WorldWideScience

Sample records for techniques studied include

  1. Guide to speed study techniques including speed reading and memorization

    CERN Document Server

    Team, The Hyperink

    2012-01-01

    ABOUT THE BOOK Most students are familiar with that sense of rising panic when, close to a deadline for a paper or the date of an exam, they realize that they know almost nothing about the subject at hand. Some students can take this situation in their stride, and some fall to pieces, getting lost amid the maze of books and tangling themselves into mental knots. When we first embark on a course of study, we are often thrown in at the deep end and left to sink or swim. Studying is a skill, not something we are born with a natural aptitude for. If you find yourself struggling in your course

  2. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose.

  3. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  4. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Nath, S. K.; Peyada, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D) heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013) and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012). To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  5. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Nath S.K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013 and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012. To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  6. Determination of the ideal sampling technique to reduce repeated procedures:a comparative study including 393 fine-needle aspirations for thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunkaya, Fatih; Özden, Ahmet

    2017-02-27

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an established method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules, but it has not been standardized worldwide yet. Adequacy of the aspirations is affected by several factors. The aim of this study is to determine the main factors affecting the adequacy and to suggest a procedural technique expected to reduce repeated procedures. A total of 393 aspiration procedures performed using either 22-gauge or 27-gauge needles were included in the study. The samplings were classified as inadequate or adequate according to the cytopathological reports, and results were compared. The rate of adequate samplings was higher in the 27-gauge group and the difference was statistically significant. Neither the size of nodules nor the number of slides used for smearing affected the adequacy. There was not a statistically significant relation between the needle size and the nodule size or the number of slides in terms of adequacy. Needle size is an important factor that affects the adequacy of samplings. The nodule size and the number of slides do not affect the adequacy. However, bloody and thicker smears are difficult for pathologists to evaluate and result in inadequacy.

  7. Materials issues in some advanced forming techniques, including superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Henshall, G.A.; Nieh, T.G. [and others

    1995-08-22

    From mechanics and macroscopic viewpoints, the sensitivity of the flow stress of a material to the strain rate, i.e. the strain rate sensitivity (m), governs the development of neck formation and therefore has a strong influence on the tensile ductility and hence formability of materials. Values of strain rate sensitivity range from unity, for the case of Newtonian viscous materials, to less than 0.1 for some dispersion strengthened alloys. Intermediate values of m = 0.5 are associated with classical superplastic materials which contain very fine grain sizes following specialized processing. An overview is given of the influence of strain rate sensitivity on tensile ductility and of the various materials groups that can exhibit high values of strain rate sensitivity. Recent examples of enhanced formability (or extended tensile ductility) in specific regimes between m = 1 and m = 0.3 are described, and potential areas for commercial exploitation are noted. These examples include: internal stress superplasticity, superplastic ceramics, superplastic intermetallics, superplastic laminated composites, superplastic behavior over six orders of magnitude of strain rate in a range of aluminum-based alloys and composites, and enhanced ductility in Al-Mg alloys that require no special processing for microstructural development.

  8. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review t

  9. Techniques for carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburger, E K

    1981-09-01

    Short-term tests to detect genetic, chromosomal, or DNA damage are now required by regulatory agencies for any new compound proposed for commercial production. Furthermore, full-scale carcinogenicity tests may be required for certain compounds. In this circumstance, the compound-related factors including stability, purity, physical properties, and chemical structure and reactivity must be considered. Animal factors include species and strain of test animal, route of administration, age, sex, diet, and spontaneous tumor incidence. A team of qualified investigators with experience in various disciplines is required to conduct the studies properly. Quality control measures and adherence to the code of good laboratory practice are also necessary during all phases of the study. The investment in a carcinogenicity study therefore becomes fairly substantial in terms of both time and money.

  10. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  11. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation.

  12. Ancillary Studies, Including Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Studies, in Pancreatic Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michelle D; Centeno, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is indicated for sampling of solid and cystic masses. Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cystic lesions on cytology can be problematic, and ancillary studies may help confirm diagnosis. Ancillary studies in pancreatic cytology include special stains, immunohistochemistry, mutational analyses of specific genes, cyst fluid analysis of tumor markers and enzymes, and, in some instances, flow cytometry. Proteomics, microRNA sequencing, and whole-exome gene sequencing have been used to illustrate the progression of pancreatic neoplasms and identify key diagnostic markers. This article summarizes recent literature on ancillary studies in pancreatic fine-needle aspiration samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational analysis included FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV techniques of 2,4,5-trimethylbenzoic acid (monomer and dimer structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Bilgili, Sibel; Atac, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study on the structural and vibrational analysis of monomer and dimer structures of 2,4,5-trimethylbenzoic acid (2,4,5-TMBA, C10H12O2) were presented. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and the Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of the title molecule in solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1, respectively. The geometrical parameters and energies were investigated with the help of Density Functional Theory (DFT) employing B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using DFT/B3LYP method with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. The geometric parameters were compared with experimental data of the title molecule. The UV absorption spectrum of the studied compound was computed and recorded in the range of 190-400 nm dissolved in water and ethanol. Besides, charge transfer occurring in the molecule between HOMO and LUMO energies, frontier energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and presented. In addition these, thermodynamic properties and Mulliken atomic charges were performed.

  14. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  15. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  16. Security techniques for prevention of rank manipulation in social tagging services including robotic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Jung, Hanyoung; Moon, Seungbin

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  17. Extension of the Finite Integration Technique including dynamic mesh refinement and its application to self-consistent beam dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M. Schnepp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An extension of the framework of the Finite Integration Technique (FIT including dynamic and adaptive mesh refinement is presented. After recalling the standard formulation of the FIT, the proposed mesh adaptation procedure is described. Besides the linear interpolation approach, a novel interpolation technique based on specialized spline functions for approximating the discrete electromagnetic field solution during mesh adaptation is introduced. The standard FIT on a fixed mesh and the new adaptive approach are applied to a simulation test case with a known analytical solution. The numerical accuracy of the two methods is shown to be comparable. The dynamic mesh approach is, however, much more efficient. This is demonstrated with the full scale modeling of the complete rf gun at the Photo Injector Test Facility DESY Zeuthen (PITZ on a single computer. Results of a detailed design study addressing the effects of individual components of the gun onto the beam emittance using a fully self-consistent approach are presented.

  18. Extension of the Finite Integration Technique including dynamic mesh refinement and its application to self-consistent beam dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Schnepp, Sascha M; Weiland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    An extension of the framework of the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) including dynamic and adaptive mesh refinement is presented. After recalling the standard formulation of the FIT, the proposed mesh adaptation procedure is described. Besides the linear interpolation approach, a novel interpolation technique based on specialized spline functions for approximating the discrete electromagnetic field solution during mesh adaptation is introduced. The standard FIT on a fixed mesh and the new adaptive approach are applied to a simulation test case with known analytical solution. The numerical accuracy of the two methods are shown to be comparable. The dynamic mesh approach is, however, much more efficient. This is also demonstrated for the full scale modeling of the complete RF gun at the Photo Injector Test Facility DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) on a single computer. Results of a detailed design study addressing the effects of individual components of the gun onto the beam emittance using a fully self-consistent approa...

  19. A framework for automated contour quality assurance in radiation therapy including adaptive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, M. B.; Kavanaugh, J. A.; Wooten, H. O.; Green, O. L.; DeWees, T. A.; Gay, H.; Thorstad, W. L.; Li, H.; Mutic, S.

    2015-07-01

    Contouring of targets and normal tissues is one of the largest sources of variability in radiation therapy treatment plans. Contours thus require a time intensive and error-prone quality assurance (QA) evaluation, limitations which also impair the facilitation of adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Here, an automated system for contour QA is developed using historical data (the ‘knowledge base’). A pilot study was performed with a knowledge base derived from 9 contours each from 29 head-and-neck treatment plans. Size, shape, relative position, and other clinically-relevant metrics and heuristically derived rules are determined. Metrics are extracted from input patient data and compared against rules determined from the knowledge base; a computer-learning component allows metrics to evolve with more input data, including patient specific data for ART. Nine additional plans containing 42 unique contouring errors were analyzed. 40/42 errors were detected as were 9 false positives. The results of this study imply knowledge-based contour QA could potentially enhance the safety and effectiveness of RT treatment plans as well as increase the efficiency of the treatment planning process, reducing labor and the cost of therapy for patients.

  20. A Methodological Evaluation of Volumetric Measurement Techniques including Three-Dimensional Imaging in Breast Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hoeffelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes’ principle under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  1. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffelin, H; Jacquemin, D; Defaweux, V; Nizet, J L

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  2. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  3. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  4. "Enzyme Test Bench," a high-throughput enzyme characterization technique including the long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskiy, Kirill; Schultze, Hergen; Boy, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2009-06-01

    A new high throughput technique for enzyme characterization with specific attention to the long term stability, called "Enzyme Test Bench," is presented. The concept of the Enzyme Test Bench consists of short term enzyme tests in 96-well microtiter plates under partly extreme conditions to predict the enzyme long term stability under moderate conditions. The technique is based on the mathematical modeling of temperature dependent enzyme activation and deactivation. Adapting the temperature profiles in sequential experiments by optimal non-linear experimental design, the long term deactivation effects can be purposefully accelerated and detected within hours. During the experiment the enzyme activity is measured online to estimate the model parameters from the obtained data. Thus, the enzyme activity and long term stability can be calculated as a function of temperature. The engineered instrumentation provides for simultaneous automated assaying by fluorescent measurements, mixing and homogenous temperature control in the range of 10-85 +/- 0.5 degrees C. A universal fluorescent assay for online acquisition of ester hydrolysis reactions by pH-shift is developed and established. The developed instrumentation and assay are applied to characterize two esterases. The results of the characterization, carried out in microtiter plates applying short term experiments of hours, are in good agreement with the results of long term experiments at different temperatures in 1 L stirred tank reactors of a week. Thus, the new technique allows for both: the enzyme screening with regard to the long term stability and the choice of the optimal process temperature regarding such process parameters as turn over number, space time yield or optimal process duration. The comparison of the temperature dependent behavior of both characterized enzymes clearly demonstrates that the frequently applied estimation of long term stability at moderate temperatures by simple activity measurements

  5. Stability analysis of the extended ADI-FDTD technique including lumped models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhiHui; CHU QingXin

    2008-01-01

    The numerical stability of the extended alternating-direction-implicit-finite-difference-time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method including lumped models is analyzed.Three common lumped models are investigated:resistor,capacitor,and inductor,and three different formulations for each model are analyzed:the explicit,semi-implicit and implicit schemes.Analysis results show that the extended ADI-FDTD algorithm is not unconditionally stable in the explicit scheme case,and the stability criterion depends on the value of lumped models,but in the semi-implicit and implicit cases,the algorithm is stable.Finally,two simple microstrip circuits including lumped elements are simulated to demonstrate validity of the theoretical results.

  6. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Okkyung Choi; Hanyoung Jung; Seungbin Moon

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advert...

  7. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  8. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  9. Metabolomics techniques in nanotoxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Sun, Jinchun; Beger, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth in the development of nanoparticles for uses in a variety of applications including targeted drug delivery, cancer therapy, imaging, and as biological sensors has led to questions about potential toxicity of such particles to humans. High-throughput methods are necessary to evaluate the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. The omics technologies are particularly well suited to evaluate toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Metabolomics, specifically, can rapidly screen for biomarkers related to predefined pathways or processes in biofluids and tissues. Specifically, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential mechanism of toxicity in nanoparticles and is generally difficult to measure by conventional methods. Furthermore, metabolomics can provide mechanistic insight into nanotoxicity. This chapter focuses on the application of both LC/MS and NMR-based metabolomics approaches to study the potential toxicity of nanoparticles.

  10. A comprehensive approach including a new enlargement technique to prevent complications after De Quervain tendinopathy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perno-Ioanna, D; Papaloïzos, M

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcome of our surgical approach aimed at preventing complications following surgery for De Quervain tendinopathy. Our stepwise surgical procedure is described in detail. We reviewed 56 cases operated by a senior surgeon over 5years, and re-evaluated them with a minimum 15months' follow-up. Complications mentioned in the literature (poor wound healing, adhesions, nerve injury, incomplete decompression, tendon subluxation) were not present in any of the cases; the satisfaction rate was very high. Slight residual discomfort was noted in 16 cases. Among them, 13 had an associated pathology. In summary, the outcome after the comprehensive approach presented here is highly predictable. Properly applied, good to excellent results can be expected in most patients. Potential postoperative complications are effectively prevented. Some caution is needed in cases of associated pathologies.

  11. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald

    2017-01-01

    unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies-especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection.

  12. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  13. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels.

  14. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  15. Review of traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of literature concerning traffic conflicts technique studies is presented. The 101 references arranged alphabetically by authors' names are given with abstract. The procedure used in compiling this survey is outlined.

  16. A Study on Employee Retention Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Savarimuthu, Dr. A; Hemalatha, N

    2013-01-01

    The objective of perusing this study is to assess the level of satisfaction of employee retention techniques at GB Engineering Enterprises PVT Limited., Trichy.This study gains significance because of employee retention techniques can be approached from various angles. It is desirable state of existence involving retention strategies generally fall in to one of four categories salary, working conditions, job enrichment and education. These four elements together constitute. The structure of e...

  17. Multiple Uses of a Word Study Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Orlins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies that illustrate the multiple uses of word sorts, a word study phonics technique. Case study children were Sara, a second grader, who had difficulty with reading basic words and John, a third grader, who had difficulty with spelling basic words. Multiple baseline designs were employed to study the effects of…

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear analytical techniques in environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, R E

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques are particularly suitable for measuring trace components in a wide variety of environmental samples, and for that reason, the techniques have made a significant contribution to environmental research. Presently, at a time when biosphere contamination and threats of global change in the atmosphere are of widespread concern, there exist an impressive array of specialized instrumental methods available to life scientists engaged in environmental studies; however, the nuclear techniques will probably continue to play a useful role in the future, notwithstanding the decreasing availability of necessary facilities, such as research reactors and accelerators. Reasons for the particular suitability of radionanalytical techniques are reviewed and illustrated by examples of recent applications to solid wastes, biomonitoring, and urban aerosol source identification in this laboratory.

  20. THE TEMPIO DELLA CONSOLAZIONE IN TODI: INTEGRATED GEOMATIC TECHNIQUES FOR A MONUMENT DESCRIPTION INCLUDING STRUCTURAL DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Radicioni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tempio della Consolazione in Todi (16th cent. has always been one of the most significant symbols of the Umbrian landscape. Since the first times after its completion (1606 the structure has exhibited evidences of instability, due to foundation subsiding and/or seismic activity. Structural and geotechnical countermeasures have been undertaken on the Tempio and its surroundings from the 17th century until recent times. Until now a truly satisfactory analysis of the overall deformation and attitude of the building has not been performed, since the existing surveys record the overhangs of the pillars, the crack pattern or the subsidence over limited time spans. Describing the attitude of the whole church is in fact a complex operation due to the architectural character of the building, consisting of four apses (three polygonal and one semicircular covered with half domes, which surround the central area with the large dome. The present research aims to fill the gap of knowledge with a global study based on geomatic techniques for an accurate 3D reconstruction of geometry and attitude, integrated with a historical research on damage and interventions and a geotechnical analysis. The geomatic survey results from the integration of different techniques: GPS-GNSS for global georeferencing, laser scanning and digital photogrammetry for an accurate 3D reconstruction, high precision total station and geometric leveling for a direct survey of deformations and cracks, and for the alignment of the laser scans. The above analysis allowed to assess the dynamics of the cracks occurred in the last 25 years by a comparison with a previous survey. From the photographic colour associated to the point cloud was also possible to map the damp patches showing on the domes intrados, mapping their evolution over the last years.

  1. The Tempio della Consolazione in Todi: Integrated Geomatic Techniques for a Monument Description Including Structural Damage Evolution in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicioni, F.; Matracchi, P.; Brigante, R.; Brozzi, A.; Cecconi, M.; Stoppini, A.; Tosi, G.

    2017-05-01

    The Tempio della Consolazione in Todi (16th cent.) has always been one of the most significant symbols of the Umbrian landscape. Since the first times after its completion (1606) the structure has exhibited evidences of instability, due to foundation subsiding and/or seismic activity. Structural and geotechnical countermeasures have been undertaken on the Tempio and its surroundings from the 17th century until recent times. Until now a truly satisfactory analysis of the overall deformation and attitude of the building has not been performed, since the existing surveys record the overhangs of the pillars, the crack pattern or the subsidence over limited time spans. Describing the attitude of the whole church is in fact a complex operation due to the architectural character of the building, consisting of four apses (three polygonal and one semicircular) covered with half domes, which surround the central area with the large dome. The present research aims to fill the gap of knowledge with a global study based on geomatic techniques for an accurate 3D reconstruction of geometry and attitude, integrated with a historical research on damage and interventions and a geotechnical analysis. The geomatic survey results from the integration of different techniques: GPS-GNSS for global georeferencing, laser scanning and digital photogrammetry for an accurate 3D reconstruction, high precision total station and geometric leveling for a direct survey of deformations and cracks, and for the alignment of the laser scans. The above analysis allowed to assess the dynamics of the cracks occurred in the last 25 years by a comparison with a previous survey. From the photographic colour associated to the point cloud was also possible to map the damp patches showing on the domes intrados, mapping their evolution over the last years.

  2. The value of including observational studies in systematic reviews was unclear: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Jennifer; Dryden, Donna M; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate (1) how often observational studies are included in comparative effectiveness reviews (CERs); (2) the rationale for including observational studies; (3) how data from observational studies are appraised, analyzed, and graded; and (4) the impact of observational studies on strength of evidence (SOE) and conclusions. Descriptive study of 23 CERs published through the Effective Health Care Program of the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Authors searched for observational studies in 20 CERs, of which 18 included a median of 11 (interquartile range, 2-31) studies. Sixteen CERs incorporated the observational studies in their SOE assessments. Seventy-eight comparisons from 12 CERs included evidence from both trials and observational studies; observational studies had an impact on SOE and conclusions for 19 (24%) comparisons. There was diversity across the CERs regarding decisions to include observational studies; study designs considered; and approaches used to appraise, synthesize, and grade SOE. Reporting and methods guidance are needed to ensure clarity and consistency in how observational studies are incorporated in CERs. It was not always clear that observational studies added value in light of the additional resources needed to search for, select, appraise, and analyze such studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of particulate verification techniques study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel

    2006-08-01

    The efficacy of five particulate verification techniques on four types of materials was studied. Statistical Analysis Software/JMP 6.0 was used to create a statistically valid design of experiments. In doing so, 35 witness coupons consisting of the four types of materials being studied, were intentionally contaminated with particulate fallout. Image Analysis was used to characterize the extent of particulate fallout on the coupons and was used to establish a baseline, or basis of comparison, against the five techniques that were studied. The five particulate verification techniques were the Tapelift, the Particulate Solvent Rinse, the GelPak lift, an in-line vacuum filtration probe, and the Infinity Focusing Microscope (IFM). The four types of materials consisted of magnesium flouride (MgF II) coated mirrors, composite coated silver aluminum (CCAg), Z93 and NS43G coated aluminum, and silicon (si) wafers. The vacuum probe was determined to be most effective for Z93, the tapelift or vacuum probe for MgF2, and the GelPak Lift for CCAg and si substrates. A margin of error for each technique, based on experimental data from two experiments, for si wafer substrates, yielded the following: Tapelift - 67%, Solvent Rinse - 58%, GelPak- 26%, Vacuum Probe - 93%, IFM-to be determined.

  4. Technique of studying the interaction of charges of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yefremov, E.I.; Kravtsov, V.S.; Myachina, N.I.; Rodak, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for studying the interaction of explosive charges which includes recording of the velocity of detonation of the studied charges, measurement of mechanical stresses developing in this case in the medium and determination of granulometric composition of the model with simultaneous and diverse initiation.

  5. [Inguinofemoral hernia: multicenter study of surgical techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, José L; Sánchez-Cabezudo, Carlos; Bonachía, Oscar; López-Buenadicha, Adolfo; Sanjuánbenito, Alfonso; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2005-07-01

    The present study was performed by the Spanish Association of surgeons through its abdominal wall and sutures section. The aim was to determine the current situation of inguinofemoral hernias in Spain and was based on an anonymous multicenter study with the participation of various national hospitals. Fifty general surgery departments in distinct surgical centers throughout Spain responded to an anonymous survey in 2000. The survey gathered data on anesthetic features, surgical techniques and complications in the treatment of inguinofemoral hernias. Sixty-six percent of hospital centers had a specific abdominal wall unit and 24% performed laparoscopic hernia surgery. Prosthetic techniques (especially Lichtenstein) were the most frequently used in the treatment of primary inguinal hernia (72%) and recurrent hernia (100%). The most frequently used prosthetic material was polypropylene mesh (76%). Only 28% of the departments surveyed performed anatomic techniques in the repair of primary inguinal hernia (Shouldice and Bassini). The most frequent treatment for femoral hernia was the Lichtenstein "plug" (78%). Sixty-eight percent of the centers surveyed performed regional anesthesia, 18% used general anesthesia and only 14% used local anesthesia with sedation. Severe complications were found in 20% of departments. Clinical postoperative follow-up was performed in 96% of the centers and telephone follow-up was used in 4%. The recurrence rate was 1.2% for primary inguinal hernia, 2.7% for recurrent inguinal hernia and 0.3% for femoral hernia. In Spain the most commonly used surgical technique in the treatment of inguinal hernia is Lichtenstein hernioplasty under spinal anesthesia and with polypropylene prosthesis. The Lichtenstein plug is the most commonly used technique in the treatment of femoral hernia.

  6. Analytical techniques for the study of polyphenol-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklar Ulrih, Nataša

    2017-07-03

    This mini review focuses on advances in biophysical techniques to study polyphenol interactions with proteins. Polyphenols have many beneficial pharmacological properties, as a result of which they have been the subject of intensive studies. The most conventional techniques described here can be divided into three groups: (i) methods used for screening (in-situ methods); (ii) methods used to gain insight into the mechanisms of polyphenol-protein interactions; and (iii) methods used to study protein aggregation and precipitation. All of these methods used to study polyphenol-protein interactions are based on modifications to the physicochemical properties of the polyphenols or proteins after binding/complex formation in solution. To date, numerous review articles have been published in the field of polyphenols. This review will give a brief insight in computational methods and biosensors and cell-based methods, spectroscopic methods including fluorescence emission, UV-vis adsorption, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and light scattering techniques including small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, and calorimetric techniques (isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry), microscopy, the techniques which have been successfully used for polyphenol-protein interactions. At the end the new methods based on single molecule detection with high potential to study polyphenol-protein interactions will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be discussed as well as the thermodynamic, kinetic or structural parameters, which can be obtained. The other relevant biophysical experimental techniques that have proven to be valuable, such electrochemical methods, hydrodynamic techniques and chromatographic techniques will not be described here.

  7. Treatment techniques for 3D conformal radiation to breast and chest wall including the internal mammary chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnik, Deborah; Selvaraj, Raj N; Faul, Clare; Gerszten, Kristina; Heron, Dwight E; King, Gwendolyn C

    2007-01-01

    Breast, chest wall, and regional nodal irradiation have been associated with an improved outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients. Complex treatment planning is often utilized to ensure complete coverage of the target volume while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The 2 techniques evaluated in this report are the partially wide tangent fields (PWTFs) and the 4-field photon/electron combination (the modified "Kuske Technique"). These 2 techniques were evaluated in 10 consecutive breast cancer patients. All patients had computerized tomographic (CT) scans for 3D planning supine on a breast board. The breast was defined clinically by the physician and confirmed radiographically with radiopaque bebes. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of normal and target tissues were then compared. The deep tangent field with blocks resulted in optimal coverage of the target and the upper internal mammary chain (IMC) while sparing of critical and nontarget tissues. The wide tangent technique required less treatment planning and delivery time. We compared the 2 techniques and their resultant DVHs and feasibility in a busy clinic.

  8. Study and Implementation of Advanced Neuroergonomic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.F.Momin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the area of neuroergonomics has blossomed in recent years with the emergence of noninvasive techniques for monitoring human brain function that can be used to study various aspects of human behavior in relation to technology and work, including mental workload, visual attention, working memory, motor control, human-automation interaction, and adaptive automation. Consequently, this interdisciplinary field is concerned with investigations of the neural bases of human perception,cognition, and performance in relation to systems and technologies in the real world -- for example, in the use of computers and various other machines at home or in the workplace, and in operating vehiclessuch as aircraft, cars, trains, and ships. We will look at recent trends in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, with a special focus on the questions that have been addressed. This focus is particularly important for functional neuroimaging, whose contributions will be measured by the depth of the questions asked. The ever-increasing understanding of the brain and behavior at work in the real world, the development of theoretical underpinnings, and the relentless spread of facilitative technology in the West and abroad are inexorably broadening the substrates for this interdisciplinary area of research and practice. Neuroergonomics blends neuroscience and ergonomics to the mutual benefit of both fields, and extends the study of brain structure and function beyond the contrived laboratory settings often used in neuropsychological, psychophysical, cognitive science, and other neurosciencerelated fields. Neuroergonomics is providing rich observations of the brain and behavior at work, at home, in transportation, and in other everyday environments in human operators who see, hear, feel, attend, remember, decide, plan, act, move, or manipulate objects among other people and technology in diverse,real-world settings. The neuroergonomics approach is

  9. Studies of GRACE Gravity Field Inversion Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Shum, C.; Duan, J.; Schmidt, M.; Yuan, D.; Watkins, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    The geophysical inverse problem using satellite observations, such as GRACE, to estimate gravity change and mass variations at the Earth's surface is a well-known ill-posed problem. Different methods using different basis function (representing the gravity field) for different purposes (global or regional inversion) have been employed to obtain a stable solution, such as Bayesian estimation with prior information, the repro-BIQUUE of variance components and iterative least-squares estimation with simultaneous updating of a prior covariance, and to achieve enhanced spatial resolutions. The gravity field representation methods include spherical harmonics, regional gridded data (including mascons), and various wavelet representations (Poisson wavelets, Blackman band-limited regional wavelets with global representation). Finally, the use of data types (KBR range, range-rate, range-rate-rate) and data-generation methods (e.g., nonlinear orbit determination and geophysical inverse approach, energy conservation principle, etc) could also reflect relative inversion accuracy and the content of signal spectra in the resulting solution. In this contribution, we present results of a simulation experiment, which used various solution techniques and data types to attempt to quantify the relative advantage and disadvantage of each of the techniques.

  10. Study of forecasting technique of power demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Long-term forecast of power and energy demand become an important base of investment plan of the energy supply sector, and a study based on value data is indispensable since the expansion of energy supply requires a long construction period and a lot of investment capital. Total estimated power and energy demand of the whole economy is known to have considerable relationship with macroeconomics factors. This study reviews the Kalman filter technique and abnormal time series analysis technique which is useful in analyzing energy and macroeconomics data taking the form of pre-tallied time series data. Based on these, power demand and energy demand are estimated using real data and the most reliable technique, and long-term forecast of power and energy demand is tried up to year 2015 based on the forecasted values. It should be noted that power and energy demand of Korea shows the structurally-changing behavior based on the present while the forecast based on past data involves an assumption naturally that the trend continues from the past to the present. 15 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fozzolari, R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for photo generation of radicals is discussed that can be used in the recovery of oxygen and metals from extraterrestrial resources. The concept behind this work was to examine methods whereby radicals can be generated and used in the processing of refractory materials. In that regard, the focus is on the use of sunlight. Sunlight provides useful energy for processing in the forms of both thermal and quantum energy. A number of experiments were conducted in the chlorination of metals with and without the aid of UV and near UV light. The results of some of those experiments are discussed.

  12. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Zirconium Oxides Observed Using a Pulse CV Technique and including the Effect of High Temperature Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111 substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. The results indicated that: (1 more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrOx; (2 the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N2 ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 1012 cm−2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 1012 cm−2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10−6 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10−3 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one.

  13. Scaling studies with gamma transmission technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernstad, Tor; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2006-03-15

    A method based on gamma transmission attenuation for study of scaling rates in open tubes has been tested and qualified in laboratory experiments. This is a non-intrusive continuous on-line technique, which requires a gamma-emitting radioactive source and a corresponding gamma detector. Gamma emission with energies larger than 300 keV from a source of {sup 133}Ba and a NaI(Tl) detector has been used in experiments with CaCO{sub 3}{sup -}scaling. The equipment allows for axial tube scanning. Thus, scaling rates and thicknesses along the length of the tube may be measured. Saturation ratios down to SR 1.5 has been tested with good results. The possibility to apply this technique to measure scaling rates also in porous media is evaluated. By optimizing the experimental conditions, scaling thicknesses down to 30 micrometer is feasible in a silicate-packed tube of 1 cm internal diameter. Besides studying induction times and scaling rates, this method is useful for screening of the effect of various scale inhibitors. (author) (tk)

  14. Treatment of knee arthrofibrosis and quadriceps insufficiency after patellar tendon repair: a case report including use of the graston technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Douglass W

    2010-06-23

    Arthrofibrosis of the knee is a surgical complication that can limit range of motion, inhibit muscle activity, and decrease patient function. Optimal conservative treatment has not been well established in the literature, leaving a clinician with limited evidence for treatment planning. Described here is part of the rehabilitative course of care for a patient with arthrofibrotic limitations after a mid-substance patellar tendon repair with augmentation. Marked limitations in knee flexion range of motion and quadriceps activity were addressed using the Graston Technique to deal with soft-tissue adhesions; traditional physical therapy care was also provided. Clear improvement in range of motion and quadriceps activity and function was noted over the course of 5 treatments during 1 month. Treatment process and clinical reasoning are offered to promote understanding and to facilitate future inquiry.

  15. Three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Nethravathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A short clinical crown may lead to poor retention form thereby leading to improper tooth preparation. Surgical crown lengthening procedure is done to increase the clinical crown length without violating the biologic width. Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening which includes gingivectomy, apically displaced flap with or without resective osseous surgery, and surgical extrusion using periotome. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare clinically the three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who reported to the department of Periodontology, were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, which include patients who underwent gingivectomy (Group A, apically repositioned flap (Group B and surgical extrusion using periotome (Group C. Clinical measurements such as clinical crown length, gingival zenith, interdental papilla height were taken at baseline and at 3 rd month post-operatively. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3 rd month suggest that surgical extrusion technique offers several advantages over the other conventional surgical techniques such as preservation of the interproximal papilla, gingival margin position and no marginal bone loss. Conclusions: This technique can be used to successfully treat a grossly damaged crown structure as a result of tooth fracture, dental caries and iatrogenic factors especially in the anterior region, where esthetics is of great concern.

  16. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  17. Study of High Performance Coronagraphic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Phil (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Study of High Performance Coronagraphic Techniques project (called CoronaTech) is: 1) to verify the Labeyrie multi-step speckle reduction method and 2) to develop new techniques to manufacture soft-edge occulter masks preferably with Gaussian absorption profile. In a coronagraph, the light from a bright host star which is centered on the optical axis in the image plane is blocked by an occulter centered on the optical axis while the light from a planet passes the occulter (the planet has a certain minimal distance from the optical axis). Unfortunately, stray light originating in the telescope and subsequent optical elements is not completely blocked causing a so-called speckle pattern in the image plane of the coronagraph limiting the sensitivity of the system. The sensitivity can be increased significantly by reducing the amount of speckle light. The Labeyrie multi-step speckle reduction method implements one (or more) phase correction steps to suppress the unwanted speckle light. In each step, the stray light is rephased and then blocked with an additional occulter which affects the planet light (or other companion) only slightly. Since the suppression is still not complete, a series of steps is required in order to achieve significant suppression. The second part of the project is the development of soft-edge occulters. Simulations have shown that soft-edge occulters show better performance in coronagraphs than hard-edge occulters. In order to utilize the performance gain of soft-edge occulters. fabrication methods have to be developed to manufacture these occulters according to the specification set forth by the sensitivity requirements of the coronagraph.

  18. Process intensification of delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified cellulosic biomass using various process intensification techniques including cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagula, Karuna Narsappa; Pandit, Aniruddha Bhalchandra

    2016-08-01

    Different methods of pretreatment including alkali treatment, treatment with ultrasound, biological treatment using laccase enzyme and combined treatment like ultrasound-laccase for Napier grass have been tried. With alkali pretreatment optimized conditions obtained were sodium hydroxide 0.3% w/v giving 86% delignification at temperature of 80°C, treatment time of 2h. In physical methods of treatment ultrasound, at a temperature of 45°C, treatment time of 2h, operating at frequency 24kHz and power of 100W gave 18% delignification. For laccase pretreatment, optimized conditions obtained were 300rpm impeller speed, enzyme concentration 10U/gm of Napier grass gave 50% delignification with cellulose. The optimized conditions for delignification by using combination treatment of ultrasound & enzymatic were obtained at 24kHz frequency, 100W giving 75% of delignification in 6h. An enhancement in lignin degradation by 25% and reduction in the treatment time from 12 to 6h is achieved as compared to only laccase treatment.

  19. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  20. Study of Associated α Particle Imaging Technique for Explosives Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The explosive detecting technique about neutron mainly include the thermal neutron analysis (TNA), the fast neutron analysis (FNA), the pulse fast and thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA) and the associated α particle imaging technique about fast neutron (API).

  1. Robust IR Remote Sensing Technique of the Total Column of Trace Gases Including Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Progress on the development of a differential radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (C02) detection in the atmosphere is presented. Methane measurements are becoming increasingly important as a component of NASA's programs to understand the global carbon cycle and quantifY the threat of global warming. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's radiation budget (after water vapor and carbon dioxide) and the second most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming. The importance of global warming and air quality to society caused the National Research Council to recommend that NASA develop the following missions [1]: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of C02 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), GEOCAPE (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), and GACM (Global Atmosphere Composition Mission). Though methane measurements are not specifically called out in these missions, ongoing environmental changes have raised the importance of understanding the methane budget. In the decadal survey is stated that "to close the carbon budget, we would also address methane, but the required technology is not obvious at this time. If appropriate and cost-effective methane technology becomes available, we strongly recommend adding a methane capability". In its 2007 report the International Panel on Climate Change identified methane as a key uncertainty in our understanding saying that the causes of recent changes in the growth rate of atmospheric CH4 are not well understood. What we do know is that methane arises from a number of natural sources including wet lands and the oceans plus man made sources from agriculture, as well as coal and petroleum production and distribution. It has recently been pointed out that large amount of methane are frozen in the permafrost of Canada and Siberia. There is a fear that melting of this permafrost driven by global warming may release large amounts of

  2. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy: a powerful technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic and organic compounds including explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Ramer, Georg; Hobro, Alison; Chrysostom, Engelene T H; Lendl, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    A pulsed stand-off Raman system has been built and optimised for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic and organic samples including explosives. The system consists of a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 Hz, 4.4 ns pulse length), aligned coaxially with a 6″ Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope for the collection of Raman scattered light. The telescope was coupled via a fibre optic bundle to an Acton standard series SP-2750 spectrograph with a PI-MAX 1024RB intensified CCD camera equipped with a 500-ps gating option for detection. Gating proved to be essential for achieving high signal-to-noise ratios in the recorded stand-off Raman spectra. In some cases, gating also allowed suppression of disturbing fluorescence signals. For the first time, quantitative analysis of stand-off Raman spectra was performed using both univariate and multivariate methods of data analysis. To correct for possible variation in instrumental parameters, the nitrogen band of ambient air was used as an internal standard. For the univariate method, stand-off Raman spectra obtained at a distance of 9 m on sodium chloride pellets containing varying amounts of ammonium nitrate (0-100%) were used. For the multivariate quantification of ternary xylene mixtures (0-100%), stand-off spectra at a distance of 5 m were used. The univariate calibration of ammonium nitrate yielded R (2) values of 0.992, and the multivariate quantitative analysis yielded root mean square errors of prediction of 2.26%, 1.97% and 1.07% for o-, m- and p-xylene, respectively. Stand-off Raman spectra obtained at a distance of 10 m yielded a detection limit of 174 μg for NaClO(3). Furthermore, to assess the applicability of stand-off Raman spectroscopy for explosives detection in "real-world" scenarios, their detection on different background materials (nylon, polyethylene and part of a car body) and in the presence of interferents (motor oil, fuel oil and soap) at a distance of 20 m was also

  3. A Study on the Writing Techniques in the Full-length Novel Frog by Mo Yan:an Analysis of the Specific Ones Including Repetition, Metaphor, Framework and Rhythm%重复与隐喻架构与节奏--浅谈莫言长篇小说《蛙》的写作技法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮

    2015-01-01

    Literary writing is a kind of creative aesthetic activity of mind, in which the author uses literary language to shape artistic images and to express their thoughts and emotions.It not only has some general characteristics, such as rich perceptual characteristics and typified depiction, also has more personal experi-ences.This thesis attempts to take the novel Frog by Mo Yan, the 2012 Nobel Prize winner, as an example to analyze the writing skills, which finally bring people wonderful reading experience.The analysis starts with confirming the story theme, and then includes screening characters relationship, extending story plot, estab-lishing the story framework by means of repetition, and controlling the narrative rhythm strictly with many writ-ing skills, such as metaphor, etc.%文学写作作为作者使用文学语言描述艺术形象、表达思想情感的一种创造性的审美心智活动,不仅具有富含感性特征、典型化描摹等共性特点,同时还具有更多私人经验。以2012年诺贝尔文学奖得主莫言的长篇小说《蛙》为例进行分析发现,其从确立故事主题到筛选人物关系、扩展推进情节的各环节中,以“重复”的方式不断丰富故事架构,进而用隐喻等方式严格控制小说节奏,从而带给人震撼性的阅读体验。

  4. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect.

  5. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  6. Different Applications of Rheological Techniques in Studies of Physical Gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    . Rheological techniques are used extensively in studies of physical gels and gelation. In the lecture some of the common techniques used in studies of gels will be addressed. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements are the most common type of measurement performed, and such measurements allow a determination......Physical gels are of both great scientific and practical interest. The cytoplasm of cells, which consists of a complex physical gel of protein filaments, is important for most of the cellular processes including cell division and cell motility. Nature has developed this complex system......-forming biopolymers. Physical gels are also used in the paint industry to minimize sedimentation. Delayed and controlled drug release is of importance in the pharmaceutical industry, and one way to obtain this control is to hide active components in physical gels. Two excellent reviews cover many aspects...

  7. Spatial Modeling of Geometallurgical Properties: Techniques and a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Jared L., E-mail: jdeutsch@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Palmer, Kevin [Teck Resources Limited (Canada); Deutsch, Clayton V.; Szymanski, Jozef [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Etsell, Thomas H. [University of Alberta, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    High-resolution spatial numerical models of metallurgical properties constrained by geological controls and more extensively by measured grade and geomechanical properties constitute an important part of geometallurgy. Geostatistical and other numerical techniques are adapted and developed to construct these high-resolution models accounting for all available data. Important issues that must be addressed include unequal sampling of the metallurgical properties versus grade assays, measurements at different scale, and complex nonlinear averaging of many metallurgical parameters. This paper establishes techniques to address each of these issues with the required implementation details and also demonstrates geometallurgical mineral deposit characterization for a copper–molybdenum deposit in South America. High-resolution models of grades and comminution indices are constructed, checked, and are rigorously validated. The workflow demonstrated in this case study is applicable to many other deposit types.

  8. Comparison of different magnetic resonance cholangiography techniques in living liver donors including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kinner

    Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of potential living liver donors (PLLDs includes the assessment of the biliary anatomy to avoid postoperative complications. Aim of this study was to compare T2-weighted (T2w and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC techniques in the evaluation of PLLDs.30 PLLDs underwent MRC on a 1.5 T Magnetom Avanto (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany using (A 2D T2w HASTE (Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo fat saturated (fs in axial plane, (B 2D T2w HASTE fs thick slices in coronal plane, (C free breathing 3D T2w TSE (turbo spin echo RESTORE (high-resolution navigator corrected plus (D maximum intensity projections (MIPs, (E T2w SPACE (sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions plus (F MIPs and (G T2w TSE BLADE as well as Gd-EOB-DTPA T1w images without (G and with (H inversion recovery. Contrast enhanced CT cholangiography served as reference imaging modality. Two independent reviewers evaluated the biliary tract anatomy on a 5-point scale subjectively and objectively. Data sets were compared using a Mann-Whitney-U-test. Kappa values were also calculated.Source images and maximum intensity projections of 3D T2w TSE sequences (RESTORE and SPACE proved to be best for subjective and objective evaluation directly followed by 2D HASTE sequences. Interobserver variabilities were good to excellent (k = 0.622-0.804.3D T2w sequences are essential for preoperative biliary tract evaluation in potential living liver donors. Furthermore, our results underline the value of different MRCP sequence types for the evaluation of the biliary anatomy in PLLDs including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1w MRC.

  9. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  10. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. CORONIS - International study of caesarean section surgical techniques: the follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Abalos, E; Oyarzun, E; Addo, V.; Sharma, JB; Matthews, J; Oyieke, J; Masood, SN; El Sheikh, MA; Brocklehurst, P.; Farrell, B; Gray, S; Hardy, P.; Jamieson, N; Juszczak, E.; Spark, P

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The CORONIS Trial was a 2×2×2×2×2 non-regular, fractional, factorial trial of five pairs of alternative caesarean section surgical techniques on a range of short-term outcomes, the primary outcome being a composite of maternal death or infectious morbidity. The consequences of different surgical techniques on longer term outcomes have not been well assessed in previous studies. Such outcomes include those related to subsequent pregnancy: mode of delivery; abnormal placentation (e....

  12. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  13. Learning by Doing: An Empirical Study of Active Teaching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Kate L.; Tennial, Rachel E.; Garczynski, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the effectiveness of four teaching techniques (lecture, demonstrations, discussions, and in-class activities) in the classroom. As each technique offers different benefits to the instructor and students, each technique was expected to aid in a different depth of learning. The current findings indicated that each…

  14. Cine CT technique for dynamic airway studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, S.R.; Jolles, H.; Keyes, W.D.; Galvin, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    The advent of cine CT scanning with its 50-msec data acquisition time promises a much wider range of dynamic CT studies. The authors describe a method for dynamic evaluation of the extrathoracic airway, which they believe has considerable potential application in nonfixed upper-airway disease, such as sleep apnea and stridor of unknown cause. Conventional CT is limited in such studies by long data acquisition time and can be used to study only prolonged maneuvers such as phonation. Fluoroscopy and digital subtraction studies are limited by relatively high radiation dose and inability to image all wall motions simultaneously.

  15. An overview of the causes of current practices in Pratinidhi Dravyas (substitution of drugs) in Ayurveda including newer techniques for their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pravin R; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J

    2012-10-01

    Many Pratinidhi Dravyas in Ayurvedic classics are mentioned and certainly are based on a methodical approach, which involves many aspects. These principles on which Pratinidhis were decided are quoted nowhere; so both to understand the established Pratinidhis and to find new ones a rational approach is the need of the hour. This article is an effort in the direction to study this concept meticulously in light of modern techniques for its better understanding and application. As there are very few established parameters, which help for selection and evaluation of Pratinidhi Dravyas. A rational technique like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy may be incorporated to set a new dimension. As most of the routine analytical techniques are separation based, overall component load cannot be predicted. Thus, it is prime necessity to compare the drugs with a whole aspect, which goes in hand by hand with a holistic approach of Ayurveda "Treat the man as Whole - Take the drug as whole."

  16. Questioning Techniques: A Study of Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joan Buchanan

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in an independent all girls' school which serves over six hundred students in grades pre-kindergarten through twelve. This study seeks to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and fuller responses. Through a review of literature, observations, interviews and analysis,…

  17. Study Of Nondestructive Techniques For Testing Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D.; Kautz, H.; Draper, S.; Bansal, N.; Bowles, K.; Bashyam, M.; Bishop, C.

    1995-01-01

    Study evaluates some nondestructive methods for characterizing ceramic-, metal-, and polymer-matrix composite materials. Results demonstrated utility of two ultrasonic methods for obtaining quantitative data on microstructural anomalies in composite materials.

  18. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base.

  19. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral

  20. Meta-analyses including non-randomized studies of therapeutic interventions: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timor Faber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of meta-analyses including data from non-randomized studies for therapeutic evaluation. We aimed to systematically assess the methods used in meta-analyses including non-randomized studies evaluating therapeutic interventions. Methods For this methodological review, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 for meta-analyses including at least one non-randomized study evaluating therapeutic interventions. Etiological assessments and meta-analyses with no comparison group were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed the general characteristics and key methodological components of the systematic review process and meta-analysis methods. Results One hundred eighty eight meta-analyses were selected: 119 included both randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSI and 69 only NRSI. Half of the meta-analyses (n = 92, 49 % evaluated non-pharmacological interventions. “Grey literature” was searched for 72 meta-analyses (38 %. An assessment of methodological quality or risk of bias was reported in 135 meta-analyses (72 % but this assessment considered the risk of confounding bias in only 33 meta-analyses (18 %. In 130 meta-analyses (69 %, the design of each NRSI was not clearly specified. In 131 (70 %, whether crude or adjusted estimates of treatment effect for NRSI were combined was unclear or not reported. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed in 182 meta-analyses (97 % and further explored in 157 (84 %. Reporting bias was assessed in 127 (68 %. Conclusions Some key methodological components of the systematic review process—search for grey literature, description of the type of NRSI included, assessment of risk of confounding bias and reporting of whether crude or adjusted estimates were combined—are not adequately carried out or reported in meta-analyses including NRSI.

  1. An Interagency Study of Depainting Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B.

    1997-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products now contain methylene chloride as their active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will critically curb the use of methylene chloride under an aerospace national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) within the next 2-1/2 years. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed to be both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the U. S. Air Force (USAF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting a technical assessment of nine alternative technologies (i.e.: chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, FLASHJET(TM) coating removal, laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high-pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens, which have been cut, cleaned, painted, and environmentally aged. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, which is now undergoing an initial strip cycle. Metallurgical impacts will be determined after these specimens complete five cycles of preparation and stripping.

  2. Radio Astronomers Develop New Technique for Studying Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    capabilities of current instruments -- the team used their intensity-mapping technique to accumulate the radio waves emitted by the hydrogen gas in large volumes of space including many galaxies. "Since the early part of the 20th Century, astronomers have traced the expansion of the Universe by observing galaxies. Our new technique allows us to skip the galaxy-detection step and gather radio emissions from a thousand galaxies at a time, as well as all the dimly-glowing material between them," said Jeffrey Peterson, of Carnegie Mellon University. The astronomers also developed new techniques that removed both man-made radio interference and radio emission caused by more-nearby astronomical sources, leaving only the extremely faint radio waves coming from the very distant hydrogen gas. The result was a map of part of the "cosmic web" that correlated neatly with the structure shown by the earlier optical study. The team first proposed their intensity-mapping technique in 2008, and their GBT observations were the first test of the idea. "These observations detected more hydrogen gas than all the previously-detected hydrogen in the Universe, and at distances ten times farther than any radio wave-emitting hydrogen seen before," said Ue-Li Pen of the University of Toronto. "This is a demonstration of an important technique that has great promise for future studies of the evolution of large-scale structure in the Universe," said National Radio Astronomy Observatory Chief Scientist Chris Carilli, who was not part of the research team. In addition to Chang, Peterson, and Pen, the research team included Kevin Bandura of Carnegie Mellon University. The scientists reported their work in the July 22 issue of the scientific journal Nature.

  3. THE EVALUATION OF FOLK CULTURE ELEMENTS INCLUDING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Folk culture is a total of common values, behaviors and ways of living patterns produced, kept alive, transferred to the next generations orally or written, informal education and concentrating on traditional areas. There is no doubt that transferring folk culture to the next generations will contribute to the protection of national identities against globalization, an inevitable process. The way of its realization is based on education. One of the most important lessons in which folk culture can be transferred to the young generations in primary education is social studies. The aim of this research is to reveal to what extend folk culture elements were included in 4th,5th, 6th, 7th grade social studies textbooks and workbooks. At the end of the research, which was carried out with scanning model and content analysis, it was found that seasonal festivals, children's games, marriage, processing, women's clothing and dress-ornament, dining-food-beverage, Karagoz, proverbs, folk music/instrument, Turkish folk dances, wrestling, and javelin folk culture elements were mostly included in the textbooks. Since social studies is an interdisciplinary field, it was presented with samples that all the elements of folk culture can be included in social studies textbooks.

  4. [Comparative study of two techniques of ciclosporine monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Rim; El Jebari, Hanène; Gaïes, Emna; Charfi, Ons; Jebabli, Nadia; Thouraya, Riahi; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Ciclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug used in bone marrow transplantation in order to extend allograft survival. Despite its efficiency, CsA can expose to therapeutic failure or to toxicity because of underdosing or overdosage. So, many techniques of monitoring CsA in blood were used, the referance one is the chromatographic technique then, the automated techniques: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and chimiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). In this study, we aimed to compare the results of CsA concentrations measured by the two automised techniques. Statistical studies showed that the two techniques were repeatable and reproductible. Results obtained by FPIA were slightly higher than those obtained by CMIA but without a significative difference. In conclusion, FPIA technique could be used to measure CsA blood concentration in replacement of CMIA in case of technical problems.

  5. How should clinical data be included in experimental studies of cancer immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Bruserud, Øystein

    2004-08-01

    Patients diagnosed with the same malignant disease are often heterogeneous with regard to age, complications, malignant cell morphology and tumor histology, disease stage, prognostic parameters, and previous therapy. Many of these factors can affect immunocompetent cells or influence the malignant cell susceptibility to immunotherapy. Summaries of relevant clinical information should therefore be included in cancer immunology studies to increase the present as well as the future scientific impact. Guidelines for selection of relevant information are suggested in the article.

  6. Relativistic study of the energy-dependent Coulomb potential including Coulomb-like tensor interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hamzavi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The exact Dirac equation for the energy-dependent Coulomb (EDC) potential including a Coulomb-like tensor (CLT) potential has been studied in the presence of spin and pseudospin (p-spin) symmetries with arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number The energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained in the framework of asymptotic iteration method (AIM). Some numerical results are obtained in the presence and absence of EDC and CLT potentials.

  7. Acupuncture for neurological disorders in the Cochrane reviews:Characteristics of included reviews and studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deren Wang; Weimin Yang; Ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize Cochrane reviews of acupuncture for neurological disorders, and characteristics of included reviews and studies.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of the Cochrane Library (Issue 7 of 12, July 2010) was performed with the key word "acupuncture" and systematic evaluations for acupuncture for neurological disorders were screened.STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders were included, and the characteristics of these reviews were analyzed based on methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basic characteristics, methodological quality, main reasons for excluding trials, results and conclusions of Cochrane reviews were assessed.RESULTS: A total of 18 Cochrane systematic reviews were included, including 13 completed reviews and five research protocols. The 13 completed reviews involved 111 randomized controlled trials, including 43 trials (38.7%) conducted in China, 47 trials (42.3%) using sham-acupuncture or placebo as control, 15 trials (13.5%) with relatively high quality, 91 trials (81.9%) reporting data on follow-up. Primary outcomes used in the Cochrane reviews were reported by 65 trials (58.6%), and adverse events were reported in 11 trials (9.9%). Two hundred and eighty three trials were excluded. Two reviews on headache suggested that acupuncture is a valuable non-drug treatment for patients with chronic or recurrent headache, and has better curative effects on migraine compared with preventative drug treatment. CONCLUSION: Of the Cochrane reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders, two reviews evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating headaches drew positive conculsions, while other reviews did not obtain positive conclusions due to a small sample size or low methodological quality. The methodological quality of acupuncture trials needs further improvement.

  8. Applying Business Process Mode ling Techniques : Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Marcinkowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection and proper application of business process modeling methods and techniques have a significant impact on organizational improvement capabilities as well as proper understanding of functionality of information systems that shall support activity of the organization. A number of business process modeling notations were implemented in practice in recent decades. Most significant of the notations include ARIS, Business Process Modeling Notation (OMG BPMN and several Unified Modeling Language (OMG UML extensions. In this paper, the assessment whether one of the most flexible and strictly standardized contempo-rary bus iness process modeling notations, i.e. Rational UML Profile for Business Modeling, enable business analysts to prepare business models that are all-embracing and understandable by all the stakeholders. After the introduction, me-thodology of res earch is discussed. The following section presents selected case study results. The paper is concluded with a summary

  9. Clinicopathological and molecular spectrum of ewing sarcomas/PNETs, including validation of EWSR1 rearrangement by conventional and array FISH technique in certain cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Bharat; Vogel, Ulrich; Basak, Ranjan; Desai, Sangeeta B; Jambhekar, Nirmala A

    2014-07-01

    Over the years, a wide clinicopathological spectrum has been identified within Ewing family of tumors (EFTs). As these tumors are chemosensitive, their correct and timely identification is necessary. The aims of this study were (1) to present the diverse clinicopathological and molecular profile of EFTs in our settings, (2) to identify a pragmatic approach for diagnosing EFTs, especially for application of ancillary techniques, namely RT-PCR for specific transcripts (EWS-FLI1, EWS-ERG) and FISH for EWSR1 gene rearrangement, in certain cases and (3) to show the utility of tissue microarray in establishing a new FISH test. Fifty-eight EFTs were identified in 38 males and 20 females within an age-range of 1-65 years (median, 16), mostly in lower extremities (14) (24.1 %). Therapeutically, most patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent surgery. Histopathologically, diagnosis of EFTs was initially offered in 41/58 (70.6 %) tumors. On review, 59 % tumors showed diffuse pattern, while 41 % displayed rosettes. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were mostly diffusely positive for CD99 (48/52) (92.3 %); FLI-1 (17/18) (94.4 %); variably for BCL2 (16/18) (88.8 %), synaptophysin (6/20) (35 %), S100-P (2/7) (28.5 %), CD56 (2/5) (40 %), NSE (2/5) (40 %), calponin (3/4) (75 %), EMA (5/24) (20.8 %) and CK (3/24) (12.5 %), the latter two mostly focally. Fifty five tumors were EWS-FLI1 positive, while a single tumor was EWS-ERG positive. Sensitivity for PCR was 61 %. EWSR1 rearrangement was detected by FISH in 12/13 Ewing sarcomas/PNETs. Sensitivity for EWSR1 test was 92.3 % and specificity was 100 %. Thirty-eight tumors, including 14 molecular confirmed EFTs and 21 other tumors were tested for EWSR1 rearrangement. Among 21 unrelated tumors, EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in few myoepithelial tumors, occasional desmoplastic small round cell tumor and an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Further, a tissue microarray with a separate set of 8 EFTs, confirmed at

  10. An Empirical Study of Smoothing Techniques for Language Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S F; Chen, Stanley F.; Goodman, Joshua T.

    1996-01-01

    We present an extensive empirical comparison of several smoothing techniques in the domain of language modeling, including those described by Jelinek and Mercer (1980), Katz (1987), and Church and Gale (1991). We investigate for the first time how factors such as training data size, corpus (e.g., Brown versus Wall Street Journal), and n-gram order (bigram versus trigram) affect the relative performance of these methods, which we measure through the cross-entropy of test data. In addition, we introduce two novel smoothing techniques, one a variation of Jelinek-Mercer smoothing and one a very simple linear interpolation technique, both of which outperform existing methods.

  11. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  12. Workplace aggression, including bullying in nursing and midwifery: a descriptive survey (the SWAB study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran

    2012-11-01

    Workplace aggression remains an important source of distress among nurses and midwives and has negative effects on staff health, patient care and organisations' reputation and fiscal health. To report on the nature and extent of workplace aggression, including bullying experienced by nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia. A descriptive study design was chosen. The Nurses Board of Victoria posted 5000 surveys to the randomly selected registered nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The participants were asked about their experiences of violence (from clients) and bullying (from colleagues) within their most recent four working weeks. In addition, the study investigated staff actions following incidents, staff training and safety at work, and what staff believe contribute to incidents. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages. Chi square tests and P value were used to assess differences in categorical data. 1495 returned questionnaires were included in the study (30% response rate). Over half of the participants (52%) experienced some form of workplace aggression. Thirty-six percent experienced violence mostly from patients or their visitors/relatives and 32% experienced bullying mostly from colleagues or from their managers/supervisors. Significant differences were found between those who experienced aggression from patients and those who were bullied in respect to handling of incidents; factors thought to contribute to incidents; and organisations' handling of incidents. The study suggests that staff are less worried by patient initiated aggression compared to bullying from colleagues. For all types of aggression, respondents clearly wanted better/more realistic training, as well as enforcement of policies and support when incidents arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides.

  14. Trends in penetrating and anterior lamellar corneal grafting techniques for keratoconus : A national registry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godefrooij, Daniel A.; Gans, Renze; Imhof, Saskia M.; Wisse, Robert P L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Keratoconus is a progressive disorder and one of the primary indications for corneal transplantation. Anterior lamellar keratoplasty offers several advantages over other techniques, including endothelial preservation and longer graft survival. In this study, we examined the recent trend of

  15. Public Management and Administration Studies. Should we Include Marketind in Our Curricula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. VÁZQUEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of continuous adaptation of public institutions to requirements of framing where they perform day by day, Public Management and Administration is behaving once and again as a “reinvented” discipline, aiming a new kind of rational, innovative public entities that focus their activities towards an effective achievement of their intended results and benefits. Concepts such as those of “efficiency”, “effectiveness”, “responsibility”, “organizational culture”, etc. are now not only applied to business disciplines, but also to Public Management and Administration. At this point, Marketing has proved to be an useful subject in PMA curricula, not only being in demand by students and syllabi designers, but also by experts in the public field. However, applying marketing techniques and procedures in the same way as used in private business is clearly nonsense. We must consider a proper “public marketing” or “public sector marketing” development. In this paper we debate on these issues, as well as present an overview into the situation of Spanish public universities offering PMA studies, just when they are facing the Bologna adaptation requirements. As a conclusion, some comments for reflection are suggested.

  16. Plasma-water systems studied with optical diagnostics including sum-frequency generation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tsuyohito

    2016-09-01

    Recently, various applications of plasma-water systems have been reported, such as materials synthesis, agricultural applications, and medical treatments. As one of basic studies of such systems, we are investigating water surface structure influenced by a plasma via vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is known to be an interfacially active diagnostic technique, as such process occurs in noncentrosymmetric medium. Visible and wavenumber-tunable infrared beams are simultaneously irradiated to the interface. The interfacial water has ice-like ( 3200 cm-1), liquid-like ( 3400 cm-1), and free OH (3700 cm-1) structures (assignment of the ice-like structure still remains contentious), and the intensity of the signal becomes stronger when the tunable infrared beam resonates with a vibration of the structures. The results indicate that with generating air dielectric barrier discharges for supplying reactive species to the water surface, all investigated signals originating from the above-mentioned three structures decrease. Furthermore, the signal strengths are recovered after terminating the plasma generation. We currently believe that the surface density of the reactive species should be high when they are found at the water surface. Details on the experimental results of the sum-frequency generation spectroscopy, as well as other spectroscopic results of plasma-water systems, will be presented at the conference.

  17. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  18. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  19. A Study on TOFD Inspection Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Hee Jong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    The techniques in order to measure the depth of defect in weldment and structure accurately have been developed. Many researches have made efforts to develop the methods for the accurate depth sizing of defect. TOFD is known as the most accurate method of various methods for measuring depth sizing. However, there is a possibility to miss defects because of the limitation of beam coverage for the ultrasound incident angle. In this study, the results for detectability and depth sizing using phased array ultrasonic technique for thick body were compared with those of conventional TOFD technique. It was experimentally confirmed that the phased array ultrasonic TOFD technique gives good detectability and accurate depth measurement for the various types of defects. The phased array ultrasonic TOFD technique developed in this study will contribute to increase the inspection reliability in thick component such as the pressure vessel of power generation industry

  20. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    studies in the Ph.D. project will evaluate whether early spirometry measurements can be used to predict future lung disease and describe the follow up of patients with abnormal spirometry measurements at the general practitioner. Disclosure of interest: None to declare. Key words: early spirometry......Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...

  1. Electrochemical Techniques for the Study of Brain Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, James O.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Using ascorbic acid enzyme assays in conjunction with chronoamperometric measurements, reliable values for the principal electroactive components in the rat caudate extracellular fluid were established. Techniques used in the study are discussed. (JN)

  2. Comparative study on efficacy of three sperm-separation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanXU; Ren-KangLU; LingCHEN; Yan-LuanZHENG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of real-time sperm separation technique (Wang's tube method) and other two conventional methods in isolating high-quality sperm preparation, and to compare the spouse pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination (IUI) with sperm preparations isolated by these methods. Methods: The effectiveness of the real-time sperm separation technique, the conventional swim-up and the Percoll discontinuous density gradient methods in isolating sperm preparations from 60 infertile patients (20 with apparently normal semen and 40, abnormal semen contaminated with microorganisms and other impurities) was evaluated and compared. The microorganisms to bere moved included bacteria, virus, Chlamydia trachomaticum, Ureaplsama urealyticum, etc. The spouse pregnancy rates in IUI with sperm preparations isolated by these three techniques from 80 oligoasthenoteratospermic patients werealso compared. Results: The quality (including the percentages of normal form, normal-chromatin and motilesperm, and the grade of motility) of sperm obtained by the real-time sperm separation technique was much higher ( P<0.01 ) as compared with those by the other two methods. The Wang's tube method was also more effective in removing microorganisms and other impurities. The method provided a higher IUI pregnancy rate than the other two sperm separation techniques ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: The real-time sperm separation technique is the most effective method so far available in isolating high-quality sperm samples to be used in assisted reproduction.

  3. Novel applications of optical techniques to the study of buried semiconductor interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed electronic and structural information about buried semiconductor interfaces obtained through application of optical techniques is discussed. The measurements described include the determination of band discontinuities, strain, and disorder associated with semiconductor heterointerfaces. The contactless and nondestructive nature of these optical techniques is particularly important for the study of heterointerfaces which are inherently inaccessible to direct electrical or physical contact.

  4. A comparative study on preprocessing techniques in diabetic retinopathy retinal images: illumination correction and contrast enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Partovi, Mahsa Eisazadeh; Seyedarabi, Hadi; Javadzadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of preprocessing techniques including contrast enhancement and illumination correction on retinal image quality, a comparative study was carried out. We studied and implemented a few illumination correction and contrast enhancement techniques on color retinal images to find out the best technique for optimum image enhancement. To compare and choose the best illumination correction technique we analyzed the corrected red and green components of color retinal images statistically and visually. The two contrast enhancement techniques were analyzed using a vessel segmentation algorithm by calculating the sensitivity and specificity. The statistical evaluation of the illumination correction techniques were carried out by calculating the coefficients of variation. The dividing method using the median filter to estimate background illumination showed the lowest Coefficients of variations in the red component. The quotient and homomorphic filtering methods after the dividing method presented good results based on their low Coefficients of variations. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization increased the sensitivity of the vessel segmentation algorithm up to 5% in the same amount of accuracy. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization technique has a higher sensitivity than the polynomial transformation operator as a contrast enhancement technique for vessel segmentation. Three techniques including the dividing method using the median filter to estimate background, quotient based and homomorphic filtering were found as the effective illumination correction techniques based on a statistical evaluation. Applying the local contrast enhancement technique, such as CLAHE, for fundus images presented good potentials in enhancing the vasculature segmentation.

  5. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  6. A Study of Typhoon Intensity Change by Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Lin, C.-Y.; Kuo, N.-J.; Huang, S.-J.

    2012-04-01

    The western North Pacific is the area of the most frequent typhoons strikes over the world. Each year, about 6-10 typhoons of Category 4 or 5 in the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale emerging in the western North Pacific. These severe typhoons not only bring drastic impact for the coastal area through powerful winds and torrential rain, but also stir the ocean surface and cause upper ocean response along its passage. The ocean response plays one of the most important roles in air-sea interaction. The primary purpose of this study is employing a data mining technique in retrieving passible influence parameters on typhoon intensity change. The possible influence parameters include sea surface temperature, atmospheric water vapour, rain rate, sea surface height anomaly, and air-sea temperature difference. The sea surface temperature data is derived from the Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer. The atmospheric water vapour and rain rate data are from TMI. The sea surface height anomaly is a blended data accessed from satellite altimetry, and the air temperature data is from National Centre for Environmental Prediction. Totally 14 Category-5 typhoons occurred between 2003 and 2007 in the western North Pacific are analyzed in this study, which decision tree algorithm is applied as the data mining technique. The results show that air-sea temperature difference and sea surface temperature intensify the typhoon most. Due to higher sea surface temperature can provide more heat potential to the atmosphere, and the larger temperature difference between sea and air can also provide more heat energy to the atmosphere, once a typhoon passes over the ocean where sea surface temperature is higher than air temperature, about 88% of typhoon intensity is enhanced. This data mining model is further validated by using the data of super typhoon JANGMI (2008). It shows 82.3% of accuracy prediction and 85.7% for precision.

  7. Precision study of ZZγ production including Z-boson leptonic decays at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Peng-Fei [Kunming University of Science and Technology, City College, Kunming, Yunnan (China); Ma, Wen-Gan; Zhang, Ren-You; Chen, Chong [University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Department of Modern Physics, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the precision predictions for the e{sup +}e{sup -} → ZZγ process including Z-boson leptonic decays at the ILC in the standard model (SM). The calculation includes the full next-to-leading (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections and high order initial state radiation (h.o. ISR) contributions. We find that the NLO EW corrections heavily suppress the LO cross section, and the h.o. ISR effects are notable near the threshold while become small in high energy region. We present the LO and the NLO EW+h.o. ISR corrected distributions of the transverse momenta of final Z-boson and photon as well as the Z-pair invariant mass, and we investigate the corresponding NLO EW and h.o. ISR relative corrections. We also study the leptonic decays of the final Z-boson pair by adopting the MadSpin method where the spin correlation effect is involved. We conclude that both the h.o. ISR effects and the NLO EW corrections are important in exploring the ZZγ production at the ILC. (orig.)

  8. Precision study on $ZZ\\gamma$ production including $Z$-boson leptonic decays at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Zhang; Wen-Gan, Ma; Ren-You, Zhang; Chong, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report on the precision predictions for the \\eezzr process including $Z$-boson leptonic decays at the ILC in the standard model (SM). The calculation includes the full next-to-leading (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections and high order initial state radiation (h.o.ISR) contributions. We find that the NLO EW corrections heavily suppress the LO cross section, and the h.o.ISR effects are notable near the threshold while become small in high energy region. We present the LO and the NLO EW+h.o.ISR corrected distributions of the transverse momenta of final $Z$-boson and photon as well as the $Z$-pair invariant mass, and investigate the corresponding NLO EW and h.o.ISR relative corrections. We also study the leptonic decays of the final $Z$-boson pair by adopting the {\\sc MadSpin} method where the spin correlation effect is involved. We conclude that both the h.o.ISR effects and the NLO EW corrections are important in exploring the $ZZ\\gamma$ production at the ILC.

  9. Electron diffraction study of {alpha}-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-06-01

    The structure of crystalline {alpha}-AlMnSi is examined by electron diffraction. Six distinct zone axes are examined, including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes, allowing the space group symmetry to be studied. Electron diffraction patterns characteristic of Pm3-bar were obtained for thicker specimens. However, for very thin specimens, as used for HRTEM imaging, the electron diffraction patterns were characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. The structural basis of the Pm3-bar to Im3-bar transformation may be understood in terms of an analysis of the icosahedral structural elements located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. A method for indexing the non-crystallographic zone axis diffraction patterns is described. An electron diffraction pattern of the 5-fold axis of the quasicrystalline phase i-AlMnSi is also included; this is compared with the experimental results and calculations for the [0{tau}1] axis of Pm3-bar and Im3-bar crystalline phases. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  11. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  12. A Study on the Operation Strategy for Combined Accident including TLOFW accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Gook Young [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-10-15

    It is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of a feed-and-bleed (F-B) operation when the loss of coolant accident and failure of secondary side occur. An F-B operation directly cools down the reactor coolant system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. The plant is not always necessary the F-B operation when the secondary side is failed. It is not necessary to initiate an F-B operation in the case of a medium or large break because these cases correspond to low RCS pressure sequences when the secondary side is failed. If the break size is too small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the F-B operation is necessary. Therefore, in the case of a combined accident including a secondary cooling system failure, the provision of clear information will play a critical role in the operators' decision to initiate an F-B operation. This study focuses on the how we establish the operation strategy for combined accident including the failure of secondary side in consideration of plant and operating conditions. Previous studies have usually focused on accidents involving a TLOFW accident. The plant conditions to make the operators confused seriously are usually the combined accident because the ORP only focuses on a single accident and FRP is less familiar with operators. The relationship between CET and PCT under various plant conditions is important to decide the limitation of initiating the F-B operation to prevent core damage.

  13. Drug eruptions: An 8-year study including 106 inpatients at a dermatology clinic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Akpinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer: Comparative studies including radical prostatectomy specimens and template transperineal biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Toner

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: mpMRI has an increasing role for PCa diagnosis, staging, and directing management toward improving patient outcomes. Its sensitivity and specificity when compared with RP and TTPB specimens are less than what some expect, possibly reflecting a learning curve for the technique of mpMRI.

  15. Analytical Study of Feature Extraction Techniques in Opinion Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although opinion mining is in a nascent stage of de velopment but still the ground is set for dense growth of researches in the field. One of the important activities of opinion mining is to extract opinions of people based on characteristics of the object under study. Feature extraction in opinion mining can be done by various ways like that of clustering, support vector machines etc. This paper is an attempt to appraise the vario us techniques of feature extraction. The first part discusses various techniques and second part m akes a detailed appraisal of the major techniques used for feature extraction.

  16. Pyrometry temperature studies of shocked tin including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil diameter and the integration with emissivity diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton-Taylor, Caroline; de'Ath, James; Ota, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Accurate temperature measurement of shock-loaded systems continues to present experimental challenges. With short measurable time durations diagnostic methods are almost exclusively restricted to optical techniques. By preventing full sample pressure unloading, through the use of an anvil, partial release temperature measurements can be deduced from multiple wavelength optical pyrometry. This paper presents our recent studies of tin shocked to 28GPa including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil dimensions and the integration with emissivity diagnostics. The results indicate that a ring groove, 5mm across and with a nominal machined depth of 50 microns, acts to enhance the measured temperature by approximately 150K. Additionally on reducing the LiF anvil diameter from 20mm to 15mm, comparable partial release temperatures were observed. With the anticipated development of multiple anvil target designs, the smaller anvil diameter is desirable. British Crown Copyright 2009/MOD.

  17. ANFIS-based approach to studying subthreshold behavior including the traps effect for nanoscale thin-film DG MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Bentrcia; F.Djeffal; E.Chebaaki

    2013-01-01

    A fuzzy framework based on an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to evaluate the relative degradation of the basic subthreshold parameters due to hot-carrier effects for nanoscale thin-film double-gate (DG) MOSFETs.The effect of the channel length and thickness on the resulting degradation is addressed,and 2-D numerical simulations are used for the elaboration of the training database.Several membership function shapes are developed,and the best one in terms of accuracy is selected.The predicted results agree well with the 2-D numerical simulations and can be efficiently used to investigate the impact of the interface fixed charges and quantum confinement on nanoscale DG MOSFET subthreshold behavior.Therefore,the proposed ANFIS-based approach offers a simple and accurate technique to study nanoscale devices,including the hot-carrier and quantum effects.

  18. Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-03-15

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency - and possibly also suicide risk - is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences.

  19. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1ccardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency - and possibly also suicide risk - is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences. PMID:28294195

  1. Techniques for preparing of guide planes: in vitro comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Eduardo Shigueyuki; Assistant Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry of the São Paulo State University.; Silva, João Maurício; Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos - UNESP; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Assistant Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry of the São Paulo State University.; Yamamoto, Eron Toshio Colauto; Clinical Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the School of Dentistry of the 9th of July University.

    2014-01-01

    The correct parallelism of guiding planes when constructing a Removable Partial Denture not only defines the axis of insertion and removal of the prosthesis, but also limits the possible axes of movement during functioning. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare some techniques and the use of an intra-oral device for those preparations. Dummies were performed in a direct manner, simulating the absence of teeth 15, 45, 12 and 42. The four preparation techniques chosen were: Group 1...

  2. Physiological techniques in the study of rapid aldosterone effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef, Yamil R; Thomas, Warren; Harvey, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging and electrophysiological techniques are powerful tools to analyze the responses stimulated by aldosterone and other hormones in target tissues. Studies with Ussing-type chambers can be used to measure and characterize changes in transepithelial currents resulting from hormone treatment. Confocal imaging techniques can be used in real time or in fixed preparations to evaluate the localization of receptors, signalling intermediates, and transporters.

  3. Molecular techniques for the study and diagnosis of parasite infection

    OpenAIRE

    RG Tavares; R. Staggemeier; ALP Borges; MT Rodrigues; LA Castelan; J Vasconcelos; ME Anschau; SM Spalding

    2011-01-01

    In parasitology, routine laboratory diagnosis involves conventional methods, such as optical microscopy, used for the morphological identification of parasites. Currently, molecular biology techniques are increasingly used to diagnose parasite structures in order to enhance the identification and characterization of parasites. The objective of the present study was to review the main current and new diagnostic techniques for confirmation of parasite infections, namely: polymerase chain reacti...

  4. Survey Study of Moso Bamboo Management Techniques Dissemination in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By PRA survey to 1 245 farmer households of 10 key Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production counties, the source and demand of the management techniques in Zhejiang were studied. The conducted principal factor analysis revealed that experience and traditional knowledge are currently major technical sources of farmer households' Moso bamboo forest management techniques and that the demonstrative household is a highly expected technical source, in which the prime factor is interpersonal dissemination ...

  5. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  6. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  7. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-12-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl₂ treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  8. Should abdominal sequences be included in prostate cancer MR staging studies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, S.H., E-mail: sineadhmcevoy@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Lavelle, L.P.; Purcell, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Quinlan, D.M. [Department of Urology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Skehan, S.J.; Collins, C.D.; McMahon, C.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • ESUR guideline that abdominal MR sequences are reserved for high-risk prostate cancer is tested. • Routine abdominal sequences are of low yield in prostate cancer MR staging. • Routine abdominal staging sequences frequently result in incidental findings. • Abdominal staging sequences should be reserved for high-risk prostate cancer cases. - Abstract: Objectives: Prostate cancer staging MR examinations commonly include abdominal sequences to assess for non-regional (common iliac or para-aortic) nodal metastasis. In our experience the diagnostic yield of this is limited, but incidental findings are frequent, often necessitating further investigations. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of abdominal sequences in routine prostate cancer MR staging studies. Methods: Findings on abdominal sequences of consecutive MRI prostate studies performed for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer between September 2011 and September 2013 were reviewed with respect to adenopathy and additional incidental findings. Results were correlated with Gleason grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in each case. Results: 355 MRI prostate examinations were reviewed. 4 (1.1%) showed enlarged non-regional lymph nodes. Incidental findings were found in 82(23.1%) cases, neccessitating further investigation in 45 (12.7%) cases. Enlarged non-regional nodes were associated with higher PSA level and Gleason grade (p = 0.007, p = 0.005 respectively). With a combined threshold of PSA > 20 ng/mL and/or Gleason grade ≥8 the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100, 60, 3 and 100% respectively for predicting the presence of non-regional adenopathy. Conclusions: Routine abdominal sequences are of very low yield in routine prostate cancer MR staging, frequently resulting in incidental findings requiring further work-up and should be reserved for high-risk cases. Our experience supports the use of an abdominal staging sequence in high

  9. Comparative study of nail sampling techniques in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Avner; Davidovici, Batya; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Trau, Henri; Amichai, Boaz

    2009-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common problem. Obtaining accurate laboratory test results before treatment is important in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare results of curettage and drilling techniques of nail sampling in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and to establish the best technique and location of sampling. We evaluated 60 patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis and lateral subungual onychomycosis using curettage and vertical and horizontal drilling sampling techniques from three different sites of the infected nail. KOH examination and fungal culture were used for detection and identification of fungal infection. At each sample site, the horizontal drilling technique has a better culture sensitivity than curettage. Trichophyton rubrum was by far the most common pathogen detected by both techniques from all sampling sites. The drilling technique was found to be statistically better than curettage at each site of sampling, furthermore vertical drilling from the proximal part of the affected nail was found to be the best procedure for nail sampling. With each technique we found that the culture sensitivity improved as the location of the sample was more proximal. More types of pathogens were detected in samples taken by both methods from proximal parts of the affected nails.

  10. [Bipolar disorder and quality of life: A cross-sectional study including 104 Tunisian patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrag, I; Hajji, K; Hadj Ammar, M; Zarrouk, L; Kachouri, R; Nasr, M

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder affects many psychosocial and functional aspects, leading to a real social handicap and an alteration in quality of life. To evaluate bipolar patients' quality of life and to identify the risk factors responsible for a deterioration. Our cross-sectional study lasted for four months and included 104 bipolar patients treated at the psychiatry consultation of the university hospital in Mahdia. The data were collected through a questionnaire composed of 52 items exploring the general characteristics of subjects, the clinical and evolutional characteristics of bipolar disorder and providing information on the treatment. Quality of life was measured using the SF-36 (Short form) generic scale. A global average score was calculated and it was considered that quality of life was altered if the score was less than 66.7, according to the threshold value of Léan. Moreover, an average score was calculated for each dimension, thus permitting us to identify those most affected. We standardized initial average scores. The assessment of quality of life revealed a global average of 52.2 and an alteration in 78.8% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that all dimensions were affected. The standardization also revealed deterioration in all dimensions, the mental component being particularly more affected than the physical component with respectively estimated scores of 31.7 and 40.5. The analytic approach concerned the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables and the occurrence of an alteration in quality of life. For this effect, a bivariate study displayed a statistically significant correlation between the eight dimensions of the SF-36 and 8 variables. In order to take into account the relationships that link each variable to the others, and to avoid the bias of the bivariate study, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Only 4 variables with discriminating weight emerged from this analysis. According to the

  11. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  12. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical study of bipolar heterocyclic systems, including 1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, D. G.; Mayorova, O. A.; Gorbunov, A. A.; Vasyanin, A. N.; Dmitriev, M. V.; Shklyaeva, E. V.; Abashev, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    Two new 3,5-dihetarylsubstituted 1,2,4- oxadiazoles 8 a,b, including N-alkyl substituted carbazole and thiophene moieties, were synthesized as potential components of materials for organic electronics devices. Optical and electrochemical properties of all new compounds were investigated. On the basis of the experimental UV absorption data, the values of bandgap energies equal to 3.44 eV (8a) and 3.05 eV (8b) were determined. The values of their ionization potentials, HOMO levels (-5.62 eV for 8a, -5.46 eV - for 8b), as well as their electron affinity levels, LUMO levels (-2.2 eV for 8a, -2.4 eV - for 8b), were calculated from the results of electrochemical studies. The energy of the triplet excited states of 8 a,b was defined with the help of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), comprising 2.68 eV (8a) and 2.32 eV (8b), where the greatest value of this parameter was for the compound with a shorter conjugation chain.

  13. Fluoroscopic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: techniques and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carpintero de la Vega, M; García Villar, C

    Fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasing less common due to the introduction of other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and to the increased availability of endoscopy. Nevertheless, fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract continue to appear in clinical guidelines and some of their indications are still valid. These studies are dynamic, operator-dependent examinations that require training to obtain the maximum diagnostic performance. This review aims to describe the technique and bring the indications for this imaging modality up to date. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  15. An empirical study on the performance of spectral manifold learning techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Peter; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    as they are subjected to increasingly difficult problems. We evaluate performance in terms of both a classification and a regression task. Our study includes Isomap, LLE, Laplacian eigenmaps, and diffusion maps. Among others, our results indicate that the techniques are highly dependent on data density, sensitive......In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in spectral manifold learning techniques. Despite the interest, only little work has focused on the empirical behavior of these techniques. We construct synthetic data of variable complexity and observe the performance of the techniques...... to scaling, and greatly influenced by intrinsic dimensionality....

  16. Comparative study of Authorship Identification Techniques for Cyber Forensics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Nirkhi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Authorship Identification techniques are used to identify the most appropriate author from group of potential suspects of online messages and find evidences to support the conclusion. Cybercriminals make misuse of online communication for sending blackmail or a spam email and then attempt to hide their true identities to void detection.Authorship Identification of online messages is the contemporary research issue for identity tracing in cyber forensics. This is highly interdisciplinary area as it takes advantage of machine learning, information retrieval, and natural language processing. In this paper, a study of recent techniques and automated approaches to attributing authorship of online messages is presented. The focus of this review study is to summarize all existing authorship identification techniques used in literature to identify authors of online messages. Also it discusses evaluation criteria and parameters for authorship attribution studies and list open questions that will attract future work in this area.

  17. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  18. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin orbit coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗旺; 李瑞; 盖志强; 艾瑞波; 张宏民; 张晓美; 闫冰

    2016-01-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin–orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg)+O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm−1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ−, and their spin–orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+and 13Σ+are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+to X1Σ+and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+states are evaluated.

  19. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  20. Comparison of two impression techniques for auricular prosthesis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kasim; Mani, U M; Seenivasan, M K; Vaidhyanathan, A K; Veeravalli, P T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare the accuracy of a new impression technique, the triple-layer impression technique (TLIT), with the conventional impression technique (CIT) to fabricate an auricular prosthesis. Fifteen male subjects (aged 22-45 yr) were selected. Ten markings were made on the subject's ear (super aurale [sa], sub aurale [sba], pre aurale [pra], post aurale [poa], A, A1, B, B1, C, and C1) and five measurements (sa-sba, pra-poa, A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1) were made. Custom-made trays were used to record impression in CIT and TLIT. Impressions were made using alginate, and models were cast with type IV gypsum product. Markings were transferred on the cast. Measurements were rechecked on the models. Distribution analysis of difference in measurements between the two impression techniques and the subject's actual values was evaluated. Sign test was used to analyze the statistical significance. Statistically significant differences were found in measurements A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1 between the two techniques when compared with the subject's actual dimensions (p < 0.01). TLIT was found to produce accurate models when compared with CIT. The TLIT used in the study was cost effective, less technique sensitive, and tailor made to reduce chairside orientation time during wax try-in appointments for rehabilitating patients, especially those with unilateral auricular defects.

  1. [Stereoscopic neuroanatomy: comparative study between anaglyphic and light polarization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Murilo Sousa; Cruz, André Vieira; Castro, Izara Almeida; Pedrozo, Ari A

    2002-09-01

    The need of didactic material is increasing in medical science nowadays. The lack of anatomical specimens, and the toxicity of conservators, have originated an intense search for alternative ways of demonstrating the human anatomy. As a solution for this difficulty, three-dimensional (3-D) images may be used, facilitating the learning process. This study aims at comparing and describing two techniques of reproduction of bi-dimensional images into three dimensions, which is called stereoscopy. The methods evaluated are filter of colors (anaglyphic) and polarized light. Techniques were analyzed for clearness and 3-D effect. Fourteen images were evaluated by 5 people, with scores ranging from 0 to 4. Total mean scores of polarized light was superior compared to the anaglyphic technique. Both methods use the codification of the image, which means separation and exclusivity with each eye seeing its corresponding image. After several photographic essays and gradual adaptation to a better technique, based on optical physics, photography and neuroanatomical knowledge, we concluded that both techniques are suitable means for production of 3-D images. The best technique, however, considering the final quality of image was polarized light, which did not alter the natural color of the specimen, conserving clearness of images with lower cost.

  2. Image analysis techniques for the study of turbulent flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Simone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a brief review of Digital Image Analysis techniques employed in Fluid Mechanics for the study of turbulent flows is given. Particularly the focus is on the techniques developed by the research teams the Author worked in, that can be considered relatively “low cost” techniques. Digital Image Analysis techniques have the advantage, when compared to the traditional techniques employing physical point probes, to be non-intrusive and quasi-continuous in space, as every pixel on the camera sensor works as a single probe: consequently, they allow to obtain two-dimensional or three-dimensional fields of the measured quantity in less time. Traditionally, the disadvantages are related to the frequency of acquisition, but modern high-speed cameras are typically able to acquire at frequencies from the order of 1 KHz to the order of 1 MHz. Digital Image Analysis techniques can be employed to measure concentration, temperature, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration and pressure fields with similar equipment and setups, and can be consequently considered as a flexible and powerful tool for measurements on turbulent flows.

  3. Three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Nethravathy; Santhana Krishnan Vinoth; Ashwin Varghese Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A short clinical crown may lead to poor retention form thereby leading to improper tooth preparation. Surgical crown lengthening procedure is done to increase the clinical crown length without violating the biologic width. Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening which includes gingivectomy, apically displaced flap with or without resective osseous surgery, and surgical extrusion using periotome. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare clinical...

  4. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imel, George R. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Baker, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, Tony [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Schenectady, NY (United States); Langbehn, Adam [Puget Sound Naval Base, Bremerton, WA (United States); Aryal, Harishchandra [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Benzerga, M. Lamine [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-04-11

    This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.

  6. Implementation of Traditional and Real-World Cooperative Learning Techniques in Quantitative Analysis Including Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Analysis of Live Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Tracy P.; Kalivas, John H.

    2000-10-01

    It is important for a modern quantitative analysis laboratory course to contain gravimetric and volumetric analysis exercises implemented with standard unknowns. By analyzing unknowns, students learn crucial laboratory skills. It is also advantageous to introduce real-world samples and cooperative learning structure into the lab course. A one-semester sophomore course at Idaho State University is divided into two parts: students individually perform traditional unknown analyses, and as groups, they study an aquatic ecosystem simulated by a trout aquarium. Ecosystem analyses include the important chemical components of the nitrogen cycle, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity. In addition to examining the aquatic system, trout are removed temporarily from the aquarium for analysis of lipid and moisture content using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. For the ecosystem investigation, students also determine costs of analyses and conduct quality-control studies. At the completion of the course, students are well versed in classical methods of analysis as well as educated on the relevance of modern technology, including up-to-date instrumentation and sophisticated multivariate calibration and prediction procedures. Course assessment results are summarized in the paper.

  7. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  8. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.V. Vigneswaran

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  9. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  10. Review of traffic conflicts technique studies. Third edition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A review of literature concerning traffic conflicts technique studies is presented. The 204 references arranged, alphabetically by authors' names are given with abstracts. The procedure used in comping this survey is outlined. Third revised edition, with 103 new publications since 1979.

  11. Experimental Techniques for Studies in Atomic & Molecular Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Heijkenskjöld, Filip

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is based on a selection of six different experimental techniques used for studies in atomic and molecular physics. The techniques analysed in the thesis are compared to find similarities in strategies and ways to avoid sources of error. Paper 1 deals with collision based spectroscopy with 60 keV Xe6+ ions on sodium and argon gas targets. Information on energy of Rydberg states in Xe5+ is unveiled by optical spectroscopy in the wavelength range from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to visi...

  12. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  13. Study of ion implantation profiles by the PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midy, P.; Lagarde, G.; Brissaud, I.; Frontier, J. P.; Chaumont, J.

    1998-03-01

    The RBS technique is currently used with alpha particles as a non-destructive way of studying concentration depth profiles. This technique is especially convenient in characterizing heavy atom distributions inside a matrix of lighter elements, and its use is less convenient in the case of light elements in a matrix of heavier ones. On the other hand the probing depth is limited by the small range of alpha particles in the matrix. We present here a new procedure for determining ion implantation profiles by means of the PIXE technique and by varying the impinging proton energy. As an example, silicon ions of two energies have been implanted into pure titanium samples in order to obtain implantation profiles with a double peak. The results presented here are in good agreement with the calculations using the TRIM code.

  14. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  15. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1993-01-01

    A summary of optical techniques for the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels are discussed. Six optical techniques were studied: Schlieren, light sheet and laser vapor screen, angle of attack, model deformation, infrared imagery, and digital image processing. The study includes surveys and reviews of wind tunnel optical techniques, some conceptual designs, and recommendations for use of optical methods in the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels. Particular emphasis was placed on searching for systems developed for wind tunnel use and on commercial systems which could be readily adapted for wind tunnels. This final report is to summarize the major results and recommendations.

  16. Contemporary educational techniques of studying finance and financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Suyetin Alexander; Suyetin Sergei; Zharikov Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The article is dealing with modern techniques of teaching students as well as interested parties of various courses in economic disciplines. The article covers new approaches to studying finance and financial markets. The article shows the necessity of studying finance and financial markets. The authors come up with the proposals how to improve the educational level of different categories of society. The article considers the methods of distant learning when working on the financial markets.

  17. Contemporary educational techniques of studying finance and financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyetin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dealing with modern techniques of teaching students as well as interested parties of various courses in economic disciplines. The article covers new approaches to studying finance and financial markets. The article shows the necessity of studying finance and financial markets. The authors come up with the proposals how to improve the educational level of different categories of society. The article considers the methods of distant learning when working on the financial markets.

  18. An induction machine model including interbar currents for studying performances during transients and steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razik, H. [Universite Henri Poincare, GREEN, CNRS-UMR 7037, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Henao, H. [University of Picardie, CREA, 33 rue Saint Leu, F-80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Carlson, R. [GRUCAD/CTC/UFSC, Campus Universitario, C.P. 436, Florianopolis - SC, 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model of a three-phase induction motor taking into consideration the interbar contacts. Several models have been available in the references. However, they consider the rotor of the induction motor as being constituted either a three-phase or a squirrel cage even if it operates under stator and/or rotor faults condition. Nonetheless, the contact between a bar and the iron core for the machine has to be considered, especially when a rotor fault occurs. It is obvious that rotor currents are under the influence of rotor constitution materials. So, the paper aim's concerns a transient model of the induction motors which can consider the rotor broken bars defect. Despite its increasing complexity, it could be able to provide with useful indications for diagnostic purposes. This model is advocated for the simulation of motors behavior under rotor defect which takes into account the interbar currents. The proposed technique is based on the mesh model analysis of the squirrel cage. As low power induction motors are prevalent in industrial plants, we pay a special attention on them. Notwithstanding, additional currents are due to the contact between the non-insulated bar constituting the squirrel cage to the rotor iron core. The monitoring of induction motors is predominantly made through the stator current analysis of the motor when it operates at nominal condition. Moreover, this one is observed in steady state operating system, knowing that the motor is generally fed by a sinusoidal supply. Consequently, simulation results showed in this paper prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and the impact of interbar resistance both on the model and the line current spectrum for the diagnostic. An experimental test proves the effectiveness of this model. (author)

  19. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  20. Community Biodiversity Management and Empowerment : Documentation of the Sites included in a Global Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, M.H.; Boef, de W.S.; Borman, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    This document contains comprehensive descriptions of all the sites in which the Global CBM Study was conducted. For brevity, future publications sharing results, conclusions and experiences of the Global CBM Study will omit such detailed descriptions and instead will provide reference to this public

  1. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical study of bipolar heterocyclic systems, including 1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova D. G.; Mayorova O. A.; Gorbunov A.A.; Vasyanin A. N.; Dmitriev M. V.; Shklyaeva E. V.; Abashev G.G.

    2016-01-01

    Two new 3,5-dihetarylsubstituted 1,2,4- oxadiazoles 8 a,b, including N-alkyl substituted carbazole and thiophene moieties, were synthesized as potential components of materials for organic electronics devices. Optical and electrochemical properties of all new compounds were investigated. On the basis of the experimental UV absorption data, the values of bandgap energies equal to 3.44 eV (8a) and 3.05 eV (8b) were determined. The values of their ionization potentials, H...

  2. Techniques and methods to study functional characteristics of emulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ting Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of the functional food market, bioactive ingredients from natural sources are discovered one after another for their ability to promote better health and prevent chronic diseases. Emulsion, widely occurring in many food systems, has become a popular vehicle to facilitate the incorporation of bioactive components into the food system. Depending on the designated functionality, an emulsion can be developed with various physical and chemical properties. To ensure the successful development of a high-quality emulsion-based system to serve their purpose in food, knowledge of the analytical methods that could efficiently evaluate their quality parameters is important for investigators who work in this field. In this work, important emulsion properties are overviewed, and techniques that are commonly used to assess them are provided. Discussions and recommendations are also included to make suggestions on advantages and disadvantages when selecting suitable techniques and methods to characterize these quality parameters of emulsion systems.

  3. Experimental study of digital image processing techniques for LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifman, S. S. (Principal Investigator); Allendoerfer, W. B.; Caron, R. H.; Pemberton, L. J.; Mckinnon, D. M.; Polanski, G.; Simon, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results are reported for: (1) subscene registration, (2) full scene rectification and registration, (3) resampling techniques, (4) and ground control point (GCP) extraction. Subscenes (354 pixels x 234 lines) were registered to approximately 1/4 pixel accuracy and evaluated by change detection imagery for three cases: (1) bulk data registration, (2) precision correction of a reference subscene using GCP data, and (3) independently precision processed subscenes. Full scene rectification and registration results were evaluated by using a correlation technique to measure registration errors of 0.3 pixel rms thoughout the full scene. Resampling evaluations of nearest neighbor and TRW cubic convolution processed data included change detection imagery and feature classification. Resampled data were also evaluated for an MSS scene containing specular solar reflections.

  4. Kundalini yoga as mutual recovery: a feasibility study including children in care and their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Elvira; Ball, Mark; Brown, Poppy; Crepaz-Keay, David; Haslam-Jones, Emily; Crawford, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed-methods feasibility study to test whether incorporating a 20-week Kundalini yoga program into a children’s home community improves wellbeing outcomes. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and retention rates as well as participants’ self-report perceptions on social inclusion, mental health, wellbeing and semi-structured interviews on the benefits of the study. Mutual recovery entailed that children in care (CiC), youth practitioners, and management participated togeth...

  5. Assessment Techniques in the Second-Cycle Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Kerevičienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and evaluation are among the essential functions performed by an educator. What is more, they are closely related to the communication of the teaching process efficiency in terms of verification of learner and educator expectations, determination of learning and teaching quality achievement, and generalization of educational activities. The present study aims at the analysis of assessment techniques applied in the master degree linguistic studies. Initially, a brief theoretical overview of both formal and informal assessment me- thods is provided, with the focus on their distinctive features and ways of application in the light of Bloom’s taxonomy and Dublin description representing the competence requirements set for the gain of definite skills. Further, the results of the survey (conducted at Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University are described. Finally, the eligible assessment techniques serving the purpose of efficient educational process in the second-cycle study process are identified.

  6. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUALITATIVE ELLIPSOMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE STUDY OF CORROSION PROCESSES UNDER ORGANIC COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, J; Kruger, J.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the further development of an ellipsometric technique used to study corrosion processes under organic coatings. These developments include the ability to (1) detect the effect of different organic coating, (2) distinguish between surface roughening and film growth or dissolution, and (3) study corrosion processes occurring on separate anodic and cathodic sites.

  7. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  8. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  9. Study of Power Flow Algorithm of AC/DC Distribution System including VSC-MTDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, distributed generation and a large number of sensitive AC and DC loads have been connected to distribution networks, which introduce a series of challenges to distribution network operators (DNOs. In addition, the advantages of DC distribution networks, such as the energy conservation and emission reduction, mean that the voltage source converter based multi-terminal direct current (VSC-MTDC for AC/DC distribution systems demonstrates a great potential, hence drawing growing research interest. In this paper, considering losses of the reactor, the filter and the converter, a mathematical model of VSC-HVDC for the load flow analysis is derived. An AC/DC distribution network architecture has been built, based on which the differences in modified equations of the VSC-MTDC-based network under different control modes are analyzed. In addition, corresponding interface functions under five control modes are provided, and a back/forward iterative algorithm which is applied to power flow calculation of the AC/DC distribution system including VSC-MTDC is proposed. Finally, by calculating the power flow of the modified IEEE14 AC/DC distribution network, the efficiency and validity of the model and algorithm are evaluated. With various distributed generations connected to the network at appropriate locations, power flow results show that network losses and utilization of transmission networks are effectively reduced.

  10. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies : study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Formation mechanism of present day population of elliptical galaxies have been revisited in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers through cross correlation function including spatial effect. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of nearby massive early type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation in the spatial coordinates, right ascension and declination (RA, DEC) and mass-size parameter space with high redshift $(0.5\\leq z\\leq2.7)$ ETGs. It is found that innermost components of nearby ETGs are highly correlated with ETGs in the redshift range $(2\\leq z\\leq2.7)$ known as 'red nuggets'. The intermediate and outermost parts have moderate correlations with ETGs in the redshift range $(0.5\\leq z\\leq0.75)$. The quantitative measures are highly consistent with the two phase formation scenario of massive nearby early type galaxies as suggested by various authors and resolves the conflict raised in a previous work sugges...

  11. A Study on Feature Selection Techniques in Educational Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaswami, M

    2009-01-01

    Educational data mining (EDM) is a new growing research area and the essence of data mining concepts are used in the educational field for the purpose of extracting useful information on the behaviors of students in the learning process. In this EDM, feature selection is to be made for the generation of subset of candidate variables. As the feature selection influences the predictive accuracy of any performance model, it is essential to study elaborately the effectiveness of student performance model in connection with feature selection techniques. In this connection, the present study is devoted not only to investigate the most relevant subset features with minimum cardinality for achieving high predictive performance by adopting various filtered feature selection techniques in data mining but also to evaluate the goodness of subsets with different cardinalities and the quality of six filtered feature selection algorithms in terms of F-measure value and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) value, generat...

  12. Molecular techniques for the study and diagnosis of parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Tavares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In parasitology, routine laboratory diagnosis involves conventional methods, such as optical microscopy, used for the morphological identification of parasites. Currently, molecular biology techniques are increasingly used to diagnose parasite structures in order to enhance the identification and characterization of parasites. The objective of the present study was to review the main current and new diagnostic techniques for confirmation of parasite infections, namely: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, Luminex xMAP, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, in addition to microsatellites. Molecular assays have comprehensively assisted in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiological studies of parasitic diseases that affect people worldwide, helping to control parasitic disease mortality.

  13. Extensive ab initio study of the electronic states of BSe radical including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Yufang

    2016-06-01

    The internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method (MRCI) with Davidson modification and the Douglas-Kroll scalar relativistic correction has been used to calculate the BSe molecule at the level of aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated electronic states, including 9 doublet and 6 quartet Λ-S states, are correlated to the dissociation limit of B(2Pu) + Se(3Pg) and B(2Pu) + Se(1Dg). The Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction is taken into account via the state interaction approach with the full Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian operator, which causes the entire 15 Λ-S states to split into 32 Ω states. This is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling calculation has been carried out on BSe. The potential energy curves of the Λ-S and Ω electronic states are depicted with the aid of the avoided crossing rule between electronic states of the same symmetry. The spectroscopic constants of the bound Λ-S and Ω states were determined, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The transition dipole moments (TDMs) and the Franck-Condon factors (FCs) of the transitions from the low-lying bound Ω states A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 to the ground state X2Σ+1/2 have also been presented. Based on the previous calculations, the radiative lifetimes of the A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 were evaluated.

  14. Study of automatic designing of line heating technique parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on experimental data of line heating, the methods of vector mapping, plane projection, and coordinate converting are presented to establish the spectra for line heating distortion discipline which shows the relationship between process parameters and distortion parameters of line heating. Back-propagation network (BP-net) is used to modify the spectra.Mathematical models for optimizing line heating techniques parameters, which include two-objective functions,are constructed. To convert the multi-objective optimization into a single-objective one, the method of changing weight coefficient is used, and then the individual fitness function is built up. Taking the number of heating lines, distance between the heating lines' border (line space), and shrink quantity of lines as three restrictive conditions,a hierarchy genetic algorithm (HGA) code is established by making use of information provided by the spectra, in which inner coding and outer coding adopt different heredity arithmetic operators in inherent operating. The numerical example shows that the spectra for line heating distortion discipline presented here can provide accurate information required by techniques parameter prediction of line heating process and the technique parameter optimization method based on HGA provided here can obtain good results for hull plate.

  15. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

    2007-10-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  16. Land Movement Studies at Tide Gauge using Continuous GPS Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemnil, Sommart

    From land movement studies using Continuous GPS (CGPS) Technique at tide gauge station in Phrachunlachomklao Fort, Samutprakan province, Thailand results that this station clearly subsides 2 - 3 mm./yr which is higher than CGPS Permanent station at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok. The preliminary horizontal land motion in north, east direction and vertical movement results are -0.28 ± 3.63, 27.87 ± 4.35 and -27.89 ± 5.59, mm./yr respectively.

  17. Redox transformations in peroxidases studied by pulse radiolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebicka, L.; Gebicki, J.L. (Lodz Univ. (Poland))

    1992-01-01

    By means of pulse radiolysis technique, redox processes in two heme enzymes, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) have been studied. It has been found that both hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical reduce HRP and LPO to their ferrous forms. The formation of compound III (an oxyform of the heme enzyme) in a two-step reaction of LPO and HRP with superoxide anion has been proposed. (author).

  18. Recent Advances in Study on Thermodynamic Models for Real Systems Including Electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive review of recent advances in study on thermodynamic models for real electrolyte solutions is presented. The differences between primitive and non-primitive electrolyte models are demonstrated. Some new thermodynamic models for electrolyte solutions based on the mean spherical approximation and perturbation theory are introduced. An extended scaled-particle theory and modified CleggPitz er equation are presented for physical and chemical absorption processes with mixed solvents, respectively. A pseudo one-component two-Yukawa equation of state is used for the aqueous two-phase extraction process in charged colloidal systems.

  19. A Study of Neutron Star Structure in Strong Magnetic Fields that includes Anomalous Magnetic Moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Jun Mao; Akira Iwamoto; Zhu-Xia Li

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of strong magnetic fields on the structure of neutronstar. We find that if the interior field is on the same order as the surface fieldcurrently observed, then the influences of the field on the star's mass and radius arenegligible; if the field is as large as that estimated from the scalar virial theorem,then considerable effects will be induced. The maximum mass of the star will beincreased substantially while the central density is greatly reduced. The radius ofa magnetic star can be larger by about 10% ~ 20% than a nonmagnetic star of thesame mass.

  20. A Completeness Study on Certain 2×2 Lax Pairs Including Zero Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike C. Hay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We expand the completeness study instigated in [J. Math. Phys. 50 (2009, 103516, 29 pages] which found all 2×2 Lax pairs with non-zero, separable terms in each entry of each Lax matrix, along with the most general nonlinear systems that can be associated with them. Here we allow some of the terms within the Lax matrices to be zero. We cover all possible Lax pairs of this type and find a new third order equation that can be reduced to special cases of the non-autonomous lattice KdV and lattice modified KdV equations among others.

  1. The impact of machine learning techniques in the study of bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librenza-Garcia, Diego; Kotzian, Bruno Jaskulski; Yang, Jessica; Mwangi, Benson; Cao, Bo; Pereira Lima, Luiza Nunes; Bermudez, Mariane Bagatin; Boeira, Manuela Vianna; Kapczinski, Flávio; Passos, Ives Cavalcante

    2017-07-18

    Machine learning techniques provide new methods to predict diagnosis and clinical outcomes at an individual level. We aim to review the existing literature on the use of machine learning techniques in the assessment of subjects with bipolar disorder. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for articles published in any language up to January 2017. We found 757 abstracts and included 51 studies in our review. Most of the included studies used multiple levels of biological data to distinguish the diagnosis of bipolar disorder from other psychiatric disorders or healthy controls. We also found studies that assessed the prediction of clinical outcomes and studies using unsupervised machine learning to build more consistent clinical phenotypes of bipolar disorder. We concluded that given the clinical heterogeneity of samples of patients with BD, machine learning techniques may provide clinicians and researchers with important insights in fields such as diagnosis, personalized treatment and prognosis orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative oxidizers for strip coal mine blasting agents. [Including study of possible substitutes; 53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudweeks, W.B.; Collins, T.K.

    1979-03-14

    Since ammonium nitrate manufacture is dependent on natural gas, a shortage in natural gas could lead to a critical shortage in coal by limiting the availability of ammonium nitrate for blasting. The purpose of this study was to assess the future availability of ammonium nitrate and to evaluate the potential of alternative oxidizers not dependent upon natural gas for use in blasting agents. Increased storage capacities and rapidly increasing levels of relativey cheap imported ammonia appear to ensure the availability of adequate levels of ammonium nitrate in the near future. In the longer time frame, rising energy costs have increased the potential for basing ammonia production on alternative sources of hydrogen as well as obtaining natural gas from relatively unlimited unconventional sources. While still somewhat uncertain, such unconventional sources appear to have sufficient potential to ensure the availability of ammonium nitrate even long term. However, there are several oxidizers that could be considered as possible replacements for ammonium nitrate if needed. After a critical evaluation two possible alternatives are recommended for further study: the use of sodium nitrate as a partial replacement and the development of a new type of blasting agent based upon water as the main oxidizer.

  3. Statistically Non-significant Papers in Environmental Health Studies included more Outcome Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pentti Nieminen; Khaled Abass; Kirsi Vhkanga; Arja Rautio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of analyzed outcome variables is important in the statistical analysis and interpretation of research findings. This study investigated published papers in the field of environmental health studies. We aimed to examine whether differences in the number of reported outcome variables exist between papers with non-significant findings compared to those with significant findings. Articles on the maternal exposure to mercury and child development were used as examples. Methods Articles published between 1995 and 2013 focusing on the relationships between maternal exposure to mercury and child development were collected from Medline and Scopus. Results Of 87 extracted papers, 73 used statistical significance testing and 38 (43.7%) of these reported ‘non-significant’ (P>0.05) findings. The median number of child development outcome variables in papers reporting ‘significant’ (n=35) and ‘non-significant’ (n=38) results was 4 versus 7, respectively (Mann-Whitney test P-value=0.014). An elevated number of outcome variables was especially found in papers reporting non-significant associations between maternal mercury and outcomes when mercury was the only analyzed exposure variable. Conclusion Authors often report analyzed health outcome variables based on their P-values rather than on stated primary research questions. Such a practice probably skews the research evidence.

  4. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugang Wang

    Full Text Available Berberine (BBR is an established natural DNA intercalator with numerous pharmacological functions. However, currently there are neither detailed reports concerning the distribution of this alkaloid in living cells nor reports concerning the relationship between BBR's association with DNA and the function of DNA. Here we report that the distribution of BBR within the nucleus can be observed 30 minutes after drug administration, and that the content of berberine in the nucleus peaks at around 4 µmol, which is twelve hours after drug administration. The spatial conformation of DNA and chromatin was altered immediately after their association with BBR. Moreover, this association can effectively suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems and cell-free systems. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. Based on results from this study, we hypothesize that berberine can suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems, especially suppressing the association between TBP and the TATA box by binding with DNA and, thus, inhibiting TATA box-dependent gene expression in a non-specific way. This novel study has significantly expanded the sphere of knowledge concerning berberine's pharmacological effects, beginning at its paramount initial interaction with the TATA box.

  5. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties.

  6. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  7. Theoretical study of electronic absorptions in aminopyridines - TCNE CT complexes by quantum chemical methods, including solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Pavel; Juhász, György; Kyseľ, Ondrej

    2013-11-01

    The geometric and electronic structure of donor-acceptor complexes of TCNE with aniline, o-, m- and p- aminopyridines and pyridine has been studied in gas phase and in solution using CC2, TDDFT and CIS methods. Concerning interaction energy between particular donor and TCNE acceptor it is fairly described by both CC2 (MP2) and DFT-D approaches. Transition energies in gas phase calculated by CC2 approach are in good agreement with available experimental data for aniline. TDDFT calculations with LC-BLYP functional (with standard value of range separation factor μ = 0.47) gives transition energies too high although not as high as CIS. The red solvent shifts, calculated by PCM model with CIS method are qualitative correct, but error in the range of 0.1-0.2 eV should be expected.

  8. Ab initio study of the optical properties of crystalline phenanthrene, including the excitonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadsetani, Mehrdad; Nejatipour, Hajar; Ebrahimian, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Using the ab initio methods for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation on the basis of the FPLAPW method, optical properties of crystalline phenanthrene were calculated, in a comparison to its isomer, anthracene. It was found that despite the similarity of the structural, electronic, and the overall optical properties in a 40 eV energy range, phenanthrene and anthracene show significant differences in their optical spectra in the energy range below band gaps. Phenanthrene has two spin singlet excitonic features whereas anthracene shows one. The singlet and the lowest triplet binding energies of phenanthrene were found to be larger than anthracene. In this study, in addition, a comparison has been made between the optical spectra in RPA and the existing experimental data.

  9. A reliability study on tin based lead free micro joint including intermetallic and void evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Frezer Assefa

    In microelectronics soldering to Cu pad lead to formation of two intermetallic structures in the solder -pad interface. The growth of these layers is accompanied by microscopic voids that usually cause reliability concern in the industry. Therefore it is important to understand factors that contribute for the growth of IMC using various combination of reflow time, Sn thickness and aging temperature. Systematic study was conducted on Cu-Sn system to investigate the formation and growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) as well as voiding evolution for different solder thicknesses. The growth of the Cu6Sn5 IMC layer was found to be increasing as the Sn thicknesses increase after reflow while the Cu3Sn layer were decreasing under same conditions. Also after reflow and aging more voiding were shown to occur in the thin solder than thicker one.

  10. Studies of Transition Metal Complexes Using Dynamic NMR Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coston, Timothy Peter John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This Thesis is primarily concerned with the quantitative study of fluxional processes in, predominantly platinum(IV) complexes, with the ligands 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(methylthio)ethane (MeS)_2CHCH(SMe)_2 , and 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(methylthio)ethene (MeS) _2C=C(SMe)_2. Quantitative information relating to the energetics of these processes has been obtained by a combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. Chapter One provides an introduction to the background of fluxional processes in transition metal complexes together with data concerning the energetics of the processes that have already been studied by NMR techniques. Chapter Two provides a thorough grounding in NMR techniques, in particular those concerned with the quantitative measurement of rates involved in chemical exchange processes. A description of the use of 2D EXSY NMR spectroscopy in obtaining rate data is given. The properties of the magnetic isotope of platinum are given in Chapter Three. A general survey is also given of some additional compounds that have already been studied by platinum-195 spectroscopy. Chapter Four is concerned with the quantitative study of low temperature (complexes (PtXMe_3 (MeS)_2CHCH(SMe) _2) (X = Cl, Br, I). These complexes were studied by dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance and the information regarding the rates of sulphur inversion was obtained by complete band-shape analysis. Chapter Five is concerned with high temperature (>333 K) fluxionality, of the previous complexes, as studied by a combination of one- and two -dimensional NMR techniques. Aside from obtaining thermodynamic parameters for all the processes, a new novel mechanism is proposed. Chapter Six is primarily concerned with the NMR investigation of the new dinuclear complexes ((PtXMe _3)_2(MeS) _2CHCH(SMe)_2) (X = Cl, Br, I). The solution properties have been established and thermo-dynamic parameters obtained for low and high temperature

  11. Meningoencephalitis in cats in Austria: a study of infectious causes, including Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Kassl, Christine; Leschnik, Michael; Url, Angelika

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Despite comprehensive diagnostics, the aetiology of meningoencephalitis (ME) in cats often remains undetermined. As a result of recently published surveys, Encephalitozoon cuniculi has gained growing importance in cats not only with ocular disorders, but also with central nervous system disease. Therefore, it was hypothesised that E cuniculi may be an underestimated pathogen in the development of feline non-suppurative and/or granulomatous ME. Methods As a first step, histopathological sections of the brain of cats with encephalopathy were retrospectively reviewed to identify cases of granulomatous ME. In a second step, an immunohistochemical screening for detection of E cuniculi was performed in cases with ME of unknown origin. Results In 59/89 (66.3%) cats with ME, an aetiologically relevant pathogen was detected. Forty-three of 89 (48.3%) cats had a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. In 14/89 (15.7%) cats, protozoan cysts were identified and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in all cases. In 2/89 (2.3%) cats with granulomatous ME, fungal organisms were identified. Thirty of 89 (33.7%) cats with ME of unknown origin that underwent IHC for the detection of E cuniculi remained negative. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that E cuniculi is unlikely to be directly associated with (non-suppurative and/or granulomatous) ME in cats in Austria.

  12. [Cognitive function and its evaluation methods in Parkinson's disease--a study including RCPM and ERP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, M; Kitamura, S; Nagazumi, A; Terashi, A

    1993-11-01

    In order to investigate features of cognitive impairment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and suitable methods for the cognitive evaluation of patients with PD, 23 PD patients and 15 normal control subjects were studied using neuropsychological tests and auditory event-related potential (ERP). The two groups did not differ from each other in age or education. Clinical severity of the patients based on Hoehn & Yahr's staging ranged from stage I to IV: 7 patients at stage I, 8 at stage II, 7 at stage III and 1 at stage IV. All patients achieved the Mini-Mental State test (MMS) scores of 24 or greater, and none of the patients showed middle or serious grade of dementia based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Third edition-Revised (DSM-III-R). All patients and controls underwent MMS, the Hasegawa's Dementia Screening Scale (HDS), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), the Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM), The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT). Auditory ERPs by standard oddball paradigm (two-choice reaction time task) were elicited (band-pass 0.1-50 Hz) from Cz electrode sites on all subjects with a random series of binaural 1,000 (standard; 80%) or 2,000 (target; 20%) Hz tones presented every 2 sec at 70 dB SPL. In RCPM, N100 peak latencies of ERP (target and standard), performance-IQ of WAIS-R (especially block design and digit symbol subtests) and in error scores of BVRT there were striking differences between the two groups (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Technical study of Germolles’ wall paintings: the inputof imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Degrigny

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Château de Germolles is one of the rare palace in France dating from the 14th century. The noble floor is decorated with wall paintings that are a unique example of courtly love spirit that infused the princely courts of the time. After being concealed sometime in the 19th century, the paintings were rediscovered and uncovered in the middle of the 20th century and partly restored at the end of the 1990s. No scientific documentation accompanied these interventions and important questions, such as the level of authenticity of the mural decorations and the original painting technique(s used in the medieval times remained unanswered. The combined scientific and financial supports of COSCH Cost Action and DRAC-Burgundy enabled to study Germolles’ wall paintings using some of the most innovative imaging and analytical techniques and to address some of the questions raised. The study provided significant information on the material used in the medieval times and on the conservation condition of the paintings. The data collected is vast and varied and exposed the owners of the property to the challenges of data management.

  14. Study on compound ultra-precision alignment technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinlong; Yang Ankang; Liu Jingnan; Yoshiyuki Uchida

    2007-01-01

    A nano-displacement measurement system with duo-gratings is analyzed by using optics theory, a mathematic model for the system is established, and the characteristic of laser Moiré signals is studied through CAD simulation. To improve signal sensitivity and positioning accuracy, two methods of precision positioning are brought forward: differential Moiré positioning method and modified Moiré positioning method. A compound control system for precision positioning is set up by combining these 2 Moiré alignment methods, in which the modified Moiré alignment technique is used for coarse alignment and the differential Moiré alignment technique is used for fine alignment, and the system obtains positioning accuracy of ±10 nm in ±500 μm positioning range with shot response time.

  15. Fault tolerance techniques for embedded telemetry system: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosman, Kazimierz; Sosnowski, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents software methods of improving fault tolerance in embedded systems. These methods have been adapted to a telemetry system dedicated to tracking vehicles for logistics purposes. The developed telemetry system allows us to monitor vehicle position and some technical parameters via GSM communication. It comprises the capability of remote software reconfiguration. To evaluate dependability of the system we use a fault injection technique based on simulating bit-flip errors within memory cells. For this purpose an original testbed has been developed. It provides not only the capability of disturbing internal state of the tested system (via JTAG interface) but also the possibility of controlling system input states and observing its behavior (in particular output signals) according to specified test scenarios. The whole test process is automatized. The paper presents a case study related to a commercial product but the described methodology and techniques can be extended for other embedded systems.

  16. STUDY OF ELECTROPOLIMERIZATION PROCESSES OF PYRROLE BY CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitasari Suratman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electropolymerization processes and electrochemical properties of polypyrrole as electroactive polymer have been studied by cyclic voltammetric technique. Pyrrole was electropolymerized to form polypyrrole in water-based solvent containing sodium perchlorate as supporting electrolyte in several pH values. The pH of the solutions were varied by using Britton Robinson buffer. The results showed that oxidation potential limit of electropolymerization processes of pyrrole was 1220 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It can be seen that cyclic voltammetric respon of polypyrrole membrane that was prepared by electropolymerization processes of pyrrole at the scanning rate of 100 mV/s was stable. While the processes of pyrrole electropolymerization carried out at the variation of pH showed that the best condition was at the pH range of 2 - 6.   Keywords: polypyrolle, electropolymer, voltammetric technique

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION TECHNIQUE FOR BITUMINOUS COAL BRIQUET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 程世庆; 邵延玲; 张晔

    1997-01-01

    Through a lot of experiments, a new kind of stove using horizontal combustion technique for bituminous coal briquet has been developed. Making use of this stove, studies have been made on burning process of bituminous coal briquet, distribution of temperature field in the stove, the regularities of evolution and combustion of volatile matter, the burning rate and efficiency of bituminous coal briquet, characteristics of fire-sealing and sulfur-retention. The results show that, with the technique, some achievements can be obtained in combustion of bituminous coal briquet, such as lower pollution that the flue gas black degree is below 0.5R and dust concentration is below 90mg/m3 . The stove's combustion efficiency reaches 90%, sulfur fixing efficiency is 60%, and CO concentration is decreased by 40% compared with other traditional stoves. With so many advantages, the stove can be used extensively in civil stoves and smaller industrial boilers.

  18. Config: A Case Study in Combining Software Engineering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Config is a software component of the Graphical R-Matrix Atomic Collision Environment. Its development is documented as a case study combining several software engineering techniques: formal specification, generic programming, object-oriented programming, and design by contract. It is specified in VDM++; and implemented in C++, a language which is becoming more than a curiosity amongst the scientific programming community. C++supports object orientation, a powerful architectural paradigm in designing the structure of software systems, and genericity, an orthogonal dimension to the inheritance hierarchies facilitated by object oriented languages. Support in C++ for design by contract can be added in library form. The combination of techniques make a substantial contribution to the overall software quality.

  19. Different Applications of Rheological Techniques in Studies of Physical Gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    -forming biopolymers. Physical gels are also used in the paint industry to minimize sedimentation. Delayed and controlled drug release is of importance in the pharmaceutical industry, and one way to obtain this control is to hide active components in physical gels. Two excellent reviews cover many aspects...... of the elastic storage modulus, G’, and loss modulus, G”, as a function of e.g. frequency, temperature, or time. Two other techniques, which can be very useful for studies of gels, are creep and relaxation measurements. These techniques, which allow determinations of the compliance and the relaxation modulus...... importance in many applications. When a gel is deformed with increasing strain or strain amplitudes most gels eventually rupture. The yield stress denotes the maximum stress gels can withstand. Different ways of determining yield stress will be illustrated. Oscillatory measurements only allow determinations...

  20. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  1. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  2. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  3. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  4. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  5. An overview of techniques for dealing with large numbers of independent variables in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; Ducrot, C; Fourichon, C; Donald, A; Hurnik, D

    1997-01-01

    Many studies of health and production problems in livestock involve the simultaneous evaluation of large numbers of risk factors. These analyses may be complicated by a number of problems including: multicollinearity (which arises because many of the risk factors may be related (correlated) to each other), confounding, interaction, problems related to sample size (and hence the power of the study), and the fact that many associations are evaluated from a single dataset. This paper focuses primarily on the problem of multicollinearity and discusses a number of techniques for dealing with this problem. However, some of the techniques discussed may also help to deal with the other problems identified above. The first general approach to dealing with multicollinearity involves reducing the number of independent variables prior to investigating associations with the disease. Techniques to accomplish this include: (1) excluding variables after screening for associations among independent variables; (2) creating indices or scores which combine data from multiple factors into a single variable; (3) creating a smaller set of independent variables through the use of multivariable techniques such as principal components analysis or factor analysis. The second general approach is to use appropriate steps and statistical techniques to investigate associations between the independent variables and the dependent variable. A preliminary screening of these associations may be performed using simple statistical tests. Subsequently, multivariable techniques such as linear or logistic regression or correspondence analysis can be used to identify important associations. The strengths and limitations of these techniques are discussed and the techniques are demonstrated using a dataset from a recent study of risk factors for pneumonia in swine. Emphasis is placed on comparing correspondence analysis with other techniques as it has been used less in the epidemiology literature.

  6. A comparative study of the classic and piggyback techniques for orthotopic liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Nikeghbalian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The classic technique of hepatectomy with venovenous bypass may cause a longer anhepatic phase and increase the rate of some complications, such as post-operative renal failure and thromboembolic events. But, in some cases, such as tumors and anatomic difficulties, the surgeon is obligated to use the classic technique even though there is some controversy about the safety of this technique without venovenous bypass in liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to compare the results of using the classic technique without venovenous bypass and the piggyback technique for liver transplantation. Methods: A retrospective case-series study was conducted on 227 consecutive successful liver transplants, including 55 cases in which the classic technique was used and 172 cases in which the piggyback technique was used. The transplants were performed from March 2010 through June 2011 in the Visceral Transplantation Ward at Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. The piggyback method was the preferred approach for hepatectomy, but the classic technique without venovenous bypass was performed in cirrhotic cases with anatomic difficulties, when there was a tumor, or when the surgeon preferred it. Results: There were no significant differences in post-operative rise in creatinine, decreases in intraoperative blood pressure, transfused packed red blood cells (RBC, or survival rates between the groups. Warm ischemic time (duration that donor liver is out of ice until it’s blood reperfusion in the recipient was approximately seven minutes longer in the classic group (P = 0, but it was less than 52 minutes, which is an acceptable time for this phase. Hospital stays were shorter in the classic group than in the piggyback group (P = 0.024. Conclusion: Although the piggyback technique is the preferred technique for hepatectomy in liver transplantation, the classic technique without venovenous bypass can be used safely in cirrhotic livers when necessary

  7. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  8. Comparative study of novel endovascular treatment techniques for intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Gádor; Lasheras, Juan C.; Levy, David I.; Sparks, Steven R.

    2002-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are life-threatening vascular lesions, which are potentially treatable to avoid the consequences of their rupture. Current treatments, either surgical or endovascular, are all guided to reduce the hemodynamic forces acting on the aneurysm wall in an effort to minimize the risk of rupture. Surgical clipping is still the most used technique to treat this type of aneurysm but there is a continued demand for less invasive approaches. This has led to the development of several endovascular techniques. We report here a comparative study of the reduction in the hemodynamic stresses and the modification of the flow in the parent vessel resulting from the use of three different techniques. The first one consists of endosaccular packing with platinum coils (GDC, Target Therapeutics), which is already widely used but its long-term efficacy has not yet been determined. The second one consists of the embolization of the aneurismal sac with Onyx, a polymer which hardens when in contact with the blood (being developed by Micro Therapeutics, Inc.). The third one involves the packing of the sac with hydrocoils, platinum wires coated with a gel which quickly hydrates when in contact with blood (developed by MicroVention). A Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) system is used to measure in vitro the velocity field inside a model of an ACOM aneurysm (an aneurysm forming in the anterior communicating artery). Physiological accurate pulsatile flow conditions are input to the arterial model through a programmable pump. The measurements show that although all treatment techniques lead to a reduction in both normal and tangential shear stresses on the aneurismal sac, each one of them also leads to different modifications of the flow in the parent vessel which may have consequences related to potential for clotting. Comparison of the untreated aneurysm with the above three treated cases also showed that the characteristics of the wall shear stresses on the parent

  9. Studies in swarm intelligence techniques for annual crop planning problem in a new irrigation scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop planning (ACP is an NP-Hard type optimisation problem in agricultural planning. It involves finding optimal solutions for the seasonal allocations of a limited amount of agricultural land among the various competing crops that need to be grown on it. This study investigates the effectiveness of employing three relatively new Swarm Intelligence (SI techniques in determining solutions to an ACP problem at a new irrigation scheme. The SI metaheuristics studied include Cuckoo Search (CS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, and Glow-worm Swarm Optimisation (GSO. The solutions determined by these SI techniques are compared against the solutions of Genetic Algorithm (GA, another population-based metaheuristic technique. This helps to determine the relative merits of the solutions found by the SI techniques. The results show that the SI algorithms delivered solutions superior to those of GA in determining solutions to the ACP problem at a new irrigation scheme.

  10. Cluster Studies of Chemisorption Using Total Energy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, Adrian

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Chapter 1 introduces the topic. Chapter 2 contains a discussion of ab initio quantum chemistry techniques and in particular the self consistent Hartree-Fock equations. Section 2.2 discusses the Hartree -Fock equations and their matrix form the Roothaan-Hall equations. Section 2.3 deals with the important question of the choice of a basis set for molecular calculations and in section 2.4 we move on to present a brief review of the GAMESS SCF MO package. Finally, section 2.5 deals with methods of moving beyond HF theory by including electron -electron correlation effects. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 deal with applications of the ab initio method to real systems. Chapter 3 details calculations performed on the formate and methoxy radicals on the Cu(100) surface, while chapter 4 looks at the controversial topic of the low temperature structure of oxygen on Cu(110). Finally, chapter 5 considers the effects of atomic oxygen chemisorption on the Si(100)(2 times 1) reconstructed surface. While the preceding three chapters highlight the virtues of ab initio methods, chapter 6 points out some of their vices and in particular the severe demands they make on computational resources. Alternative semi-empirical techniques are then introduced in the form of the extended Huckel and ASED methods. In particular, we discuss the role of charge self consistency in semi-empirical techniques and show that in contrast to other methods, it has little effect on the quality of results produced using the ASED method. Finally, we conclude in chapter 7 by reviewing the thesis and suggesting possible future developments to this work, both in terms of interesting systems to investigate and new directions in which the theory could be developed. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  11. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (Φ/Ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  12. The latissimus dorsi-groin-lymph node compound flap: A comprehensive technique with three features including skin coverage, restoration of motor function, and prevention of upper limb lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Fabio; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Lazzeri, Davide; Lim, Seong Yoon; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chen, Pei-Yu; Ciudad, Pedro; Chilgar, Ram M; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Sacak, Bulent; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Reconstruction of complex upper extremity defects requires a need for multiple tissue components. The supercharged latissimus dorsi (LD)-groin compound flap is an option that can provide a large skin paddle with simultaneous functional muscle transfer. It is necessary to supercharge the flap with the superficial circumflex iliac pedicle to ensure the viability of its groin extension. In this report, we present a case of a supercharged LD-groin flap in combination with vascularized inguinal lymph nodes, which was used for upper limb reconstruction in a young male patient, following excision of high-grade liposarcoma. Resection resulted in a 28 cm × 15 cm skin defect extending from the upper arm to the proximal forearm, also involving the triceps muscle, a segment of the ulnar nerve and the axillary lymph nodes. Restoration of triceps function was achieved with transfer of the innervated LD muscle. Part of the ulnar nerve was resected and repaired with sural nerve grafts. Post-operatively, the flap survived fully with no partial necrosis, and no complications at both the recipient and donor sites. At 1-year follow up, the patient had a well-healed wound with good elbow extension (against resistance), no tumor recurrence, and no signs of lymphedema. We believe this comprehensive approach may represent a valuable technique, for not only the oncological reconstruction of upper extremity, but also for the prevention of lymphedema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:689-694, 2016.

  13. A técnica da reflectância difusa aplicada ao estudo da fluorescência de 2,3-naftalimidas n-substituídas com grupos alquila incluídas em b-ciclodextrina e adsorvidas em celulose microcristalina Diffuse reflectance technique applied to a fluorescence study of n-alkyl substituted 2,3-naphthalimides included in b-ciclodextrin and adsorbed in microcrystalline cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Filipe Vieira Ferreira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The solution fluorescence of N-alkyl-2,3-naphthalimides (1-4 in polar protic and aprotic solvents was compared to the emission from solid samples resulting from the imide complexation with b-cyclodextrin or adsorption on the surface of microcrystalline cellulose. Solid samples of the inclusion complex 2,3-naphthalimides/b-cyclodextrin show maximum for fluorescence emission significantly different to the observed in methanolic solution. Beside this, a clear effect on the alkyl chain length could be observed for these samples which is probably due to differences in probe location inside the cyclodextrin cavity. The constancy for fluorescence quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime for the imides 1 - 4 adsorbed on microcrystalline cellulose suggests that, independently of the polarity of the solvent used for sample preparation, the probe is preferentially located on the cellulose surface. An increase of fluorescence quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime for solid samples, when compared to the values obtained in solution for the different solvents employed in this study (acetonitrile, methanol and water, is fully in accordance with a decrease of the probe mobility due to inclusion in b-cyclodextrin or to adsorption on cellulose.

  14. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Study on modulation techniques free of orthogonality restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Nyquist rate is a limit of transmission for traditional modulation methods from orthogonality restriction. Nonorthogonal modulation techniques (NMT) is proposed, which removes the orthogonality restriction, and as a result, higher bandwidth efficiency than the traditional methods can be achieved. First, the symbol error rate of NMT is introduced by using estimation theory. Then the relation between bandwidth efficiency and signal to noise ratio is discussed. Finally, a design instance of NMT is present and numerical experiment is made. This study explores for new modulation methods and points out a widened direction for modulation theory and applications.

  16. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2010-01-01

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  17. A new study on mammographic image denoising using multiresolution techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Guo, Ya-Nan; Ma, Yi-De; Ma, Yu-run; Lu, Xiang-yu; Wang, Ke-ju

    2015-12-01

    Mammography is the most simple and effective technology for early detection of breast cancer. However, the lesion areas of breast are difficult to detect which due to mammograms are mixed with noise. This work focuses on discussing various multiresolution denoising techniques which include the classical methods based on wavelet and contourlet; moreover the emerging multiresolution methods are also researched. In this work, a new denoising method based on dual tree contourlet transform (DCT) is proposed, the DCT possess the advantage of approximate shift invariant, directionality and anisotropy. The proposed denoising method is implemented on the mammogram, the experimental results show that the emerging multiresolution method succeeded in maintaining the edges and texture details; and it can obtain better performance than the other methods both on visual effects and in terms of the Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structure Similarity (SSIM) values.

  18. Potential for optimizing the Higgs boson C P measurement in H →τ τ decays at the LHC including machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowicz, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Was, Z.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the potential for measuring the C P state of the Higgs boson in H →τ τ decays with consecutive τ -lepton decays in the channels: τ±→ρ±ντ and τ±→a1±ντ combined. Subsequent decays ρ±→π±π0, a1±→ρ0π± and ρ0→π+π- are taken into account. We will explore extensions of the method, where the acoplanarity angle for the planes build on the visible decay products, π±π0 of τ±→π±π0ντ, was used. The angle is sensitive to transverse spin correlations, thus to parity. We show that in the case of the cascade decays of τ →a1ν , information on the C P state of Higgs can be extracted from the acoplanarity angles as well. Because in the cascade decay a1±→ρ0π± , ρ0→π+π- up to four planes can be defined, up to 16 distinct acoplanarity angles are available for H →τ τ →a1+a1-ν ν decays. These acoplanarities carry in part supplementary but also correlated information. It is thus cumbersome to evaluate an overall sensitivity. We investigate the sensitivity potential of such analysis, by developing and applying machine learning techniques. We quantify possible improvements when multidimensional phase space of outgoing decay products directions is used, instead of one-dimensional projections i.e. the acoplanarity angles. We do not take into account ambiguities resulting from detector uncertainties or background contamination; we concentrate on the usefulness of machine learning methods and τ →3 π ν decays for Higgs boson parity measurement.

  19. Techniques for the study of energy balance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Marinos; Stratton, Rebecca; Stubbs, James

    2003-05-01

    Energy balance can be estimated in tissues, body segments, individual subjects (the focus of the present article), groups of subjects and even societies. Changes in body composition in individual subjects can be translated into changes in the energy content of the body, but this method is limited by the precision of the techniques. The precision for measuring fat and fat-free mass can be as low as 0.5 kg when certain reference techniques are used (hydrodensitometry, air-displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and approximately 0.7 kg for changes between two time points. Techniques associated with a measurement error of 0.7 kg for changes in fat and fat-free mass (approximately 18 MJ) are of little or no value for calculating energy balance over short periods of time, but they may be of some value over long periods of time (18 MJ over 1 year corresponds to an average daily energy balance of 70 kJ, which is 5-10 kg. The same principles can be applied to the assessment of energy balance in body segments using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy balance can be obtained over periods as short as a few minutes, e.g. during measurements of BMR. The variability in BMR between individuals of similar age, weight and height and gender is about 7-9%, most of which is of biological origin rather than measurement error, which is about 2%. Measurement of total energy expenditure during starvation (no energy intake) can also be used to estimate energy balance in a whole-body calorimeter, in patients in intensive care units being artificially ventilated and by tracer techniques. The precision of these techniques varies from 1 to 10%. Establishing energy balance by measuring the discrepancy between energy intake and expenditure has to take into consideration the combined validity and reliability of both components. The measurement error for dietary intake may be as low as 2-3% in carefully controlled environments, in which subjects are provided only with

  20. A comparative study between standard dry needling technique and rapid dry needling technique on active gluteus medius muscle trigger points

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. This study aimed to determine the difference between the standard dry needling technique versus the rapid dry needling technique with regards to which technique would provide quicker relief of symptoms, as measured by an increase in participant’s pressure tolerance and range of motion and a decrease in subjective pain. Subjectively it was seen that both groups had a statistical decrease in the participants perceived pain with the Oswestry Disability Index, the McGill’s Pain Questio...

  1. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  2. Ethical implications of including children in a large biobank for genetic-epidemiologic research: a qualitative study of public opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David; Geller, Gail; Leroy, Lisa; Murphy, Juli; Scott, Joan; Hudson, Kathy

    2008-02-15

    The National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies are considering initiating a cohort study of 500,000 people, including 120,000 children, to measure genetic and environmental influences on common diseases. A community engagement pilot study was conducted to identify public attitudes and concerns about the proposed cohort study, including the ethics of involving children. The pilot included 15 focus groups where the inclusion of children in the proposed cohort study was discussed. Focus groups, conducted in six cities, included 141 adults of different ages, incomes, genders, ethnicities, and races. Many of the concerns expressed by participants mirrored those addressed in pediatric research guidelines. These concerns included minimizing children's fear, pain, and burdens; whether to include young children; and how to obtain children's assent. There was little agreement about which children can assent. Some voiced concern about children's privacy, but most expected that parents would have access to children's study results. Some believed children would not benefit from participating, while others identified personal and societal benefits that might accrue. A few people believed that children's participation would not advance the study's goals. To successfully include children, proposed cohort study would need to address children's changing capabilities and rights as they grow and reach the age of consent.

  3. Comparative study of two linearization methods for time intervals generation of SVPWM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled N. Faris

    2016-12-01

    In this paper a comparative study for two linearization methods are carried out for generating the time intervals of SVPWM technique. The proposed linearization methods achieve a minimum computational time rather than the trigonometric sine function which is considered the base for the time interval calculations of the SVPWM technique. The first linearization method is based on the first order equation, and the second method is the (Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy modeling system. The comparative study includes the accuracy of the two models, also a simulation model is carried out for current THD estimation using the two proposed methods compared with the current THD generated by SVPWM based on the trigonometric sine function.

  4. Case Study On Social Engineering Techniques for Persuasion

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Mosin; Vohara, Safvan; 10.5121/jgraphoc.2010.2202

    2010-01-01

    T There are plenty of security software in market; each claiming the best, still we daily face problem of viruses and other malicious activities. If we know the basic working principal of such malware then we can very easily prevent most of them even without security software. Hackers and crackers are experts in psychology to manipulate people into giving them access or the information necessary to get access. This paper discusses the inner working of such attacks. Case study of Spyware is provided. In this case study, we got 100% success using social engineering techniques for deception on Linux operating system, which is considered as the most secure operating system. Few basic principal of defend, for the individual as well as for the organization, are discussed here, which will prevent most of such attack if followed.

  5. Review of Fluorescence-Based Velocimetry Techniques to Study High-Speed Compressible Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Criag; Inman, Jennifer A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews five laser-induced fluorescence-based velocimetry techniques that have been used to study high-speed compressible flows at NASA Langley Research Center. The techniques discussed in this paper include nitric oxide (NO) molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV), nitrogen dioxide photodissociation (NO2-to-NO) MTV, and NO and atomic oxygen (O-atom) Doppler-shift-based velocimetry. Measurements of both single-component and two-component velocity have been performed using these techniques. This paper details the specific application and experiment for which each technique has been used, the facility in which the experiment was performed, the experimental setup, sample results, and a discussion of the lessons learned from each experiment.

  6. Study of multibeam techniques for bathymetry and seabottom backscatter applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Chakraborty, B.

    In this paper, a brief discussion is carried out on the application of the different techniques of echosounding. A deteiled appraisal of the presently used multibeam technique is mentioned. Some of the important discoveries of seabed features around...

  7. STUDY ON COMPARISON BETWEEN LANDMARK GUIDED (BRINKMAN'S TECHNIQUE ) AND ULTRASOUND GUIDED INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN CANNULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod; Sashi Walling

    2015-01-01

    Technique of cannulating the central veins , until recently has been based on landmark guided technique . Recently ultrasound machines with high frequency probes are being used to increase success rate and reducing complications. OBJECTIVE: In our study we compare landmark guided technique ( Brinkman's technique ) ( 1 ) with ultrasound guided technique. STUDY DESIGN: outcome was evaluated in terms of 1 ) Number of attempts 2 ) ...

  8. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to

  9. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to vari

  10. A Comparative Study of Three Vibration Based Damage Assessment Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    Three different vibration based damage assessment techniques have been compared. One of the techniques uses the ratios between changes in experimentally and theoretically estimated natural frequencies, respectively, to locate a damage. The second technique relies on updating of an FEM based...

  11. Optogenetic techniques for the study of native potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Eric Sandoz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetic tools were originally designed to target specific neurons for remote control of their activity by light and have largely been built around opsin-based channels and pumps. These naturally photosensitive opsins are microbial in origin and are unable to mimic the properties of native neuronal receptors and channels. Over the last 8 years, photoswitchable-tethered ligands (PTLs have enabled fast and reversible control of mammalian ion channels, allowing optical control of neuronal activity. One such PTL, MAQ, contains a maleimide (M to tether the molecule to a genetically engineered cysteine, a photoisomerizable azobenzene (A linker and a pore-blocking quaternary ammonium group (Q. MAQ was originally used to photo-control SPARK, an engineered light-gated potassium channel derived from Shaker. Potassium channel photo-block by MAQ has recently been extended to a diverse set of mammalian potassium channels including channels in the voltage-gated and K2P families. Photoswitchable potassium channels, which maintain native properties, pave the way for the optical control of specific aspects of neuronal function and for high precision probing of a specific channel’s physiological functions. To extend optical control to natively expressed channels, without overexpression, one possibility is to develop a knock-in mouse in which the wild type channel gene is replaced by its light-gated version. Alternatively, the recently developed photoswitchable-conditional-subunit technique (PCS provides photocontrol of the channel of interest by molecular replacement of wild type complexes. Finally, photochromic ligands (PCLs also allow photocontrol of potassium channels without genetic manipulation using soluble compounds. In this review we discuss different techniques for optical control of native potassium channels and their associated advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Optogenetic techniques for the study of native potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Levitz, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic tools were originally designed to target specific neurons for remote control of their activity by light and have largely been built around opsin-based channels and pumps. These naturally photosensitive opsins are microbial in origin and are unable to mimic the properties of native neuronal receptors and channels. Over the last 8 years, photoswitchable tethered ligands (PTLs) have enabled fast and reversible control of mammalian ion channels, allowing optical control of neuronal activity. One such PTL, maleimide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (MAQ), contains a maleimide (M) to tether the molecule to a genetically engineered cysteine, a photoisomerizable azobenzene (A) linker and a pore-blocking quaternary ammonium group (Q). MAQ was originally used to photocontrol SPARK, an engineered light-gated potassium channel derived from Shaker. Potassium channel photoblock by MAQ has recently been extended to a diverse set of mammalian potassium channels including channels in the voltage-gated and K2P families. Photoswitchable potassium channels, which maintain native properties, pave the way for the optical control of specific aspects of neuronal function and for high precision probing of a specific channel's physiological functions. To extend optical control to natively expressed channels, without overexpression, one possibility is to develop a knock-in mouse in which the wild-type channel gene is replaced by its light-gated version. Alternatively, the recently developed photoswitchable conditional subunit technique provides photocontrol of the channel of interest by molecular replacement of wild-type complexes. Finally, photochromic ligands also allow photocontrol of potassium channels without genetic manipulation using soluble compounds. In this review we discuss different techniques for optical control of native potassium channels and their associated advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Simulation Studies of the Backscattering Signal in HSRL Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulou, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The technique of High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) for atmospheric monitoring allows the determination of the aerosol to molecular ratio and can be used in UHECR Observatories using air fluorescence telescopes. By this technique a more accurate estimate of the Cherenkov radiation superimposed to the fluorescence signal can be achieved. A laboratory setup was developed to determine the backscattering coefficients using microparticles diluted in water and diffusion interfaces. In this setup we used a CW SLM laser at 532 nm and a 250 mm Newtonian telescope. Simulations of the above experimental configuration have been made using Scatlab\\c{opyright}, FINESSE\\c{opyright} 0.99.8 and MATLAB\\c{opyright} and are presented in this work. We compare the simulated 2-dimensional Fabry-Perot fringe images of the backscattering signal recorded in the CCD sensor with that of experimental ones. Additionally, we simulated the backscattering of the laser beam by the atmosphere at a height of 2000 m and we have studied the in...

  14. Nonlocal Regularized Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques for MRI: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to revitalize researchers' interest in algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART by expanding their capabilities and demonstrating their potential in speeding up the process of MRI acquisition. Using a continuous-to-discrete model, we experimentally study the application of ART into MRI reconstruction which unifies previous nonuniform-fast-Fourier-transform- (NUFFT- based and gridding-based approaches. Under the framework of ART, we advocate the use of nonlocal regularization techniques which are leveraged from our previous research on modeling photographic images. It is experimentally shown that nonlocal regularization ART (NR-ART can often outperform their local counterparts in terms of both subjective and objective qualities of reconstructed images. On one real-world k-space data set, we find that nonlocal regularization can achieve satisfactory reconstruction from as few as one-third of samples. We also address an issue related to image reconstruction from real-world k-space data but overlooked in the open literature: the consistency of reconstructed images across different resolutions. A resolution-consistent extension of NR-ART is developed and shown to effectively suppress the artifacts arising from frequency extrapolation. Both source codes and experimental results of this work are made fully reproducible.

  15. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  16. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  17. Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Liu; Yi-Feng Zhou; Peng Yang; Yan-Sha Gao; Gui-Ru Zhao; Shi-Yan Ren; Xian-Lun Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein,which is often accompanied by high complication rate.The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique.Methods:A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly.Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded.Results:The overall success rate (95.7% vs.96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs.66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups.In the subclavian vein group,pneumothorax occurred in three patients.The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead.In contrast,there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group.In the patient follow-ups,two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement.The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122),respectively (x2=5.813,P =0.016).Conclusion:Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement.

  18. METHODOLOGICAL STUDY OF OPINION MINING AND SENTIMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision making both on individual and organizational level is always accompanied by the search of other’s opinion on the same. With tremendous establishment of opinion rich resources like, reviews, forum discussions, blogs, micro-blogs, Twitter etc provide a rich anthology of sentiments. This user generated content can serve as a benefaction to market if the semantic orientations are deliberated. Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are the formalization for studying and construing opinions and sentiments. The digital ecosystem has itself paved way for use of huge volume of opinionated data recorded. This paper is an attempt to review and evaluate the various techniques used for opinion and sentiment analysis.

  19. Study of Ultrasound Imaging Technique for Diagnosing Osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Han, S. M. [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. R. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-15

    Ultrasonic has been proposed as an attractive means of detecting bone loss. There have been several commercial ultrasound devices developed for measuring the heel to predict fracture at other bones. However, these devices select only single point of heel bone as measurement site. It causes poor assessment of bone quality due to the error of transducer positioning. In an effort to improve current ultrasound systems, we evaluated the linear scanning method which provides better prediction of bone quality and an accurate image of bone shape. The system used in this study biaxially scans a heel bone using automated linear scanning technique. The results demonstrated that the values of ultrasound parameters varied with different positions within bone specimen. It has been also found that the linear scanning method could better predict bone quality, eliminating the error of transducer positioning

  20. Study of ion beam induced depolymerization using positron annihilation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, O. E-mail: opuglisi@dipchi.unict.it; Fragala, M.E.; Lynn, K.G.; Petkov, M.; Weber, M.; Somoza, A.; Dupasquier, A.; Quasso, F

    2001-04-01

    Ion beam induced depolymerization of polymers is a special class of ion beam induced chemical reaction which gives rise to catastrophic 'unzipping' of macromolecules with production of large amounts of the monomer, of the order of many hundreds monomer molecules per each macromolecule. The possible modification of the density at microscopic level prompted us to undertake a study of this effect utilizing positron annihilation techniques in Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) before and after bombardment with He{sup +} 300 keV ions at 200 deg. C. Preliminary results shown here indicate that before bombardment there is a reproducible dependence of nano-hole distribution on the sample history. Moreover at 200 deg. C we do not detect formation of new cavities as a consequence of the strong depolymerization that occurs under the ion beam. The possible correlation of these findings with transport properties of PMMA at temperature higher than the glass transition temperature will be discussed.

  1. Study on Solar Energetic proton (SEP) Prediction using Regression Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that Solar Energetic Proton (SEP) can cause significant effects on electric devices in satellite such as displacement damage and single event effect. It can be dangerous to flight crew/passenger flying high altitude with polar route, and therefore, it is essential that it should be predicted in advance to mitigate radiation exposure risk. However, SEP has been hard to predict, because it is not well-connected solar activities such as solar flare, coronal mass ejection (CME). In this study, we analyzed the variation pattern of proton event from 2000 to 2015, and suggested optimum Gaussian function which can well describe the maximum value of previous event, after then, we finally adopted the regression technique to predict SEP value repetitively. This paper shows that the maximum value and duration of ongoing SEP events can be well predicted, but this model typically has large errors in case of predicting starting point and occurrence of SEP events.

  2. Study on application of optical clearing technique in skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hao; Liang, Yanmei; Wang, Jingyi; Li, Yan

    2012-11-01

    So far, the study of the optical clearing is almost always about healthy tissue. However, the ultimate goal is to detect diseases for clinical application. Optical clearing on diseased skins is explored. The effect is evaluated by applying a combined liquid paraffin and glycerol mixed solution on several kinds of diseased skins in vitro. Scanning experiments from optical coherence tomography show that it has different effects among fibroma, pigmented nevus, and seborrheic keratosis. Based on the results, we conclude that different skin diseases have different compositions and structures, and their optical parameters and biological characteristics should be different, which implies that the optical clearing technique may have selectivity and may not be suitable for all kinds of skin diseases.

  3. A study on the solar hydrogen production techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoglan, Elif [Department of Management, Taris Olive Oil, Agricultural, Industrial and Commercial Company, (Turkey); Midilli, Adnan [Energy Technologies, Turgut Kiran Maritime College, Marine Engineering, Rize University (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of fossil fuels and the rising concerns about the environment, interest in green energy, which is both sustainable and clean, is growing. Among the different techniques, solar energy based hydrogen production appears to be one of the simpler and more convenient methods. Several solar hydrogen production methods exist and the aim of this paper is to determine the environmental and sustainability performances of an electrolyser. A solar hydrogen system was designed to meet the demands of 100 families in Misurata, Libya, whose average consumption is 268 kW and an exergy analysis was performed on the system. Results showed that the exergy destruction factor was 0.14 and the environmental destruction factor was 0.16. This study demonstrated that producing hydrogen using solar energy is an environmentally friendly and sustainable method which does not generate any greenhouse gases in the operating stage.

  4. Comparative Study of Various Techniques on Outlier Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K, Varma Mamta and Rajesh Nigam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse patterns from web data, commonly referred to as web outliers or exceptional cases or noise; exist in many real-world databases. Detection of such outliers is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce. Outliers are data objects with different characteristics compared to other data objects. Formal definition of outliers is given by D.Hawkins. as “An Outlier is an observation that deviates so much from other observations so that it arouses suspicion that it is generated by a different mechanism”. Detection of such outliers (outlier mining is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce, video surveillance, weather prediction, intrusion detection and pharmaceutical research. This paper has focus on comparative study of various techniques on Outlier Detection.

  5. Study and Comparison of Various Techniques of Image Edge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An edge may be defined as a set of connected pixels that forms a boundary between two disjoints regions. Image Edge detection reduces the amount of data and filters out useless information, while preserving the important structural properties in an image. Edge detection plays an important role in digital image processing and practical aspects of our daily life. In this paper we studied various edge detection techniques as Prewitt, Robert, Sobel, LoG and Canny operators. On comparing them we conclude that canny edge detector performs better than all other edge detectors on various aspects such as it is adaptive in nature, performs better for noisy image, gives sharp edges, low probability of detecting false edges.

  6. Modified Sandwich-graft Technique Employing Aorfix and Viabahn Stent-grafts to Preserve Hypogastric Flow in Cases of Complex Aortoiliac and Isolated Common Iliac Artery Aneurysms Including the Internal Iliac Artery Ostium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C S; Naji, Y; Hussain, S T; Pleban, E; Wiszniewski, A; Onida, S; Mosquera Arochena, N J; Szopinski, P

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to assess the early and mid-term safety and clinical outcomes of a modified sandwich-graft technique (MSGT) that employed the Aorfix and Viabahn stent-grafts to preserve hypogastric flow in cases of complex aortoiliac and isolated common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms including internal iliac artery (IIA) ostium who were not suitable for an iliac branch device (IBD). A review of prospective collected data of all consecutive cases of treatment of complex aortoiliac or isolated CIA aneurysms including IIA ostium using the MSGT to preserve the hypogastric flow in three European centres between April 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, was performed. All patients included were unfit for open repair and not suitable for an IBD. During the study period, 21 patients met the study criteria and had 25 MSGTs. The mean follow-up duration was 17.2 months. The technical success rate was 100%, with no perioperative mortality and stent-graft or MSGT-treated IIA occlusions. There were two cases with Type Ib endoleaks and one Type III endoleaks intraoperatively that were successfully managed. There was also no reported early and late pelvic ischaemia. The primary patency rate was 90.5%, and two cases of MGST treated IIA occlusions with no reported symptoms of pelvic ischaemia during follow-up. MSGT was a safe and feasible strategy to preserve hypogastric flow in cases of complex aortoiliac and isolated CIA aneurysms including IIA ostium and who were not suitable for IBD, with encouraging early and mid-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on non-oxide coating on carbon fibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Sharma, S.; Prajapati, K. K.; Vyas, M. M.; Batra, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    A new way of improving the oxidative behavior of carbon fibers coated with SiC through Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition technique. The complete study includes coating of SiC on glass slab and Stainless steel specimen as a starting test subjects but the major focus was to increase the oxidation temperature of carbon fibers by PECVD technique. This method uses relatively lower substrate temperature and guarantees better stoichiometry than other coating methods and hence the substrate shows higher resistance towards mechanical and thermal stresses along with increase in oxidation temperature.

  8. Temperature dependence of molecular motions in polymethylmethacrylate studied by positron annihilation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, S.; Geckle, U.; Levay, B.; Ache, H.J. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Radiochemie)

    1990-07-01

    Untreated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as well as PMMA into which charges were injected (PMMA-electret) were studied by positron annihilation techniques (PAT). A comparison of the PAT data with previously reported results obtained via different techniques including thermally stimulated discharge (TSD) shows good agreement and suggests that the observed can be explained by the onset of different types of molecular motions in the polymer. It appears that in the case of the PMMA-electret an additional transition at 130 K can be identified which may be correlated with a different type of molecular motion, presumably with the rotation of the methyl group of the ester side chain. (orig.).

  9. A Comparative Study of Inspection Techniques for Array Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Jelila; Green, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inspection techniques for Column Grid Array (CGA) packages. The CGA is a method of chip scale packaging using high temperature solder columns to attach part to board. It is becoming more popular over other techniques (i.e. quad flat pack (QFP) or ball grid array (BGA)). However there are environmental stresses and workmanship challenges that require good inspection techniques for these packages.

  10. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  11. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  12. Nitrous Oxide Formation and Destruction by Industrial No Abatement Techniques Including Scr Emissions des protoxides d'azote par des techniques industrielles d'abattement de NO y compris le SCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigations on N2O emission from full scale stationary combustion units, equipped with primary or secondary NO control techniques, are scarce or inexistent. Recent results obtained from laboratory scale studies are presented, from which it appears that fuel staging, selective non catalytic NO reduction with ammonia and selective catalytic NO reduction in the presence of ammonia, should be considered as potential sources of nitrous oxide emission enhancement. For the two mentioned gas phase NO abatement techniques (fuel staging and NCSR, this N2O emission enhancement is clearly linked with a decrease of the temperature, a result that might have been expected from the known gas phase reactions of N2O formation and destruction. Production of N2O from NCSR is more important than from fuel staging, and increases with ammonia concentration; this probably is related to the fact that ammonia yields N2O precursors (NH, NH2 readily by its decomposition. Separate injection of pure NO or NH3 suggests that N2O is a product of the interaction of those two reactants, whereas NO also is formed as a primary ammonia decomposition product in the presence of oxygen. A kinetic investigation of N2O formation from SCR has been made. It is shown that catalytic decomposition of neat ammonia yields both NO and N2O, the former as a primary product (from adsorbed ammonia and solid bound oxygen, the latter as a secondary product (from NO and adsorbed ammonia. Both NO and N2O subsequently undergo catalytic decomposition. In the presence of molecular oxygen, another NO formation (from O2 and adsorbed ammonia manifests itself at somewhat higher temperatures, creating the well known optimum temperature window . Comparative tests conducted on a number of metal oxides, tend to show that high efficiency for NO decomposition is often related to high production of N2O within the temperature window . On ne dispose actuellement pas encore de résultats d

  13. Options for laser compression of matter to study dense-plasma phases at low entropy, including metallization of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Oparin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aoki, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-Ku, Yokohama 227 (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The potential of high-power lasers for detailed studies of strongly coupled plasmas at low entropy is discussed, emphasizing multiple-shock techniques. Some outstanding features like metallization in solids and related ionization phase transitions in the fluid phase{emdash}predicted theoretically, but not yet observed experimentally{emdash}are reviewed. Planar multiple shock compression of solid hydrogen is described, using reverberating shocks between massive liners and, alternatively, a stepped pressure pulse acting from one side. In the latter case, shock splitting and a rarefaction shock show up at the metallic phase transition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS BY NOVE L MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shamim; Reyaz; Anju; Dinesh Kumar; Paricharak

    2015-01-01

    In the present study , thirty patients in the age range of 22 to 63 years of age were included after being diagnosed to be having brain tumour on CT scan or conventional MRI. In addition DWI , MRS , and PWI were carried out i n these patients. All the patients with suspicious malignant lesions were then subjected to FDG - PET examination . Histopathological correlation was obtained in all the patients to serve as gold standard against which other m...

  15. Postoperative pain intensity after using different instrumentation techniques: a randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÇIÇEK, Ersan; KOÇAK, Mustafa Murat; KOÇAK, Sibel; SAĞLAM, Baran Can; TÜRKER, Sevinç Aktemur

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postoperative pain is a frequent complication associated with root canal treatment, especially during apical instrumentation of tooth with preexisting periradicular inflammation Objectives The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of the instrumentation techniques on the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain in single-visit root canal treatment. Material and Methods Ninety patients with single root/canal and non-vital pulps were included. The patients were assigned into 3 groups according to root canal instrumentation technique used; modified step-back, reciprocal, and rotational techniques. Root canal treatment was carried out in a single visit and the severity of postoperative pain was assessed via 4-point pain intensity scale. All the participants were called through the phone at 12, 24 and 48 h to obtain the pain scores. Data were analyzed through the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results There was significant difference between all groups (p<0.05). The modified step-back technique produced postoperative pain significantly lower than the rotational (p=0.018) and reciprocal (p=0.020) techniques. No difference was found between the reciprocal and rotational techniques (p=0.868). Postoperative pain in the first 12 h period (p=0.763) and in the 24 h period (p=0.147) was not significantly different between the groups. However, the difference in the 48 h period was statistically different between the groups (p=0.040). Conclusion All instrumentation techniques caused postoperative pain. The modified step-back technique produced less pain compared to the rotational and reciprocal techniques. PMID:28198972

  16. Sea otter studies on Amchitka Island 27 July to 5 October 1955 including studies on captive otters in Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During our stay on Amchitka we had three primary objectives: 1. To study otters in their natural environment with the purpose of learning more about feeding habits,...

  17. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srikanth Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. Materials and Methods: 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Results: Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Clinical Implication: Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  18. Application of spectroscopic techniques to the study of illuminated manuscripts: A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt

    2012-05-15

    This work focused on the application of the most relevant spectroscopic techniques used for the characterization of illuminated manuscripts. The historical value of these unique and invaluable artworks, together with the increased awareness concerning the conservation of cultural heritage, prompted the application of analytical techniques to the study of these illuminations. This is essential for the understanding of the artist's working methods, which aids conservation-restoration. The characterization of the pigments may also help assign a probable date to the manuscript. For these purposes, the spectroscopic techniques used so far include those that provide information on the elemental content: X-ray fluorescence, total reflection X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Complementary techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, reveal information regarding the compounds present in the samples. The techniques, suitability, technological evolution and development of high-performance detectors, as well as the possibility of microanalysis and the higher sensitivity of the equipment, will also be discussed. Furthermore, issues such as the necessity of sampling, the portability of the equipment and the overall advantages and disadvantages of different techniques will be analyzed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The techniques used for studying illuminated manuscripts are described and compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For in situ, non-destructive analysis the most suitable technique is EDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For quantitative analysis TXRF is more appropriate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman spectroscopy is mostly used for pigments identification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR was used for the characterization of binders and parchment.

  19. Particle fluence measurements by activation technique for radiation damage studies

    CERN Document Server

    León-Florián, E; Furetta, C; Leroy, Claude

    1995-01-01

    High-level radiation environment can produce radiation damage in detectors and their associate electronic components. The establishment of a correlation between damage, irradiation level and absorbed dose requires a precise measurement of the fluence of particles causing the damage. The activation technique is frequently used for performing particle fluence measurements. A review of this technique is presented.

  20. A technique to study the granular flow during superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Andrade, J.D. [DCBI, Dept. de Materiales, Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico); Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas. Facultad de Ingenieria; Mendoza-Allende, A.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J.A. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica; Torres-Villasenor, G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones en Materiales

    1999-07-01

    A new technique for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which provides a mesoscopic coordinate system inscribed on the surface of the center of a tension test specimen, and relates this system to another fixed at rest in laboratory it is developed. Such technique allows to establish in a repeatable way any angle relative to any axis of any coordinate system, or distances between grains, or to measure local or global true deformation in parallel or perpendicular direction relatives to the tension axis. This technique was applied to give some results on a Zn-20.2% Al-1.8% Cu Alloy tension test specimen with 412 {mu}m length. (orig.)

  1. Study on new technique of rapidly following curtain filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余健; 张爱兰

    2002-01-01

    The present problem of mining of narrow and gentle dip vein was analyzed. A new technique of rapidly following curtain filling was put forward. The results show that the new technique is feasible, has the characteristic to make the whole curtain wall filter, makes relative density of the filling tailings slurry reach saturation of 78.0%-80.0% in 25 min, and keeps the roof of mined-out space stable in 60 min. The new technique of the rapidly following curtain filling has solved the difficult problem of the filling body filtering slowly and promptly controlling underground pressure, which cannot be solved in traditional ways.

  2. A Study on Repetition Techniques in Persian Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Vafaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The speakers of any language, according to their constant need, coin some novel words in order to convey meaning, express ideas, thoughts, and their desires. In this process, they take advantage of their overt or covert linguistic competence. For instance, the derivative feature of Arabic language has contributed a lot to speakers of that language to create so many words with multiple meanings, all formed on the same stem. Likewise, English speakers make use of the derivative features, compounding, blending, and multiple processes of their language to create words. Similarly, in Persian language, the speakers make new words based on specific features of that language. There are five common processes applied in Persian language to form new words, among which blending, compounding, derivation, repetition or reduplication, clipping and acronyms are frequently used and the other techniques or processes have been neglected. Word repetition is one of the word formation processes and many words are made through this process. This study is an attempt to delve into the morphological processes of word repetition in Persian contemporary language according to the texts of three books, “Imaginary Perspectives in Persian Poetry”, “Let’s Listen to the Speech” and “with Holleh Convoy”. In addition, it strives to find a proper solution to the question of the Persian word formation processes in creating new words through repetition.

  3. Studies on selected polymeric materials using the photoacoustic spectroscopic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hukum Singh

    2011-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-graft-polybisphenol-A-carbonate (PMMA-G-PC) with 50% grafting is synthesized. The acid (0.18 M, 100 ml) in air at (45±12) ℃ for 3.0 h. Condensation of (PMMA-G-PC) with N-[p-(carboxyl phenyl amino acetic acid)] hydrazide (PCPH) affords polybisphenol-A-carbonate-graft-polymethylmethacrylate hydrazide (PCGH).The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of (PCGH) are recorded in a wavelength range from 200 nm to 800 nm at a modulation frequency of 22 Hz, and compared with those of pure polybisphenol-A-carbonate (PC), (PMMA-G-PC) and (PCPH).In the present work, a non-destructive and non-contact analytical method, namely the photoacoustic technique, is successfully implemented for optical and thermal characterization of selected polymeric materials. The indigenous PA spectrometer used in the present study consists of a 300-W xenon arc lamp, a lock-in amplifier, a chopper, a (1/8)-m monochromator controlled by computer and a home-made PA cell.

  4. Study of Semi-Span Model Testing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; McGhee, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel in order to further the development of semi-span testing capabilities. A twin engine, energy efficient transport (EET) model with a four-element wing in a takeoff configuration was used for this investigation. Initially a full span configuration was tested and force and moment data, wing and fuselage surface pressure data, and fuselage boundary layer measurements were obtained as a baseline data set. The semi-span configurations were then mounted on the wind tunnel floor, and the effects of fuselage standoff height and shape as well as the effects of the tunnel floor boundary layer height were investigated. The effectiveness of tangential blowing at the standoff/floor juncture as an active boundary-layer control technique was also studied. Results indicate that the semi-span configuration was more sensitive to variations in standoff height than to variations in floor boundary layer height. A standoff height equivalent to 30 percent of the fuselage radius resulted in better correlation with full span data than no standoff or the larger standoff configurations investigated. Undercut standoff leading edges or the use of tangential blowing in the standoff/ floor juncture improved correlation of semi-span data with full span data in the region of maximum lift coefficient.

  5. Laser Welding and Syncristallization Techniques Comparison: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fornaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laser welding was first reported in 1967 and for many years it has been used in dental laboratories with several advantages versus the conventional technique. Authors described, in previous works, the possibility of using also chair-side Nd : YAG laser device (Fotona Fidelis III, =1064 nm for welding metallic parts of prosthetic appliances directly in the dental office, extra- and also intra-orally. Syncristallisation is a soldering technique based on the creation of an electric arc between two electrodes and used to connect implants to bars intra-orally. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare two different laser welding devices with a soldering machine, all of these used in prosthetic dentistry. Material and Methods. In-lab Nd : YAG laser welding (group A = 12 samples, chair-side Nd : YAG laser welding (group B = 12 samples, and electrowelder (group C = 12 samples were used. The tests were performed on 36 CrCoMo plates and the analysis consisted in evaluation, by microscopic observation, of the number of fissures in welded areas of groups A and B and in measurement of the welding strength in all the groups. The results were statistically analysed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. Results. The means and standard deviations for the number of fissures in welded areas were 8.12±2.59 for group A and 5.20±1.38 for group B. The difference was statistical significant (=0.0023 at the level 95%. On the other hand, the means and standard deviations for the traction tests were 1185.50±288.56 N for group A, 896.41±120.84 N for group B, and 283.58±84.98 N for group C. The difference was statistical significant (=0.01 at the level 95%. Conclusion. The joint obtained by welding devices had a significant higher strength compared with that obtained by the electrowelder, and the comparison between the two laser devices used demonstrated that the chair-side Nd : YAG, even giving a

  6. Laser welding and syncristallization techniques comparison: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, C; Merigo, E; Vescovi, P; Meleti, M; Nammour, S

    2012-01-01

    Background. Laser welding was first reported in 1967 and for many years it has been used in dental laboratories with several advantages versus the conventional technique. Authors described, in previous works, the possibility of using also chair-side Nd : YAG laser device (Fotona Fidelis III, λ = 1064 nm) for welding metallic parts of prosthetic appliances directly in the dental office, extra- and also intra-orally. Syncristallisation is a soldering technique based on the creation of an electric arc between two electrodes and used to connect implants to bars intra-orally. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare two different laser welding devices with a soldering machine, all of these used in prosthetic dentistry. Material and Methods. In-lab Nd : YAG laser welding (group A = 12 samples), chair-side Nd : YAG laser welding (group B = 12 samples), and electrowelder (group C = 12 samples) were used. The tests were performed on 36 CrCoMo plates and the analysis consisted in evaluation, by microscopic observation, of the number of fissures in welded areas of groups A and B and in measurement of the welding strength in all the groups. The results were statistically analysed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. Results. The means and standard deviations for the number of fissures in welded areas were 8.12 ± 2.59 for group A and 5.20 ± 1.38 for group B. The difference was statistical significant (P = 0.0023 at the level 95%). On the other hand, the means and standard deviations for the traction tests were 1185.50 ± 288.56 N for group A, 896.41 ± 120.84 N for group B, and 283.58 ± 84.98 N for group C. The difference was statistical significant (P = 0.01 at the level 95%). Conclusion. The joint obtained by welding devices had a significant higher strength compared with that obtained by the electrowelder, and the comparison between the two laser devices used demonstrated that the chair-side Nd : YAG, even giving

  7. Value of the small cohort study including a physical examination for minor structural defects in identifying new human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Christina D

    2011-03-01

    Most known human teratogens are associated with a unique or characteristic pattern of major and minor malformations and this pattern helps to establish the causal link between the teratogenic exposure and the outcome. Although traditional case-control and cohort study designs can help identify potential teratogens, there is an important role for small cohort studies that include a dysmorphological examination of exposed and unexposed infants for minor structural defects. In combination with other study design approaches, the small cohort study with a specialized physical examination fulfills a necessary function in screening for new potential teratogens and can help to better delineate the spectrum and magnitude of risk for known teratogens.

  8. Study of systems and techniques for data base management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Data management areas were studied to identify pertinent problems and issues that will affect future NASA data users in terms of performance and cost. Specific topics discussed include the identifications of potential NASA data users other than those normally discussed, consideration affecting the clustering of minicomputers, low cost computer system for information retrieval and analysis, the testing of minicomputer based data base management systems, ongoing work related to the use of dedicated systems for data base management, and the problems of data interchange among a community of NASA data users.

  9. Basalt characterization by means of nuclear and electrical well logging techniques. Case study from Southern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.

  10. Basalt characterization by means of nuclear and electrical well logging techniques. Case study from Southern Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfahani, Jamal, E-mail: cscientific2@aec.org.s [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-03-15

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MICROAGGREGATION TECHNIQUES FOR MICRODATA PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Kumar Chettri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microaggregation is an efficient Statistical Disclosure Control (SDC perturbative technique for microdataprotection. It is a unified approach and naturally satisfies k-Anonymity without generalization orsuppression of data. Various microaggregation techniques: fixed-size and data-oriented for univariate andmultivariate data exists in the literature. These methods have been evaluated using the standard measures:Disclosure Risk (DR and Information Loss (IL. Every time a new microaggregation technique wasproposed, a better trade-off between risk of disclosing data and data utility was achieved. Though thereexists an optimal univariate microaggregation method but unfortunately an optimal multivariatemicroaggregation method is an NP hard problem. Consequently, several heuristics have been proposed butno such method outperforms the other in all the possible criteria. In this paper we have performed a studyof the various microaggregation techniques so that we get a detailed insight on how to design an efficientmicroaggregation method which satisfies all the criteria

  14. Study and application of X radiation sampling technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛良全; 章晔; 等

    1996-01-01

    The physical bases of a X radiation sampling technique are investigated.Three technical problems of unevenness,matrix and heterogeneous mineralization effects,are considered and successfully resolved.This new technique was appled to three sites of Au,Sn and Cu deposits(representing higher,medial and lower atomic number minerals)in different exploration stages in China and satisfactory results are obtained.

  15. Extent of non-publication in cohorts of studies approved by research ethics committees or included in trial registries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schmucker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The synthesis of published research in systematic reviews is essential when providing evidence to inform clinical and health policy decision-making. However, the validity of systematic reviews is threatened if journal publications represent a biased selection of all studies that have been conducted (dissemination bias. To investigate the extent of dissemination bias we conducted a systematic review that determined the proportion of studies published as peer-reviewed journal articles and investigated factors associated with full publication in cohorts of studies (i approved by research ethics committees (RECs or (ii included in trial registries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Four bibliographic databases were searched for methodological research projects (MRPs without limitations for publication year, language or study location. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the references of included MRPs. We estimated the proportion of studies published using prediction intervals (PI and a random effects meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (OR were used to express associations between study characteristics and journal publication. Seventeen MRPs (23 publications evaluated cohorts of studies approved by RECs; the proportion of published studies had a PI between 22% and 72% and the weighted pooled proportion when combining estimates would be 46.2% (95% CI 40.2%-52.4%, I2 = 94.4%. Twenty-two MRPs (22 publications evaluated cohorts of studies included in trial registries; the PI of the proportion published ranged from 13% to 90% and the weighted pooled proportion would be 54.2% (95% CI 42.0%-65.9%, I2 = 98.9%. REC-approved studies with statistically significant results (compared with those without statistically significant results were more likely to be published (pooled OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.2-3.5. Phase-III trials were also more likely to be published than phase II trials (pooled OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5. The probability of publication within two

  16. Cricothyrotomy technique using gum elastic bougie is faster than standard technique: a study of emergency medicine residents and medical students in an animal lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Chandler; Reardon, Robert; Joing, Scott; Falvey, Dan; Miner, James

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to compare time to completion, failure rate, and subjective difficulty of a new cricothyrotomy technique to the standard technique. The new bougie-assisted cricothyrotomy technique (BACT) is similar to the rapid four-step technique (RFST), but a bougie and endotracheal tube are inserted rather than a Shiley tracheostomy tube. This was a randomized controlled trail conducted on domestic sheep. During a 3-month period inexperienced residents or students were randomized to perform cricothyrotomy on anesthetized sheep using either the standard technique or the BACT. Operators were trained with an educational video before the procedure. Time to successful cricothyrotomy was recorded. The resident or student was then asked to rate the difficulty of the procedure on a five-point scale from 1 (very easy) to 5 (very difficult). Twenty-one residents and students were included in the study: 11 in the standard group and 10 in the BACT group. Compared to the standard technique, the BACT was significantly faster with a median time of 67 seconds (interquartile range [IQR] = 55-82) versus 149 seconds (IQR = 111-201) for the standard technique (p = 0.002). The BACT was also rated easier to perform (median = 2, IQR = 1-3) than the standard technique (median = 3, IQR = 2-4; p = 0.04). The failure rate was 1/10 for the BACT compared to 3/11 for the standard method (p = NS). This study demonstrates that the BACT is faster than the standard technique and has a similar failure rate when performed by inexperienced providers on anesthetized sheep. (c) 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Study of nickel silicide formation by physical vapor deposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancharatnam, Shanti

    Metal silicides are used as contacts to the highly n-doped emitter in photovoltaic devices. Thin films of nickel silicide (NiSi) are of particular interest for Si-based solar cells, as they form at lower temperature and consume less silicon. However, interfacial oxide limits the reduction in sheet resistance. Hence, different diffusion barriers were investigated with regard to optimizing the conductivity and thermal stability. The formation of NiSi, and if it can be doped to have good contact with the n-side of a p-n junction were studied. Reduction of the interfacial oxide by the interfacial Ti layer to allow the formation of NiSi was observed. Silicon was treated in dilute hydrofluoric acid for removing the surface oxide layer. Ni and a Ti diffusion barrier were deposited on Si by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods - electron beam evaporation and sputtering. The annealing temperature and time were varied to observe the stability of the deposited film. The films were then etched to observe the retention of the silicide. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Sheet resistance was measured using the four-point probe technique. Annealing temperatures from 300°C showed films began to agglomerate indicating some diffusion between Ni and Si in the Ti layer, also supported by the compositional analysis in the Auger spectra. Films obtained by evaporation and sputtering were of high quality in terms of coverage over substrate area and uniformity. Thicknesses of Ni and Ti were optimized to 20 nm and 10 nm respectively. Resistivity was low at these thicknesses, and reduced by about half post annealing at 300°C for 8 hours. Thus a low resistivity contact was obtained at optimized thicknesses of the metal layers. It was also shown that some silicide formation occurs at temperatures starting from 300°C and can thus be used to make good silicide contacts.

  18. Elective breast radiotherapy including level I and II lymph nodes: A planning study with the humeral head as planning risk volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, Kathrin; van der Leer, Jorien; Branje, Tammy; van der Sangen, Maurice; van Lieshout, Maarten; Hurkmans, Coen W

    2017-01-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the dose to the humeral head planning risk volume with the currently used high tangential fields (HTF) and compare different planning techniques for breast radiotherapy including axillary level I and II lymph nodes (PTVn) while sparing the humeral head. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were enrolled in a planning study with 16 fractions of 2.66 Gy. Four planning techniques were compared: HTF, HTF with sparing of the humeral head, 6-field IMRT with sparing of the humeral head and VMAT with sparing of the humeral head. The humeral head + 10 mm was spared by restricting V40Gy HTF (V40Gy on average 20.7 cc). When sparing the humeral head in HTF, PTVn V90% decreased significantly from 97.9% to 89.4%. 6-field IMRT and VMAT had a PTVn V90% of 98.2% and 99.5% respectively. However, dose to the lungs, heart and especially the contralateral breast increased with VMAT. The humeral head is rarely spared when using HTF. When sparing the humeral head, the 6-field IMRT technique leads to adequate PTV coverage while not increasing the dose to the OARs.

  19. Case study on visualizing hurricanes using illustration-inspired techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Alark; Caban, Jesus; Rheingans, Penny; Sparling, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The devastating power of hurricanes was evident during the 2005 hurricane season, the most active season on record. This has prompted increased efforts by researchers to understand the physical processes that underlie the genesis, intensification, and tracks of hurricanes. This research aims at facilitating an improved understanding into the structure of hurricanes with the aid of visualization techniques. Our approach was developed by a mixed team of visualization and domain experts. To better understand these systems, and to explore their representation in NWP models, we use a variety of illustration-inspired techniques to visualize their structure and time evolution. Illustration-inspired techniques aid in the identification of the amount of vertical wind shear in a hurricane, which can help meteorologists predict dissipation. Illustration-style visualization, in combination with standard visualization techniques, helped explore the vortex rollup phenomena and the mesovortices contained within. We evaluated the effectiveness of our visualization with the help of six hurricane experts. The expert evaluation showed that the illustration-inspired techniques were preferred over existing tools. Visualization of the evolution of structural features is a prelude to a deeper visual analysis of the underlying dynamics.

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS ON CREATIVE ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSANU ADRIAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is the analysis of Romanian accounting regulations and the identification of the impact they have on creative accounting techniques. Also, we shall investigate the influence some of these creative accounting techniques have on the true and fair value. Basically, we desire to answer the question: to what extent is being affected the true and fair value reflected within the financial statements of a certain entity by appealing to creative accounting. At international level there are several papers having as subject creative accounting, most of them emphasizing the negative role it has upon achieving the true and fait view. The papers that analyze creative accounting techniques in Romania are rather few, reason to start studying the extent to which Romanian accounting regulations allow the use of creative accounting techniques. We shall use the experience comprised within papers published at international level in order to substantiate an objective analysis of creative accounting techniques in Romania and of the impact they have on true and fait view. Being familiar with the creative accounting techniques is equally useful to the entire palette of accounting information users, including the researchers, for one can quantify the positive or negative impact they have on the true and fair value. One can bring suggestions to modify the accounting regulations, if some creative accounting techniques affect the legitimate interests of certain accounting information users. Also, one can perform analyses regarding the situation of this field in Romania in comparison with the existent situation in other countries. The paper's originality is given by the study on the impact of applicable accounting regulations in Romania on creative accounting techniques. There are very few studies in this field in our country and we appreciate that it would be a useful source for the accounting information users. Also, the usefulness of this

  1. The Comparative study of Automated Face replacement Techniques for Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmesh Sanghvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For entertaining purposes, a computerized special effect referred to as “morphing” has enlarged huge attention and face replacement is one of the interesting tasks. Face replacement in video is a useful application in the amusement and special effect industries. Though various techniques for face replacement have been developed for single image and generally applied in animation and morphing, there are few mechanisms to spread out these techniques to handle videos automatically. Face replacement in video automatically is not only a fascinating application, but a challenging problem. For face replacement in video, the frame-by-frame manipulation process using the software is often time consuming and labor-intensive. Hence, the paper compares numerous latest Automatic face replacement techniques in video to understand the various problems to be solved, their shortcomings and benefits over others.

  2. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  3. Study of Influence of Experimental Technique on Measured Particle Velocity Distributions in Fluidized Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Balaji; Shaffer, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Fluid flows that are loaded with high concentration of solid particles are common in oil and chemical processing industries. However, the opaque nature of the flow fields and the complex nature of the flow have hampered the experimental and computational study of these processes. This has led to the development of a number of customized experimental techniques for high concentration particle flows for evaluation and improvement of CFD models. This includes techniques that track few individual particles, measures average particle velocity over a small sample volume and those over a large sample volume. In this work novel high speed PIV (HsPIV), with individual particle tracking, was utilized to measure velocities of individual particles in gas-particle flow fields at the walls circulating and bubbling fluidized bed. The HsPIV measurement technique has the ability to simultaneously recognize and track thousands of individual particles in flows of high particle concentration. To determine the effect of the size of the sample volume on particle velocity measurements, the PDF of Lagrangian particle velocity was compared with the PDF of Eulerian for different domain sizes over a range of flow conditions. The results will show that measured particle velocity distribution can vary from technique to technique and this bias has to be accounted in comparison with CFD simulations.

  4. A comparative study of open technique and Z-plasty in management of pilonidal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pilonidal sinus is one of the common problems encountered in general surgical practices and the management of this disease is variable, contentious and problematic. Principles of treatment require eradication of the sinus tract; complete healing and prevention of recurrence. Although several surgical techniques have been described over the years, the management remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the two techniques of the open method and Z-plasty in the management of pilonidal sinus, in terms of incidence of post-operative pain, total hospital stay, total recovery time, complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective comparative study which was conducted in the surgical department of a teaching hospital. A total of 50 cases were included in this study. Of these, 25 cases were operated by the open technique and 25 by excision and Z-plasty. Observation and Result: The mean age at presentation was 29.44 years. Male genders followed by age between 20 and 30 years were the most common predisposing factors. The mean body mass index, early and late post-operative complications were comparable between the two groups. Mean hospital stay and total recovery time was significantly more in open technique group compared with Z-plasty group. Visual analog score was also significantly more in open technique group when compared with Z-plasty group. Conclusion: Excision with Z-plasty was better technique in terms of lesser hospital stay, lesser recovery time, less post-operative pain.

  5. Music Therapy With Premature Infants and Their Caregivers in Colombia – A Mixed Methods Pilot Study Including a Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Ettenberger; Helen Odell-Miller; Cátherine Rojas Cárdenas; Sergio Torres Serrano; Mike Parker; Sandra Milena Camargo Llanos

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a three-arm mixed methods pilot study of music therapy with premature infants and their caregivers in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Bogotá, Colombia. The study included 19 medically stable babies born between the 30th and 37th week of gestation and their caregivers. Two intervention groups were compared with a control group. The objectives were to find out whether music therapy could help the neonates to stabilize their physiological states a...

  6. A Comparative Study of Ranging Techniques in Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Bo; Mao, Nanping; Tao, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, main ranging techniques in deep space applications are elaborated and analyzed. Their ranging accuracy, acquisition time and complexity are compared. It is shown that the code-tone ranging method has obvious advantage over others in deep space tracking. Start your abstract here...

  7. Study on Superinsulating Surface by Heavy Ion Tracks Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A common problem in high voltage technique is the breakdown of insulator due to surfacecontamination with conducting material. For example, the metal ion is transported to the insulator surfaceby sparking of vapor metal. Usually, the conventional way to solve this problem is to produce anundulating shape of the insulation surface. However,the way to enlarge the insulation surface is not

  8. Comprehensive Flood Plain Studies Using Spatial Data Management Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    and subbasin hydraulic length. The technique adopted is a modest extension and automation of the method developed for San Diego County (Franziniet al...land classified as 14 I ____.4_ natural vegetation under existing conditions is 272 acres while the total amount of landA classified as natural

  9. Study of engineering surfaces using laser-scattering techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Babu Rao; Baldev Raj

    2003-06-01

    Surface roughness parameters are described. Various surface characterization techniques are reviewed briefly. Interaction of light with the surface is discussed. Laser-scattering methods to characterise the surface are detailed. Practical cases, where laser-scattering methods have provided useful information about surface characteristics, are illustrated.

  10. A Study of the Technique of Linear Multiuser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The technique of linear multiuser detection in DS-CDMA systems is studied in this paper. The purpose is to find a receiver structure with good performance and moderate complexity, so that the receiver can efficiently suppress multiple-access interference(MAI) and multipath interference and has good near-far resistant ability, which may improve the system's capability while reducing the requirement for power control. The main work of the dissertation can be summarized as follows: the performance of MMSE multiuser detector in synchronous/asynchronous DS-CDMA systems over different channels is analyzed in chapter 2 of the dissertation. Using matrix method, we analyze the relation between performance measurement and spreading code correlation matrix, Signal-Interference-Ratio(SIR) and near-far factor, and prove that the performance of MMSE detector is better than that of the decorrelating detector. For fading channel, we analyze the performance of MMSE detector in DS-SS system firstly. Results show that the detector can efficiently suppress multipath interference. Extending to synchronous/asynchronous DS-CDMA systems over fading channels, we propose a simple linear detector structure that accomplishes despreading, detection and combining. Thus, the receiver is easy for implementation. Based on the proposed notion of combined spreading codes, we prove that the synchronous/asynchronous CDMA system is equivalent to the synchronous CDMA system over AWGN channel with double users. Therefore, the MMSE detector can efficiently suppress MAI and multipath interference in steady state, and has good near-far resistant ability. In chapter 3, we study the adaptive algorithm based on MMSE criterion. Firstly, the approach to the blind algorithm based on subspace is analyzed. We improve the algorithm in the part of channel estimation, which decreases the computational complexity while guaranteeing the performance. Meanwhile, we point out that CMOE-RLS algorithm is essentially an

  11. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  12. Patient experienced continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system-a study including immigrants, refugees and ethnic danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2014-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  13. Patient Experienced Continuity of Care in the Psychiatric Healthcare System—A Study Including Immigrants, Refugees and Ethnic Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasja Koitzsch Jensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. Method: The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes. Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Results: Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. Conclusions: The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  14. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  15. Height Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.

    2014-11-01

    Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements.We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements.This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.

  16. Hight Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.

    2014-11-01

    Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements. We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements. This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.

  17. Nuclear techniques using radioactive beams for biophysical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Stachura, Monika Kinga

    Perturbed angular correlation of "-rays (PAC) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance measured by !-decay (betaNMR) spectroscopy are two very sensitive and, among life-scientists, infrequently encountered nuclear techniques. Both of them belong to the family of hyperfine techniques, which allow for measurements of the interactions of extra-nuclear electromagnetic fields with the nuclear moments. In this way - they can provide useful information about the local structure of the investigated systems. The first part of the work presented here focuses on investigating the fundamental chemistry of heavy metal ion - protein interactions mainly with PAC spectroscopy. A variety of questions concerning both the function of metal ions in natural systems and in synthetic biomolecules on the one hand and the toxic effects of some metal ions on the other were addressed, the results of which are described in four different papers. Paper I is a review article entitled ”Selected applications of perturbed angular correl...

  18. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  19. Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Gaussian Beam Visualization Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Magnes, J; Hartke, J; Fountain, M; Florence, L; Davis, V

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparative overview of existing laser beam profiling methods. We compare the the knife-edge, scanning slit, and pin-hole methods. Data is presented in a comparative fashion. We also elaborate on the use of CCD profiling methods and present appropriate imagery. These methods allow for a quantitative determination of transverse laser beam-profiles using inexpensive and accessible methods. The profiling techniques presented are inexpensive and easily applicable to a variety of experiments.

  20. Study of Magnetic Nanocomposites by NMR and Bulk Magnetization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocomposites possess complex and nonuniform magnetic structure. As a result it is necessary to use different physical methods to describe their properties. In this work we have applied a combination of micro and macro approaches to understand more deeply magnetic properties of some cobaltcontaining nanocomposites. Testing of magnetic structure of the samples at molecular level was done with NMR and Mössbauer techniques whereas static (SQUID and dynamic magnetic (M2, see below measurements – at macro level.

  1. A Comprehensive Study of CRM through Data Mining Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Farooqi, Md Rashid

    2012-01-01

    In today's competitive scenario in corporate world, "Customer Retention" strategy in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is an increasingly pressed issue. Data mining techniques play a vital role in better CRM. This paper attempts to bring a new perspective by focusing the issue of data mining applications, opportunities and challenges in CRM. It covers the topic such as customer retention, customer services, risk assessment, fraud detection and some of the data mining tools which are widely used in CRM.

  2. Clinical Study of Acoustic Densitometry Technique in Detecting Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Quyu Xiaoban Capsule (祛瘀消斑, QYXB) on the regressive treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) with acoustic densitometry (AD) technique. Methods: Eighty patients with AS were randomly divided into two groups, trial group was treated with QYXB and conventional medicine, and control group was treated with conventional medicine alone. Normal arterial wall and different types of atherosclerotic plaques were detected with AD technique before treatment and 10 months later. Resuits: The corrected averages in intimal echo intensity (AIIc%) were elevated in both groups but without significant difference, AIIc% of fatty plaques were increased in both groups and the value after treatment was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment in the trial group (68.12±5.54 vs 61.43±5.37, P<0.05).The increment rate of AIIc% in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (10.9±5.1% vs2.5±5.5%, P<0.05). Conclusion: QYXB can stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque by increasing its acoustic density. Acoustic densitometry technique can differentiate the different histological plaques and monitor the histological changes of plaques during treatment.

  3. Ayurvedic versus conventional dietary and lifestyle counseling for mothers with burnout-syndrome: A randomized controlled pilot study including a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian S; Eisenmann, Clemens; Oberzaucher, Frank; Forster, Martin; Steckhan, Nico; Meier, Larissa; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Ayurveda claims to be effective in the treatment of psychosomatic disorders by means of lifestyle and nutritional counseling. In a randomized controlled study mothers with burnout were randomized into two groups: Ayurvedic nutritional counseling (according to tradition), and conventional nutritional counseling (following the recommendations of a family doctor). Patients received five counseling sessions over twelve weeks. Outcomes included levels of burnout, quality of life, sleep, stress, depression/anxiety, and spirituality at three and six months. It also included a qualitative evaluation of the communication processes. We randomized thirty four patients; twenty three participants were included in the per protocol analysis. No significant differences were observed between the groups. However, significant and clinically relevant intra-group mean changes for the primary outcome burnout, and secondary outcomes sleep, stress, depression and mental health were only found in the Ayurveda group. The qualitative part of the study identified different conversational styles and counseling techniques between the two study groups. In conventional consultations questions tended to be category bound, while counseling-advice was predominantly admonitory. The Ayurvedic practitioner used open-ended interrogative forms, devices for displaying understanding, and positive re-evaluation more frequently, leading to an overall less asymmetrical interaction. We found positive effects for both groups, which however were more pronounced in the Ayurvedic group. The conversational and counseling techniques in the Ayurvedic group offered more opportunities for problem description by patients as well as patient-centered practice and resource-oriented recommendations by the physician. NCT01797887. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bipole-dipole interpretation with three-dimensional models (including a field study of Las Alturas, New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, G.W.; Jiracek, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    The bipole-dipole responses of three-dimensional (3D) prisms were studied using an integral equation numerical solution. Although response patterns are quite complex, the bipole-dipole method appears to be a useful, efficient means of mapping the areal distribution of resistivity. However, 3D modeling is required for quantitative interpretation. Computer time for our solution varies from negligible for small bodies to 6 minutes on a UNIVAC 1108 for the largest possible body (85 cubes). Bipole-dipole response varies significantly with bipole orientation and position, but simply changing the distance between the bipole and the body does not greatly affect the response. However, the response is complex and interpretation ambiguous if both transmitter electrodes are located directly over a body. Boundaries of shallow bodies are much better resolved than those of deep bodies. Conductive bodies produce false polarization highs that can confuse interpretation. It is difficult to distinguish the effects of depth and resistivity contrast, and, as with all electrical methods, depth extent is difficult to resolve. Interactive interpretation of bipole-dipole field results from a geothermal prospect in New Mexico illustrates the value of the 3D modeling technique.

  5. TRADITIONAL AND DIGITAL AUTORADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES: A COMPARISON STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, K; Carol Kestin, C

    2006-08-29

    This report fulfills the FY 2006 Enhanced Surveillance Campaign Level 3 milestones for Task TSR 11.1 as defined in the execution plan [1, 2]. The purpose of this task is to reduce the cycle time necessary to complete analytical evaluations required for surveillance of reservoirs. The development of the digital autoradiography system supports this task. The digital autoradiography system is currently operational and ready for implementation in reservoir surveillance performed in the Materials Test Facility (MTF) at Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS requests design agency (Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory) concurrence for the implementation of this system and on the establishment, in conjunction with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), of the implementation requirements for this system. Stainless steel tritium reservoirs and pinch welded tubes, which have been exposed to tritium for a prolonged period, are destructively evaluated at the end of their service lives for a variety of reasons. One requirement of this evaluation is to assess the tritium diffusion into the reservoir material. The current method used to determine the geometry and depth of tritium penetration is autoradiography. This technique employs a photographic emulsion and has been effective for a number of years. The primary disadvantage of this technique is the time required to obtain results. The success of the traditional technique is dependent on many variables, such as the proficiency of the operators in conducting sample preparation, the geometry of the sample and the shelf life of the photographic chemicals. If results are not satisfactory, several repetitions are often required and usually add weeks to the total analysis time for the sample. Due to the extensive time required for the liquid emulsion autoradiography method, a new, faster technique was desired. Personnel from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have been working on a system based on

  6. Anterior Ridge Extension Using Modified Kazanjian Technique in Mandible- A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jagannadham Vijay; Chakravarthi, Pandi Srinivas; Sridhar, Meka; Devi, Kolli Naga Neelima; Lingamaneni, Krishna Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Good alveolar ridge is a prerequisite for successful conventional/ implant supported partial/complete denture. Extensively resorbed ridges with shallow vestibule and high insertion of muscles in to the ridge crest, leads to failure of prosthesis. Success of prosthesis depends on surgical repositioning of mucosa and muscle insertions, which increases the depth of vestibule and denture flange area for retention. So, the study was planned to provide good attached gingiva with adequate vestibular depth using Modified Kazanjian Vestibuloplasty (MKV). Aim To evaluate efficacy of MKV technique for increasing vestibular depth in anterior mandible so that successful prosthesis can be delivered. Efficacy of the technique was evaluated through operating time required, vestibular depth achieved, scarring or relapse and any postoperative complications associated with the healing. Materials and Methods Total of 10 patients were included in the study, who had minimum 20mm of bone height and less than 5mm of vestibular depth for MKV procedure. The results were tabulated and statistical analysis was carried out to assess vestibular depth achieved i.e. from crest of the ridge to junction of attached mucosa both pre and postoperatively. The study results were compared with existing literature. Results Healing of raw surface was uneventful with satisfactory achievement of vestibular depth. The average gain in vestibular depth was 11 mm. The patients had good satisfaction index for prosthesis. Conclusion Even in the era of implant prosthesis Modified Kazanjian technique is worth to practice to achieve good results and overcorrection is not required as that of standard Kazanjian technique. It provides adequate attached gingiva for successful prosthesis. Extension of vestibular depth enables fabrication of better denture flange with improved oral hygiene. This technique does not require hospitalization and additional surgery for grafts. PMID:27042579

  7. Music Therapy With Premature Infants and Their Caregivers in Colombia – A Mixed Methods Pilot Study Including a Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ettenberger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a three-arm mixed methods pilot study of music therapy with premature infants and their caregivers in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU in Bogotá, Colombia. The study included 19 medically stable babies born between the 30th and 37th week of gestation and their caregivers. Two intervention groups were compared with a control group. The objectives were to find out whether music therapy could help the neonates to stabilize their physiological states and help mothers to reduce anxiety and strengthen the relationship with their baby. The data collection included the babies´ weight gain, heart rate, oxygen saturation, size, cephalic perimeter and length of hospitalization. Mothers filled out the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-C and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS before the first and after the last intervention. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data obtained through questionnaires. A trend towards an increased weight gain for both intervention groups and a shorter length of hospitalization for one of the intervention groups was noticed. Anxiety and bonding in mothers appears not to follow linear trends, as new challenges arise for parents at different stages during hospitalization. Mothers stated that music therapy was helpful for them, their baby and their relationship with the baby. Mothers across the groups think that music therapy should be a regular offer in the NICU and that music therapy helps to humanize the NICU environment.

  8. Goals, technique and equipment of meteor study in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashova, A.; Bagrov, A. V.; Bolgova, G. T.; Kruchkov, S. V.; Leonov, V. A.; Mazurov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    Institute of Astronomy RAS is one of the science institutes in the Russian Federation providing systematic optical meteor observations and supervises several meteor groups in our country. The main tasks of our investigations are dedicated to study meteoroid nature as well as meteoroid streams and meteoroid population in the Solar System. In the XXI century we in Russia carry out the reconstruction of our meteor astronomy due to possibilities of new meteor observation equipment (more powerful than were used before as visual and photographic methods) had made possible to select more interesting goals. First of our task is investigation of meteoroid streams crossing the Earth's orbit, and character of meteoroid distributions along of them. The multi stations meteor monitoring from located in the both hemispheres of the Earth can help in this study. According to the analysis of the evolution of meteor orbits, the compact and long lived meteoroid streams consist mainly from large particles. The observation equipment (cheap TV-cameras) with low limiting magnitude we use for gathering observational data. On the other hand, the observations of weak meteors are needed for new meteor shower indication (or confirmation of known meteor shower). The more effective way to do it is comparison of individual meteor orbits parameters (then calculation of radiants of meteor showers). The observations of space debris (as the meteors with low velocity - less 11.2 km/s) can be taking up within this task. The combination of high sensitive TV-cameras WATEC and super-fast lenses COMPUTAR are widely used for meteor TV-monitoring. The TVsystems for round-year meteor observations are fixed and are permanently oriented to the zenith area (the patrol camera - PatrolCa). The mobile TV-cameras (MobileCa) are used for double station observations (if it is possible) and located not far from main cameras PatrolCa (20-30 km). The mobile TVcameras observe 90% of main PatrolCa cameras FOV at altitudes

  9. Studies of Particle Sedimentation by Novel Scattering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Penger

    2000-01-01

    The four-year grant began May 1, 1996 (5-1-96 to 4-30-00, $100,000/year). We have finished 4 major research projects and published 10 papers during this grant period. An important aspect of this research has been the education of students at graduate and undergraduate levels. They have been fully involved in the research described below: 1. Polymer-induced depletion interaction in colloid-polymer mixtures. 2. Colloidal sedimentation in polymer solutions. 3. Velocity fluctuations in particle sedimentation. New laser light scattering techniques for velocity difference measurements.

  10. Study of multilayers by PIXE technique. Application to paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Ivan; Lagarde, Gérard; Midy, Pierre

    1996-08-01

    In this article we propose the application of a new algorithm to determine the concentration profile of colour pigments in painting. This is performed by PIXE technique at different proton energies. The algorithm is based on the singular value decomposition of the matrix obtained by discretization of the integral equation for the concentration profile. To check this method, many paint multilayers of acrylic colours were prepared. First results obtained from different experiments at the AGLAE accelerator in the Palais du Louvre at Paris are presented: the nature and the thickness of each colour layer were determined with a good agreement. The analysis of easel paintings is in progress.

  11. An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)

    CERN Document Server

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Salako, Oluwatimilehin

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

  12. COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON LOAD BALANCING TECHNIQUES IN CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Rajeshwari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to advancement in technology and growth in human society, it is necessary to work in an environment that reduces cost, utilizes resources effectively, reduces man power and minimizes space utilization. This led to the development of Cloud Computing technology. Cloud computing is a kind of distributed computing with a collection of computing resources located in distributed data centers. It provides massively scalable IT related capabilities to multiple external customers on “pay per use” concept using internet technologies. The increase in the web traffic and different services day by day makes load balancing a critical research topic. Load balancing is one of the central issues in cloud computing. It is the process of distributing the load optimally and evenly among various servers. Proper load balancing in cloud improves the performance factors such as resource utilization, job response time, scalability, throughput, system stability and energy consumption. Many researchers have proposed various load balancing techniques. This paper presents description of various existing centralized and distributed load balancing techniques in cloud environment.

  13. COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON LOAD BALANCING TECHNIQUES IN CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to advancement in technology and growth in human society, it is necessary to work in an environment that reduces cost, utilizes resources effectively, reduces man power and minimizes space utilization. This led to the development of Cloud Computing technology. Cloud computing is a kind of distributed computing with a collection of computing resources located in distributed data centers. It provides massively scalable IT related capabilities to multiple external customers on "pay per use" concept using internet technologies. The increase in the web traffic and different services day by day makes load balancing a critical research topic. Load balancing is one of the central issues in cloud computing. It is the process of distributing the load optimally and evenly among various servers. Proper load balancing in cloud improves the performance factors such as resource utilization, job response time, scalability, throughput, system stability and energy consumption. Many researchers have proposed various load balancing techniques. This paper presents description of various existing centralized and distributed load balancing techniques in cloud environment.

  14. Analytical Study of Pre-Congestion Notification (PCN Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Almasri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the quality of service (QOS and controlling the network congestion are quite complicated tasks. They cause degrading the performance of the network, and disturbing the continuous communication process. To overcome these issues, one step towards this dilemma has been taken in form of Pre-congestion notification (PCN technique. PCN uses a packet marking technique within a PCN domain over IP networks. It is notified by egress node that works as guard at entry point of network. Egress node gives feedback to communicating servers whether rate on the link is exceeded than configured admissible threshold or within the limit. Based on this feedback, admission decisions are taken to determine whether to allow/block new coming flows or terminate already accepted. The actual question is about selection of right algorithm for PCN domain. In this paper, we investigate the analytical behavior of some known PCN algorithms. We make slide modifications in originality of PCN algorithms without disquieting working process in order to employ those within similar types of scenarios. Our goal is to simulate them either in highly congested or less congested realistic scenarios. On the basis of simulation done in ns2, we are able to recommend each PCN algorithm for specific conditions. Finally, we develop a benchmark that helps researchers and scientific communities to pick the right algorithm. Furthermore, the benchmark is designed to achieve specific objectives according to the users’ requirements without congesting the network.

  15. Vestibuloplasty: a retrospective study on conventional and laser operation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckel, Claus P.

    1999-05-01

    40 patients with edentulous maxillary jaws were referred to our private practice limited to maxillofacial surgery, due to atrophy of the alveolar ridge. Before prosthetic renewal of the upper removable prosthesis the restorative dentist requested a sufficient vestibule. After supraperiostal preparation, soft tissue advancement and fixation with absorbable sutures. The recipient site was covered with a free gingival graft. Group I was operated on traditionally using a scalpel. In group II incision and soft tissue preparation was performed using a diode laser. Wavelength: 810 nm; Continuous wave mode; 400 micron optic fiber; Output power 1.6 Watt. All operations were performed by one surgeon experienced in both operation techniques. Every patient was followed-up 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The vestibular height directly adjacent to the nasal cavity and 2cm distal to these first measuring locations were taken. Each patient was asked to evaluate their individual discomfort and postoperative pain level. Both groups showed no significant difference in vestibular height after 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The postoperative height of 1.28 cm was reduced to 0.84 cm after 1 year. Furthermore both groups showed uneventful healing and take of the free gingival grafts. The assessment of the pain and discomfort level by the patients brought a significant difference between both groups in favor of the laser assisted operation technique.

  16. Implementing a benchmarking and feedback concept decreases postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty: A prospective study including 256 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditz, A.; Drescher, J.; Greimel, F.; Zeman, F.; Grifka, J.; Meißner, W.; Völlner, F.

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative pain reduction, particularly during the first two days, is highly important for patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Problems are not only caused by medical issues but by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent benchmarking. All patients included into the study had undergone total knee arthroplasty. Outcome parameters were analyzed by means of a questionnaire on the first postoperative day. A multidisciplinary team implemented a regular procedure of data analyzes and external benchmarking by participating in a nationwide quality improvement project. At the beginning of the study, our hospital ranked 16th in terms of activity-related pain and 9th in patient satisfaction among 47 anonymized hospitals participating in the benchmarking project. At the end of the study, we had improved to 1st activity-related pain and to 2nd in patient satisfaction. Although benchmarking started and finished with the same standardized pain management concept, results were initially pure. Beside pharmacological treatment, interdisciplinary teamwork and benchmarking with direct feedback mechanisms are also very important for decreasing postoperative pain and for increasing patient satisfaction after TKA. PMID:27917911

  17. Dissection Technique for Abdominoplasty: A Prospective Study on Scalpel versus Diathermocoagulation (Coagulation Mode)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valença-Filipe, Rita; Martins, Apolino; Silva, Álvaro; Vásconez, Luis O; Amarante, José; Costa-Ferreira, António

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dissection technique on outcomes and complications after a full abdominoplasty, comparing 2 different techniques used to raise the abdominal...

  18. Search Engine Optimization Techniques Practiced in Organizations: A Study of Four Organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Akram, Muhammad; Hayat, Sikandar; Shafi, M Imran; Saeed, Umer

    2010-01-01

    Web spammers used Search Engine Optimization (SEO) techniques to increase search-ranking of web sites. In this paper we have study the essentials SEO techniques, such as; directory submission, keyword generation and link exchanges. The impact of SEO techniques can be applied as marketing technique and to get top listing in major search engines like Google, Yahoo, and MSN. Our study focuses on these techniques from four different companies' perspectives of United Kingdom and Pakistan. According to the these companies, these techniques are low cost and high impacts in profit, because mostly customers focus on major search engine to find different products on internet, so SEO technique provides best opportunity to grow their business. This paper also describes the pros and cons of using these searh engine optimization techniques in above four companies. We have concluded that these techniques are essential to increase their business profit and minimize their marketing cost.

  19. How safe are regional techniques? Evidence from large studies with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted a national audit in the UK. As a result of the difficulties ... achieved, with over 700 000 regional procedures included. The incidence of permanent ... brain damage and permanent nerve injury, compared with the non-obstetric group ...

  20. Techniques in the removal of impacted mandibular third molar: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Surgical removal of impacted third molar is one of the common surgical procedures carried out in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery set up. This study aimed at clinically assessing the three different surgical techniques (lingual split, using chisel and mallet, buccal approach techniques, using rotary instruments used in the removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The present clinical study comprised of 150 impacted mandibular wisdom teeth. Patients were divided in three groups and bone covering the third molar was removed by the Lingual split technique using chisel and mallet, Buccal approach technique using chisel and mallet, and Buccal approach technique using rotary instruments. Results: Surgical time was significantly increased in bur technique. Trismus was significantly increased in lingual split technique and bur technique from buccal approach technique using chisel and mallet. Post-operative nerve injury was significantly higher in lingual split technique. Dry socket was more in patients of bur technique. Conclusion: In this study we found that lingual split technique using chisel and mallet is found to be better among all three techniques used followed by buccal approach using chisel and mallet and the buccal approach technique using rotary instruments.

  1. Evaluation of a novel technique in airway clearance therapy – Specific Cough Technique (SCT) in cystic fibrosis: A pilot study of a series of N-of-1 randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursli, Sandra; Sandvik, Leiv; Bakkeheim, Egil; Skrede, Bjørn; Stuge, Britt

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and participants’ perception of a novel technique in airway clearance therapy – specific cough technique in cystic fibrosis. Methods: We conducted randomised controlled individual trials (N-of-1 randomised controlled trials) in six adults. Each trial included 8 weeks of treatment with two interventions each week, one with specific cough technique and one with forced expiration technique. The efficacy was investigated by a blinded assessor measuring wet weight of sputum (g) after each session. Perceived usefulness and preference was self-reported at the end of study. Additional measurements included oxygen saturation and heart rate before and after each session and lung function (week 2). Results: Three of six participants produced significantly higher mean sputum weight when using specific cough technique, differences being 21%, 38% and 23%, respectively. In three of the six participants, mean sputum weight was lower after forced expiration technique than after specific cough technique in each of the eight treatment pairs. Participant-reported outcomes were completed in all participants. Specific cough technique was reported to be easier to use in daily treatments and more normalising in everyday life. Conclusion: Specific cough technique was well tolerated and accepted by the participants with cystic fibrosis. Specific cough technique was non-inferior to forced expiration technique in terms of sputum production, thus specific cough technique appears to represent a promising alternative for clearing sputum in airway clearance therapy. PMID:28540046

  2. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  3. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4%) as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%). This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  4. Double noding technique for mixed mode crack propagation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emergy, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    A simple dynamic finite element algorithm for analyzing a propagating mixed mode crack tip is presented. A double noding technique, which can be easily incorporated into existing dynamic finite element codes, is used together with a corrected J integral to extract modes I and II dynamic stress intensity factors of a propagating crack. The utility of the procedure is demonstrated by analyzing test problems involving a mode I central crack propagating in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension, a mixed mode I and II stationary, slanted central crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial impact loading, and a mixed mode I and II extending, slanted single edge crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension.

  5. Transport of electrons in lead oxide studied by CELIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, O.; Juska, G.; Oelerich, J. O.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Reznik, A.

    2017-01-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) has a long history of application in optoelectronics and imaging, the transport mechanism for electrons in this material has not yet been clarified. Using the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) technique, we provide the temperature- and field-dependences of electron mobility in poly-PbO. It is found that electrons undergo dispersive transport, i.e. their mobility decreases in the course of time. Multiple trapping of electrons from the conduction band into the developed band tail is revealed as the dominant transport mechanism. This differs dramatically from the dispersive transport of holes in the same material, dominated by topological factors and not by energy disorder.

  6. Vaporization Studies from Slag Surfaces Using a Thin Film Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharaman, Seshadri; Shyrokykh, Tetiana; Schröder, Christina; Scheller, Piotr R.

    2013-08-01

    The investigations of vanadium vaporization from CaO-SiO2-FeO-V2O5 thin film slags were conducted using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT) with air as the oxidizing atmosphere. The slag samples were analyzed after the experiments by SEM/EDX. The vanadium content was found to decrease as a function of time. The loss of vanadium from the slag film after 30 minutes of oxidation was approximately 18 pct and after 50 minutes, it was nearly 56 pct. The possible mechanism of vanadium loss would be the surface oxidation of vanadium oxide in the slag, VO x to V5+, followed by surface evaporation of V2O5, which has a high vapor pressure at the experimental temperature.

  7. Study on Temperature Modulation Techniques for Micro Gas Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangfen Wei; Zhenan Tang; Hongquan Zhang; Yanbing Xue; Jun Yu

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity and selectivity of gas sensors are related with not only sensing material, but also their operating temperatures. Applying this property, temperature modulation technique has been proposed to improve the selectivity of gas sensors. With a newly developed alumina based micro gas sensor, the sensitivity to CO and CH4 at different operating temperatures was investigated. By modulating the temperature of the sensor at pulse and sine wave modes with different frequencies and amplitudes, the dynamic responses of the sensor were measured and processed. Results show that the modulating waveshape plays an important role in the improvement of selectivity, while the influence of frequency is small at the suitable sampling frequency in the range of 25 mHz~200 mHz.

  8. TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA, M.; RODRIGUEZ, J.A.; MARTINEZ-ARIAS, A.; HANSON, J.C.

    2006-06-30

    The evolution of our understanding of the behavior of oxide nanostructures depends heavily on the structural information obtained from a wide range of physical methods traditionally used in solid state physics, surface science and inorganic chemistry. In this chapter, we describe several techniques that are useful for the characterization of the structural properties of oxide nanostructures: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scattering, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ultimate goal is to obtain information about the spatial arrangement of atoms in the nanostructures with precise interatomic distances and bond angles. This may not be possible for complex systems and one may get only partial information about the local geometry or morphology.

  9. Aloe vera is non-toxic to cells: A microculture tetrazolium technique colorimetric assay study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera (Av, a succulent of Liliaceae family is now a widely used medicinal plant. Its′ application covers a wide spectrum of human diseases, including oral mucosa, gastric mucosa and skin. Aloe vera preparations in the form of gel, mouth washes and cream are applied topically for many oral diseases. The applications include oral lichen planus, candidiasis, oral submucous fibrosis, geographic tongue, etc. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Av on human fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Aloe vera preparation (70% was applied on the fibroblast cell lineage and the cell viability was evaluated by microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT colorimetric assay. Results: The cell viability at different concentrations was measured. The cells have maintained their viability at different concentrations used in the study. Conclusion: Our study shows the cell viability at different sample concentrations of Av. This could open up wide clinical applications of Av for reactive, inflammatory and potentially malignant oral and other mucocutaneous diseases.

  10. Medieval History Lives: Techniques to Revive Medieval Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrand, Kenneth D.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses reasons for and solutions to declining enrollment in college history courses. Suggests that instructors be aware of the mental diversity of students and involve them in what is going on in the profession. Methods include trips, speakers, a newsletter, festivals, and research. Specific topics for medieval history are presented. (KC)

  11. Surface photochemistry: Diffuse reflectance studies of thioketones included into p-tert-butylcalix[6 and 8]arenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Oliveira, A. S.; Da Silva, J. P.; Krawczyk, A.; Sikorski, M.

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents time resolved laser induced luminescence (LIL) and diffuse reflectance laser flash-photolysis (DRLFP) studies of solid powdered samples of xanthione (XT) and 4H-1-benzopyran-4-thione (BPT). These thioketones form inclusion complexes with p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene (CLX[6]) and p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene (CLX[8]). Room temperature air equilibrated LIL studies for XT/CLX[8] inclusion complex have shown the existence of both fluorescence and delayed fluorescence emission (S 2 → S 0 emissions in the nanosecond and microsecond time ranges, respectively) peaking at ca. 460 nm while phosphorescence peaks at about 670 nm with a half life of about 4 μs. For the BPT/CLX[8] inclusion complex, the emissions now peak at ca. 450 and 630 nm, respectively. When these two thioketones are included into the CLX[6] nanocavities similar luminescence spectra were detected. The phosphorescence spectra in all cases present a clear vibrational structure characteristic of non-polar environments, in accordance with the non-polar character of the calixarene's cavities. Diffuse reflectance transient absorption spectra revealed in all cases the presence of the triplet state of the thioketones and also of longer lived species. The use of chromatographic methods (GC-MS) allowed us to identify the formation of xanthone, chromone and hydroxy-thioketones following laser irradiation at 355 or 337 nm.

  12. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  13. Pregnancy Outcomes in Association with STDs including genital HSV-2 shedding in a South African Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Dhayendre; Sartorius, Benn; Madurai, Savithree; Chetty, Vani; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-04-10

    Genital herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) shedding in pregnant women in association with neonatal herpes infection has been widely studied but there is limited evidence of its association with pregnancy outcomes. In this retrospective observational study, we included a subgroup of pregnant women who were enrolled in a randomized control behavioural intervention study that was conducted in South Africa in 2008-2010. In pregnancy, women had a HIV rapid test done and a genital swab taken to test for curable STIs and HSV-2 DNA. Subsequent visits were scheduled for 6, 10, 14 weeks and 9 months post-delivery. Pregnancy outcomes were documented at the 6-week or 10-week postpartum visit. Women were treated syndromically for curable STIs. Among 615 women included in this data analysis, 36.6% (n=225) tested HIV positive and 8.3% (n=51) tested positive for genital HSV-2 shedding during pregnancy. Women <24 years and HIV-1 seropositive women were 1.5 and 2.5 times more likely to test positive for HSV-2 genital shedding respectively. STI treatment records were available for 158/205 (77.1%) women; all 87 women with symptomatic STIs were treated the same day, and 50/71 (70.4%) asymptomatic women received treatment at the subsequent visit. Remaining 21 (29.6%) asymptomatic women did not receive treatment because they failed to return for antenatal follow-up. In a multivariable regression analysis, genital HSV-2 shedding, HIV-1, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomanas vaginalis were not associated with preterm deliveries, still births and low birth weight. However with stratification by treatment for a STI, asymptomatic women who were not treated were 3.3 times more likely to deliver prematurely (33.3%; n=6/18) when compared to women who were treated during pregnancy (13.2%; n=15/114) (p=0.042). Genital HSV-2 shedding in pregnancy does not appear to alter pregnancy outcomes. Untreated curable STIs (T.vaginalis, C.trachomatis, N.gonorrhoea) were more likely

  14. Major congenital malformations and residential proximity to a regional industrial park including a national toxic waste site: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Marina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public concern about exposure to emissions from the regional industrial park (IP, including 17 chemical plants and the national industrial toxic waste site, initiated this study of the possible association between major congenital malformations (MCM and residence near the IP in Israel's Southern District. Methods The study was conducted during the period 1995–2000 and included 63,850 deliveries. Data on deliveries and MCM detected at births were obtained from the regional medical center, and stratified by ethnicity and type of locality. As exposure indicator we used distance categories (proximal and distant and predominant wind direction from the IP. Distance stratification was based on the geographical distribution of the localities and complaints about the odor related to IP emissions. Based on these complaints, localities up to 20 km from the IP were considered proximal to the IP. Results Average rates of MCM were 5.0% and 4.1% for Bedouin and Jewish newborns, respectively. The rate of MCM for Bedouin from proximal localities was significantly greater compared with distant localities (5.6% vs. 4.8%; RR = 1.17 with 95% CI: 1.04–1.29. In the proximal Bedouin permanent localities, the MCM rate reached 8.2 %, which was significantly higher than in distant areas (RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39–1.80. Significant risk increase of central nervous system MCM was found in these localities, compared to distant ones (RR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.44–3.60. Among newborns from the traditional tribal settlements, proximity to the IP was associated with increased rates of the following MCM: 1 all combined, 2 those associated with chromosomal abnormalities, and 3 those defined as "others unclassified MCM." Comparison of autosomal recessive disease rates by proximity to the IP in Bedouin newborns indicates that the observed increased risk of MCM is not explained by consanguineous marriages. The rates of MCM in the Jewish population were similar

  15. Quantitative study of single molecule location estimation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anish V; Ram, Sripad; Chao, Jerry; Ward, E S; Ober, Raimund J

    2009-12-21

    Estimating the location of single molecules from microscopy images is a key step in many quantitative single molecule data analysis techniques. Different algorithms have been advocated for the fitting of single molecule data, particularly the nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood estimators. Comparisons were carried out to assess the performance of these two algorithms in different scenarios. Our results show that both estimators, on average, are able to recover the true location of the single molecule in all scenarios we examined. However, in the absence of modeling inaccuracies and low noise levels, the maximum likelihood estimator is more accurate than the nonlinear least squares estimator, as measured by the standard deviations of its estimates, and attains the best possible accuracy achievable for the sets of imaging and experimental conditions that were tested. Although neither algorithm is consistently superior to the other in the presence of modeling inaccuracies or misspecifications, the maximum likelihood algorithm emerges as a robust estimator producing results with consistent accuracy across various model mismatches and misspecifications. At high noise levels, relative to the signal from the point source, neither algorithm has a clear accuracy advantage over the other. Comparisons were also carried out for two localization accuracy measures derived previously. Software packages with user-friendly graphical interfaces developed for single molecule location estimation (EstimationTool) and limit of the localization accuracy calculations (FandPLimitTool) are also discussed.

  16. A Study of Various Steganographic Techniques Used for Information Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P.Sumathi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The art of information hiding has received much att ention in the recent years as security of informati on has become a big concern in this internet era. As shari ng of sensitive information via a common communicat ion channel has become inevitable, Steganography – the art and science of hiding information has gained much attention. We are also surrounded by a world of secret communi cation, where people of all types are transmitting information as innocent as an encrypte d credit card number to an online-store and as insidious as a terrorist plot to hijackers. Stegano graphy derives from the Greek word steganos, meanin g covered or secret, and graphy (writing or drawing [1]. Steganography is a technology where modern da ta compression, information theory, spread spectrum, a nd cryptography technologies are brought together t o satisfy the need for privacy on the Internet. This paper is an attempt to analyse the various tec hniques used in steganography and to identify areas in which thi s technique can be applied, so that the human race can be benefited at large

  17. Antenna Performance Improvement Techniques for Energy Harvesting: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Abdulkareem Abdulhasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy harvesting is defined as using energy that is available within the environment to increase the efficiency of any application. Moreover, this method is recognized as a useful way to break down the limitation of battery power for wireless devices. In this paper, several antenna designs of energy harvesting are introduced. The improved results are summarized as a 2×2 patch array antenna realizes improved efficiency by 3.9 times higher than the single patch antenna. The antenna has enhanced the bandwidth of 22.5 MHz after load two slots on the patch. The solar cell antenna is allowing harvesting energy during daylight. A couple of E-patches antennas have increased the bandwidth of 33% and the directivity up to 20 dBi. The received power can be improved by 1.2-1.4 times when using the dual port on pixel antenna. Complementary split ring resonator and substrate integrated waveguide are utilized cavity-backed feeding on a fractal patch antenna to enhance the bandwidth around 5.1%. Moreover, adding a rectifier circuit to an antenna converts the reserved RF-signal to DC power, and then duplicated the input voltage up to sum the total number of rectifier circuit stages. Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of each antenna depend on the technique which used in design.

  18. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  19. [How do authors of systematic reviews restrict their literature searches when only studies from Germany should be included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Mathes, Tim; Palm, Rebecca; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-11-01

    The use of search filters (e. g. for study types) facilitates the process of literature searching. Regional limits might be helpful depending on the research question. Regional search filters are already available for some regions, but not for Germany. Our aim is to give an overview of applied search strategies in systematic reviews (SRs) focusing on Germany. We searched Medline (via Pubmed) applying a focused search strategy to identify SRs focusing on Germany in January 2016. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. The search strategies with a focus on Germany were analyzed in terms of reasonableness and completeness relying on the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS) criteria. A narrative evidence synthesis was performed. In total, 36 SRs (13 written in English) were included. 78% were published in 2012 or later. The majority (89%) of SRs utilized at least two different sources for their search with databases and checking references being the most common. 17 SRs did not use any truncations, ten SRs did not restrict their search to Germany, six SRs reported to have searched for German OR Germany. Only ten articles searched for the term Germany (occasionally jointly with the term Deutschland) without any use of an adjective such as German. There is a high interest in regionally focused SRs. The identified search strategies revealed a need for improvement. It would be helpful to develop a regional search filter for Germany that is able to identify studies performed in Germany. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  1. The study of bronze statuettes with the help of neutron-imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langh, R.; Lehmann, E.; Hartmann, S.; Kaestner, A.; Scholten, F.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently fabrication techniques of Renaissance bronzes have been studied only with the naked eye, microscopically, videoscopically and with X-radiography. These techniques provide information on production techniques, yet much important detail remains unclear. As part of an interdisciplinary s

  2. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  3. In vitro study of safety and co-efficiency of the transbronchial coagulation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chong; DONG Yu-chao; SONG Xiao-lian; HUANG Yi; SHI Hui; HU Zhen-li; LI Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The usual transbronchial coagulation techniques include microwave,argon plasma coagulation (APC),electrocautery and cryotherapy.However,there are serious clinical problems in the safety of each.By analyzing the experimental data and clinical observations,we observed the variable effects of different coagulation techniques via bronchofibroscopy,to look for an optimal interventional management of luminal bronchus diseases,and evaluate the safety and the equivalent point.Methods Four kinds of coagulation techniques under bronchoscopy were performed on the fresh bronchus of healthy sheep,and the pathologic changes in all groups were observed under the microscope.The different treatment parameters were as follows:microwave 60 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds and 40 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds; APC 40 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds; electrocautery 40 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds;cryotherapy 100 Ω×60 seconds,120 seconds.Results After treatment,ovine bronchial mucosa in all groups showed pathologic changes such as local necrosis and amotio of the mucosa lining epithelium,local submucosa coagulative necrosis or tissue defects,while inflammation in the surrounding tissue was not obvious.Under the same output power and action time,different methods had different outcomes.The damage by APC was the most superficial,microwave was the second,and electrocautery caused the worst damage.The study also found that effects of electrocautery at 40 W×3 seconds,microwave at 40 W×5 seconds or 60 W×3 seconds,APC at 40 W×5 seconds and cryotherapy at 100 Ω×120 seconds were the equivalent point conditions.The appearance included mucosa absence,partial submucosa absence,and collagen fiber coagulation in treatment areas.Conclusions Each coagulation technique has its own characteristic.It is very important to choose the appropriate power and action time of the suitable method according to the therapy requirement.

  4. Cytological techniques to study human female meiotic prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Ignasi; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Most of the human aneuploidies have a maternal origin. This feature makes the study of human female meiosis a fundamental topic to understand the reasons leading to this important social problem. Unfortunately, due to sample collection difficulties, not many studies have been performed on human female meiotic prophase. In this chapter we present a comprehensive collection of protocols that allows the study of human female meiotic prophase through different technical approaches using both spread and structurally preserved oocytes.

  5. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  6. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiacotti, Michele [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy)], E-mail: izsfgchimica@infinito.it; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [La Dolce Irpinia Srl - Montella (AV) (Italy); Boniglia, Concetta [Department of Public Veterinary Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  7. Study of techniques applicable for monitoring MIC in soil or sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    1999-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel in anaerobic environment is difficult to monitor with electrochemical techniques because of heterogeneous surface conditions and electrochemically active corrosion products. Weight loss measurement, LPR, EIS, hydrogen permeation, and a refined ER...... technique have been evaluated including field tests in soil and marine sediment. The conclusions are that EIS can detect combined biofilm and corrosion product film formation, but corrosion rate is overestimated. The ER technique seems to give a correct and sensitive corrosion rate measurement within...

  8. Study of techniques applicable for monitoring MIC in soil or sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    1999-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel in anaerobic environment is difficult to monitor with electrochemical techniques because of heterogeneous surface conditions and electrochemically active corrosion products. Weight loss measurement, LPR, EIS, hydrogen permeation, and a refined ER...... technique have beeen evaluated including field tests in soil and marine sediment. The conclusions are that EIS can detect combined biofilm and corrosion product film formation, but corrosion rate is overestimated. The ER technique seems to give a correct and sensitive corrosion rate measurement within...

  9. In vivo patch clamp recording technique in the study of neurophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Wei CUI; Yu-Rong LI

    2006-01-01

    The patch clamp recording technique in vivois a blind patch clamp recording methods to record the current of the spinal or cereral neurons of anaesthesia ( or awake) animals. This technique can be used to study the synaptic function and plasticity in central nervous system in vivoin order to understand the physiological properties of the ion channels from an integrated point of view. The advantage of this technique have already presented itself in the study of the synaptic transmission and nervous network. Nowadays, in vivo patch whole-cell recording technique in combination with other techniques is becoming a common method in the research fields.

  10. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.

  11. Microdeletions Including FMR1 in Three Female Patients with Intellectual Disability – Further Delineation of the Phenotype and Expression Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A.M.; Wohlleber, E.; Engels, H.; Rødningen, O.K.; Ravn, K.; Heilmann, S.; Rehnitz, J.; Katzorke, N.; Kraus, C.; Blichfeldt, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Reutter, H.; Brockschmidt, F.F.; Kreiß-Nachtsheim, M.; Vogt, P.H.; Prescott, T.E.; Tümer, Z.; Lee, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute threshold below which signs of FXS present. Since FMR1 expression is known to be highly variable between unrelated females, and since FMR1 mRNA levels have been suggested to be more similar among family members, we further explored the possibility of an intrafamilial effect. Interestingly, FMR1 mRNA levels in all 3 patients were significantly lower than in their respective mothers, which was shown to be specific for patients with microdeletions containing FMR1. PMID:24715853

  12. Microdeletions including FMR1 in three female patients with intellectual disability - further delineation of the phenotype and expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, A M; Wohlleber, E; Engels, H;

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide...... clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random...... in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute...

  13. Surface properties of hard protective coatings studied by optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Wolska, N.; Mitura, K.; Duraj, R.; Marszalek, K. W.; El Kouari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes optical study of SiC, C and NiC layers deposited on Si substrates by double beam ion sputtering (DBIS) method. The following optical methods: ellipsometry, bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) and total integrated scattering (TIS) studies have been applied. The obtained results allowed us to determine the refractive indices, extinction coefficients and the roughness parameters of DBIS films. Also surface profiles of optical constants determined from scanning ellipsometric measurements have been presented. The power spectral density functions (PSD) of surface roughness for studied samples have been determined. The influence of the deposition technology on film topography has been discussed.

  14. Study of evaluation techniques of software configuration management and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Cheong; Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Han, H. C.; Choi, C. R. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The Study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and Verification and Validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software Testing, V and V and Configuration Management which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can be used to assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems.

  15. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    tools available for major and small archaeological studies. Various suggessions are being given in this report in measuring distances underwater of artifact, measurement of depth and a method to get the azimuth of the baseline control network, so...

  16. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Jemima Tiwaa; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Taira, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old). Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough) were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old); the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old). N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum)), followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb) and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb), however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb), but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, not quantified) and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified). Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified), and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb). Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb). The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57). Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  17. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Tiwaa Marfo

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old. Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old; the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum, followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb, however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb, but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, not quantified and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified. Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified, and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb. Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb. The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  18. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  19. Analysis of sampling techniques for imbalanced data: An n = 648 ADNI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Rashmi; Zhou, Jiayu; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M; Ye, Jieping

    2014-02-15

    Many neuroimaging applications deal with imbalanced imaging data. For example, in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases eligible for the study are nearly two times the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality and six times the control cases for proteomics modality. Constructing an accurate classifier from imbalanced data is a challenging task. Traditional classifiers that aim to maximize the overall prediction accuracy tend to classify all data into the majority class. In this paper, we study an ensemble system of feature selection and data sampling for the class imbalance problem. We systematically analyze various sampling techniques by examining the efficacy of different rates and types of undersampling, oversampling, and a combination of over and undersampling approaches. We thoroughly examine six widely used feature selection algorithms to identify significant biomarkers and thereby reduce the complexity of the data. The efficacy of the ensemble techniques is evaluated using two different classifiers including Random Forest and Support Vector Machines based on classification accuracy, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity measures. Our extensive experimental results show that for various problem settings in ADNI, (1) a balanced training set obtained with K-Medoids technique based undersampling gives the best overall performance among different data sampling techniques and no sampling approach; and (2) sparse logistic regression with stability selection achieves competitive performance among various feature selection algorithms. Comprehensive experiments with various settings show that our proposed ensemble model of multiple undersampled datasets yields stable and promising results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteotomy in direct sinus lift. A comparative study of the rotary technique and ultrasound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Sanchez-Recio, Cristina; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Romero-Millán, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates sinus membrane rupture in direct maxillary sinus lift with the rotary technique and with ultrasound, examining the survival of implants placed after sinus augmentation...

  1. Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Shin, Seungwoo; Lee, SangYun; Yang, Su-A; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of biological cells is crucial for the investigation of cell biology, provide valuable information to reveal the mechanisms behind pathophysiology of cells and tissues. Recent advances in optical diffraction tomography (ODT) have demonstrated the potential for the study of various cells with its unique advantages of quantitative and label-free imaging capability. To provide insight on this rapidly growing field of research and to discuss its applications in biology and medicine, we present the summary of the ODT principle and highlight recent studies utilizing ODT with the emphasis on the applications to the pathophysiology of cells.

  2. A study on diagnostic techniques of pump operating condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Du Eon; Park, Jong Ho; Song, Gyu Jo; Shin, Pil Kwon; Lee, Nam Gil; Shin, Wan Sun; Kang, Hyeon Taek; Lee, Taek Sang [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The scope and contents investigate and reviewed are as follows : establishment of study plan and references survey, review of related problems and inservice test standards of safety injection pump in use nuclear power plant, review of the study results in laboratory, the theoretical investigation of temperature rise according to mini-flow rate of pump, mini-flow rate working characteristics of high and low pressure injection pumps at nuclear power plants, setup of testing equipment for measuring ampere, discharge pressure and vibration, selection and behaviors analysis of major parameters concerning pump degradation.

  3. Variations of the accessory nerve: anatomical study including previously undocumented findings-expanding our misunderstanding of this nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ajayi, Olaide O; Fries, Fabian N; Spinner, Robert J; Oskouian, Rod J

    2017-02-01

    The anatomy of the accessory nerve has been well described but continued new clinical and anatomical findings exemplify our lack of a full understanding of the course of this nerve. Therefore, this study aimed to expand on our knowledge of the course of the 11th cranial nerve via anatomical dissections. Fifty-six cadavers (112 sides) underwent dissection of the accessory nerve from its cranial and spinal origins to its emergence into the posterior cervical triangle. Immunohistochemistry was performed when appropriate. Our findings included two cases (1.8%) where the nerve was duplicated, one intracranially and one extracranially. One accessory nerve (0.9%) was found to enter its own dural compartment within the jugular foramen. The majority of sides (80%) were found to have a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Thirty-one sides (28%) had connections to cervical dorsal roots medially and three sides (2.7%) laterally. Medial connections were most common with the C1 nerve. Medial components of these dorsal root connections were all sensory in nature. However, lateral components were motor on two sides (1.8%). Nerves traveled anterior to the internal jugular vein on 88% of sides. One (0.9%) left side nerve joined an interneural anastomosis between the dorsal rootlets. Macroganglia were found on the spinal part of the intracranial nerve on 13% of sides. The lesser occipital nerve arose directly from the accessory nerve on two sides (1.8%) and communicated with the accessory nerve on 5.4% of sides. One side (0.9%) was found to communicate with the facial nerve with both nerves innervating the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additional anatomical knowledge of the variants of the accessory nerve may benefit patient care when this nerve is pathologically involved.

  4. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: A collaborative study including 416 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species.

  5. Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence: significant findings in African- and European-Americans including novel risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelernter, J; Kranzler, HR; Sherva, R; Almasy, L; Koesterer, R; Smith, AH; Anton, R; Preuss, UW; Ridinger, M; Rujescu, D; Wodarz, N; Zill, P; Zhao, H; Farrer, LA

    2014-01-01

    We report a GWAS of alcohol dependence (AD) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations, with replication in independent samples of EAs, AAs and Germans. Our sample for discovery and replication was 16 087 subjects, the largest sample for AD GWAS to date. Numerous genome-wide significant (GWS) associations were identified, many novel. Most associations were population specific, but in several cases were GWS in EAs and AAs for different SNPs at the same locus, showing biological convergence across populations. We confirmed well-known risk loci mapped to alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes, notably ADH1B (EAs: Arg48His, P = 1.17 × 10−31; AAs: Arg369Cys, P = 6.33 × 10−17) and ADH1C in AAs (Thr151Thr, P = 4.94 × 10−10), and identified novel risk loci mapping to the ADH gene cluster on chromosome 4 and extending centromerically beyond it to include GWS associations at LOC100507053 in AAs (P = 2.63 × 10−11), PDLIM5 in EAs (P = 2.01 × 10−8), and METAP in AAs (P = 3.35 × 10−8). We also identified a novel GWS association (1.17 × 10−10) mapped to chromosome 2 at rs1437396, between MTIF2 and CCDC88A, across all of the EA and AA cohorts, with supportive gene expression evidence, and population-specific GWS for markers on chromosomes 5, 9 and 19. Several of the novel associations implicate direct involvement of, or interaction with, genes previously identified as schizophrenia risk loci. Confirmation of known AD risk loci supports the overall validity of the study; the novel loci are worthy of genetic and biological follow-up. The findings support a convergence of risk genes (but not necessarily risk alleles) between populations, and, to a lesser extent, between psychiatric traits. PMID:24166409

  6. [Baseline characteristics and changes in treatment after a period of optimization of the patients included in the study EFICAR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Torcal, Jesús; Echevarria, Pilar; Domingo, Mar; Arietaleanizbeascoa, María; Sanz-Guinea, Aitor; de la Torre, Maria M; Ramírez, Jose I; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-03-01

    To describe the baseline date and drugs therapy changes during treatment optimization in patients with heart failure with depressed systolic function included in the EFICAR study. Multicenter randomized clinical trial. Seven Health Centers. 150 patients (ICFSD) age 68±10 years, 77% male. Sociodemographic variables, comorbidities (Charlson index), functional capacity and quality of life. Drug therapy optimization was performed. The main etiology was ischemic heart disease (45%), with 89% in functional class II. The Charlson index was 2.03±1.05. The ejection fraction mean was 37%±8, 19% with ejection fraction <30%. With the stress test 6.3±1.6 mean was reached, with the 6 minutes test 446±78 meters and the chair test 13.7±4.4 seconds. The overall quality of life with ejection fraction was 22.8±18.7 and with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, physical health 43.3±8.4 and mental health 50.1±10.6. After optimizing the treatment, the percentage of patients on drugs therapy and the dose of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and beta-blockers were not changed. The majority of the subjects are in functional class II, with functional capacity and quality of life decreased and comorbidity index high. A protocolized drug therapy adjustment did not increase the dose or number of patients with effective drugs for heart failure with depressed systolic function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver hydatidosis: reasoned indications of surgical treatment. Comparison between conservative and radical techniques Retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Giuseppe; Tutino, Roberta; Atzeni, Jenny; Licari, Leo; Falco, Nicola; Orlando, Giuseppina; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2014-01-01

    Liver hydatidosis is a focal benign parasitic disease that still cause high rate of morbidity particularly in the Mediterranean area. A retrospective study comparing conservative and radical techniques in a General and Urgent Surgery operative unit was carried out in order to find signs of its surgical treatment. A total of 50 patients, 24 men and 26 women, who experienced a surgical treatment from 2000 to 2011, participated, and through the Fisher's Exact Test characteristics of the cysts, post-operative complications and relapse were compared. As a result, 29 patients undertook conservative surgery, while 21 radical surgery. There was a relationship between characteristics of the cysts and the technique chosen, (pcase (p<0.14). In conclusion, in a non hepato-bilio-pancreatic center a radical surgery including liver resection is suggested for left lobe's cysts, while a conservative technique tends to be more effective for right lobe's cysts mainly if complex. Consequently, patients with complicated presentation could explain why conservative treatment causes higher rate of morbidity.

  8. A Study of Online Exams Procrastination Using Data Analytics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yair; Ramim, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Procrastination appears to be an inevitable part of daily life, especially for activities that are bounded by deadlines. It has implications for performance and is known to be linked to poor personal time management. Although research related to procrastination as a general behavior has been well established, studies assessing procrastination in…

  9. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  10. Techniques and Behaviors Associated with Exemplary Inpatient General Medicine Teaching: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchens, Nathan; Harrod, Molly; Moody, Stephanie; Fowler, Karen; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-07-01

    Clinician educators face numerous obstacles to their joint mission of facilitating high-quality learning while also delivering patient-centered care. Such challenges necessitate increased attention to the work of exemplary clinician educators, their respective teaching approaches, and the experiences of their learners. To describe techniques and behaviors utilized by clinician educators to facilitate excellent teaching during inpatient general medicine rounds. An exploratory qualitative study of inpatient teaching conducted from 2014 to 2015. Inpatient general medicine wards in 11 US hospitals, including university-affiliated hospitals and Veterans Affairs medical centers. Participants included 12 exemplary clinician educators, 57 of their current learners, and 26 of their former learners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews of exemplary clinician educators, focus group discussions with their current and former learners, and direct observations of clinical teaching during inpatient rounds. Interview data, focus group data, and observational field notes were coded and categorized into broad, overlapping themes. Each theme elucidated a series of actions, behaviors, and approaches that exemplary clinician educators consistently demonstrated during inpatient rounds: (1) they fostered positive relationships with all team members by building rapport, which in turn created a safe learning environment; (2) they facilitated patient-centered teaching points, modeled excellent clinical exam and communication techniques, and treated patients as partners in their care; and (3) they engaged in coaching and collaboration through facilitation of discussion, effective questioning strategies, and differentiation of learning among team members with varied experience levels. This study identified consistent techniques and behaviors of excellent teaching during inpatient general medicine rounds.

  11. Study on modeling of vehicle dynamic stability and control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yun-ting; LI Pan-feng

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of enhancing the vehicle driving stability and safety,which has been the hot question researched by scientific and engineering in the vehicle industry,the new control method was investigated.After the analysis of tire moving characteristics and the vehicle stress analysis,the tire model based on the extension pacejka magic formula which combined longitudinal motion and lateral motion was developed and a nonlinear vehicle dynamical stability model with seven freedoms was made.A new model reference adaptive control project which made the slip angle and yaw rate of vehicle body as the output and feedback variable in adjusting the torque of vehicle body to control the vehicle stability was designed.A simulation model was also built in Matlab/Simulink to evaluate this control project.It was made up of many mathematical subsystem models mainly including the tire model module,the yaw moment calculation module,the center of mass parameter calculation module,tire parameter calculation module of multiple and so forth.The severe lane change simulation result shows that this vehicle model and the model reference adaptive control method have an excellent performance.

  12. Study of lip-reading detecting and locating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lirong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Yanyan

    2008-03-01

    With the development of human computer interaction, lip reading technology has become a topic focus in the multimode technologic field. However, detecting and locating lip accurately are very difficult because lip contours of different people, varied illuminant conditions, head movements and other factors. Based on the methods of detecting and locating lip we proposed the methods which are based on the lips color extracted lip contour using the adaptive chromatic filter from the facial images. It is not sensitive to illumination, but appropriate chromatic lip filter is given by analyzing the entire face color and clustering statistics of lip color. It is proposed the combinable method which is preprocessing the face image including rotating the angle of face and improving image contrast in this paper and the lip region is analyzed clustering characteristics for the skin color and lip color, obtained adaptive chromatic filter which can prominent lips from the facial image. This method overcomes the varied illuminate, incline face. The experiments showed that it enhanced detection and location accurately through rough detecting lip region. It lay a good foundation for extraction the lip feature and tracking lip subsequently.

  13. A study of correlation technique on pyramid processed images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sankar Kishore; K Veerabhadra Rao

    2000-02-01

    The pyramid algorithm is potentially a powerful tool for advanced television image processing and for pattern recognition. An attempt is made to design and develop both hardware and software for a system which performs decomposition and reconstruction of digitized images by implementing the Burt pyramid algorithm. In this work, an attempt is also made to study correlation performance on reconstructed images. That is, the reference image is taken from the original image and correlation is performed on expanded images of the same size. Similarly, correlation performance study is carried out on different pyramid- processed levels. In this paper results are presented in terms of RMS error between original and expanded images. Only still images are considered, and the hardware is designed around an i486 processor and software is developed in PL/M 86.

  14. Study of Spanish mining accidents using data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sanmiquel Pera, Lluís; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria; Vintró Sánchez, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Mining is an economic sector with a high number of accidents. Mines are hazardous places and workers can suffer a wide variety of injuries. Utilizing a database composed of almost 70,000 occupational accidents and fatality reports corresponding to the decade 2003–2012 in the Spanish mining sector, the paper analyzes the main causes of those accidents. To carry out the study, powerful statistical tools have been applied, such as Bayesian classi¿ers, decision trees or contingency t...

  15. Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2011-02-01

    stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of drug diffusion rate by laser beam deflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, Mohanachandran Nair. S.; Anitha, Madhu J.; Sankararaman, Sankaranarayana Iyer

    2017-06-01

    Drug administration is an unavoidable part of treatment. When a drug is administered orally or intravenously, it gets absorbed into the blood stream. The rate and efficiency of absorption depend on the route of administration. When a drug is administered through the oral route, it penetrates the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. The diffusion of the drug into the blood stream depends on various parameters, such as concentration, temperature, and the nature of the mucous membrane. The passive diffusion of drugs is found to obey Fick's law. Water soluble drugs penetrate the cell membrane through aqueous channel or pores. Hence, the study of diffusion of drugs into the water and finally into the blood stream is important. An attempt has been made to study the diffusion of the drug in water as 60% to 80% of human body is water. For the study of drug diffusion in water, a commonly used cough syrup of specific gravity 1.263 is used. It is found that the diffusion rate increases with the concentration of the drug.

  17. Advanced Weapon System (AWS) Sensor Prediction Techniques Study. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Week& • ,I I vetrn•rept Rho ar) Same W SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES RADC Project Engineer: Robert H. LaSalle (URRP) It. KEY WORDS (C..w on roveree eoi nolese Nem...languages and structured according to good software engineering principles . One of the most significant conclusions of this study is that the direct...depends only on (x-y), i.e., C(xy) = C(x-y), p(x,y):= p(x-y), and V(x,y) - V(x-y). In terms of Euclidean motions, stationarity implies invariance under

  18. Combustion study with synchrotron radiation single photon ionization technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui; WANG Jing; HUANG Chaoqun; YANG Bin; WEI Lixia; SHAN Xiaobin; SHENG Liusi; ZHANG Yunwu; QI Fei

    2005-01-01

    Here we report a combustion endstation at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and some primary experimental results. Synchrotron radiation can provide the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon with the high intensity and the good collimation. VUV photoionization is a single-photon ionization process. Combined with molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), the VUV single-photon ionization can be applied to detect the combustion products, especially the intermediates and free radicals produced from combustion process. This method is proved to be a powerful tool for combustion study, which could be helpful for developing combustion kinetic models and understanding the mechanism of combustion reactions.

  19. Studies on Enzyme Kinetics by Microchip and Related Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Bao; WANG Huai-Feng; ZHOU Da-Wei; Ken R. Wehmeyer

    2004-01-01

    Both conventional and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis(CE) technologies have been used for the analysis of enzymes. Practical procedures of using CE to determine the Km and Vmax values of an enzyme have been developed. By studying the inhibition to the enzyme, it is possible to select a suitable drug candidate. When compared with the conventional CE method, single lane microchip-based method can improve the speed for the assay three times. By using multiple lane-based microchip, the speed can be further increased.

  20. Study of Lactic Acid Thermal Behavior Using Thermoanalytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Komesu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Actually, there is a growing interest in the biotechnological production of lactic acid by fermentation aiming to substitute fossil fuel routes. The development of an efficient method for its separation and purification from fermentation broth is very important to assure the economic viability of production. Due to its high reactivity and tendency to decompose at high temperatures, the study of lactic acid thermal behavior is essential for its separation processes and potential application. In the present study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses showed endothermic peaks related to the process of evaporation. Data of thermogravimetry (TG/DTG were correlated to Arrhenius and Kissinger equations to provide the evaporation kinetic parameters and used to determine the vaporization enthalpy. Activation energies were 51.08 and 48.37 kJ·mol−1 and frequency values were 859.97 and 968.81 s−1 obtained by Arrhenius and Kissinger equations, respectively. Thermogravimetry, coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS, provided useful information about decomposition products when lactic acid was heated at 573 K for approximately 30 min.

  1. Effect of yoga regimen on lung functions including diffusion capacity in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Asha; Singh, Savita; Singh, Kp; Pai, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Lung functions are found to be impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and after cardiac surgery. Diffusion capacity progressively worsens as the severity of CAD increases due to reduction in lung tissue participating in gas exchange. Pranayama breathing exercises and yogic postures may play an impressive role in improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and facilitating gas diffusion at the alveolo-capillary membrane. This study was done to see the effect of yoga regimen on lung functions particularly diffusion capacity in CAD patients. A total of 80 stable CAD patients below 65 years of age of both sexes were selected and randomized into two groups of 40 each. Group I CAD patients were given yoga regimen for 3 months which consisted of yogic postures, pranayama breathing exercises, dietary modification, and holistic teaching along with their conventional medicine while Group II CAD patients were put only on conventional medicine. Lung functions including diffusion capacity were recorded thrice in both the groups: 0 day as baseline, 22(nd) day and on 90(th) day by using computerized MS medisoft Cardio-respiratory Instrument, HYP'AIR Compact model of cardio-respiratory testing machine was manufactured by P K Morgan, India. The recorded parameters were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both the groups. Cardiovascular parameters were also compared before and after intervention in both the groups. Statistically significant improvements were seen in slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, and diffusion factor/ transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide after 3 months of yoga regimen in Group I. Forced expiratory volume in 1(st) sec (FEV1), and FEV1 % also showed a trend toward improvement although not statistically significant. HR, SBP and DBP also showed significant improvement in Group-I patients who

  2. Nuclear techniques in sedimentological studies (Magdalena River -Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Pinto, G.G. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jimenez B, G. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energias Alternativas (INEA), Santafe de Bogota (Colombia); Alvarado O, M. [Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia). Lab. de Ensayos Hidraulicos de las Flores

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of improving the dredging works in the access channel to the harbour of Barranquilla - Colombia and provide quantitative information on the bottom sediment transport rate in the lower reach of the Magdalena river, from low to high water flows, a radioactive tracer experiment using ground glass labelled with {sup 192} Ir, simulating the bottom sand material was performed, in march-April 1994. It demonstrated that it is possible to move the dredging dumping site from the Magdalena river mouth to the studied site, situated 10 km upstream. This represents a shortening of 20 km in the dredging travel distance for each round trip, giving a reduction of 68 minutes or 35.7% per dredging cycle. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. His Story/Her Story: A Dialogue About Including Men and Masculinities in the Women's Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berila, Beth; Keller, Jean; Krone, Camilla; Laker, Jason; Mayers, Ozzie

    2005-01-01

    In section I of this article, Beth Berila, director of Women's Studies at Saint Cloud State University (SCSU), St. Cloud, Minnesota, provides a theoretical argument for incorporating Gender Studies into Women's Studies programs, drawing on recent analyses in feminist studies, queer theory, critical race theory, and transnational feminism. In…

  4. A Comparative Study of Two Techniques of Cryotherapy in the Treatment of Seborrheic Kreatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Uslu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Seborrheic keratosis is a benign epidermal tumour that is generally pigmented and develop from the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. In this study, two different techniques, spray or probe applications used cryotherapy during the treatment of seborrheic keratosis were compared in terms of efficiency and undesired effects. By this way, it is aimed to find the most suitable technique in seborrheic keratosis treatment. Method: Eighty lesions were included in the study with the diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis. These 80 lesions were divided randomly into two groups of 40; to one of which spray cryotherapy to the second cryotherapy with probe were applied. If clinical improvement were seen treatment was accepted as successful. The patiens were evaluated 2 and 4 months after the therapy for the comparison of two treatment. The patients in both groups scored their pain from 1 to 10 during the cryotherapy.Results: In the study, great success was achieved in the treatment of seborrheic keratosis by using different cryotherapy methods. All the patients in both groups were diagnosed with hipopigmentation. They were found to continue hipopigmentation in the second and fourth months. It was found that the intensity of the pain which those in the probe cryotherapy group suffered was significantly greater statistically.Conclusion: It was concluded that spray cryotherapy should be preferred since it was less painful and required less equipment than probe cryotherapy.

  5. Study on disinfestation of pulses using microwave technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjeet; Singh, K K; Kotwaliwale, N

    2012-08-01

    Mortality of the pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) exposed, continuously, to microwave radiation (2450 MHz) was evaluated as a function of exposure time and percent power level, at adult stages. The microwave exposure time to attain 100% insect mortality at 100 %, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% power levels for Chickpea, Pigeon Pea and Green Gram was optimized. Effect of optimized microwave exposure time on viability, germination, cooking and milling characteristics of Chickpea, Pigeon Pea and Green Gram was also evaluated. Adult stage study was characterized by a distinct dose-exposure curve. The mortality curve was following third degree polynomial equation. The seed viability and germination of Chickpea, Pigeon Pea and Green Gram was affected by microwave exposure time and power level. It was observed that as the power level is decreasing the germination and viability of all the pulses are increasing. The effect on cooking and milling characteristics are not affected by microwave exposure time and power level. The insects in the mobile state were observed to move towards the surface from inside the nutrient medium during microwave exposure. They also curled up and in some cases aggregation was observed.

  6. Laser welding and syncristallization techniques comparison: "Ex vivo" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Rocca, Jean-Paul

    2013-12-30

    Stabilization of implant abutments through electric impulses at high voltage for a very short time (electrowelding) was developed in the Eighties. In 2009, the same procedure was performed through the use of laser (laser welding) The aim of this study is to compare electrowelding and laser welding for intra-oral implant abutments stabilization on "ex vivo models" (pig jaws). Six bars were welded with two different devices (Nd:YAG laser and Electrowelder) to eighteen titanium implant abutment inserted in three pig jaws. During the welding process, thermal increase was recorded, through the use of k-thermocouples, in the bone close to the implants. The strength of the welded joints was evaluated by a traction test after the removal of the implants. For temperature measurements a descriptive analysis and for traction test "values unpaired t test with Welch's correction" were performed: the significance level was set at PLaser welding gives a lower thermal increase than Electrowelding at the bone close to implants (Mean: 1.97 and 5.27); the strength of laser welded joints was higher than that of Electrowelding even if nor statistically significant. (Mean: 184.75 and 168.29) CONCLUSION: Electrowelding seems to have no advantages, in term of thermal elevation and strength, while laser welding may be employed to connect titanium implants for immediate load without risks of thermal damage at surrounding tissues.

  7. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  8. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  9. The Application of Two-stage Structure Decomposition Technique to the Study of Industrial Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqiu HE

    2015-01-01

    The total carbon emissions control is the ultimate goal of carbon emission reduction, while industrial carbon emissions are the basic units of the total carbon emission. On the basis of existing research results, in this paper, a two-stage input-output structure decomposition method is creatively proposed for fully combining the input-output method with the structure decomposition technique. In this study, more comprehensive technical progress indicators were chosen in comparison with the previous studies and included the utilization efficiency of all kinds of intermediate inputs such as energy and non-energy products, and finally were positioned at the factors affecting the carbon emissions of different industries. Through analysis, the affecting rate of each factor on industrial carbon emissions was acquired. Thus, a theory basis and data support is provided for the total carbon emissions control of China from the perspective of industrial emissions.

  10. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin V. Bann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA, which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.

  11. Geophysical techniques in the study of Hydrocarbon contamination: lab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo; Straface, Salvatore; Votta, Mario; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is an environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time and the actual method are invasive and expansive . In the last years there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Greenhouse et al., 1993; Daily and Ramirez, 1995; Lendvay et al., 1998; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009), and there have been several recent study that relate self-potential measurements to subsurface contaminants (Perry et al., 1996; Naudet et al., 2003; Naudet et al., 2004). Infact, this method is a valid tool for site characterization and monitoring because it is sensitive to contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation phase (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005). Therefore the goal of this investigation is to characterize underground contaminant distributions using minimally invasive geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential), in combination with hydrochemical measurements, and to develop fundamental constitutive relations between soil physical and degradation activity parameters and geophysically measurable parameters, in order to improve site remediation efficiency. These tests have been realized at a PVC pool situated in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA. The pool is completely filled with ~ 0.80 m3 of an homogeneous medium (quartz-rich sand with a medium-high hydraulic conductivity in the order of 10-5 m/s), to simulate the space and time dynamics of an artificial aquifer; besides it has been endowed of a sensors network at surface and in borehole, to measure self-potential and electrical resistivity. The experiments consist in geophysical measurements to monitor a simulated oil spill into sand-box following by water rain. The experiment was able to obtain

  12. Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 μm) mass concentration 280 μg m-3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm-3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit

  13. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  14. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  15. A study on the fault diagnostic techniques for reactor internal structures using neutron noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Jeong, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Park, Jin Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    The unfavorable phenomena, such as flow induced vibration and aging process in reactor internals, cause degradation of structural integrity and may result in loosing some mechanical binding components which might impact other equipments and components or cause flow blockage. Since these malfunctions and potential failures change reactor noise signal, it is necessary to analyze reactor noise signal for early fault diagnosis in the point of few of safety and plant economics. The objectives of this study are to establish fault diagnostic and TS(thermal shield), and to develop a data acquisition and signal processing software system. In the first year of this study, an analysis technique for the reactor internal vibration using the reactor noise was proposed. With the technique proposed and the reactor noise signals (ex-core neutron and acceleration), the dynamic characteristics of Ulchin-1 reactor internals were obtained, and compared with those of Tricastin-1 which is the prototype of Ulchin-1. In the second year, a PC-based expert system for reactor internals fault diagnosis is developed, which included data acquisition, signal processing, feature extraction function, and represented diagnostic knowledge by the IF-THEN rule. To know the effect of the faults, the reactor internals of Ulchin-1 is modeled using FEM and simulated with an artificial defect given in the hold-down spring. Trend in the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals is also observed during one fuel cycle to know the effect of boron concentration. 100 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs. (Author).

  16. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  17. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  18. Spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques study of the interaction between oxymetholone and human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail: madrakian@basu.ac.ir; Bagheri, Habibollah; Afkhami, Abbas; Soleimani, Mohammad

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the binding of oxymetholone (OXM), a doping drug, to human serum albumin (HSA) was explored at pH 7.40 by spectroscopic methods including spectrofluorimetry, three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3D EEM), UV–vis absorption, resonance rayleigh scattering (RRS) and molecular docking. The fluorescence results showed that there was a considerable quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA upon binding to OXM by static quenching mechanism. The Stern–Volmer quenching constants (K{sub SV}) between OXM and HSA at three different temperatures 295, 303, 308 K, were obtained as 4.63×10{sup 4}, 3.05×10{sup 4} and 1.49×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1}, respectively. Furthermore this interaction was confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometric and RRS techniques. The binding site number, n, apparent binding constant, K{sub b}, and corresponding thermodynamic parameters (ΔS, ΔH and ΔG) were measured at different temperatures. The Van der Waals and hydrogen-bond forces were found to stabilize OXM–HSA complex. The distance (r) between the donor and acceptor was obtained from Förster's theory of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and found to be 1.67 nm. The 3D EEM showed that OXM slightly changes the secondary structure of HSA. Furthermore, the molecular docking was employed for identification of drug binding sites and interaction of OXM with amino acid residues. - Highlights: • The binding of OXM as a doping drug with HSA was studied by different techniques. • The binding constant of HSA–OXM was calculated. • The binding site of OXM on HSA was characterized with molecular docking. • The thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to fluorescence technique.

  19. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy: conventional versus target controlled infusion techniques--a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Andrea; Agnoletti, Vanni; Berrettini, Stefano; Piraccini, Emanuele; Criscuolo, Armando; Corso, Ruggero; Campanini, Aldo; Gambale, Giorgio; Vicini, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the sites of pharyngeal collapse is mandatory for surgical treatment decision-making in obstructive sleep-apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) allows for the direct observation of the upper airway during sedative-induced sleep. In order to re-create snoring and apnea patterns related to a spontaneous sleep situation, the authors used a target-controlled infusion (TCI) sleep endoscopy (DISE-TCI), comparing this technique to conventional DISE, in which sedation was reached by a manual bolus injection. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, unicenter study. The apneic event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plans of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to June 2009, 40 OSAHS patients were included in the study and randomized allocated in two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the DISE-TCI group. We recorded the complete apnea event at the oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 4 patients of the conventional DISE group (20%) and in 17 patients of the DISE-TCI group (85%) (P DISE group because of severe desaturation that resulted from the first bolus of propofol (1 mg/kg) (P = 0.4872 ns). We recorded the instability of the sedation plan in 13 patients from the conventional DISE group (65%) and 1 patient from the DISE-TCI group (5%) (P = 0.0001). Our results suggest that the DISE-TCI technique should be the first choice in performing sleep endoscopy because of its increased accuracy, stability and safety.

  20. Study protocol: rehabilitation including social and physical activity and education in children and teenagers with cancer (RESPECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Halse, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis

    2013-01-01

    Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years n...

  1. Effective time-independent studies on resonance Raman spectroscopy of trans-stilbene including the Duschinsky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara; Zhao, Xian; Ruud, Kenneth; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    We simulate the resonance Raman spectra of trans-stilbene using a recently developed time-independent method that allows computations of the full two-dimensional spectrum as a function of the incident and scattered frequencies, including both the Franck-Condon and the Herzberg-Teller contributions. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground and resonant states are described in the harmonic approximation using density functional theory PBE0/6-31+G(d,p) calculations in gas phase and in cyclohexane. The simulated spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5000 (1985)] measured at four different excitation wavelengths, and allow us to unambiguously assign the main experimental bands. We perform an extensive comparison of the performance of four different vertical or adiabatic models for the PES of the resonant state, dissecting the effects of nuclear displacements and Duschinsky mixings on the spectra.

  2. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Design Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. Setting 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Participants Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11–12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. Results The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease. Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. Conclusions A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. PMID:28246143

  3. Study of multiwavelength DFB semiconductor laser array with asymmetric structures based on sampling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuechun; Cao, Baoli; Li, Lianyan; Tang, Song; Zheng, Junshou; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Ting; Liu, Shengchun

    2014-10-10

    Multiwavelength distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser arrays (MLA) with asymmetric structures are studied in this paper. Thanks to the sampling technique, the asymmetric structures, including asymmetric phase shift and asymmetric coupling coefficient, can be achieved by common holographic exposure. Therefore, the cost of fabrication is remarkably reduced. In addition, due to the large scale of the sampling pattern, the wavelength precision of these kinds of MLA can be simultaneously improved. As an example, we designed and fabricated an asymmetrically phase-shifted MLA with 10 wavelengths for the first time. Compared with the common phase-shifted DFB laser, slope efficiency is significantly improved and single longitudinal mode is still guaranteed. Besides, relatively high wavelength precision is also obtained. The proposed MLA configurations may significantly benefit multiwavelength emitters for future photonic integration.

  4. Nonlinear optical properties of natural laccaic acid dye studied using Z-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Sanusi, K.; Britton, J.; Mthunzi, P.; Nyokong, T.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated the nonlinear optical properties, including the optical limiting behaviour for five different concentrations of laccaic acid dye in solution and a thin film obtained through doping in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. The experiments were performed by using single beam Z-scan technique at 532 nm with 10 ns, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses excitation. From the open-aperture Z-scan data, we derived that the laccaic dye samples exhibit strong two photon absorption (2PA). The nonlinear refractive index was determined through the closed aperture Z-scan data. The estimated absorption coefficient β2, nonlinear refractive index n2 and second order hyperpolarizability γ were found to be of the order of 10-10 m/W, 10-9 esu and 10-32 esu, respectively. The Z-scan study reveals that the natural laccaic acid dye emerges as a promising material for third order nonlinear optical devices application.

  5. A Comparative Study of the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hydrogen Using Data Mining Research Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settouti, Nadera; Aourag, Hafid

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen was the first element to exist in the universe. It is the lightest and simplest element, but chemists do not agree about its placement in the periodic table; its position has given rise to much confusion. Metallization of hydrogen under high pressure influences its properties and its placement in the periodic table. The properties of groups I, IV, and VII are investigated, and are then compared to those of hydrogen. In this study, we present a data mining approach to determine models and discover the similarities included in the datasets. Principal component analysis and partial least squares regression were applied as data analysis techniques in order to explore multivariate data. Our results indicate that hydrogen shares some properties with certain elements and groups in the periodic table, such as carbon group elements, but not entirely, because hydrogen is still considered as an element that is special and apart.

  6. The Malmö study : a calibration of traffic conflict techniques. A study organised by ICTCT (The International Committee on Traffic Conflict Techniques).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grayson, G.B. (ed.) Hyden, C. Kraay, J.H. Muhlrad, N. & Oppe, S.

    1984-01-01

    In the summer of 1983 a unique experiment took place in Malmö; a calibration study of eight different conflict techniques. The week before this experiment an international meeting in Copenhagen was organised in order to show a broader audience the detailed information concerning each applied conf

  7. [The Autocad system for planimetric study of the optic disc in glaucoma: technique and reproducibility study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, A; Honrubia López, F M; Larrosa Poves, J M; Polo Llorens, V; Melcon Sánchez-Frieras, B

    2001-09-01

    To develop a lens planimetry technique for the optic disc using AutoCAD. To determine variability magnitude of the optic disc morphological measurements. We employed AutoCAD R.14.0 Autodesk: image acquisition, contour delimitation by multiple lines fitting or ellipse adjustment, image sectorialization and measurements quantification (optic disc and excavation, vertical diameters, optic disc area, excavation area, neuroretinal sector area and Beta atrophy area). Intraimage or operator and interimage o total reproducibility was studied by coefficient of variability (CV) (n=10) in normal and myopic optic discs. This technique allows to obtain optic disc measurement in 5 to 10 minutes time. Total or interimage variability of measurements introduced by one observer presents CV range from 1.18-4.42. Operator or intraimage measurement presents CV range from 0.30-4.21. Optic disc contour delimitation by ellipse adjustment achieved better reproducibility results than multiple lines adjustment in all measurements. Computer assisted AutoCAD planimetry is an interactive method to analyse the optic disc, feasible to incorporate to clinical practice. Reproducibility results are comparable to other analyzers in quantification optic disc morphology. Ellipse adjustment improves results in optic disc contours delimitation.

  8. Strategic Management Tools and Techniques: A Comparative Analysis of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Berisha Qehaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that strategic management tools and techniques are important parts of the strategic management process. Their use in organizations should be observed in a practice-based context. This paper analyzes the empirical studies on the usage of strategic management tools and techniques. Hence, the main aim of this study is to investigate and analyze which enterprises, according to their country development level, use more strategic management tools and techniques and which of these are used the most. Also, this paper investigates which strategic management tools and techniques are used globally according to the results of empirical studies. The study presents a summary of empirical studies for the period 1990–2015. The research results indicate that more strategic tools and techniques are used in developed countries, followed by developing countries and fewest in countries in transition. This study is likely to contribute to the field of strategic management because it summarizes the most used strategic tools and techniques at the global level according to varying stages of countries’ economic development. Also, the findings from this study may be utilized to maximize the full potential of enterprises and reduce the cases of entrepreneurship failures, through creating awareness of the importance of using strategic management tools and techniques.

  9. Including Remote Participants and Artifacts: Visual, Audio, and Tactile Modalities in an Ethnographic Study of Globally Distributed Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Pederson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study how globally distributed Danish and Indian engineers co-construct and reconfigure a shared socio-technical collaborative place for global collaborative interaction: War Room meetings. We investigate the empirical case of War Room meetings based on three modalities in which ...

  10. Study of techniques applicable for monitoring MIC in soil or sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    1999-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel in anaerobic environment is difficult to monitor with electrochemical techniques because of heterogeneous surface conditions and electrochemically active corrosion products. Weight loss measurement, LPR, EIS, hydrogen permeation, and a refined ER...... technique have beeen evaluated including field tests in soil and marine sediment. The conclusions are that EIS can detect combined biofilm and corrosion product film formation, but corrosion rate is overestimated. The ER technique seems to give a correct and sensitive corrosion rate measurement within...... minutes. Hydrogen permeation measurements can indirectly identify sulphide....

  11. Theoretical study on the low-lying excited states of the phosphorus monoiodide (PI) including the spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaoting; Liang, Guiying; Li, Rui; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The potential energy curves (PECs) of the 22 Λ-S states of the phosphorus monoiodide (PI) molecule have been calculated at the level of MRCI+Q method with correlation-consistent quadruple-ζ quality basis set. The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined, which well reproduce the available measurements. The metastable a1Δ state has been reported for the first time, which lies between the X3Σ- and b1Σ+ states and have much deeper well than the ground state. The R-dependent spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements are calculated with the full-electron Breit-Pauli operator. Based on the SO matrix elements, the perturbations that the 23Π state may suffer from are analyzed in detail. The SOC effect makes the original Λ-S states split into 51 Ω states. In the zero-field splitting of the ground state X3Σ-, the spin-spin coupling contribution (2.23 cm-1) is found to be much smaller compared to the spin-orbit coupling contribution (50 cm-1). The avoided crossings between the Ω states lead to much shallower potential wells and the change of dissociation relationships of the states. The Ω-state wavefunctions are analyzed depending on their Λ-S compositions, showing the strong interactions among several quasidegenerate Λ-S states of the same total SO symmetry. The transition properties including electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), and electric quadrupole (E2) transition moments (TMs), the Franck-Condon factors, the transition probabilities and the radiative lifetimes are computed for the transitions between Ω components of a1Δ and b1Σ+ states and ground state. The transition probabilities induced by the E1, E2, and M1 transitions are evaluated. The E2 makes little effect on transition probabilities. In contrast, the E1 transition makes the main contribution to the transition probability and the M1 transition also brings the influence that cannot be neglected. Finally, the radiative lifetimes are determined with the transition moments including E

  12. Geothermal exploration techniques: a case study. Final report. [Coso geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, J.

    1978-02-01

    The objective of this project was to review and perform a critical evaluation of geothermal exploration methods and techniques. The original intent was to publish the work as a handbook; however, the information is not specific enough for that purpose. A broad general survey of geothermal exploration techniques is reported in combination with one specific case study.

  13. Geothermal exploration techniques: a case study. Final report. [Coso geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, J.

    1978-02-01

    The objective of this project was to review and perform a critical evaluation of geothermal exploration methods and techniques. The original intent was to publish the work as a handbook; however, the information is not specific enough for that purpose. A broad general survey of geothermal exploration techniques is reported in combination with one specific case study.

  14. Technique of calculating and studying stability of three dimensional velocity fields of longitudinal waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarova, N.B.; Slavina, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    The features of a technique for determining the velocity of spread of longitudinal waves in the epicenter zone are briefly formulated. Results are presented from studying the technique in the example of model and experimental data in the focal zone of Kamchatka.

  15. A pilot study comparing two physiotherapy techniques in patietnts with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Milne

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The flutter is a simple hand held device designed to facilitate the mobilisation of excess bronchial secretions by means of oscillating positive pressure. Traditionally patients at the Johannesburg Hospital Cystic Fibrosis clinic used the active cycle of breathing technique as a means of facilitating secretion mobilisation and clearance. When the flutter became available in South Africa in 1999 many cystic fibrosis patients wanted to change to this technique. Minimal research has been conducted comparing these two techniques. The aim of this pilot study was therefore to determine which technique is more effective in the mobilisation of  secretions in cystic fibrosis patients. The pilot study was conducted on seven cystic fibrosis patients (mean age 28 years, range 16-42 years admitted to the Johannesburg Hospital for antibiotic therapy. The study lasted four days and consisted of two treatment days  separated by a washout day on which no physiotherapy was performed. Patients randomised into Group A performed the flutter technique on day two and the active cycle of breathing technique on day four. Group B performed the active cycle of breathing technique on day two and the flutter on day four. The techniques were performed twice a day for  15 minutes. The measurements taken were daily 24-hour sputum samples and daily lung function tests. A questionnaire to determine patient preference to a technique concluded the study.  The results showed no statistical difference between the two techniques with regard to sputum weight or lung function (p<0.05. The questionnaire indicated that on a whole, patients had no preference for a technique.

  16. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  17. A simple technique to study embodied language processes: the grip force sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Tatjana A; Hrycyk, Lianna; Moreau, Quentin; Frak, Victor; Cheylus, Anne; Ott, Laurent; Lindemann, Oliver; Fischer, Martin H; Paulignan, Yves; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Research in cognitive neuroscience has shown that brain structures serving perceptual, emotional, and motor processes are also recruited during the understanding of language when it refers to emotion, perception, and action. However, the exact linguistic and extralinguistic conditions under which such language-induced activity in modality-specific cortex is triggered are not yet well understood. The purpose of this study is to introduce a simple experimental technique that allows for the online measure of language-induced activity in motor structures of the brain. This technique consists in the use of a grip force sensor that captures subtle grip force variations while participants listen to words and sentences. Since grip force reflects activity in motor brain structures, the continuous monitoring of force fluctuations provides a fine-grained estimation of motor activity across time. In other terms, this method allows for both localization of the source of language-induced activity to motor brain structures and high temporal resolution of the recorded data. To facilitate comparison of the data to be collected with this tool, we present two experiments that describe in detail the technical setup, the nature of the recorded data, and the analyses (including justification about the data filtering and artifact rejection) that we applied. We also discuss how the tool could be used in other domains of behavioral research.

  18. A Performance Study of Data Mining Techniques: Multiple Linear Regression vs. Factor Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Taneja, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    The growing volume of data usually creates an interesting challenge for the need of data analysis tools that discover regularities in these data. Data mining has emerged as disciplines that contribute tools for data analysis, discovery of hidden knowledge, and autonomous decision making in many application domains. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of two data mining techniques viz., factor analysis and multiple linear regression for different sample sizes on three unique sets of data. The performance of the two data mining techniques is compared on following parameters like mean square error (MSE), R-square, R-Square adjusted, condition number, root mean square error(RMSE), number of variables included in the prediction model, modified coefficient of efficiency, F-value, and test of normality. These parameters have been computed using various data mining tools like SPSS, XLstat, Stata, and MS-Excel. It is seen that for all the given dataset, factor analysis outperform multiple linear re...

  19. Probabilistic seismic safety assessment of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant including ambient vibration tests: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of

  20. The relationship between psychosocial problems including depression and behavioural trends among middle-aged menopausal women in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, N; Ohi, K

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the association of psychosocial problems, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, and trends of smoking and use of cosmetics in our previous study. In this follow-up study, we researched psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems in menopausal women. We designed a cohort study with 577 Japanese women aged 30-64 years. Subjects were selected randomly from among women who visited the department of gender-specific medicine at Tokyo Women's Medical University East Medical Center between June 2010 and September 2011. We analysed trends such as smoking, using cosmetics, and menopausal symptoms and their association with the first lifetime episode of severe depression and anxiety using structured clinical interviews for the DSM-IV (structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, outpatient version [SCID]), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Significant associations were observed between hot flushes, smoking and the frequency of using cosmetics. Furthermore, the trends in cosmetic use and smoking affected not only psychosocial problems, but also physical problems. Younger women suffered from psychosocial problems more than twice the rate of post-menopausal women. Those who reported their first severe depression episode were also affected by severe anxiety disorders and physical problems. By self-checking the frequency of using cosmetics is up to date knowledge of psychosocial mood problems and improving women's quality of life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Angiogenesis, Proliferative Activity and DNA Ploidy in Oral Verrucous Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Including Verrucous Hyperplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Breta, Monika; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Mohanty, Biddhu K; Singh, Manoj K

    2015-09-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare and distinct clinicopathologic variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study aims to evaluate the histomorphology, proliferative activity, level of angiogenesis, and DNA ploidy of these pathological entities. This was a retrospective-prospective study of 18 cases of verrucous hyperplasia (VH), 41 cases of VC, and 44 cases of SCC. Immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 (MIB-1) and CD34 were performed. The tumor proliferative index, endothelial proliferative index and microvascular density were calculated. DNA ploidy was determined using image cytometry. The age range and gender ratio were similar in all three groups. The differences in MIB-1 labeling index (p = 0.0001), microvascular density (p = 0.01), and endothelial proliferative index (p = 0.001) between VC and SCC were found to be statistically significant. A non-significant increasing trend was observed in all of these parameters between VH and VC. On ploidy analysis, 100 % of SCC cases were aneuploid, compared to 39 % of VH and 86 % of VC cases. Our study demonstrates a significant difference in tumor proliferation, microvessel density, and ploidy between VC and SCC while increasing trend between VH and VC. These parameters, along with morphological findings, may be useful in differentiating these entities in small mucosal biopsies.

  2. Determinants of exercise-induced oxygen desaturation including pulmonary emphysema in COPD: Results from the ECLIPSE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Celli, Bartolome R; Franssen, Frits M E; Pinto-Plata, Victor M; Calverley, Peter M A; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Vestbo, Jørgen; Agusti, Alvar; Bakke, Per S; Rennard, Stephen I; MacNee, William; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Yates, Julie C; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2016-10-01

    Exercise-induced oxygen desaturation (EID) is related to mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated: (1) the prevalence of EID; (2) the relative-weight of several physiological determinants of EID including pulmonary emphysema, and (3) the relationship of EID with certain patients' clinical characteristics. Data from 2050 COPD patients (age: 63.3 ± 7.1years; FEV1: 48.7 ± 15.7%pred.) were analyzed. The occurrence of EID (SpO2post ≤88%) at the six-minute walking test (6MWT) was investigated in association with emphysema quantified by computed-tomography (QCT), and several clinical characteristics. 435 patients (21%) exhibited EID. Subjects with EID had more QCT-emphysema, lower exercise capacity and worse health-status (BODE, ADO indexes) compared to non-EID. Determinant of EID were obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)), impaired FEV1 (≤44%pred.), moderate or worse emphysema, and low SpO2 at rest (≤93%). Linear regression indicated that each 1-point increase on the ADO-score independently elevates odds ratio (≤1.5fold) for EID. About one in five COPD patients in the ECLIPSE cohort present EID. Advanced emphysema is associated with EID. In addition, obesity, severe airflow limitation, and low resting oxygen saturation increase the risk for EID. Patients with EID in GOLD stage II have higher odds to have moderate or worse emphysema compared those with EID in GOLD stage III-IV. Emphysematous patients with high ADO-score should be monitored for EID.

  3. Integrated atomic force microscopy techniques for analysis of biomaterials: Study of membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Laura S.

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the prominent techniques for structural studies of biological materials in physiological relevant fluidic environments. AFM has been used to resolve the three-dimensional (3D) surface structure of cells, membranes, and proteins structures. Ion channels, formed by membrane proteins, are the key structures that control the activity of all living systems. This dissertation focuses on the structural evaluation of membrane proteins through atomic force microscopy. In Part I, AFM is utilized to study one of the most prominent medical issues facing our society, Alzheimer's Disease (AD). AD is a misfolded protein disease characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide as senile plaques, progressive neurodegeneration, and memory loss. Recent evidence suggests that AD pathology is linked to the destabilization of cellular ionic homeostasis mediated by toxic channel structures composed of Abeta peptides. Selectively engineered sequences of Abeta were examined by AFM to elucidate the substructures and thus activity Abeta channels. Key residues were evaluated with the intent better understand the exact nature by which these pores conduct electrical and molecular signals, which could aid in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the prevention/treatment of AD. Additionally, AFM was used to analyze brain derived Abeta and newly developed pharmacological agents to study membranes and Abeta. Part II, presents a novel technology that incorporates electrophysiology into the AFM interface, enabling simultaneous imaging and complementary conductance measurements. The activity of ion channels is studied by various techniques, including patch clamp, free standing lipid bilayers, droplet interface bilayers, and supported lipid bilayers. However, direct correlation with channel structures has remained a challenge. The integrated atomic force microscopy system presented offers a solution to this challenge. The functionality of the

  4. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  5. Neutron Scattering Studies of Liquid on or Confined in Nano- and Mesoporous Carbons, Including Carbide-Derived Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    This project involved the synthesis of microporous graphitic-carbon powders with subnanometer average pore size, and very narrow pore size distributions, and the use of these materials in experimental studies of pore-fluid structure and dynamics. Samples of carbide-derived carbon powder, synthesized by extraction of the metal cations from TiC by a high temperature chlorination process, followed by high temperature vacuum annealing, were prepared by Ranjan Dash and his associates at CRADA partner Y-Carbon, Inc. The resulting material had average pore sizes ranging from 5 to 8 . These powders were used in two experiments conducted by researchers involved in the Energy Frontier Research Center Directed by David J. Wesolowski at ORNL, the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center. FIRST-funded researchers at Drexel University collaborated with scientists at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, to measure the expansion and contraction of the microporous carbon particles during charging and discharging of supercapactor electrodes composed of these particles (Hantell et al., 2011, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 13, pp. 1221-1224.) in an electrolyte composed of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile. In the second experiment, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Drexel University conducted quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the diffusional dynamics of water imbibed into the micropores of the same material (Chathoth et al., 2011, EuroPhysics Journal, v. 95, pp. 56001/1-6). These studies helped to establish the role of pores approaching the size of the solvent and dissolved ions in altering diffusional dynamics, ion transport and physical response of conducting substrates to ion desolvation and entry into subnamometer pores.

  6. Prolonged-release nicotinic acid for the management of dyslipidemia: an update including results from the NAUTILUS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Vogt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Anja Vogt1, Ursula Kassner1, Ulrike Hostalek2, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen11Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GermanyAbstract: Low HDL-cholesterol (<1.02 mmol/L [40 mg/dL] in men or <1.29 mmol/L [50 mg/dL] in women occurs in about one-third of European patients with dyslipidemia and is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Simultaneous correction of low HDL-cholesterol and high totalcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol may provide reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality beyond those possible with statins alone. Nicotinic acid (niacin in the US is the most effective means of increasing HDL-cholesterol available and has been shown to reduce cardiovascular event rates significantly. Niaspan® (prolonged-release nicotinic acid provides a convenient, once-daily means of administering nicotinic acid. Clinical studies with Niaspan® have demonstrated marked, long-term increases in HDL-cholesterol with additional useful benefits on triglycerides, LDLcholesterol, and lipid sub-profiles. The NAUTILUS study demonstrated the beneficial efficacy and tolerability profiles of Niaspan® in a usual-care setting. The most common side-effect of Niaspan® is flushing, which infrequently causes treatment discontinuation and which usually subsides over continued treatment. The ARBITER 2 and ARBITER 3 studies showed 1–2 years of treatment with Niaspan® plus a statin induced regression of atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. The effect of Niaspan®-statin treatment, relative to a statin alone, on clinical cardiovascular outcomes is currently under evaluation. Niaspan® represents a practical means of correcting low HDL-cholesterol, an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: prolonged-release nicotinic acid, Niaspan®, niacin, dyslipidemia, HDL-cholesterol cardiovascular risk

  7. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; MacGregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL (RSPO1, C3orf26, LAMA2, GJD2, ZNRF3, CD55, MIP, and ALPPL2) and confirmed one previously reported AL locus (ZC3H11B). Of the nine loci, five (LA...

  8. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side...... increases heart rate by as much (2.4%) as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%). This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines....

  9. Modified technique of pancreaticogastrostomy for soft pancreas with two continuous hemstitch sutures: a single-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Wang, Min; Wang, Xin; Tian, Rui; Shi, Chengjian; Xu, Meng; Shen, Ming; Han, Juan; Luo, Ninanian; Qin, Renyi

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a persistent problem after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), especially in the presence of a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas. To reduce the risk of POPF, pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) is an optional reconstruction technique for surgeons after PD. This study presents a new technique of PG for a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas with double-binding continuous hemstitch sutures and evaluates its safety and reliability. From January 2011 to June 2012, 92 cases of patients with periampullary malignancy with a soft pancreas underwent this technique. A modified technique of PG was performed with two continuous hemstitch sutures placed in the mucosal and seromuscular layers of the posterior gastric wall, respectively. Then the morbidity and mortality was calculated. This technique was applied in 92 patients after PD all with soft pancreas. The median time for the anastomosis was 12 min (range, 8-24). Operative mortality was zero, and morbidity was 16.3 % (n = 15), including hemorrhage (n = 2), biliary fistula (n = 2), pulmonary infection (n = 1), delayed gastric emptying (DGE; n = 5, 5.4 %), abdominal abscess (n = 3, one caused by PF), and POPF (n = 2, 2.2 %). Two patients developed a pancreatic fistula (one type A and one type B) classified according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula. The described technique is a simple and safe reconstruction procedure after PD, especially for patients with a soft and fragile pancreas.

  10. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; MacGregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Delcourt, Cécile; Maubaret, Cecilia; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; MacGregor, Stuart; Lu, Yi; Jonas, Jost B.; Xu, Liang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Jonas, Jost B.; Nangia, Vinay; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Vitart, Veronique; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Vitart, Veronique; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Young, Terri L.; Feng, Sheng; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Metspalu, Andres; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Wojciechowski, Robert; Baird, Paul N.; Schache, Maria; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Höhn, René; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Peng; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Wegner, Aharon; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Pärssinen, Olavi; Yip, Shea Ping; Ho, Daniel W.H.; Pirastu, Mario; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Biino, Genevra; Wilson, James F.; Fleck, Brian; Vitart, Veronique; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Hewitt, Alex W.; Ang, Wei; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Mackey, David A.; MacGregor, Stuart; Hammond, Christopher J.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Reinhart, William; Belin, Michael W.; Schultze, Robert L.; Morason, Todd; Sugar, Alan; Mian, Shahzad; Soong, Hunson Kaz; Colby, Kathryn; Jurkunas, Ula; Yee, Richard; Vital, Mark; Alfonso, Eduardo; Karp, Carol; Lee, Yunhee; Yoo, Sonia; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cohen, Elisabeth; Laibson, Peter; Rapuano, Christopher; Ayres, Brandon; Croasdale, Christopher; Caudill, James; Patel, Sanjay; Baratz, Keith; Bourne, William; Maguire, Leo; Sugar, Joel; Tu, Elmer; Djalilian, Ali; Mootha, Vinod; McCulley, James; Bowman, Wayne; Cavanaugh, H. Dwight; Verity, Steven; Verdier, David; Renucci, Ann; Oliva, Matt; Rotkis, Walter; Hardten, David R.; Fahmy, Ahmad; Brown, Marlene; Reeves, Sherman; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Lindstrom, Richard; Hauswirth, Scott; Hamilton, Stephen; Lee, W. Barry; Price, Francis; Price, Marianne; Kelly, Kathleen; Peters, Faye; Shaughnessy, Michael; Steinemann, Thomas; Dupps, B.J.; Meisler, David M.; Mifflin, Mark; Olson, Randal; Aldave, Anthony; Holland, Gary; Mondino, Bartly J.; Rosenwasser, George; Gorovoy, Mark; Dunn, Steven P.; Heidemann, David G.; Terry, Mark; Shamie, Neda; Rosenfeld, Steven I.; Suedekum, Brandon; Hwang, David; Stone, Donald; Chodosh, James; Galentine, Paul G.; Bardenstein, David; Goddard, Katrina; Chin, Hemin; Mannis, Mark; Varma, Rohit; Borecki, Ingrid; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J.; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Donnelly, Peter; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Barroso, Ines; Deloukas, Panos; Mathew, Christopher G.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Corvin, Aiden; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Genuth, S.; Nathan, D.M.; Zinman, B.; Crofford, O.; Crandall, J.; Reid, M.; Brown-Friday, J.; Engel, S.; Sheindlin, J.; Martinez, H.; Shamoon, H.; Engel, H.; Phillips, M.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Mayer, L.; Pendegast, S.; Zegarra, H.; Miller, D.; Singerman, L.; Smith-Brewer, S.; Novak, M.; Quin, J.; Dahms, W.; Genuth, Saul; Palmert, M.; Brillon, D.; Lackaye, M.E.; Kiss, S.; Chan, R.; Reppucci, V.; Lee, T.; Heinemann, M.; Whitehouse, F.; Kruger, D.; Jones, J.K.; McLellan, M.; Carey, J.D.; Angus, E.; Thomas, A.; Galprin, A.; Bergenstal, R.; Johnson, M.; Spencer, M.; Morgan, K.; Etzwiler, D.; Kendall, D.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Golden, E.; Jacobson, A.; Beaser, R.; Ganda, O.; Hamdy, O.; Wolpert, H.; Sharuk, G.; Arrigg, P.; Schlossman, D.; Rosenzwieg, J.; Rand, L.; Nathan, D.M.; Larkin, M.; Ong, M.; Godine, J.; Cagliero, E.; Lou, P.; Folino, K.; Fritz, S.; Crowell, S.; Hansen, K.; Gauthier-Kelly, C.; Service, J.; Ziegler, G.; Luttrell, L.; Caulder, S.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Colwell, J.; Soule, J.; Fernandes, J.; Hermayer, K.; Kwon, S.; Brabham, M.; Blevins, A.; Parker, J.; Lee, D.; Patel, N.; Pittman, C.; Lindsey, P.; Bracey, M.; Lee, K.; Nutaitis, M.; Farr, A.; Elsing, S.; Thompson, T.; Selby, J.; Lyons, T.; Yacoub-Wasef, S.; Szpiech, M.; Wood, D.; Mayfield, R.; Molitch, M.; Schaefer, B.; Jampol, L.; Lyon, A.; Gill, M.; Strugula, Z.; Kaminski, L.; Mirza, R.; Simjanoski, E.; Ryan, D.; Kolterman, O.; Lorenzi, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Sivitz, W.; Bayless, M.; Counts, D.; Johnsonbaugh, S.; Hebdon, M.; Salemi, P.; Liss, R.; Donner, T.; Gordon, J.; Hemady, R.; Kowarski, A.; Ostrowski, D.; Steidl, S.; Jones, B.; Herman, W.H.; Martin, C.L.; Pop-Busui, R.; Sarma, A.; Albers, J.; Feldman, E.; Kim, K.; Elner, S.; Comer, G.; Gardner, T.; Hackel, R.; Prusak, R.; Goings, L.; Smith, A.; Gothrup, J.; Titus, P.; Lee, J.; Brandle, M.; Prosser, L.; Greene, D.A.; Stevens, M.J.; Vine, A.K.; Bantle, J.; Wimmergren, N.; Cochrane, A.; Olsen, T.; Steuer, E.; Rath, P.; Rogness, B.; Hainsworth, D.; Goldstein, D.; Hitt, S.; Giangiacomo, J.; Schade, D.S.; Canady, J.L.; Chapin, J.E.; Ketai, L.H.; Braunstein, C.S.; Bourne, P.A.; Schwartz, S.; Brucker, A.; Maschak-Carey, B.J.; Baker, L.; Orchard, T.; Silvers, N.; Ryan, C.; Songer, T.; Doft, B.; Olson, S.; Bergren, R.L.; Lobes, L.; Rath, P. Paczan; Becker, D.; Rubinstein, D.; Conrad, P.W.; Yalamanchi, S.; Drash, A.; Morrison, A.; Bernal, M.L.; Vaccaro-Kish, J.; Malone, J.; Pavan, P.R.; Grove, N.; Iyer, M.N.; Burrows, A.F.; Tanaka, E.A.; Gstalder, R.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Wigley, C.; Ricks, H.; Kitabchi, A.; Murphy, M.B.; Moser, S.; Meyer, D.; Iannacone, A.; Chaum, E.; Yoser, S.; Bryer-Ash, M.; Schussler, S.; Lambeth, H.; Raskin, P.; Strowig, S.; Zinman, B.; Barnie, A.; Devenyi, R.; Mandelcorn, M.; Brent, M.; Rogers, S.; Gordon, A.; Palmer, J.; Catton, S.; Brunzell, J.; Wessells, H.; de Boer, I.H.; Hokanson, J.; Purnell, J.; Ginsberg, J.; Kinyoun, J.; Deeb, S.; Weiss, M.; Meekins, G.; Distad, J.; Van Ottingham, L.; Dupre, J.; Harth, J.; Nicolle, D.; Driscoll, M.; Mahon, J.; Canny, C.; May, M.; Lipps, J.; Agarwal, A.; Adkins, T.; Survant, L.; Pate, R.L.; Munn, G.E.; Lorenz, R.; Feman, S.; White, N.; Levandoski, L.; Boniuk, I.; Grand, G.; Thomas, M.; Joseph, D.D.; Blinder, K.; Shah, G.; Boniuk; Burgess; Santiago, J.; Tamborlane, W.; Gatcomb, P.; Stoessel, K.; Taylor, K.; Goldstein, J.; Novella, S.; Mojibian, H.; Cornfeld, D.; Lima, J.; Bluemke, D.; Turkbey, E.; van der Geest, R.J.; Liu, C.; Malayeri, A.; Jain, A.; Miao, C.; Chahal, H.; Jarboe, R.; Maynard, J.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Quin, J.; Gaston, P.; Palmert, M.; Trail, R.; Dahms, W.; Lachin, J.; Cleary, P.; Backlund, J.; Sun, W.; Braffett, B.; Klumpp, K.; Chan, K.; Diminick, L.; Rosenberg, D.; Petty, B.; Determan, A.; Kenny, D.; Rutledge, B.; Younes, Naji; Dews, L.; Hawkins, M.; Cowie, C.; Fradkin, J.; Siebert, C.; Eastman, R.; Danis, R.; Gangaputra, S.; Neill, S.; Davis, M.; Hubbard, L.; Wabers, H.; Burger, M.; Dingledine, J.; Gama, V.; Sussman, R.; Steffes, M.; Bucksa, J.; Nowicki, M.; Chavers, B.; O’Leary, D.; Polak, J.; Harrington, A.; Funk, L.; Crow, R.; Gloeb, B.; Thomas, S.; O’Donnell, C.; Soliman, E.; Zhang, Z.M.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Ryan, C.; Sandstrom, D.; Williams, T.; Geckle, M.; Cupelli, E.; Thoma, F.; Burzuk, B.; Woodfill, T.; Low, P.; Sommer, C.; Nickander, K.; Budoff, M.; Detrano, R.; Wong, N.; Fox, M.; Kim, L.; Oudiz, R.; Weir, G.; Espeland, M.; Manolio, T.; Rand, L.; Singer, D.; Stern, M.; Boulton, A.E.; Clark, C.; D’Agostino, R.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Garvey, W.T.; Lyons, T.J.; Jenkins, A.; Virella, G.; Jaffa, A.; Carter, Rickey; Lackland, D.; Brabham, M.; McGee, D.; Zheng, D.; Mayfield, R.K.; Boright, A.; Bull, S.; Sun, L.; Scherer, S.; Zinman, B.; Natarajan, R.; Miao, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen;, Z.; Nathan, D.M.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K.H.; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W.; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL (RSPO1, C3orf26, LAMA2, GJD2, ZNRF3, CD55, MIP, and ALPPL2) and confirmed one previously reported AL locus (ZC3H11B). Of the nine loci, five (LAMA2, GJD2, CD55, ALPPL2, and ZC3H11B) were associated with refraction in 18 independent cohorts (n = 23,591). Differential gene expression was observed for these loci in minus-lens-induced myopia mouse experiments and human ocular tissues. Two of the AL genes, RSPO1 and ZNRF3, are involved in Wnt signaling, a pathway playing a major role in the regulation of eyeball size. This study provides evidence of shared genes between AL and refraction, but importantly also suggests that these traits may have unique pathways. PMID:24144296

  11. Nine loci for ocular axial length identified through genome-wide association studies, including shared loci with refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M Kamran; Young, Terri L; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Vitart, Veronique; MacGregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; St Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Wilson, James F; Pennell, Craig E; van Duijn, Cornelia M; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E; Iyengar, Sudha K; Igo, Robert P; Lass, Jonathan H; Chew, Emily Y; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A; Klaver, Caroline C W; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N

    2013-08-08

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL (RSPO1, C3orf26, LAMA2, GJD2, ZNRF3, CD55, MIP, and ALPPL2) and confirmed one previously reported AL locus (ZC3H11B). Of the nine loci, five (LAMA2, GJD2, CD55, ALPPL2, and ZC3H11B) were associated with refraction in 18 independent cohorts (n = 23,591). Differential gene expression was observed for these loci in minus-lens-induced myopia mouse experiments and human ocular tissues. Two of the AL genes, RSPO1 and ZNRF3, are involved in Wnt signaling, a pathway playing a major role in the regulation of eyeball size. This study provides evidence of shared genes between AL and refraction, but importantly also suggests that these traits may have unique pathways. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A.; Newton, Robert C.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479. PMID:22422826

  13. Social exclusion predicts impaired self-regulation: a 2-year longitudinal panel study including the transition from preschool to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion (i.e., being rejected by peers) impairs the ability to self-regulate, and experimental studies with adults support this contention, at least on a short-term basis. Few studies have investigated whether social exclusion affects the development of self-regulation of children in a more enduring manner. By using data from a community sample of 762 children, we investigated reciprocal relations between social exclusion and self-regulation from age 4 to age 6. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, whereas self-regulation was reported by parents. Autoregressive latent cross-lagged analyses showed that social exclusion predicted impaired development of dispositional self-regulation and, reciprocally, that poor self-regulation predicted enhanced social exclusion. In other words, social exclusion undermines children's development of self-regulation, whereas poor self-regulation increases the likelihood of exclusion. Results illuminate the applied relevance of the need-to-belong theory.

  14. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A; Newton, Robert C; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2012-05-17

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479.

  15. Technical Note: Monte Carlo study of (106) Ru/(106) Rh ophthalmic plaques including the (106) Rh gamma spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-López, Marcelino; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    To assess the influence of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum on the Monte Carlo simulation of (106) Ru/(106) Rh ophthalmic plaques, which has been neglected without a quantitative estimation in all previous publications. Simulations were run with the penelope 2014 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. Depth-dose distributions in water were simulated for the plaque models CCA, CCC, CCX and CIA. In addition to the (106) Rh beta spectrum, all gamma components from the (106) Rh gamma spectrum were included in the simulations. Depth-dose curves were compared with those obtained without considering the (106) Rh gamma spectrum. Moreover, half-value (HVL) and tenth-value layers (TVL) were estimated for the (106) Rh gamma spectrum in water, PMMA, stainless steel and lead. Some practical radiation protection applications were discussed. Parallel computing was implemented to reduce computing time. The contribution of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum on the depth-dose curves is negligible at depths of clinical interest. The HVL and TVL of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum were found to be similar to those of (137) Cs. The air-kerma rate at 1 m for a CCA plaque in typical clinical conditions was about 0.4μGym2h-1, resulting in equivalent doses at that point elow 0.05 mSv during a treatment. The air-kerma rate would be underestimated by a factor of 5 if the (106) Rh gamma spectrum were not considered. Also, a freely available software tool was developed to ease parallelization of penelope 2014 simulations that use penmain as steering main program. The influence of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum is not relevant for clinical purposes, thus validating the common assumption from the literature. However, for simulations at large distances from the plaques, such as for radiation shielding assessment and estimation of dose to personnel, the gamma spectrum from (106) Rh must be taken into account to obtain accurate results. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Efficacy comparison between simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration techniques: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantitaphong, Paweena; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Katavetin, Pisut; Hanwiwatwong, Orawadee; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    Mid-dilution and mixed-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) techniques are innovated to overcome the limitations of two standard techniques including predilution and postdilution. Unfortunately, the head-to-head comparisons between these two novel techniques in the same study are still limited. Moreover, the original mid-dilution and mixed-dilution OL-HDF need special dialyzers and special machines. In the present study, simple mid-dilution and simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF were settled with the aim for clinical use in general hemodialysis (HD) centers. The efficacies of uremic toxins removal between both modalities were measured and compared. This prospective randomized crossover study was conducted on 12 stable HD patients undergoing simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. HD prescriptions were similar in both techniques. The dialysis efficacies were determined by calculating small- (urea, creatinine, and phosphate) and middle-molecule (beta-2 microglobulin [β2M]) removal. Moreover, potential complications such as high transmembrane pressure (TMP) and protein loss were also observed. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF provided significantly greater clearances of urea, creatinine, and β2M when compared with the simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. Phosphate clearances in both techniques were comparable. In addition, TMP and dialysate albumin loss were not different. There were no intradialytic complications in both techniques. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF could provide greater efficacy for small- and middle-molecule clearances and acceptable potential risks, while phosphate removal is comparable.

  17. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO system (TRMS considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, artificial bee colony (ABC, and differential evolution (DE. In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.

  18. Characteristics of the Aragonitic Layer in Adult Oyster Shells, Crassostrea gigas: Structural Study of Myostracum including the Adductor Muscle Scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostracum, which is connected from the umbo to the edge of a scar, is not a single layer composed of prismatic layers, but a hierarchically complex multilayered shape composed of minerals and an organic matrix. Through the analysis of the secondary structure, the results revealed that a β-antiparallel structure was predominant in the mineral phase interface between the myostracum (aragonite and bottom folia (calcite. After the complete decalcification and deproteinization, the membrane obtained from the interface between the myostracum buried in upper folia, and the bottom folia was identified as chitin. The transitional zone in the interface between the adductor muscle scar and folia are verified. The myostracum disappeared at the edge of the scar of the posterior side. From this study, the entire structure of the myostracum from the adult oyster shell of Crassostrea gigas could be proposed.

  19. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella including the description of Tsukamurella wratislaviensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, M; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J; Thomas, E G; Mordarski, M; Ward, A C; James, A L

    1991-06-01

    Representatives of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella together with related actinomycetes were the subject of chemotaxonomic, numerical taxonomic and DNA homology studies. In the numerical analysis the organisms were examined for 116 unit characters and the data sorted using the simple matching, Jaccard and pattern coefficients; clustering was achieved using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages algorithm. The numerical groupings were not affected by the statistics used or by test error, estimated at 1.9%. The numerical taxonomic data supported the integrity of the four validly described species of Gordona but indicated that the genus Tsukamurella might encompass a species in addition to Tsukamurella paurometabola. The putative new strains had chemical, enzymic, nutritional and tolerance properties consistent with their assignment to the genus Tsukamurella and formed a DNA homology group corresponding to the one formed by the Tsukamurella paurometabola strains. It is proposed that the new taxon be assigned to the genus Tsukamurella as Tsukamurella wratislaviensis.

  20. Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

  1. Theoretical studies on NLO properties of push-pull multi-cycle electro-optical polymer intermediates including thiophene ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付伟; 封继康; 于坤千; 任爱民; 王江洪; 沈玉全

    2000-01-01

    The second-order nonlinear optical susceptiblities βuk, βμ and third-order non-linear optical susceptibilities γijkl, (γ〉 of a series of the novel push-pull multi-ring eletro- photo polymer intermediates have been calculated. The influences of molecular structure, donor, acceptor and the frequency of external field onβandγ, and the relationship betweenγand the number of thiophene rings ( i. e. conjugated chain length) have been studied using INDO/SCI methods combined with sum-over-state(SOS) formula. The calculated results show that γ is proportional to 2.69 power of the chain length of the conjugated molecular bonds when the length is not quite long.

  2. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornes John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas.

  4. The Effect of Selected Cleaning Techniques on Berkshire Lee Marble: A Scientific Study at Philadelphia City Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf; Fries, Terry L.; Coombs, Mary Jane; Naude, Virginia N.; Soderberg, Lisa; Wheeler, George S.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a scientific investigation of the effects of eight different cleaning techniques on the Berkshire Lee marble component of the facade of the East Center Pavilion at Philadelphia City Hall; the study was commissioned by the city of Philadelphia. The eight cleaning techniques evaluated in this study were power wash (proprietary gel detergent followed by water rinse under pressure), misting (treatment with potable, nebulized water for 24-36 hours), gommage (proprietary Thomann-Hanry low-pressure, air-driven, small-particle, dry abrasion), combination (gommage followed by misting), Armax (sodium bicarbonate delivered under pressure in a water wash), JOS (dolomite powder delivered in a low-pressure, rotary-vortex water wash), laser (thermal ablation), and dry ice (powdered-dry-ice abrasion delivered under pressure). In our study approximately 160 cores were removed from the building for laboratory analysis. We developed a computer program to analyze scanning-electron-micrograph images for the microscale surface roughness and other morphologic parameters of the stone surface, including the near-surface fracture density of the stone. An analysis of more than 1,100 samples cut from the cores provided a statistical basis for crafting the essential elements of a reduced-form, mixed-kinetics conceptual model that represents the deterioration of calcareous stone in terms of self-organized soiling and erosion patterns. This model, in turn, provided a basis for identifying the variables that are affected by the cleaning techniques and for evaluating the extent to which such variables influence the stability of the stone. The model recognizes three classes of variables that may influence the soiling load on the stone, including such exogenous environmental variables as airborne moisture, pollutant concentrations, and local aerodynamics, and such endogenous stone variables as surface chemistry and microstructure (fracturing, roughness, and so on). This study

  5. Rural-urban migration including formal and informal workers in the urban sector: an agent-based numerical simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Nilton; Oliveira, Tharnier; Silveira, Jaylson

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this work is to study rural-urban migration in the early stages of industrialization. We use an agent-based model and take into account the existence of informal and formal workers on the urban sector and possible migration movements, dependent on the agents' social and private utilities. Our agents are place on vertices of a square lattice, such that each vertex has only one agent. Rural, urban informal and urban formal workers are represented by different states of a three-state Ising model. At every step, a fraction a of the agents may change sectors or migrate. The total utility of a given agent is then calculated and compared to a random utility, in order to check if this agent turns into an actual migrant or changes sector. The dynamics is carried out until an equilibrium state is reached and equilibrium variables are then calculated and compared to available data. We find that a generalized Harris-Todaro condition is satisfied [1] on these equilibrium regimes, i.e, the ratio between expected wages between any pair of sectors reach a constant value. [4pt] [1] J. J. Silveira, A. L. Esp'indola and T. J. Penna, Physica A, 364, 445 (2006).

  6. CD44 expression in colorectal cancer. An immunohistochemical study including correlation with cathepsin D immunoreactivity and some tumour clinicopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, B; Famulski, W; Sulkowska, M; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Piotrowski, Z; Kisielewski, W; Sulkowski, S

    2001-01-01

    CD44 is a cell adhesion molecule involved in tumour growth and progression. This study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of CD44 standard protein in a series of 54 colorectal adenocarcinomas in correlation with cathepsin D immunoreactivity and some other clinicopathological variables. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues were investigated with anti-CD44 standard protein and anti-cathepsin D antibody. Immunolocalisation of CD44 protein and cathepsin D was performed using LSAB method. 13 (41.9%) out of 31 carcinomas without lymph-node metastases had positive CD44 expression, whereas only 6 (26.1%) out of 23 carcinomas with lymph-node metastases were found positive for CD44 expression. CD44 expression in carcinomas was positively correlated with tumour cells cathepsin D (p<0.01) immunostaining. statistically significant correlation was found between the expression of CD44 standard protein and the tumour site, age and sex of the patients. These results suggest that the standard-type CD44 protein lymph-node metastases, probably with cooperation of cathepsin D.

  7. Spectroscopic Studies of Extremly Metal-Poor Stars with Subaru/HDS:II.The r-process Elements, Including Thorium

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, S; Kajino, T; Ando, H; Beers, T C; Izumiura, H; Sadakane, K; Takada-Hidai, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the abundance analyses for the neutron-capture elements, and discuss the observed abundance distributions in very metal-poor stars with excesses of r-process elements. As has been found by previous abundance studies, the star-to-star scatter in the abundances of neutron-capture elements are very large. The abundance patterns of the heavy neutron-capture elements (56 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 70) in seven objects with moderate to large excesses of the neutron-capture elements are similar to that of the solar system r-process component. These results strongly suggest that the heavy neutron-capture elements in these objects are primarily synthesized by the r-process. On the other hand, the abundance ratios of the light neutron-capture elements (38 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 46) exhibit a rather large dispersion. Our inspection of the correlation between Sr and Ba abundances in very metal-poor stars reveals that the dispersion of the Sr abundances clearly decreases with increasing Ba abundance. This results support previou...

  8. Cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia and lymphoproliferative disorders: a retrospective study of 20 patients including clinical, hematological, and molecular findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthold, Cathrin; Skrabs, Cathrin; Mitterbauer-Hohendanner, Gerlinde; Thalhammer, Renate; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Panzer, Simon; Valent, Peter; Lechner, Klaus; Jäger, Ulrich; Sillaber, Christian

    2014-06-01

    A total of 20 patients with cold antibody hemolytic anemia were evaluated in a retrospective study of them, 15 had a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS): 14 with MGUS of immunoglobulin M (IgM) subtype and 1 with immunoglobulin G subtype. One patient had smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, but four patients had no monoclonal protein and no evidence of lymphoma. However, in three of these patients, we were able to demonstrate a (mono-)clonal rearrangement of their immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains. Of the 20 patients, 5 had IgHV34 nucleotide sequence indicating that the antibody was directed against the "I" antigen. Two patients exhibited a progressive increase of IgM over time, however without increasing hemolytic activity. Moreover, in two patients with long-term follow-up, we were able to correlate recurrent hemolytic activity with low environmental temperatures. Among four patients treated with rituximab, all four responded to treatment. However, treatment effect was only transient in all of them.

  9. How useful is the DSM-5 severity indicator in bulimia nervosa? A clinical study including a measure of impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Luck, Amy; Cardy, Jessica; Staniford, Jessica

    2016-12-30

    The severity criterion used in DSM-5 for bulimia nervosa (BN) was investigated in 214 individuals referred for treatment at a regional eating disorders service in the UK. In addition to comparing eating disorder symptoms, impairment secondary to these symptoms was also assessed. According to guidance in DSM-5, 94 individuals were classified as mild (43.9%), 70 as moderate (32.7%), 32 as severe (15.0%), and 8 as extreme (3.7%) levels of BN severity. Due to small numbers in the latter two groups, it was necessary to combine these to form one 'severe/extreme' group. Analyses on these three groups suggested no group effect on demographic variables but differences were seen on measures of eating pathology, psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment between the mild group and other groups. Individuals in the moderate and severe/extreme groups scored comparably on most measures of pathology and impairment. The results are broadly consistent with past studies on community samples although together question the demarcation between moderate and more severe groups of individuals with BN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  11. Radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorow, R.G.; Seidler, J.; Schneider, H.H. (Schering A.G., Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-04-01

    A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1mg lormetazepam (Noctamid(R)), 2mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(R)), and 10mg diazepam (Valium(R)), and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154h after treatment. Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r=0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8+-1 ng/ml at 2h after lormetazepam, 7.2+-1.8 ng/ml at 8h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9+-2.7 ng/ml at 15h after diazepam. Plasma elimination halflives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63h, respectively. Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites.

  12. PRKAR1A in the development of cardiac myxoma: a study of 110 cases including isolated and syndromic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszewski, Joseph J; Larsen, Brandon T; Kip, Nefize Sertac; Castonguay, Mathieu C; Edwards, William D; Carney, J Aidan; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma usually occurs as a solitary mass, but occasionally develops as part of a familial syndrome, the Carney complex (CNC). Two thirds of CNC-associated cardiac myxomas exhibit mutations in PRKAR1A. PRKAR1A mutations occur in both familial and sporadic forms of CNC but have not been described in isolated (nonsyndromic) cardiac myxomas. A total of 127 consecutive cardiac myxomas surgically resected at Mayo Clinic (1993 to 2011) from 110 individuals were studied. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Of these, 103 patients had isolated cardiac myxomas, and 7 patients had the tumor as a component of CNC. Age and sex distributions were different for CNC (mean 26 y, range 14 to 44 y, 71% female) and non-CNC (mean 62 y, range 18 to 92 y, 63% female) patients. PRKAR1A immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was performed, and myxoma cell reactivity was graded semiquantitatively. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed in 3 CNC patients and 29 non-CNC patients, to test for the presence of mutations in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the PRKAR1A gene. IHC staining showed that all 7 CNC cases lacked PRKAR1A antigenicity and that 33 (32%) isolated cardiac myxomas were similarly nonreactive. Of tumors subjected to sequencing analysis, 2 (67%) CNC myxomas and 9 (31%) non-CNC myxomas had pathogenic PRKAR1A mutations. No germline mutations were found in 4 non-CNC cases tested. PRKAR1A appears to play a role in the development of both syndromic and nonsyndromic cardiac myxomas. Routine IHC evaluation of cardiac myxomas for PRKAR1A expression may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of CNC.

  13. Identification of lifestyle patterns, including sleep deprivation, associated with insulin resistance in children: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Moschonis, G; Mavrogianni, C; Roma-Giannikou, E; Chrousos, G P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Manios, Y

    2014-03-01

    Although diet, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and sleep deprivation are factors that have been individually associated with insulin resistance (IR) in childhood, the combined effect of these lifestyle behaviors has not been examined yet. The current study aimed to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with IR, combining all these indices, in children. Socio-economic, demographic, anthropometric (body weight, height and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose and serum insulin), clinical (pubertal stage) and lifestyle (dietary intake, PA level and sleeping habits) data were collected from a representative sample of 2026 children (50.1% girls) aged 9-13 years in Greece. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was calculated, and principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns, combining all these lifestyle indices. In multivariable regression analyses, the lifestyle pattern characterized by more screen time, shorter sleep duration and higher consumption of sugared beverages was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β=0.043; P=0.040), whereas the pattern characterized by more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and more frequent eating occasions was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β=-0.061; P=0.003). In logistic regression analyses, children with 72.2 min/day of MVPA and 5.05 eating occasions/day and children with 141.8 min/day of MVPA and 5.22 eating occasions/day were less likely of being insulin resistant based on HOMA-IR, compared with children with 20.0 min/day of MVPA and 4.09 eating occasions/day. A lifestyle pattern of >72 min of MVPA and 5 eating occasions/day was associated with reduced likelihood of IR in children.

  14. Resin/Dye Infusion Technique of Composite Integral Armor Targets for Post-Impact Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moy, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed to study the interior fracture surfaces on alumina oxide ceramic tiles as well as the delamination zones of S-2 Glass laminates within ballistic-impacted composite integral armor (CIA) targets...

  15. Influencing Tomorrow: A Study of Emerging Influence Techniques and Their Relevance to United States Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    groups and governmental institutions; the possibility of economic loss directed at entrepreneurs; or the prospect of United States undue influence or... INFLUENCING TOMORROW: A STUDY OF EMERGING INFLUENCE TECHNIQUES AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO UNITED STATES INFORMATION OPERATIONS A...

  16. Studies in Interactive Techniques and Systems for Reconstruction of Fleet Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    general performance, design, development and test requirements study for the Fleet Analysis and Reconstruction of Exercise Facility (FAREF); and research and testing of interactive techniques and computer algorithms . (Author)

  17. STUDY ON THE CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE OF ORIENTATION OF POLYSTYRENE ON SILVER BY THE SERS TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-hui Zhang; Jin-gui Qin; Jing-shu Shen; You Wang; Wan-jun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Polystyrene films were adsorbed onto a silver surface from dichloromethane solutions with concentrations of 0.1 to 12 wt%, and then studied by the surface enhanced Raman technique. A critical concentration for coil interpenetration was observed.

  18. New Operator Identities and Combinatorics Studied by Virtue of IWOP Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; OUYANG Jing; JIANG Zhong-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Using the coherent state representation we derive some new operator identities and study some mathematical relations in combinatorics. The technique of integral within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators plays an essential role in realizing our goal.

  19. A study on outcome of underlay, overlay and combined techniques of myringoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Arunabha; Basak, Bijan; Ghosh, Debasish; Basu, Deepjoy; Adhikari, Debasish; Maity, Kuntal

    2012-03-01

    Myringoplasty is a procedure which deals on repair of the tympanic membrane. This procedure can be done via postaural, endaural or endomeatal route. Various grafts such as temporalis fascia, vein graft, perichondrium are used. The technique can be categorized as underlay, overlay, interlay or its combination depending on the placement of the graft material. This study was done to compare underlay, overlay and combined technique in terms of the closure of the membrane defect, postoperative complications and over all success rates. Apart from few complications, this study revealed over all success rate was best with combined technique but the difference was not significant statistically when the methods are comparable among them.

  20. A Survey and Comparative Study on Video Watermarking Techniques with Reference to Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankitha.A.Nayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years’ mobile devices like smart phone and tablet witnessed a random growth in terms of hardware and software. The increased growth of apps, sharing data, videos, images through internet need security and intellectual property right. Developing a watermarking technique for data protection and authentication on shared data in mobile internet within the limited memory and significant battery consumption is one of the current challenging fields. In this paper we have performed a survey on available video watermarking techniques and a feasibility study on video watermarking techniques for mobile devices. Also the comparative study on features of watermarking with different video watermarking algorithm is performed.

  1. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan Librizzi

    2016-05-01

    Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management. The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience. The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States. All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39). Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week. Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait

  2. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  3. Methodology for electrical studies in industrial networks including the study of electric arc; Metodologia para los estudios electricos en redes industriales incluyendo el estudio de arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasgado Casique, Jose Pepe; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jrasgado@iie.org.mx; jlsilva@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents a methodology for conducting electrical studies in industrial networks. The methodology included the study of arc flash as a very important area of current basic electrical studies, such as power flow, short circuit and coordination. The aim of this study is to determine the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and flash protection boundary for personnel working with or near energized equipment, based on the IEEE Std 1584-2004 and NFPA-70E- 2004. Also included are criteria and recommendations to reduce incident energy level (cal/cm{sup 2}). At work we used a distribution network for industrial type test. The studies were carried out using a commercial program for the analysis of electrical networks. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para llevar a cabo los estudios electricos en redes industriales. En la metodologia se incluye al estudio de arco electrico como un area muy importante de los estudios electricos basicos actuales, como: flujos de potencia, cortocircuito y coordinacion de protecciones. El objetivo de dicho estudio es determinar el Equipo de Proteccion Personal (EPP) apropiado y los limites de proteccion para el personal que opera con o cerca de equipo energizado, con base en las normas IEEE Std. 1584-2004 y la NFPA-70E-2004. Ademas, se incluyen criterios y recomendaciones para disminuir el nivel de energia incidente (cal/cm{sup 2}). En el trabajo se utilizo una red de distribucion tipo industrial de prueba. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo utilizando un programa comercial para el analisis de redes electricas.

  4. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer.

  5. Strategic Priorities, Company Performance and Attitudes Towards Management Accounting Techniques: an Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Bo-Göran

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates whether there is an association between different combinations of emphasis on generic strategies (product differentiation and cost efficiency) and perceived usefulness of management accounting techniques. Previous research has found that cost leadership is associated with traditional accounting techniques and product differentiation with a variety of modern management accounting approaches. The present study focuses on the possible existence of a strategy that mixes the...

  6. An efficiency reporting system for organisational sustainabilitybased on work study techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sookdeo, Barnes

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate that work study techniques must be used to determine standard times for operations and to develop efficiency reporting systems to sustain organisations. Many organisations do not measure their efficiencies and do not have reporting systems. This article presents an efficiency reporting system designed and based on work study techniques that can be used to measure performance. The empirical results of the research instrument supported the need for the system. T...

  7. A trapped-ion technique for beta-delayed neutron studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Shane

    The properties of beta-delayed neutron emission (betan) are important in basic and applied nuclear physics. The neutron spectra and branching ratios of betan emitters reflect the evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich nuclei. Branching ratios affect the heavy-element abundances resulting from the astrophysical r process. Energy spectra and branching ratios are also important to nuclear stockpile stewardship and the safe design of nuclear reactors. Recently we demonstrated a novel technique for betan spectroscopy using I137+ ions confined to a ˜1 mm 3 volume within a linear RFQ ion trap [61, 77]. By measuring the time-of-flight spectrum of ions recoiling from both beta and betan decays, the betan branching ratio and spectrum can be determined. This recoil-ion technique has several advantages over techniques that rely on neutron detection: the recoil-ions are easily detectable; complications due to scattered neutrons and gamma-rays are avoided; and the betan branching ratio can be extracted in several ways. In this thesis we present new measurements of the delayed-neutron energy spectra and branching ratios of 137I, 135Sb, and 136Sb, which include the first observation of the 136Sb spectrum. These measurements were motivated by the impact that the branching ratios of 135Sb and136Sb can have on the r-process abundances and by the use of 137 I, a well-studied case, as a benchmark for the new technique. Our current understanding of the r process is severely limited by the lack of an exhaustive body of data on neutron-rich nuclei. Relative to the previous demonstration on 137I, the present iteration of the experiment incorporates a 10x improvement in both the detection efficiencies and the beam intensity, as well as a position-sensitive design for the recoil-ion detectors that enables an improvement in energy resolution. An important analytical tool is introduced, which models the evolution of each ion population in the trap and is used to provide a needed

  8. Computed tomography of the bowel: A prospective comparison study between four techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparo, Francesco [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Garlaschi, Alessandro [School of Radiology, University of Genoa, Via Leon Battista Alberti 4, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Biscaldi, Ennio; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Cevasco, Luca [School of Radiology, University of Genoa, Via Leon Battista Alberti 4, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Rollandi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: gianandrea.rollandi@galliera.it [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Objectives: The major objective was to prospectively compare the grade of bowel distension obtained with four different computed tomography (CT) techniques dedicated for the examination of the small intestine (CT enteroclysis [CTE] and enterography [CTe]), of the colon (CT with water enema [CT-WE]), or both (CTe with water enema [CTe-WE]). The secondary objective was to assess patients’ tolerance toward each CT protocol. Materials and methods: Recruitment was designed to obtain four groups of the same number of patients (30). Each group corresponded to a specific CT technique, for a total of 120 consecutive outpatients (65 male and 55 female, mean age 51.09 ± 13.36 years). CTE was performed after injection of methylcellulose through a nasojejunal tube, while in the CTe protocol a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution was orally administered to patients prior to the CT acquisition. In the CT-WE protocol intraluminal contrast (water) was administered only by a rectal enema, while CTe-WE technique included both a rectal water enema and oral ingestion of neutral contrast material to obtain a simultaneous distension of small and large bowel. CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two gastrointestinal radiologists who performed a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bowel distension on a per segment basis. The presence and type of adverse effects were recorded. Results: CTE provided the best distension of jejunal loops (median diameter 27 mm, range 17–32 mm) when compared to all the other techniques (p < 0.0001). The frequency of patients with an adequate distension of the terminal ileum was not significantly different among the four groups (p = 0.0608). At both quantitative and qualitative analysis CT-WE and CTe-WE determined a greater and more consistent luminal filling of the large intestine than that provided by both CTE and CTe (p < 0.0001 for all colonic segments). Adverse effects were more frequent in patients belonging to the CTE group (p < 0

  9. Unstable mallet fractures: a comparison between three different techniques in a multicenter study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Lucchina; Alejandro Badia; Vlad Dornean; Cesare Fusetti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Management of mallet fractures is still a matter of discussion throughout the literature.For some authors, mallet fractures involving more than 1/3 of the articular surface and palmar subluxation of the distal phalanx require surgical treatment. In this study we retrospectively compared three different techniques for mallet fractures: Kirschner wire fixation with extension block pinning (EBP) of the distal interphalangeal joint, Kirschner wires used as joysticks (KWJ) and interfragrnentary miniscrews for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF).Methods: Fifty-eight mallet fractures with palmar subluxation in 58 patients were treated with the aforementioned surgical techniques. Twenty mallet fractures in 20 patients 18 to 70 years old (average 42 years) were operated upon by EBP, 16 patients 22 to 56 years old (average 56 years) were operated upon using KWJ and 22 patients 22 to 54 years old (average 36 years) received ORIF. Follow-up time was 6 to 58 months (average 21 months). The following intraoperative parameters were considered: intraoperative time, number of Kirschner wires/screws and technical problems. Postoperative parameters included work absence and complications. The radiological evaluation was based on A-P and lateral views preoperatively and interviews at follow-up time. Bone union was defined by radiological evidence of bone trabeculae crossing the fracture site on at least one view. Clinical evaluation involved range of motion (ROM) test with a goniometer. Based on these measurements,a functional Crawford score was established.Results: All fractures healed. In the KWJ group,intraoperative time was shorter and total ROM was wider (72° vs 58° and 54°); in the ORIF group, return to work was faster (2.7 weeks vs 7.2 weeks and 6 weeks) but a little higher complication rate due to screw positioning has been found.Functional results as to total ROM, distal interphalangeal lag extension and Crawford classification were similar

  10. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  11. AUGMENTATION VS NONAUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES FOR OPEN REPAIRS OF ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURES WITH EARLY FUNCTIONAL TREATMENT: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gündüz Tezeren

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A prospective randomized study was conducted in order to compare augmentation technique versus nonaugmentation technique, followed by early functional postoperative treatment, for operative repair of Achilles tendon ruptures. Twenty-four consecutive patients were assigned to two groups. Group I included 12 patients treated with Lindholm augmentation technique, whereas group II included 12 patients treated with modified Kessler end-to-end repair. Thereafter, these patients had postoperative management with a below-knee-cast for three weeks. The physioteraphy was initiated immediately after the cast was removed. Full weight bearing was allowed after five weeks postoperatively in the both groups. Two patients had reruptures in group II, whereas group I had prolonged operative time significantly. The patients with reruptures underwent reoperations and at the most final follow-up, it was observed that they could not resume to sporting activities. The other objective and subjective results were similar between two groups. Because of quite high rerupture rate in the group of patients treated with nonaugmentation technique, we favor functional postoperative treatment with early ankle movement in the patients treated with augmentation technique for the management of acute rupture of the Achilles tendon

  12. Influence of optimizing protocol choice on the integral dose value in prostate radiotherapy planning by dynamic techniques - Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Anna; Bogaczyk, Krzysztof; Piotrowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the values of integral dose, calculated for treatment plans of dynamic radiotherapy techniques prepared with two different optimization protocols. Delivering radiation by IMRT, VMAT and also HT techniques has an influence on the low dose deposition of large areas of the patient body. Delivery of low dose can induce injury of healthy cells. In this situation, a good solution would be to reduce the area, which receives a low dose, but with appropriate dose level for the target volume. To calculate integral dose values of plans structures, we used 90 external beam radiotherapy plans prepared for three techniques (intensity modulated radiotherapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy and helical tomotherapy). One technique includes three different geometry combinations. 45 plans were prepared with classic optimization protocol and 45 with rings optimization protocol which should reduce the low doses in the normal tissue. Differences in values of the integral dose depend on the geometry and technique of irradiation, as well as optimization protocol used in preparing treatment plans. The application of the rings optimization caused the value of normal tissue integral dose (NTID) to decrease. It is possible to limit the area of low dose irradiation and reduce NTID in dynamic techniques with the same clinical constraints for OAR and PTV volumes by using an optimization protocol other than the classic one.

  13. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y; Joshi, Anil R

    2014-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years' experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed.

  14. Introducer curving technique to reduce tilting of transfemoral Gunther Tulip IVC filter: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Wang, Man; Huang, De-Sheng; Shen, Jing; Tong, Jia-Jie

    2012-09-01

    Severe tilting of Günther Tulip filter (GTF) may be associated with difficulty in retrieval. To determine if an introducer curving technique of GTF can decrease the tilting degree of GTF in a caval model. The model was constructed by placing Dacron grafts in bifurcated glass tubes. The study included three groups: Right Straight Group (G(1)), Left Straight Group (G(2)), and Left Curved Group (G(3)). In G(3), a 10-20° angle was curved on the metal introducer before insertion to decrease the angle between inferior vena cava axes and metal introducer (A(CM)). Before GTF was released, the distance between the caval right wall and the apical hook (D(CH1)), and A(CM) were measured. The tilt angle of GTF (A(CF)) was also measured. In G(1), GTF apex tended to center compared to G(2) (59% vs. 36%, P < 0.01). In G(3), GTF apex tended to center compared to G(2) (71% vs. 36%, P < 0.01). The differences of A(CF) between G(1) and G(2) (2.66 ± 1.80 vs. 4.13 ± 2.07, P < 0.01) and between G(2) and G(3) (4.13 ± 2.07 vs. 2.39 ± 1.79, P < 0.01) were statistically significant. There were significant positive correlations between A(CM) and A(CF), whereas significant negative correlations were detected between D(CH1) and A(CF) in each group. The oblique course of GTF delivery system relative to the axis of the cava causes filter tilt, and thus, curving the introducer prior to its introduction helps to reduce the filter tilt. We recommend a clinical study to determine whether the introducer curving technique improves filter centering and its retrievability.

  15. The “excluding” suture technique for surgical closure of ventricular septal defects: A retrospective study comparing the standard technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Surgical closure of VSDs can be accomplished by placing sutures along the margins or away with comparable results. The incidence of CHB, however, seems to be less when the “excluding” technique is employed.

  16. Comparison of glove donning techniques for the likelihood of gown contamination. An infection control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, James B; Bullock, Mark; Goyal, Ravi

    2007-12-01

    The creation of an optimal environment, whenever major joints are opened or metal is implanted into bone, is important to reduce infection following orthopaedic surgery. Following normal hand washing protocols, it is possible that pathogenic bacteria can remain on the skin. These bacteria may inadvertently be transferred to the surgical gown during the glove donning procedure and therefore contamination of the surgical wound could follow. We aimed to determine whether there is a difference between three differing glove donning techniques, open, closed and scrub staff assisted, in terms of accidental gown contamination, as the optimum method is unknown. Three differing glove donning techniques were assessed using ultra-violet (UV) lotion, applied to the hands after the scrub, to demonstrate patches of contamination on the surgical gowns. Two studies were carried out. An initial pilot study with theatre personnel and the main study by a single surgeon rehearsed in the various techniques. The region and size of contamination patches were documented. In the pilot study 12 out of 13 individuals were seen to have patches of UV fluorescent gown contamination following an observed scrub. In the main study, both the open and closed technique had a 100% gown contamination rate. This was concentrated around the cuff region. There were no contamination patches in the scrub staff assisted technique. Glove donning, using the scrub staff assisted technique can minimise the possibility of gown contamination. This is important in surgical procedures where the results of infection can be devastating.

  17. Numerical Studies of Nonlinear Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon Systems: Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dae-Il

    ödinger-Poisson equations. In particular, I study the dynamics of stationary stars, stars with linear momentum, and binary star systems. The recent discovery of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in dilute atomic gases has led to renewed experimental and theoretical interest in the study of quantum degenerate gases. These condensates provide a new testing ground for atomic and many-body physics, and there are many unanswered questions in this emerging field. I present methods for manipulating the condensates by an optical lattice generated by laser light and study the effect of atomic interaction on the quantum transport properties. I also study Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunnelings in an accelerating optical lattice. The study of hydrogen atoms interacting with ultra-intense laser light in the non-perturbative regime has gained attention as a surprising new phenomena in nonlinear atomic physics. Particularly noteworthy are high harmonic generation (HHG) and stabilization, which provide interesting new physics. I use a 2D model to study stabilization behavior for an arbitrary polarization. As a first step, I studied circular and linear laser polarizations. In the circular case, I found spiral wave functions with strong stabilization. In the linear case, I found dichotomous wave functions with weaker stabilization. I have also observed the related HHG signatures. Finally, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) techniques are crucial for the numerical solution of problems which have large dynamical range. I present results from the implementation and testing of some general algorithms for use in AMR work, including 2D and 3D clustering routines.

  18. Glenohumeral joint injection: a comparative study of ultrasound and fluoroscopically guided techniques before MR arthrography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.; Collins, J.M.; Maresch, B.J.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Janssen, C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Jager, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the variability in accuracy of contrast media introduction, leakage, required time and patient discomfort in four different centres, each using a different image-guided glenohumeral injection technique. Each centre included 25 consecutive patients. The ultrasound-guided anterior (USa) and

  19. Totally percutaneous thoracic endovascular aortic repair with the preclosing technique: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhong-han; LUO Jian-fang; HUANG Wen-hui; LIU Yuan; XUE Ling; FAN Rui-xin; CHEN Ji-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The conventional thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) involves groin incisions under general or epidural anesthesia. As technology moves towards less invasive procedures, a total percutaneous approach is desirable.In this study, we describe a Preclosing technique and investigate its safety and efficacy for femoral access sites management, and evaluate its advantages as compared to those of traditional surgical cutdown approaches.Methods The Preclosing technique involves two or multiple 6 F Perclose Proglide devices deployed in the femoral artery before upsizing to a 20-25 F sheath. The sutures were secured to close the arteriotomy at the end of the procedure. The medical records of patients who underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repairs using the Preclosing technique between December 2009 and November 2010 (group A) were compared with those using surgical femoral cutdown from January 2008 to November 2009 (group B). Outcome measures included rates of technical success, early complications, anesthesia method, procedure time, cardiac care unit (CCU) stay, time from procedure to discharge,hospital stay, procedure expense, hospital cost.Results Between the two groups, there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, in the endograft models or profiles. The technical success rate was 100.0% (85/85) in group A vs. 97.4% (147/151) in group B (P <0.05).There was no access-related mortality in both groups. Compared with group B, the incidence of early complications were fewer in group A, 9.4% (8/85) vs. 22.5% (34/151) (P <0.01). Local anesthesia with conscious sedation was used more often in group A, 68.2% (58/85) vs. 51.7% (78/151) in group B (P<0.01). The procedure duration was shorter, (96±33)minutes in group Avs. (127±41) minutes in group B (P<0.01). The length of the CCU stay, the duration from procedure to discharge, and the hospital stay were both reduced in group A, (117.3±88.3) hours, (7.5±5.3) days and (15.3±6

  20. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  1. Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2014-02-01

    Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted.

  2. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maiara S.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Boffo, Elisangela F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Figueira, Glyn M., E-mail: maiarassantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2012-07-01

    The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as 'quebra-pedras' in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, {sup 1}H HR-MAS NMR and {sup 1}H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques. (author)

  3. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR Techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara S. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as "quebra-pedras" in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, ¹H HR-MAS NMR and ¹H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques.

  4. Study on measurement technique for sodium aerosols based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Hayashida, Hitoshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2003-03-01

    Detection of small-scale sodium leak in its early stage is effective for enhancing fast reactor safety. Feasibility of the measuring technique for sodium aerosols based on LIBS was assessed. The technique is expected to enhance performance on high discrimination for the sodium aerosols with an equivalent detection limit of conventional small sodium leak detectors. Experiments using sodium aerosols were performed in order to design a measuring system and to study on some basic measuring performances. The results show the LIBS technique is feasible as a small sodium leak detector. (author)

  5. Examining the Changes in Novice and Experienced Mathematics Teachers' Questioning Techniques through the Lesson Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ewe Gnoh; Lim, Chap Sam; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in novice and experienced mathematics teachers' questioning techniques. This study was conducted in Sarawak where ten (experienced and novice) teachers from two schools underwent the lesson study process for fifteen months. Four data collection methods namely, observation, interview, lesson…

  6. Examining the Changes in Novice and Experienced Mathematics Teachers' Questioning Techniques through the Lesson Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ewe Gnoh; Lim, Chap Sam; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in novice and experienced mathematics teachers' questioning techniques. This study was conducted in Sarawak where ten (experienced and novice) teachers from two schools underwent the lesson study process for fifteen months. Four data collection methods namely, observation, interview, lesson…

  7. Study on wetting properties of periodical nanopatterns by a combinative technique of photolithography and laser interference lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yung-Lang

    2010-03-01

    This study presents the wetting properties, including hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and anisotropic behavior, of water droplets on the silicon wafer surface with periodical nanopatterns and hierarchical structures. This study fabricates one- and two-dimensional periodical nanopatterns using laser interference lithography (LIL). The fabrication of hierarchical structures was effectively achieved by combining photolithography and LIL techniques. Unlike conventional fabrication methods, the LIL technique is mainly used to control the large-area design of periodical nanopatterns in this study. The minimum feature size for each nanopattern is 100 nm. This study shows that the wetting behavior of one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and hierarchical patterns can be obtained, benefiting the development of surface engineering for microfluidic systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on Production of Useful Metabolites by Development of Advanced Cell Culture Techniques Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. S.; Shyamkumar, B.; An, B. C.; Moon, Y. R.; Lee, E. M.; Lee, M. H.

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Establishment of a tissue culture system (Rubus sp., Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and Rhodiola rosea); characterization of radiation activated gene expression from cultivated bokbunja (Rubus sp.) and Synechocystis sp., identification of gamma-ray induced color change in plants; identification of sensitivity to gamma-ray from Omija (Schisandra chinensis) extract; identification of the response of thylakoid proteins to gamma-ray in spinach and Arabidopsis; identification of gamma-ray induced gene relating to pigment metabolism; characterization of different NPQ changes to gamma-irradiated plants; verification of the effects of rare earth element including anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties and as a growth enhancer; identification of changes in the growth of gamma-irradiated Synechocystis; and investigation of liquid cell culture conditions from Rhodiola rosea

  9. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Jae Taek; Kim, Mi Ja

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Isolation and identification of radiation induced basI gene; Determination of stresses sensitivities by transformating basI gene into arabidopsis; Isolation and identification of radiation induced chaperon proteins (PaAhpC and yPrxII) from Pseudomonas and yeast, and structural and functional analysis of the proteins; Determination of oxidative and heat resistance by transformating PaAhpC; Isolation and identification of maysin and its derivatives from centipedgrass; Investigation of enhancement technique for improving maysin and its derivatives production using radiation; Investigation of removing undesirable color in maysin and its derivatives using radiation; Determination of the effect of radiation on physiological functions of centipedgrass extracts; Identification of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removing enzyme in radiation irradiated plant (Spinach); Determination of the effects of centipedgrass extracts on anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities.

  10. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; Singh, Sudhir; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Park, Chul Hong; Srilatha, B.; Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Ohchul

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture for Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz.; Identification and functional analysis of AtTDX (chaperone and peroxidase activities); Functional analysis of radiation(gamma ray, electron beam, and proton beam) induced chaperon protein activities (AtTDX); Determine the action mechanism of yPrx2; Development of transgenic plant with bas I gene from Arabidopsis; Development of transgenic plant with EoP gene from centipedegrass; Identification of radiation induced multi functional compounds from Aloe; Determination of the effects of radiation on removing undesirable color and physiological activities (Schizandra chinensis baillon, centipedegrass); Determine the action mechanism of transgenic plant with 2-Cys Prx for heat stress resistance; Determination of the effects of centipedegrass extracts on anti-cancer activities; Functional analysis of centipedegrass extracts (anti-virus effects)

  11. DNA binding studies of Sunset Yellow FCF using spectroscopy, viscometry and electrochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Sara; Hajian, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Color is one of the important factors in food industry. All food companies use synthetic pigments to improve the aesthetic of products. Studies on the interaction between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and food dye molecules is important because DNA is responsible for some processes including replication and transcription of cells, mutations, genetic diseases, and some synthetic chemical nucleases. In this study, the molecular interaction between Sunset Yellow FCF (SY) as a common food coloring additive and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and viscometry techniques. The binding constant between ct-DNA and SY in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) was calculated as 2.09 × 103 L mol-1. The non-electrostatic bonding constant (K0t) was almost consistent and the ratio of K0t/Kb increased by increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 of KCl. This observation shows that, the molecular bonding of SY to ct-DNA is a combination of electrostatic and intercalation interactions. In the electrochemical studies, an oxidation peak at 0.71 V and a reduction peak at about 0.63 V was observed with the peak potential difference (ΔEp) of 0.08 V, showing a reversible process. The oxidation and reduction peaks were significantly decreased in the presence of ct-DNA and the reduction peak current shifted to negative values. In spectrofluorometric study, the fluorescence intensity of SY increased dramatically after successive addition of DNA due to the increasing of molecular surface area and decreasing of impact frequency between solvent and SY-DNA adduct. Moreover, viscometric study shows that the increasing of viscosity for SY solution in the presence of DNA is due to the intercalation mechanism with double strand DNA (ds-DNA).

  12. Application of molecular techniques in the study of Staphylococcus aureus clonal evolution - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcos Vivoni

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent of healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections. A major characteristic of this microorganism is the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Several molecular techniques have been applied for the characterization of S. aureus in epidemiological studies. In the present review, we discuss the application of molecular techniques for typing S. aureus strains and describe the nomenclature and evolution of epidemic clones of this important pathogen.

  13. Global VTEC-modelling in near real-time based on space geodetic techniques, adapted B-spline expansions and Kalman-filtering including observations of the Sun's radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börger, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Erdogan, Eren; Seitz, Florian; Brandert, Sylvia; Görres, Barbara; Kersten, Wilhelm; Bothmer, Volker; Hinrichs, Johannes; Venzmer, Malte; Mrotzek, Niclas

    2016-04-01

    Today, the observations of space geodetic techniques are usually available with a rather low latency which applies to space missions observing the solar terrestrial environment, too. Therefore, we can use all these measurements in near real-time to compute and to provide ionosphere information, e.g. the vertical total electron content (VTEC). GSSAC and BGIC support a project aiming at a service for providing ionosphere information. This project is called OPTIMAP, meaning "Operational Tool for Ionosphere Mapping and Prediction"; the scientific work is mainly done by the German Geodetic Research Institute of the Technical University Munich (DGFI-TUM) and the Institute for Astrophysics of the University of Goettingen (IAG). The OPTIMAP strategy for providing ionosphere target quantities of high quality, such as VTEC or the electron density, includes mathematical approaches and tools allowing for the model adaptation to the real observational scenario as a significant improvement w.r.t. the traditional well-established methods. For example, OPTIMAP combines different observation types such as GNSS (GPS, GLONASS), Satellite Altimetry (Jason-2), DORIS as well as radio-occultation measurements (FORMOSAT#3/COSMIC). All these observations run into a Kalman-filter to compute global ionosphere maps, i.e. VTEC, for the current instant of time and as a forecast for a couple of subsequent days. Mathematically, the global VTEC is set up as a series expansion in terms of two-dimensional basis functions defined as tensor products of trigonometric B-splines for longitude and polynomial B-splines for latitude. Compared to the classical spherical harmonics, B-splines have a localizing character and, therefore, can handle an inhomogeneous data distribution properly. Finally, B-splines enable a so-called multi-resolution-representation (MRR) enabling the combination of global and regional modelling approaches. In addition to the geodetic measurements, Sun observations are pre

  14. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    their primary care gynecologist or later on in hospital by the attending obstetricians or project staff.Results: Of the 22 invited primary care gynecologists requested to enroll pregnant women for the study, 8 gynecologists actually collaborated. A total of 200 eligible women were invited to participate in the study, 48 (24% of whom agreed. 34 women were enrolled by primary care gynecologists, with one gynecologist enrolling 26 women. Twelve of recruited via hospitals were enrolled by study staff. A total of 41 women consented to the collection of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood samples, and samples could be stored for 54% of them. Reason for non-participation were the uncertainty whether or not the full study would be conducted and the fact that the participants were not willing to decide for their children whether or not genetic information (cord blood can be stored for research purposes.Conclusion: Enrolling parents in a birth cohort study that includes biosampling is a challenge, but participation can be improved through close collaboration with primary care gynecologists and maternity hospitals. Cord blood collection may impede participation, especially when maternity hospitals offer an alternative option for cord blood donation.

  15. Novel infrared spectroscopic techniques for the study of adsorbed proteins on photoactive thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Taylor Allan

    Through the development of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, as well as biocompatible nanoporous gold film confining layers and photoactive nanocrystal cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films, a system capable of in situ study of adsorbed protein films on photoactive layers was created. Due to the oxygen intolerance of the enzyme of interest for this work (a [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum), techniques were developed in a manner conducive to anaerobic environments. Solid-state ligand exchange processes were shown to have no detrimental effect on the continued ability of nanocrystal CdTe layers to reduce species via the transfer of photogenerated electrons. Nanoporous gold films were shown to effectively confine poorly bound surface species including nanocrystal CdTe layers and adsorbed protein films. An ATR "stack'' structure, consisting of a silicon wafer coupled to a zinc selenide ATR crystal by a high index optical coupling fluid, was designed and implemented, leading to a tunable optical structure for use with existing ATR setups. This ATR stack was shown to maintain resolution and signal intensity of traditional ATR configurations for both aqueous and solid-state samples. Through the use of coupled silicon wafers, we significantly increased both sample throughput and the number of available chemical processes by replacing the expensive ATR crystals as the default sample substrate. Shown herein to function as initially intended, these novel methods provide the groundwork for more complex experiments, such as an in situ monitoring of the photooxidation of surface-bound hydrogenases.

  16. Application of enriched stable isotope technique to the study of copper bioavailability in Daphnia magna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhong Fan; Chenguang Wu; Chunmei Zhao; Tao Yu; Yuan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of Cu in Daphnia magna, including dissolved uptake, assimilation and efflux, has been determined using a gamma 67Cu radiotracer methodology.However, this gamma emitting radioisotope is not readily available due to its very short half-life.In the present study, we employed a stable isotope tracer (65Cu) to determine the Cu biokinetics and compared our results to those determined using 67Cu.The dissolved uptake rate constant of 65Cu was 3.36 L/(g·day), which is higher than that of 67Cu (1.32 L/(g·day)).With increasing food concentrations from 2×104 to 1×105 cells/mL, the Cu assimilation efficiency (AE) decreased from 46% to 11%,compared to a decrease from 27% to 16% when determined using 67Cu.The efflux of Cu from Daphnia magna was quantified following both dissolved and dietary uptake.The efflux of waterborne Cu was comparable to that of dietborne Cu and the efflux rate constant (0.32-0.52 day-1) was higher than that determined by 67Cu (0.19-0.20 day-1).By considering different water properties and handling procedure between the two experiments, we believe that these differences are reasonable.Overall, this study demonstrated that the enriched stable isotope tracer technique is a powerful tool to investigate metal bioavailability and maybe a good alternative to radioactive measurements.

  17. Defect levels in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 studied using capacitance and photocurrent techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, A.; Macielak, K.; Igalson, M.; Szaniawski, P.; Edoff, M.

    2016-06-01

    This work contributes to the discussion on defect levels in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic material. CuInSe2- and Cu(In,Ga)Se2- based Schottky junctions, solar cells and thin films were investigated using complementary capacitance and current spectroscopic techniques. Depending on the applied technique and type of investigated structure, six different signals were observed. Out of the signals identified, three were ascribed to responses from bulk defects—two electron and one hole trap. The remainder were discussed in light of available in-literature models including carrier mobility freeze-out and non-ohmic back junction.

  18. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  19. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies wit...

  20. Laser heating: a minimally invasive technique for studying fire-generated heating in building stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaña, José Luis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the irreparable damage it can cause, fire is one of the major risks to buildings. Recent studies on the effects of fire tend to focus on micro-scale analysis, addressing questions such as micro-cracking or mineralogical or chemical changes that are particularly relevant to listed buildings.The fire simulation techniques employed to date (convection heating laboratory furnaces and real flame tests are subject to a series of limitations including non-repeatability, the lack of combustion by-products and, most importantly, the need to work with large samples. In this final context, techniques must be found that require only minimal sample sizes.This paper introduces laser irradiation as a technique suitable for simulating the “combustion” of building materials, since it mimics the physics of fire, is repeatable, yields combustion products and, most importantly, can be applied to small specimens. Indeed, as laser irradiation concentrates high amounts of energy in small areas, it can be used for micro-scale testing.El fuego es una de las amenazas más importantes para los edificios debido a la escala de pérdidas irreparables que genera. Los estudios sobre los efectos del fuego se han dirigido recientemente hacia escalas de observación más detalladas, que son más adecuadas para el estudio de muestras de edificios patrimoniales, como microfisuración y cambios mineralógicos y químicos.Las técnicas de simulación de fuegos empleadas hasta ahora (ensayos con hornos y llamas reales presentan varias limitaciones como, por ejemplo, la falta de repetibilidad, ausencia de sub-productos de combustión o, especialmente, el uso de muestras de gran tamaño. Por esta última razón, es importante encontrar técnicas en las que se pueda usar cantidades mínimas de muestra.Este artículo presenta la irradiación láser como una técnica adecuada para simular el “quemado” de materiales de construcción, ya que ofrece una física de