. On the social-networking platform, Facebook, the GeoConnection page is a forum for students and

  4. The Relationship of Student Involvement in Political Organizations to Self-Reported Capacities for Socially Responsible Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendorp, Melanie Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between college students' political involvement and their capacities for socially responsible leadership, including which student characteristics, precollege experiences, and collegiate experiences contributed to these capacities. Political involvement was defined as participation in co-curricular,…

  5. The micro-level foundations and dynamics of political corporate social responsibility: hegemony and passive revolution through civil society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourula, A.; Delalieux, G.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the political roles firms play in society is a flourishing stream within corporate social responsibility (CSR) research. However, few empirical studies have examined multiple levels of political CSR at the same time from a critical perspective. We explore both how the motivations of

  6. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my

  7. An exploration of social identity: The geography and politics of news-sharing communities in twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    HerdaĞdelen, AmaÇ; Zuo, Wenyun; Gard-Murray, Alexander; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-11-01

    The importance of collective social action in current events is manifest in the Arab Spring and Occupy movements. Electronic social media have become a pervasive channel for social interactions, and a basis of collective social response to information. The study of social media can reveal how individual actions combine to become the collective dynamics of society. Characterizing the groups that form spontaneously may reveal both how individuals self-identify and how they will act together. Here we map the social, political, and geographical properties of news-sharing communities on Twitter, a popular micro-blogging platform. We track user-generated messages that contain links to New York Times online articles and we label users according to the topic of the links they share, their geographic location, and their self-descriptive keywords. When users are clustered based on who follows whom in Twitter, we find social groups separate by whether they are interested in local (NY), national (US) or global (cosmopolitan) issues. The national group subdivides into liberal, conservative and other, the latter being a diverse but mostly business oriented group with sports, arts and other splinters. The national political groups are based across the US but are distinct from the national group that is broadly interested in a variety of topics. A person who is cosmopolitan associates with others who are cosmopolitan, and a US liberal / conservative associates with others who are US liberal / conservative, creating separated social groups with those identities. The existence of "citizens" of local, national and cosmopolitan communities is a basis for dialog and action at each of these levels of societal organization.

  8. Adult Development Theory and Political Analysis: An Integral Account of Social and Political Change in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I propose a reading of social, political and discursive change in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia which is inspired by an integral, above all developmental perspective. In view of explaining Russia’s current political trajectory, I make several arguments. First, I claim that Russian politics are still to a large extent determined by the effects of a threefold crisis of sense-making. Neither the collapse of the Soviet empire, nor the question of how to define democratic government nor the lack of a resilient national identity have so far been resolved and re-appropriated in a transformative manner. Second, I try to show how this affects various aspects and dimensions of Russian politics. Third, I engage in a brief overview of a number of adult development models, asking to what extent and how the characteristics of consciousness development, particular stage characteristics, and the general logics and dynamics of successful and unsuccessful development these models describe can be helpful to the analysis of Russian politics. Also, I discuss their compatibility and parallels with discourse theory and analysis as an increasingly popular methodology in Russian Studies. Of the developmental models reviewed, the theory of political development by Stephen Chilton and the self-protective action logic in Susanne Cook-Greuter’s model of self and identity development are particularly relevant for my purpose. On these grounds, it is argued that since Vladimir Putin’s taking office as Russian president and later prime-minister, politics and (official political discourse have increasingly come to follow self-protective action logics as conceived by Susanne Cook-Greuter. This diagnosis, which could either be understood as a regression or as a realignment of internal and external dimensions of political development, can be explained as a reaction to Russia’s crisis of identity followed by a loss of internal stability and international influence connected

  9. Modes of citizens' participation: associations between and determinants of social, civic, and political participation in cross-national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.; te Grotenhuis, M.; Scheepers, P.; Beckers, T.; Birkelbach, K.; Hagenah, J.; Rosar, U.

    2010-01-01

    Citizens participate in various spheres of society. In this chapter we focus on social, civic, and political participation. Social participation takes place in the informal sphere and encompasses all social contacts and informal help relations with relatives, friends, and neighbors. Civic

  10. The Interaction of Social Motivation, Attention and Interest, and Public Affairs Media Use on Political Knowledge Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettey, Gary R.

    Examining the relationships among social motivations, media use, and levels of political knowledge, a study (1) measured the unique contribution of social motivations beyond simple exposure and individual motivations, (2) tested for interactions between social and individual motivations and public affairs exposure, and (3) examined the interactive…

  11. Enhancing the concept of corporate diplomacy : encompassing political corporate social responsibility, international relations, and peace through commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Rehbein, K.; Fort, T.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate diplomacy is an emerging concept within the management literature. It describes corporate conduct in the international arena, particularly in challenging political and social environments. Management scholarship and practitioner literature have focused on the communication processes and

  12. Political polarization projection: social projection of partisan attitude extremity and attitudinal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; Judd, Charles M; Sherman, David K

    2012-07-01

    What influences perceptions of political polarization? The authors examine the polarization of people's own political attitudes as a source of perceived polarization: Individuals with more extreme partisan attitudes perceive greater polarization than individuals with less extreme partisan attitudes. This "polarization projection" was demonstrated in 3 studies in which people estimated the distribution of others' political attitudes: one study with a nationally representative sample concerning the 2008 presidential election, and 2 studies concerning university students evaluating a policy regarding scarce resource allocation. These studies demonstrate that polarization projection occurs simultaneously with and independently of simple projection, the tendency to assume that others share one's partisan political attitudes. Polarization projection may occur partly because people assume that others engage in similar attitudinal processes as the self, such as extensive thought and emotional arousal. The projection of various attitudinal processes was demonstrated in a study concerning health care reform policies. Further supporting this explanation, polarization projection increased when people introspected about their own attitudinal processes, which increased the accessibility of those processes. Implications for perceptions of partisanship, social judgment, and civic behavior are discussed.

  13. Political Advertising: A Roadblock in Teaching Social Studies Students the Importance of Truthful Political Communication to a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The author contends that too much political advertising is a form of public relations "spin" in which the truth is sacrificed and the political process damaged as a result. The goal of much of this advertising too frequently focuses on transmitting "disinformation" that, while perhaps not technically a lie, is intended not to inform the public but…

  14. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies.Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed.Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences.

  15. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies. Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed. Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences. Article Type: conceptual paper.

  16. The Institutional Anchoring of Social Media Venues as Arenas for Local Political Communication. Perceptions by Voters and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Segaard, Signe Bock

    2017-01-01

    The article explores social media as institutions for political communication between voters and politicians. While observers have focused on the political use of social media when exploring their democratic potential, little is known about the users’ perceptions of these media. But as institutions are more than just behavior – they are also about formal as well as informal rules, norms and understandings – these perceptions could well be important to understanding the institutional anchoring...

  17. Awakening to the politics of food: Politicized diet as social identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck, Chelsea; Fernandes, Samantha A; Hyers, Lauri L

    2016-12-01

    In this qualitative study, the process of developing a politicized identity around diet was explored through a social psychological lens. Applying one of the most influencial models of group identity development proposed by Cross (1978) in which an "encounter" experience spurs an awakening into a politicized identity, we asked 36 participants who followed alternative diets due to political reasons to describe their unique encounter experiences that brought them to their politicized awakening. Their self-identified diets included pescetarian, vegetarian, vegan, raw, non-GMO/organic, and reduced meat consumption. Participants described the rationale for their diets, their "encounter" or awakening to their politicized diets, and whether they viewed their diet as a part of their identity. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key types of encounters that sparked their politicization: a series of integrated events, exposure to educational materials, a direct visceral emotional experience, and guidance from a role model. We discuss the results with regard to the politics of food, the nature of the politicized dieter's identity as part of a minority food culture, and the difficulties of engaging in political action through one's diet. The underexplored benefits of applying social psychological theories of identity to research on dietary subcultures is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The politics of technology and site location: impact of state interventionism on an Indian public sector firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Subramanian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Can an industrial organisation simultaneously fulfil economic and social functions, that is to say successfully reconcile its own priorities of optimal resource utilisation and productive efficiency with the larger objectives of social justice defined for it by public authorities? This is the central question this paper whose compass is restricted to the 1980s asks, and seeks to answer on the basis of a study of locational and technology choices at a big public sector manufacturing firm, Indian Telephone Industries. It will show how decisions pertaining both to the implantation of new state-owned factories and the sourcing of technology were shaped not by an economic rationale but a political one where employment generation took precedence over all other considerations. This was a consequence, on the one hand, of the paradigm of state-initiated industrial development embraced by India after Independence in 1947 and which held out the promise of future prosperity for the population at large; on the other, of the mode of governance prevailing in public enterprises where state interventionism rhymed with the complete loss of autonomy for managements. The paper concludes by pointing out that however justified the redistributive goals allocated to public enterprises from the standpoint of improving living standards, they proved highly detrimental to their efficient working as well as onerous for the exchequer.

  19. Trends in Addressing Social Needs: A Longitudinal Study of Congregation-Based Service Provision and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Fulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When congregations seek to address social needs, they often pursue this goal through acts of service and political engagement. Over the past three decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated to analyzing congregation-based service provision and political participation. However, little is known about how congregations’ involvement in these arenas has changed during this period. To help fill this gap, this study analyzes three waves of data from a national survey of congregations to assess how congregations’ participation patterns in service-related and political activities have been changing since the 1990s. It also examines trends among subpopulations of congregations grouped by their religious tradition, ethnoracial composition, and ideological orientation. Overall, this study finds that among most types of congregations, the percentage participating in service-related activities is substantial and increasing, while the percentage participating in political activities is less substantial and decreasing. This decline in political participation has implications for the role congregations play in addressing social needs. Relieving immediate needs through service provision without also pursuing long-term solutions through political participation can limit congregations’ ability to comprehensively address social needs. Among the few types of congregations that have high and/or increasing participation rates in both service-related and political activities are Catholic, predominantly Hispanic, and politically liberal congregations.

  20. Marksmen and the bush: The affective micro-politics of landscape, sex and technology in precolonial South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. de Luna

    Full Text Available This essay explores what we can know about the micro-politics of knowledge production using the history of bushcraft as a case study. In many societies in central, eastern and southern Africa, practitioners of technologies undertaken away from the village, in the bush, enjoy a special status. Among the Botatwe-speaking societies of south-central Africa, the status accorded hunters, smelters and other technicians of the bush was crafted in the centuries around the turn of the first millennium by combining old ideas about the blustery character of fame and spirits, and the talk that engendered both with the observation that technicians working in the bush shared a kinesthetic experience of piercing, poking and prodding into action during the generative activities of working smelts and taking down game. Yet the micro-politics of bushcraft knowledge also involved the bodies and feelings of spearmen and metallurgists' wives, lovers, mothers, sisters, and sometimes those of the entire neighbourhood. The invention of a new landscape category, isokwe, and the novel status of these seasonal technicians marks the development of a new kind of virile masculinity available to some men; it was a status with deeply sensuous, material and social meanings for women as well.

  1. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  2. The final disposal of radioactive wastes as social, political and scientific project - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear power production that was productive for two generations produces radioactive wastes that will be a hazardous and financial burden for many future generations. Science, politics, industry and the society are responsible to find a successful solution for the project of final disposal of radioactive wastes. With the fast development of renewable energies with the perspectives of sustainability and other advantages nuclear power will not have a remarkable future. The search for a final repository site is a tremendous governmental, economic and public challenge but can also be seen as a social chance. Democracy could be enforced by this process, public commitment, transparency, co-determination, confidence in political processes are indispensible premises.

  3. Socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour of the social and cultural specialists and the technocrats. Social class or education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güveli, A.; Need, A.; Graaf, N.D. de

    2007-01-01

    Do the social and cultural specialists differ from the technocrats and other social classes with respect to their socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour? If they do, is this attributable to their level and field of education? The social and cultural specialists are assumed

  4. Class, politics and social conflict in the capitalism: the contribution of Ralf Dahrendorf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Dias Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we analyzed critically the german english philosopher and sociologist’s construction Ralf Dahrendorf (1929-2009 about the social conflict and its institutionalization (regulation in the capitalist society, such as its social and political displays "post" marxist model. The dahrendorfian theorization to concern represents a theoretical and proto-philosophical response to the systems which the author considers like enclosed and utopian, from T. Parsons and K. Marx. The more suitable model to the "post-capitalists" societies is that, to Dahrendorf, where the social conflict is the impulse power, but the ubiquitous conflict and rolled in terms of authority, and not solely in the antagonism between burghers and proletarians.

  5. Socializing the public: invoking Hannah Arendt's critique of modernity to evaluate reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The article examines the writings of one of the most influential political philosophers, Hannah Arendt, and specifically focuses on her views regarding the distinction between the private and the public and the transformation of the public to the social by modernity. Arendt's theory of human activity and critique of modernity are explored to critically evaluate the social contributions and implications of reproductive technologies especially where the use of such technologies is most dominant within Western societies. Focusing on empirical studies on new reproductive technologies in Israel, it is argued, powerfully demonstrates Arendt's theory, and broadens the perspectives through which society should evaluate these new technologies towards a more reflective understanding of its current laws and policies and their affect on women more generally.

  6. Technology and Education: Non-prioritized Technology in an Adaptive Society: A Socio-political View. An Occasional Paper on Man/Society/Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William G.

    This seminar paper explores the relationship between technology and society, based on the position that man has not developed a social system that gives adequate guidance to technology. The hypothesis is that if technology has no priority, then it has no purpose. Talcott Parsons' concepts of functional imperatives and pattern variables are…

  7. Social licence, corporate social responsibility and coal seam gas: framing the new political dynamics of contestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, Giorel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the contestation dynamics between the unconventional gas mining sector and its challengers through the prism of the social licence to operate. Social licence is a dominant narrative in the mining sector today and as a signifier of the sector's CSR credentials, the term is an influential one. Its capacity to confer project legitimacy, and hence avoid the risks of community opposition, helps explain why most companies seek to gain one. Today both gas proponents and opponents talk the language of social licence: the former to defend their projects, the latter to challenge them. Yet, beyond rhetoric, the precise meaning of social licence remains elusive. This paper uses a case study of community opposition to primarily coal seam gas projects in an eastern Australian region to explore how the absence of a precise meaning for social licence has created a strategic opportunity space for the industry's opponents to invest social licence with a potent democracy frame. This democracy framing has proved particularly effective as a contestation tool and helps explain the outcomes in this case. - Highlights: • Unconventional gas exploration and mining is becoming increasingly contested. • A key way of managing this contestation is through the social licence to operate. • Both proponents and opponents of gas mining use social licence strategically. • Social licence has become increasingly politicised. • A democratic frame assists the effectiveness of contestation.

  8. Political representation for social justice in nursing: lessons learned from participant research with destitute asylum seekers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthill, Fiona

    2016-09-01

    The concept of social justice is making a revival in nursing scholarship, in part in response to widening health inequalities and inequities in high-income countries. In particular, critical nurse scholars have sought to develop participatory research methods using peer researchers to represent the 'voice' of people who are living in marginalized spaces in society. The aim of this paper is to report on the experiences of nurse and peer researchers as part of a project to explore the experiences of people who find themselves destitute following the asylum process in the UK. In seeking to explore social injustice, three challenges are identified: lack of a robust political theory, institutional/professional constraints and an absence of skills to engage with the politics of social (in)justice. Each challenge is presented, opposing voices outlined and some possible solutions are suggested. The work of political theorist Nancy Fraser is used as a conceptual framework, in particular her focus on mis/framing and political representation for social justice. In addition, it is suggested that social justice needs to be further embedded in nursing policy and curriculum. Finally, nurses are encouraged to develop practical political skills to engage with both politics and the media in a neoliberal globalizing world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Impact of a ministry edict: social and political aspects of obstetric nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fernando; Moraes, Nilson Alves; Nascimento, Maria Aparecida de Luca

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study presents the impact of the Ministerial Edict (number 2.815/98) relative to the inclusion of a set of procedures created by the obstetrician nurses in Public Health System (Sistema Unico de Saúde--SUS). The objectives of this study are: present two excerpts which were published in a very popular newspaper and in a bulletin of the medical professional segment in 1998; analyze TV news which constitute different and tense discourses. The study identified two ideas, which were based on three pieces of news collected from the press. The first idea corresponds to the lack of visibility regarding the technical competence of obstetrician nurses in the social context. The second is related to the political acknowledgement of this service, which can be observed through the payment of obstetric nursing procedures according to a price list established by the Public Health System. Our final considerations are related to the social and political situation of obstetric nursing, in spite of the interventionist manipulation of society carried out by the media, which tries to create social-ideological discourses in order to obtain consensus and (re) produce truths.

  10. Political-institutional action in Social Media times: The experience of “Articulação do Semiárido Brasileiro – ASA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José do Nascimento Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed the Facebook’s page of Social Movement of Family Farming - the “Articulação no Semiárido Brasileiro (ASA” - with the proposal to understand to what extent the space of this social media contributes and influences to the legitimization and the propagation of its political project. Methodologically, it refers to a qualitative research based on a given empirical reality, using content analysis in the Facebook and theoretical contributions to support the discussion. The study evidenced that the contents posted in the fan page refer to the flags and causes of the struggle of the ASA, i.e., connect with its political-institutional project, mainly with the agenda of living with the Semiarid, and its various themes related to this perspective, such as agroecological family farming, social technologies, traditional peoples, creole seeds, rural youth and agroecological farmers. Therefore, this article concluded that this social media serves to validate and propagate the political-institutional project of ASA.

  11. Social Stratification in Bogota: From Public Politics to the Dynamics of Social Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Uribe-Mallarino

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from two research projects aimed at inquiring about socioeconomic stratification in Bogota from the perspective of its value as representation of social order and hierarchy. Although socioeconomic stratification was implemented as a targeting mechanism of subsidies for the poorest households with the objective to enable them to have domiciliary potable water, electricity, sewer, gas and telephone, the policy has deeply affected the way social differences are collectively evoked. Research results from projects conducted in Bogota between 2005 and 2007, based on a variety of sources and methods, are approached with a view on social representations as a group of ideas and practices that are collectively shared and socially generated. Conclusions deal with issues of stratification and socio-spatial segregation, as well as the present configuration of representations about social differences.

  12. Technological change as a trade-off between social construction and technological paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Ole Andreas; Olsen, Odd Einar

    2007-01-01

    Made available from Technology in Society, 29/4, Odd Einar Olsen, & Ole Andreas Engen, Technological change as a trade-off between social construction and technological paradigms, Pages No. 456-468, Copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0160791X The theory of social construction of technology (SCOT) and the theory of technological paradigms (TTP) are normally regarded as competing or even incompatible perspectives on technological ch...

  13. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology...... of political communication processes and questions concerning the symbolic, institutional, and technological nature of these processes—especially during a time of often rapid change. To overcome this problem, I argue that the field of political communication research should re-engage with the rest of media...

  14. Gender-based violence in Egypt: analyzing impacts of political reforms, social, and demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Elena; Abu Amara, Nisrin; Condon, Stéphanie

    2013-03-01

    Over recent decades, Egypt has witnessed developments in gender equality. This article discusses recent changes relating to violence against women within this context. Statistical data from the Egyptian DHS surveys is used to describe trends in reported violence and in attitudes toward marital abuse, as well as to examine the survey tools used to measure violence. While findings reflect a growing awareness regarding the issue, the number of women reporting spousal violence remained stable during the study period. The results are contextualized within the political and social debate in which NGO's and women's rights activists play a central role.

  15. Failing Adolescents: Social Control, Political Economy & Human Development in post-war Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-war societies adolescents occupy liminal spaces – where social, political, economic, spatial and biological boundaries are still fluid and undetermined – and present a particular challenge for post-war communities as well as service providers.  Drawing on a study from two war-affected villages in Sri Lanka, this paper examines the multi-faceted challenges that adolescents face in communities attempting to retain and redefine boundaries, identities, and social and moral regulation in a post-war context. It explores the dynamics of post-war change, especially in the social and moral regulation of sexuality, and its implications for adolescent girls and boys grappling with biological and social transformation—from internalizing gender norms to taking on adult economic roles. A second key concern of this paper is to underline how the post-war political economic context within which their communities are embedded shapes adolescents’ negotiation with personal and social transformation. A third key concern is to highlight the legacies of war in the form of surveillance, silences and complex psychosocial problems that adolescents are confronted in post-war contexts and the risk of cycles of inter-generational violence. Finally, the paper examines the role and relevance of formal services in areas such as education, reproductive health, community mobilization, or psychosocial support in the lives of adolescents.  It also considers the often overlooked but fundamental support from families and communities in bolstering the resilience of adolescents as they go through this challenging life phase in difficult and complex circumstances.

  16. Social class, politics, and the spirit level: why income inequality remains unexplained and unsolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Rai, Nanky; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2012-01-01

    Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett's latest book, The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Best for Everyone, has caught the attention of academics and policymakers and stimulated debate across the left-right political spectrum. Interest in income inequality has remained unabated since the publication of Wilkinson's previous volume, Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. While both books detail the negative health effects of income inequality, The Spirit Level expands the scope of its argument to also include social issues. The book, however, deals extensively with the explanation of how income inequality affects individual health. Little attention is given to political and economic explanations on how income inequality is generated in the first place. The volume ends with political solutions that carefully avoid state interventions such as limiting the private sector's role in the production of goods and services (e.g., non-profit sector, employee-ownership schemes). Although well-intentioned, these alternatives are insufficient to significantly reduce the health inequalities generated by contemporary capitalism in wealthy countries, let alone around the world.

  17. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts.

  18. Social and Political Factors in Post-Colonial Indian Archaeology: The Case of Sanghol, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present the case of Sanghol, Punjab, in Indian archaeology to highlight the influence of social and political factors on the interpretation of archaeological data and the preservation of cultural heritage. Using a geographic approach, I show how geopolitical tensions and the desire for internal political stability influenced archaeological practices in post-colonial India. In the aftermath of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s assassination in 1984, local archaeological investigations in Sanghol, located 200 kilometres from the sensitive Pakistan-India frontline, piqued the interest of the Archaeological Survey of India, the national department for archaeology and heritage management. The Survey subsequently carried out collaborative field studies in Sanghol between 1986 and 1990, reflecting the changing relationship between the local community and the national government at a time of intense political uncertainty. I argue that there is greater competition and collaboration between knowledge producers in Indian archaeology than has been accepted. This, in turn, impacts our understanding of the practice of national archaeology.

  19. Attention to social issues as a requirement to regional political agenda-setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kuzhman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that interest in the social issues appeared late nineteenth century together with the adoption of the concept of the welfare state. The content of two basic approaches to the study of social problems ­ positivist (functional and constructivist. Positivists (E. Durkheim, T. Parsons, R. Merton, R. Nisbet believe that the main tool in solving social issues are the facts that you can measure. In this sense the issues are the manifestation of improper performance of functions in society, that social issues can be studied as a social disorganization and behavior as deviant or deviation from accepted social norms and institutionalized. Constructivists (R. Fuller, C.W. Mills, H. Becker, H. Bloomer, M. Spector, J. Kitsuse believe that dysfunction becomes a problem if it is understood, defined and can be fixed. It was found that in order to hit the social issue of the political agenda, it must be riveted attention from the media and the public. Reported that the theoretical basis of the consideration cycle attention to the issue laid A. Downs, T. O’Riordan, B.G. Peters, B.W. Hogwood. It is proved that in order to get to the regional political agenda, the social issue has to pass a series of attention to it. Initially there is an alternative view on the issue, and the source of this view must have the trust of the community. Also formed an alternative definition of the issue, its magnitude or its seriousness. The next step is subjected reformulation of issue, leading to a greater variety of arguments, and this, in turn, can lead to reducing bureaucratic involvement, reduced media attention and weaken the bonds between community members. As a result, the question loses its priority and will be removed from the regional political agenda. That is the importance of support at three levels: regional authorities, regional media and regional community. Each of them have their highs and lows on various issues and areas of policy. Manufacturers

  20. Political Ecology in Latin America: the Social Re-Appropriation of Nature, the Reinvention of Territories and the Construction of an Environmental Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walter Porto-Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political ecology is the disciplinary and political field regarding the encountering of different rationalities for the social appropriation of nature and the construction of a sustainable future. This historical purpose demands the deconstruction of theories and practices built on the foundations of scientific, economic, technological and political modern rationality, inscribed in national and international institutions of the globalized world and rooted in the life-worlds of the people, to establish new socio-environmental relations. Political ecology operates this deconstruction not only in theory, but through emancipation practices of those people engaged in struggles for the reinvention of their identities and the re-appropriation of their bio-cultural territories. Environmental rationality deconstructs the economic rationality by constructing an eco-technological-cultural paradigm of production founded on the principle of negentropic productivity. The conditions of life of diverse cultures, registered on people’s imaginaries and practices, reemerge today in the re-signification and re-affirmation of cultural identities in their struggles for the re-appropriation of nature and re-territorialization of their life-worlds.

  1. Social medicine, feminism and the politics of population: From transnational knowledge networks to national social movements in Brazil and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Dehesa, Rafael

    2018-02-28

    This article examines the role of national actors articulated with an explicitly counter-hegemonic transnational knowledge network (TKN) mobilising around social medicine in policy debates on population control and family planning. It focuses primarily on Brazil, using Mexico as a shadow case to highlight salient points of contrast. In doing so, it makes two contributions to larger debates about TKNs. First, it highlights the plural and contested nature of the knowledge production they enact, underscoring contestation around a global reproductive regime that consolidated around family planning. Second, it underscores how the position and relative influence of actors articulated with TKNs is shaped by political and institutional contexts at the national level, producing variable opportunities for the mobilisation of applied knowledge. Reflecting its advocates' embeddedness in larger opposition movements to authoritarian states, social medicine had a greater influence on these debates in Brazil, where synergies with a resurgent feminist movement reinforced a shared insistence on comprehensive women's healthcare and increased the salience of sterilisation abuse on the political agenda.

  2. Female sexuality, social reproduction, and the politics of medical intervention in Niger: Kel Ewey Tuareg perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, S J

    1994-12-01

    This essay explores connections between political institutions, forms of power, and women's health care concerns from a cultural anthropological perspective. I focus on the roles of different medical establishments among the Kel Ewey Tuareg of Niger--Western-European sponsored, central state, traditional herbalism and Islamic scholarship--in creating, maintaining, and disputing these constructs, through the invention and elaboration of disease categories and through the selective application of medical and reproductive models and technology to women. I also explore women's attempts to manage these forces, as they draw upon a cultural inventory that is alternately supportive and in conflict with their interests.

  3. What Inverted U Can Do for Your Country: A Curvilinear Relationship Between Confidence in the Social System and Political Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Górska, Paulina; Jost, John T; Sutton, Robbie M; Bilewicz, Michał

    2017-08-24

    We examined the link between political engagement and the tendency to justify the sociopolitical system. On one hand, confidence in the system should be negatively related to political engagement, insofar as it entails reduced desire for social change; on the other hand, system confidence should also be positively related to political engagement to the extent that it carries an assumption that the system is responsive to citizens' political efforts. Because of the combination of these 2 opposing forces, the motivation for political engagement should be highest at intermediate levels of system confidence. Five studies revealed a negative quadratic relationship between system confidence and normative political engagement. In 2 representative surveys, Polish participants with moderate levels of system confidence were more likely to vote in political elections (Study 1) and to participate in solidarity-based collective action (Study 2). Two field studies demonstrated a negative quadratic relationship between system confidence and actual participation in political demonstrations (gender equality and teachers' protests in Poland; Studies 3 and 4). This pattern of results was further corroborated by analyses of data from 50 countries drawn from the World Value Survey: we observed negative quadratic relationships between system confidence and collective action as well as voting. These relationships were stronger in democratic (vs. nondemocratic) regimes (Study 5). Our results suggest that some degree of system confidence might be useful to stimulate political engagement within the norms of the system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is changes in the market for broadcasting services as a result of technological, political, and economic drivers. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the ICT-based information and knowledge intensive services that have gone through radical changes...... in the last couple of decades. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the information and knowledge intensive services that has gone through radical changes in the last couple of decades. There are, however, specific characteristics like deployment of advanced technologies at both supply...... and demand sites, scarcity of transmission resources, and the historical aspects that make the development of the broadcasting service market different from other information and knowledge intensive services....

  5. Civic Education as a Collaborative Dimension of Social Studies Education in Attainment of Political Ethics in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated Civic Education as a collaborative dimension of Social Studies Education in attainment of political ethics in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. The sample for the study consisted of 580 Social Studies teachers selected from thirty secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. The…

  6. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  7. From political economy to sociology: Francis Galton and the social-scientific origins of eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Having coined the word 'eugenics' and inspired leading biologists and statisticians of the early twentieth century, Francis Galton is often studied for his contributions to modern statistical biology. However, whilst documenting this part of his work, historians have frequently neglected crucial aspects of what motivated Galton to establish his eugenics research programme. Arguing that his work was shaped more by social than by biological science, this paper addresses these oversights by tracing the development of Galton's programme, from its roots in a debate about political economy to his appeals for it to be taken up by sociologists. In so doing, the paper not only returns Galton's ideas to their original context but also provides a reason to reflect on the place of the social sciences in history-of-science scholarship.

  8. Applying Antonio Gramsci's philosophy to postcolonial feminist social and political activism in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Louise

    2009-07-01

    Through its social and political activism goals, postcolonial feminist theoretical approaches not only focus on individual issues that affect health but encompass the examination of the complex interplay between neocolonialism, neoliberalism, and globalization, in mediating the health of non-Western immigrants and refugees. Postcolonial feminism holds the promise to influence nursing research and practice in the 21st century where health remains a goal to achieve and a commitment for humanity. This is especially relevant for nurses, who act as global citizens and as voices for the voiceless. The commitment of nursing to social justice must be further strengthened by relying on postcolonial theories to address issues of health inequities that arise from marginalization and racialization. In using postcolonial feminist theories, nurse researchers locate the inquiry process within a Gramscian philosophy of praxis that represents knowledge in action.

  9. Site selection and rating process, and criteria for a social and political approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseson, P. de; David, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: sensitive projects have been for long the problem of engineers and geologists, which tried to exert a kind of mono-cultural approach upon decisions regarding: a type of technical solution, a choice for a location. Experience drawn from various projects shows that public choices must be targeted to public acceptance and not only to hard-science community. Ways of rating site for sensitive projects according to criteria derived from social and political approach have been set up to provide global advice to decision makers. Bases are found among: socio economical statistics (type and rate of employment), land use regulations, history of public and local acceptance of former projects or public regulations. Representations can be drawn through social modeling and qualitative analysis. They can be of an utmost importance in decision making process. (authors)

  10. [The social-political-environmental and health reality of families belonging to a vulnerable community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, Carla Kowalski; Backes, Dirce Stein; Backes, Marli Stein; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira; Souza, Martha Teixeira de; Carpes, Adriana Dornelles

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to ascertain the perception of community leadership, health professionals and users regarding citizenship status and the enhancement of the healthcare conditions of families belonging to a vulnerable community. This is an exploratory study of a qualitative nature, guided by theory based on data. Data were collected between July and December 2009, by means of interviews with four community health leaders, a team of eight family health team professionals and twelve health users. The codification of the data resulted in the following categories: Understanding the social conditions, the political conditions, the environmental conditions and the health conditions of families in a vulnerable community. The conclusions reached were, that if on the one hand the social security and health policies made it possible to reduce poverty and local inequalities, on the other hand they do not ensure the requisite enhancement of citizenship or even the improvement of health conditions.

  11. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  12. Social shaping of technology in TA and HTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses how the social shaping of technology (SST) approach may be useful in understanding the role played by technology assessment within the context of technological development and change. It is proposed that an SST perspective on TA (or HTA) yields particular insight, regardless...... of whether or not the TA activity bases itself on a social shaping understanding of technology. This is because SST addresses the socially negotiated character of technological development, where TA itself may be construed as an element influencing the process of such negotiation. At the same time, TA...... is a construction, that is, itself a product of negotiations involving social actors. Thus, an understanding that TA is socially shaped, and is involved in the shaping of technology, opens up for a perspective on TA as both entailing constraints and enablements within the context of the particular agenda...

  13. The social comfort of wearable technology and gestural interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E; Profita, Halley; Zeagler, Clint; Clawson, James; Gilliland, Scott; Do, Ellen Yi-Luen; Budd, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The "wearability" of wearable technology addresses the factors that affect the degree of comfort the wearer experiences while wearing a device, including physical, psychological, and social aspects. While the physical and psychological aspects of wearing technology have been investigated since early in the development of the field of wearable computing, the social aspects of wearability have been less fully-explored. As wearable technology becomes increasingly common on the commercial market, social wearability is becoming an ever-more-important variable contributing to the success or failure of new products. Here we present an analysis of social aspects of wearability within the context of the greater understanding of wearability in wearable technology, and focus on selected theoretical frameworks for understanding how wearable products are perceived and evaluated in a social context. Qualitative results from a study of social acceptability of on-body interactions are presented as a case study of social wearability.

  14. Examining social media usage: Technology clusters and social network site membership

    OpenAIRE

    Schrock, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The popularization of “social media” has raised questions of how and why young people use these various technologies in their daily lives. This exploratory study proposes a classification system based on Rogers’ concept of technology clusters, which posits that likelihood of adoption is based around similar perceived characteristics of a technology or medium. Results from a survey administered to 401 undergraduates at a large southern university indicated that social and non-social technology...

  15. Governing at a distance: social marketing and the (bio) politics of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Paul

    2012-07-01

    In the recently published lectures from the College de France series, The Birth of Bio-Politics, Foucault (2009) offers his most explicit analysis of neo-liberal governmentality and its impact upon states and societies in the late twentieth century. Framed in terms of the bio-political as a mode of governance of populations and its relationship to neo-liberalism, these lectures offer a rich seam of theoretical resources with which to interrogate contemporary forms of governmentality. This paper seeks to apply these and some recent critical analysis by Foucauldian scholars, to the study of health governance, with particular reference to the use of social marketing as a strategy to improve the health of populations 'at a distance'. Reflecting a broader decollectivisation of welfare, such strategies are identified as exemplars of neo-liberal methods of governance through inculcating self management and individualisation of responsibility for health and wellbeing. Drawing on original empirical data collected with a sample of fifty long term unemployed men in 2009, this paper critically examines social marketing as a newer feature of health governance and reflects upon participants' responses to it as a strategy in the context of their wider understandings of health, choice and responsibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  17. Mental health, social distress and political oppression: the case of the occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacaman, Rita; Rabaia, Yoke; Nguyen-Gillham, Viet; Batniji, Rajaie; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Summerfield, Derek

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of Palestinian mental health care, a discussion of the current status of mental health and health services in the occupied Palestinian territory, and a critique of the biomedical Western-led discourse as it relates to the mental health needs of Palestinians. Medicalising distress and providing psychological therapies for Palestinians offer little in the way of alleviating the underlying causes of ongoing collective trauma. This paper emphasises the importance of separating clinical responses to mental illness from the public health response to mass political violation and distress. Palestinian academic research reframes the mental health paradigm utilising an approach based on the broader framework of social justice, quality of life, human rights and human security. Recognising social suffering as a public mental health issue requires a shift in the emphasis from narrow medical indicators, injury and illness to the lack of human security and human rights violations experienced by ordinary Palestinians. Such a change in perspective requires a parallel change in mental health policies from short-term emergency humanitarian aid to the development of a sustainable system of public mental health services, in combination with advocacy for human rights and the restoration of political, historical and moral justice.

  18. IMPACT OF PERSONAL ORIENTATIONS ON ATTITUDES TO DIVERSITY AND CIVIC SOCIAL-POLITICAL ACTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zografova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamically ongoing processes of integration are among the crucial premises for the development of contemporary interpersonal, intergroup and cross-cultural relations, attitudes, conflicts and more. The research problem here directs to an analysis, based on ESS data collected in 8 countries, rounds 2006 and 2008, on the extent to which Europeans' personal orientations significantly influence the attitudes towards ethno-national diversity, in this case, towards two social groups: immigrants coming from poorer countries outside Europe and people with different sexual orientation. Furthermore, the influence of the same factors on the civic activeness and involvement in the social-political processes has been followed. Through regressive analysis the important effect of the co-otherness orientation (a concept developed by Sicakkan, 2003, the orientation to success and traditionalism on all included dependent variables has been proved. The expectations for predicting effects of the three personal orientations have been confirmed regarding the civic involvement and tolerance to diversity. Simultaneously the necessity of working EU politics to deal with the risks of emerging negative attitudes has been pointed out in relation to the broad immigrant and refugee wave to European countries.

  19. State Democratic Rights as Current Political Power Limit and a New Culture for Social Promotion of Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rejane Liczbinski Sarreta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study relates to the democracy and political power considering the implementation of sustainability. Presented as theoretical basis the democratic principle itself, as well as the realization of human and fundamental rights. Exploring the possibility of re (construction of the state and own power and political and social culture of democracy through the promotion of development and sustainability. In a democratic state the appropriate political power embodies the rights of the citizen. A key element that should be considered is education for training social actors capable of promoting the transformation of dominant practices and that take important roles in politics and influence the state and society. The method used is deductive.

  20. Rightist Education and Godly Technology: Cultural Politics, Gender, and the Work of Home Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Apple

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The secularity of the state is seen by 'authoritarian populist' religious conservatives as imposing a world-view that is out of touch with the deep religious commitments that guide their lives. In the process, authoritarian populists have taken on subaltern identities and claimed that they are the last truly dispossessed groups. To demonstrate their increasing power in educational and social policy, I situate a specific set of technologies-the Internet-within the social context of its use in this community. I focus on the growing home-schooling movement and suggest that to understand the societal meaning and uses of these technologies, we need to examine the social movement that provides the context for their use. I also argue that we need to analyze critically the kind of labor that is required in home schooling, who is engaged in such labor, and how such labor is interpreted by the actors who perform it.

  1. The Royal Academy of moral and political sciences and the emergence of social sciences in Spain (1857-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Richard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the emergence of social sciences in Spain at the end of the nineteenth century. It focuses on the Royal Academy of moral and political sciences, whose creation in 1857, on the French model, was part of the reorganisation of public education, but also an ideological reaction of the conservative party (partido moderado, which returned to power after the 1854-1956 Revolution. The Academy was officially in charge of propagating the political doctrines of the regime (namely “doctrinaire” liberalism and of countering socialism at the scientific level. This paper shows the methodological relevance of studying such a multidisciplinary institution in order to grasp simultaneously the pluralistic scientific matrix of the social sciences as well as the political issues that surround them. It analyses the content and the evolution of moral and political sciences between 1857 and 1923 and highlights the multiple factors that played an active role in the emergence of the social sciences: the legacy of former scholarly disciplines, the impact of the propagation of naturalistic theories during the liberal revolution of 1868, and the critique of liberalism and liberal sciences following the social and political crisis from the 1880s onwards.

  2. The politics of social policy: welfare expansion in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tillin, Louise; Duckett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay reviews the scholarship on the politics of social policy, and shows the contribution of the special issue to explaining expanded welfare commitments in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in the twenty first century. Much literature on welfare expansion in lower- and middle income contexts views it primarily as a policy corrective to the economic dislocations produced by global economic integration. This special issue focuses on the political factors that are critica...

  3. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  4. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.

  5. People in a Technology Driven Future: On the Social Relations of New Information Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenyama, Ojelanki K.

    This keynote address examines the social relations of information technology in the future. Examples of the recent history of technology related to transportation, printing, and nuclear energy are presented. Some troubling examples of the social relations of new information technologies that are emerging on a global scale are then discussed,…

  6. The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, W.E.; Hughes, Thomas P.; Pinch, Trevor J.

    2012-01-01

    This pioneering book, first published in 1987, launched the new field of social studies of technology. It introduced a method of inquiry--social construction of technology, or SCOT--that became a key part of the wider discipline of science and technology studies. The book helped the MIT Press shape

  7. Geological, technological, and political-economic constraints on future supplies of critical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, prices of most mineral commodities have risen significantly. This is primarily due to increased minerals demand from rapidly developing highly-populated nations and the inability of the global mining industry to keep pace. Many critical minerals, including rare earth elements, have undergone some of the largest price increases, resulting in considerable destruction of demand. Critical minerals have many highly valued uses, in particular for emerging energy and transportation technologies. Abundant supplies at relatively low prices would accelerate the introduction of many of these new energy-saving industries. Using rare earths as an example, transforming a small "boutique" mineral industry into a reliable supplier for rapidly developing markets faces numerous hurdles. The challenges begin with the geological occurrence of rare earth deposits, which rarely occur as economically mineable deposits despite their relatively high crustal abundance. The distribution of these deposits relative to modern political boundaries presents additional obstacles. The technological challenges to extracting and purifying rare earth elements at a reasonable cost have long been formidable. Developing new mining and mineral processing capacity has become more time-consuming and costly. The history of the molybdenum industry is analogous and illustrates the investment climate and research efforts required to transform an exotic element into a staple of industrial production: (1) secure access to high-quality mineral resources; (2) research on deposit occurrence and development of exploration technology; (3) research and investment into extraction and processing technology; (3) research into new applications; and (4) close cooperation between suppliers, consumers, and government.

  8. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2013-01-01

    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  9. Beyond individual-centric privacy : Information technology in social systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.

    2017-01-01

    In the public debate, social implications of information technology are mainly seen through the privacy lens. Impact assessments of information technology are also often limited to privacy impact assessments, which are focused on individual rights and well-being, as opposed to the social

  10. Technology and Disciplined Inquiry in the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Mark J.; Swan, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    More than 15 years ago, Martorella (1997) asked what has now become a seminal question in the field of social studies and technology; that is, "Which way to the sleeping giant?" (p. 511). He suggested a number of roles that technology can play in the social studies classroom. Although these roles are certainly relevant in 2014, the roles…

  11. Social Technologies for Online Learning: Theoretical and Contextual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Karen; Jones, Allan; Holden, Georgina; Curcher, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Three exemplars are presented of social technologies deployed in educational contexts: wikis; a photo-sharing environment; and a social bookmarking tool. Students were found to engage with the technologies selectively, sometimes rejecting them, in the light of their prior conceptions of education. Some students (a minority in all the studies) were…

  12. Technology in Social Work Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wretman, Christopher J.; Macy, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Given the growing prevalence of technology-based instruction, social work faculty need a clear understanding of the strengths and limitations of these methods. We systematically examined the evidence for technology-based instruction in social work education. Using comprehensive and rigorous methods, 38 articles were included in the review. Of…

  13. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American governments, academics and nongovernmental organizations are paying increasing attention to poverty, inequality and social inclusion, and the role that technological change plays in these phenomenon. Rather than solving specific deficits, they are interested in how social technologies can generate ...

  14. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  15. Resources and technologies in Social Occupational Therapy: actions with the poor youth in town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Esquerdo Lopesa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The METUIA team from the Occupational Therapy Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos – UFSCar has been elaborating procedures and resources, which have produced contributions to the action of occupational therapy based on a local and communal dimension, aiming at a locally rooted technical contribution and directed to face the challenges of the social field. The territory notion adopted presupposes historical, economic, social and cultural dimensions that contextualize a given geographical area where the therapeutic and occupational action is developed. We have been dealing with questions related to the poor urban youth and working in the production of social technologies (understood as products, techniques or replicable methodologies developed in interaction with the community, and that represent alternatives for social transformation, which have been able to foster new possibilities of action, integrating and articulating actions of macro and micro social scope. This article presents discussions on Workshops of Dynamics, Activities and Projects; Individual and Territorial Follow-up; Articulation of Resources in the Social Field; and Dynamization of the Social Care Network. We support a continuous and critical reflection on the labor process, assuming the technical, ethical and political dimensions that comprise the professional qualification of occupational therapists. We also advocate that the practical and conceptual existence of these technologies promotes actions associated with the social question of the lives of these young individuals, seeking the expansion of equality, recognition of differences, and their space in the public sphere, so that more participation can be produced with more freedom, autonomy and solidarity.

  16. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  17. The Digital Economy: Social Interaction Technologies – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Redondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction technologies (SIT is a very broad field that encompasses a large list of topics: interactive and networked computing, mobile social services and the Social Web, social software and social media, marketing and advertising, various aspects and uses of blogs and podcasting, corporate value and web-based collaboration, e-government and online democracy, virtual volunteering, different aspects and uses of folksonomies, tagging and the social semantic cloud of tags, blog-based knowledge management systems, systems of online learning, with their ePortfolios, blogs and wikis in education and journalism, legal issues and social interaction technology, dataveillance and online fraud, neogeography, social software usability, social software in libraries and nonprofit organizations, and broadband visual communication technology for enhancing social interaction. The fact is that the daily activities of many businesses are being socialized, as is the case with Yammer (https://www.yammer.com/, the social enterprise social network. The leitmotivs of social software are: create, connect, contribute, and collaborate.

  18. Social Media and New Technology: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie; Strasburger, Victor C

    2018-04-01

    Social media and new media are becoming increasingly important in the lives of preteens and teens. This article reviews what is currently known about positive and negative effects of social media, social networking, and internet use and what safety measures should be considered.

  19. Organizational Application of Social Networking Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…

  20. SOCIOLOGY OF INNOVATION: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARA YOUSEFIKHAH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This theoretical paper describes the effect of social action on technological artifacts and explores how innovation may flourish or be diminished in society. Using the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT perspective, three main elements namely, flexibility of interpretation, relevant social groups and technological frame are described and their impact on innovation is discussed. The paper proposes that in developing societies, flexibility is hardly pressed by technological frames and concrete social norms do not allow the alternative designs and the useage of artifacts. This paper proposes that innovation might flourish in a society if technological frame change, and entrepreneurship become technological frames that can change the fixed meaning of artifacts and create a path for alternative designs and interpretations.

  1. Beyond Rock. Social commitment and political conscience through Popular Music in Australia 1976 - 2002. The case of Midnight Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bonastre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The work and career of Midnight Oil illustrate a case of interaction between culture and politics in Australia. Furthermore they represent an example of social commitment from the sphere of urban popular culture. For a quarter of a century Midnight Oil offered a critical and ideological interpretation of the Australian social and political evolution. Aware of and sensitive to changes and events happening around them, five Sydneysiders thought about Australian identity in terms of what they considered to be their national challenges from a universal perspective. Hence, they approached issues like pacifism, Indigenous rights and environmentalism and developed a social and political discourse based on the defence of human rights and a condemnation of capitalist excesses. Through more than a hundred songs and almost two thousand gigs the band urged politicians to reassess the institutions. At the same time they criticized people’s apathy asking them for a deeper engagement with the development of the country’s welfare. Finally, in December 2002, Peter Garrett quit his singer-activist journey to launch a political career by joining the Australian Labor Party, for which he is the current Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth in the Julia Gillard Government. It is thus that now we can make sense of the extent to which the political and social message of a rock band can actually generate enough credibility to allow for the lead singer´s transition from the stage to parliament.

  2. Educational technology in transnational higher education in South East Asia: the cultural politics of flexible learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ziguras

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines appropriateness of using educational technologies to increase the flexibility of learning in transnational higher education in South East Asia. It considers the argument that while interactive educational technologies may be appropriate in countries in which self-directed study and student autonomy are emphasised, the same uses of technology may not be as appropriate in South East Asian countries in which education has traditionally been more tightly structured and teacher-directed. This paper examines government policies toward the use of educational technologies in higher education in Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam, and considers the experiences of five transnational institutions in these countries. The paper concludes that transnational educators are inevitably caught up in tensions between global modernising trends and local traditional practices. It argues that it is important for educators to recognise how their actions relate to local social changes in countries in which their students are located.

  3. Political Terrorism: A Mini-Course for High School Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    By participating in the 2-week mini-course, high school students will learn that (1) there is a difference between political terror and other criminal activity; (2) governments as well as nongovernmental groups engage in political terrorism; (3) political terrorism has been present throughout history; (4) political terrorism is a world wide…

  4. The Social Tenant, the Law and the UK’s Politics of Austerity

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    Helen P Carr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers current cuts to social housing provision in the UK made in the name of austerity. It focuses particularly on the ‘bedroom tax’ —the cut to housing benefit for working-age social housing tenants whose property is deemed to provide more bedrooms than they need. It begins by explaining the long-standing political project of social housing in the UK. This background is important to explain the emergence of a discursively ghettoized population within social housing. We then turn to the ‘bedroom tax’ itself. We consider the two quite separate rationales underpinning its introduction. One rationale —fairness— is the focus of the politicians; the other —under-occupation— provides the focus for policy analysts. Both offer different versions of truth about the social in social housing and both are unconvincing. For us, this is significant because the politics of austerity require the support of public opinion. We then consider some strategies of resistance to the ‘bedroom tax’ which harness the disruptive potential of fairness before concluding that the bedroom tax requires relatively little unpacking to reveal it as an ideological device which operates to increase inequality whilst deploying a rhetoric of fairness. Este artículo analiza los recortes en las prestaciones de viviendas sociales que se realizan actualmente en el Reino Unido en nombre de la austeridad. Se centra particularmente en el 'impuesto dormitorio' -el recorte en el subsidio de vivienda para inquilinos en edad de trabajar, cuya vivienda se considera que tiene más dormitorios de los que necesitan. Comienza explicando el proyecto político de viviendas sociales, de larga tradición en el Reino Unido. Estos antecedentes son importantes para explicar el surgimiento de guetos en las viviendas sociales. A continuación se centra en el "impuesto dormitorio” en sí mismo. Se analizan los dos diferentes motivos que sustentan su promulgación. Una es

  5. The space telescope: A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    1989-01-01

    Scientific, technological, economic, and political aspects of NASA efforts to orbit a large astronomical telescope are examined in a critical historical review based on extensive interviews with participants and analysis of published and unpublished sources. The scientific advantages of large space telescopes are explained; early plans for space observatories are summarized; the history of NASA and its major programs is surveyed; the redesign of the original Large Space Telescope for Shuttle deployability is discussed; the impact of the yearly funding negotiations with Congress on the development of the final Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described; and the implications of the HST story for the future of large space science projects are explored. Drawings, photographs, a description of the HST instruments and systems, and lists of the major contractors and institutions participating in the HST program are provided.

  6. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Globalisation On Economic Growth in Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Its Economic, Social and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.

  8. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  9. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  10. The psychological effects of Apartheid psychoanalysis: social, moral and political influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisse, J

    1986-01-01

    The notorious governmental policy of Apartheid affects the people of that country psychologically, as well as politically, socially, economically and medically. It does so in a variety of ways, including: the humiliating effects on blacks and arrogance inducing effects on whites; the disruption of family-life by the enforced migrant labor system; the stunted brain-development and behavioral effects that result from the inexcusably widespread childhood malnutrition in that wealthy country, (the world's 6th-largest food-exporter); the distortions and alienations in personality development, on racial lines; the mental breakdowns and suicides that result from the physical and mental torture that unchanged security-police detainees are subjected to while under interrogation. In addition, when mental health services are required they are grossly inferior for blacks, especially in the rural areas and particularly in out-patient care. The white-doctor: black-patient relationship, perforce the rule, is distinctly problematic in this socio-political climate. The World Medical Association and the World Psychiatric Association have been supportive to the South African government and silent, respectively, in the face of all the documented information on this hazardous public health situation. The United Nations and its agencies, the World Health Organization and the Centre Against Apartheid, should be commended for their work and unequivocal stands on this issue and should be heeded in their calls for a principled response by more of the world's psychiatric, psychological and medical communities.

  11. Users structure and behavior on an online social network during a political protest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past years, new technologies and specially online social networks have penetrated into the world’s population at an accelerated pace. In this paper we analyze collected data from the web application Twitter, in order to describe the structure and dynamics of the emergent social networks, based on complexity science. We focused on a Venezuelan protest that took place exclusively by Twitter during December, 2010. We found a community structure with highly connected hubs and three different kinds of user behavior that determine the information flow dynamics. We noticed that even though online social networks appear to be a pure social environment, traditional media still holds loads of influence inside the network.

  12. Pirate political parties: New democracy or political utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.

  13. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, David

    2014-01-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future. PMID:25437242

  14. The politics of social status: economic and cultural roots of the populist right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidron, Noam; Hall, Peter A

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the factors that have recently increased support for candidates and causes of the populist right across the developed democracies, especially among a core group of working-class men. In the context of debates about whether the key causal factors are economic or cultural, we contend that an effective analysis must rest on understanding how economic and cultural developments interact to generate support for populism. We suggest that one way to do so is to see status anxiety as a proximate factor inducing support for populism, and economic and cultural developments as factors that combine to precipitate such anxiety. Using cross-national survey data from 20 developed democracies, we assess the viability of this approach. We show that lower levels of subjective social status are associated with support for right populist parties, identify a set of economic and cultural developments likely to have depressed the social status of men without a college education, and show that the relative social status of those men has declined since 1987 in many of the developed democracies. We conclude that status effects provide one pathway through which economic and cultural developments may combine to increase support for the populist right. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  15. Social Movements and New Forms of Political Organization: Podemos as a Hybrid Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chironi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the restructuring of the party systems in several European countries was accompanied or preceded by massive waves of anti-austerity protests. Although the causal relation between these mobilizations and the rise of new parties has already been assessed, the organizational features remain understudied. To fill this gap, here we analyse the impact of the cycle of anti-austerity and pro-real democracy protests which emerged in 2011 with the birth and organizational development of the Spanish party Podemos. Bridging two subfields of social and political sciences—movement studies and party studies—we pay particular attention to the dichotomy between horizontality and verticality within Podemos' organization. In particular, we address the issues of social movement effects as well as party foundation and organizational development. Our main findings suggest that movement mobilization played a large role in shaping Podemos' foundational choices, particularly with reference to the fundamental principles of the party and its strategic positioning. Podemos is also experimenting new democratic methods internally. Nonetheless, empirical analysis shows that, overall, the influence of movements' organizational models on the organizational structure of the party has been limited. Yet, the result is a “hybrid” party that finds a balance between the horizontalism of social movements and the efficiency of parties.

  16. South-South cooperation in health: bringing in theory, politics, history, and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles; Afzal, Zabia

    2017-10-02

    Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.

  17. Science, Technology and Social Change Course's Effects on Technological Literacy Levels of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, E. Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…

  18. Latest legal and social developments in the euthanasia debate: bad moral consciences and political unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, N

    2007-06-01

    Several events that took place during recent years, such as the French Act on the rights of patients and the end of life, the Terri Schiavo case and Lord Joffe's proposal for an Assisted Dying Bill in the United Kingdom, have triggered the debate on euthanasia more than ever. It is therefore opportune to revisit basic notions related thereto and to make a comparative analysis of the legal regime of euthanasia in several countries in Europe and elsewhere, as well as to try to see how the public awareness of the problem has of late developed. There seems to be a clear trend in many legal systems towards an increasing respect for the patient's right to self-determination. However, we are still looking at a complex social game, where legal and medical terminology are manipulated and euphemisms are invented in order to accommodate bad moral consciences and avoid political unrest.

  19. Cells in the Body Politic: Social identity and hospital construction in Peronist Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hagood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the critical role played by social identity in the construction of hospitals in the Argentine health care sector during the 1940s and 1950s by uncovering the way in which the “jungle” of hospitals withstood attempts by the state to apply some sense of order, purpose, and centralized organization. The first section examines how physicians envisioned the “modern” hospital they hoped to construct. The second section reveals the important antecedents of nationalized hospitalization schemes found in the collaboration between physicians’ unions and the state. In the third section, an analysis of political speeches illuminates how Juan and Evita Perón packaged new hospitals as gifts to the people from their leader. The fourth section outlines specific plans to increase the number of hospital beds. The final section surveys examples of hospital construction to demonstrate how sub-national identities were instrumental to fragmenting both Argentine society and its hospital infrastructure.

  20. The social, political and economic changes in the Western Balkans: Managing diversity

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    Sela Ylber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a retrospective of the events in the Balkans in the last 20 years. Hence, it indicates the problems, the progress and the challenges in terms of respecting and promoting diversity. The Western Balkans has always been a very interesting region with many challenges during different historical periods. If we take into consideration all the differences and diversities in this region, then this shouldn’t strike us as surprising. During history the Balkan region has always been a crossroads of many events, conflicts, changes and destructive occurrences. In order to understand the connection between ethnic and the religious diversity, as well as the future of the Western Balkan countries in terms of Euro-Atlantic integration, we need to provide some information about the political, economic and social changes in these countries during the past, especially in the last two decades.