WorldWideScience

Sample records for techniques studied include

  1. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  2. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  3. Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsby, C; French, P M W

    2003-01-01

    This article aims to review the panoply of techniques for realising optical imaging through turbid media such as biological tissue. It begins by briefly discussing optical scattering and outlines the various approaches that have been developed to image through scattering media including spatial filtering, time-gated imaging and coherence-based techniques. The discussion includes scanning and wide-field techniques and concentrates on techniques to discriminate in favour of unscattered ballistic light although imaging with scattered light is briefly reviewed. Wide-field coherence-gated imaging techniques are discussed in some detail with particular emphasis placed on techniques to achieve real-time high-resolution three-dimensional imaging including through turbid media, providing rapid whole-field acquisition and high depth and transverse spatial resolution images. (topical review)

  4. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B.

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si 3 N 4 . Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation

  5. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation.

  6. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of airborne particulate matter in workplace including tissue analysis and possible impacts on human health in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjajakusuma, B.; Djojosubroto, H.; Kumolowati, E.

    1998-01-01

    Various processes in a metal industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matter that hazardous to human health. The present study deals with assessment of levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry. The objective is achieved by determination of elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of workers and airborne particulate matter that are collected from their workplace. The elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of the workers will be compared to those of control. Their health condition are examined by medical examination and biochemical analysis of their blood. The blood was drawn following an overnight fast before breakfast, by means of I.V. catheter into three polyethylene tubes. The blood samples in the first tubes were sent to clinical laboratory for biochemical examination. Those in the second and third tubes, which are considered free from metal contamination by the needle of the catheter, are used for trace element study. Sera in the polyethylene tubes were separated from erythrocyte by centrifugation, then cooled by liquid nitrogen and freeze dried. Approximately 1 g of toe nail and hair samples were taken respectively from every worker. To eliminate grease and surface contamination the hair samples were rinse with acetone. Airborne particulate samples were collected from the workplace using Gent sampler. These samples are ready for elemental analysis. Results of biochemical analysis and medical examinations of the workers are presented in this report. The correlation among various parameters will be determined by statistical analysis. (author)

  7. Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladipo, M.O.A.; Funtua, I.I.

    2000-07-01

    The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

  8. An improved technique for breast cancer irradiation including the locoregional lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, C. W.; Saarnak, A. E.; Pieters, B. R.; Borger, J. H.; Bruinvis, I. A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To find an irradiation technique for locoregional irradiation of breast cancer patients which, compared with a standard technique, improves the dose distribution to the internal mammary-medial supraclavicular (IM-MS) lymph nodes. The improved technique is intended to minimize the lung dose

  9. Satisfactory patient-based outcomes after surgical treatment for idiopathic clubfoot: includes surgeon's individualized technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Susan T; Spencer, Samantha A; Kasser, James R

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of idiopathic clubfoot has shifted towards Ponseti technique, but previously surgical management was standard. Outcomes of surgery have varied, with many authors reporting discouraging results. Our purpose was to evaluate a single surgeon's series of children with idiopathic clubfoot treated with a la carte posteromedial and lateral releases using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. A total of 148 patients with idiopathic clubfoot treated surgically by a single surgeon over 15 years were identified, and mailed PODCI questionnaires. Fifty percent of the patients were located and responded, resulting in 74 complete questionnaires. Median age at surgery was 10 months (range, 5.3 to 84.7 mo), male sex 53/74 (71.6%), bilateral surgery 31/74 (41.9%), and average follow-up of 9.7 years. PODCI responses were compared with previously published normal healthy controls using t test for each separate category. Included in the methods is the individual surgeon's operative technique. In PODCIs where a parent reports for their child or adolescent, there was no difference between our data and the healthy controls in any of the 5 categories. In PODCI where an adolescent self-reports, there was no difference in 4 of 5 categories; significant difference was only found between our data (mean = 95.2; SD = 7.427) and normal controls (mean = 86.3; SD = 12.5) in Happiness Scale (P = 0.0031). In this group of idiopathic clubfoot patients, treated with judicious posteromedial release by a single surgeon, primarily when surgery was treatment of choice for clubfoot, patient-based outcomes are not different from their normal healthy peers through childhood and adolescence. While Ponseti treatment has since become the treatment of choice for clubfoot, surgical treatment, in some hands, has led to satisfactory results. Level III.

  10. A technique of including the effect of aging of passive components in probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. The possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. We are developing methods for selecting risk-significant passive components and including them in PRAS. These methods provide effective ways to prioritize passive components for inspection, and where inspection reveals aging damage, mitigation or repair can be employed to reduce the likelihood of component failure. We demonstrated a method by selecting a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system, basing our selection on expert judgement of the likelihood of failure and on an estimate of the consequence of component failure to plant safety. We then modified and used the Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events (PRAISE) computer code to perform a probabilistic structural analysis to calculate the probability that crack growth due to aging would cause the weld to fail. The PRAISE code was modified to include the effects of changing design material properties with age and changing stress cycles. The calculation included the effects of mechanical loads and thermal transients typical of the service loads for this piping design and the effects of thermal cycling caused by a leaking check valve. However, this particular calculation showed little change in low component failure probability and plant risk for 48 years of service. However, sensitivity studies showed that if the probability of component failure is high, the effect on plant risk is significant. The success of this demonstration shows that this method could be applied to nuclear power plants. The demonstration showed the method is too involved (PRAISE takes a long time to perform the calculation and the input information is extensive) for handling a large number of passive components and therefore simpler methods are needed

  11. Plasma transport studies using transient techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Brower, D.L.; Efthimion, P.

    1991-01-01

    Selected topics from the Transient Transport sessions of the Transport Task Force Workshop, held February 19-23, 1990, in Hilton Head, South Carolina are summarized. Presentations on sawtooth propagation, ECH modulation, particle modulation, and H-mode transitions are included. The research results presented indicated a growing theoretical understanding and experimental sophistication in the application of transient techniques to transport studies. (Author)

  12. Application of Microextraction Techniques Including SPME and MESI to the Thermal Degradation of Polymers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaykhaii, Massoud; Linford, Matthew R

    2017-03-04

    Here, we discuss the newly developed micro and solventless sample preparation techniques SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) and MESI (Membrane Extraction with a Sorbent Interface) as applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thermal oxidative degradation products of polymers and their stabilizers. The coupling of these systems to analytical instruments is also described. Our comprehensive literature search revealed that there is no previously published review article on this topic. It is shown that these extraction techniques are valuable sample preparation tools for identifying complex series of degradation products in polymers. In general, the number of products identified by traditional headspace (HS-GC-MS) is much lower than with SPME-GC-MS. MESI is particularly well suited for the detection of non-polar compounds, therefore number of products identified by this technique is not also to the same degree of SPME. Its main advantage, however, is its ability of (semi-) continuous monitoring, but it is more expensive and not yet commercialized.

  13. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  14. Security techniques for prevention of rank manipulation in social tagging services including robotic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Jung, Hanyoung; Moon, Seungbin

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  15. Diagnostic techniques in deflagration and detonation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proud, William G; Williamson, David M; Field, John E; Walley, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Advances in experimental, high-speed techniques can be used to explore the processes occurring within energetic materials. This review describes techniques used to study a wide range of processes: hot-spot formation, ignition thresholds, deflagration, sensitivity and finally the detonation process. As this is a wide field the focus will be on small-scale experiments and quantitative studies. It is important that such studies are linked to predictive models, which inform the experimental design process. The stimuli range includes, thermal ignition, drop-weight, Hopkinson Bar and Plate Impact studies. Studies made with inert simulants are also included as these are important in differentiating between reactive response and purely mechanical behaviour.

  16. A framework for automated contour quality assurance in radiation therapy including adaptive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, M B; Kavanaugh, J A; Wooten, H O; Green, O L; DeWees, T A; Gay, H; Thorstad, W L; Li, H; Mutic, S

    2015-01-01

    Contouring of targets and normal tissues is one of the largest sources of variability in radiation therapy treatment plans. Contours thus require a time intensive and error-prone quality assurance (QA) evaluation, limitations which also impair the facilitation of adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Here, an automated system for contour QA is developed using historical data (the ‘knowledge base’). A pilot study was performed with a knowledge base derived from 9 contours each from 29 head-and-neck treatment plans. Size, shape, relative position, and other clinically-relevant metrics and heuristically derived rules are determined. Metrics are extracted from input patient data and compared against rules determined from the knowledge base; a computer-learning component allows metrics to evolve with more input data, including patient specific data for ART. Nine additional plans containing 42 unique contouring errors were analyzed. 40/42 errors were detected as were 9 false positives. The results of this study imply knowledge-based contour QA could potentially enhance the safety and effectiveness of RT treatment plans as well as increase the efficiency of the treatment planning process, reducing labor and the cost of therapy for patients. (paper)

  17. Efficacy of Manual Therapy Including Neurodynamic Techniques for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Tomasz; Saulicz, Edward; Linek, Paweł; Shacklock, Michael; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this randomized trial was to compare the efficacy of manual therapy, including the use of neurodynamic techniques, with electrophysical modalities on patients with mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The study included 140 CTS patients who were randomly assigned to the manual therapy (MT) group, which included the use of neurodynamic techniques, functional massage, and carpal bone mobilizations techniques, or to the electrophysical modalities (EM) group, which included laser and ultrasound therapy. Nerve conduction, pain severity, symptom severity, and functional status measured by the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire were assessed before and after treatment. Therapy was conducted twice weekly and both groups received 20 therapy sessions. A baseline assessment revealed group differences in sensory conduction of the median nerve (P < .01) but not in motor conduction (P = .82). Four weeks after the last treatment procedure, nerve conduction was examined again. In the MT group, median nerve sensory conduction velocity increased by 34% and motor conduction velocity by 6% (in both cases, P < .01). There was no change in median nerve sensory and motor conduction velocities in the EM. Distal motor latency was decreased (P < .01) in both groups. A baseline assessment revealed no group differences in pain severity, symptom severity, or functional status. Immediately after therapy, analysis of variance revealed group differences in pain severity (P < .01), with a reduction in pain in both groups (MT: 290%, P < .01; EM: 47%, P < .01). There were group differences in symptom severity (P < .01) and function (P < .01) on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Both groups had an improvement in functional status (MT: 47%, P < .01; EM: 9%, P < .01) and a reduction in subjective CTS symptoms (MT: 67%, P < .01; EM: 15%, P < .01). Both therapies had a positive effect on nerve conduction, pain reduction, functional status, and subjective symptoms in

  18. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  19. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  20. A Dosimetric Comparison of Breast Radiotherapy Techniques to Treat Locoregional Lymph Nodes Including the Internal Mammary Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, A; Dunlop, A; Hutchinson, K; Convery, H; Maclennan, M K; Chantler, H; Twyman, N; Rose, C; McQuaid, D; Amos, R A; Griffin, C; deSouza, N M; Donovan, E; Harris, E; Coles, C E; Kirby, A

    2018-06-01

    Radiotherapy target volumes in early breast cancer treatment increasingly include the internal mammary chain (IMC). In order to maximise survival benefits of IMC radiotherapy, doses to the heart and lung should be minimised. This dosimetry study compared the ability of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, arc therapy and proton beam therapy (PBT) techniques with and without breath-hold to achieve target volume constraints while minimising dose to organs at risk (OARs). In 14 patients' datasets, seven IMC radiotherapy techniques were compared: wide tangent (WT) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and PBT, each in voluntary deep inspiratory breath-hold (vDIBH) and free breathing (FB), and tomotherapy in FB only. Target volume coverage and OAR doses were measured for each technique. These were compared using a one-way ANOVA with all pairwise comparisons tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test, with adjusted P-values ≤ 0.05 indicating statistical significance. One hundred per cent of WT(vDIBH), 43% of WT(FB), 100% of VMAT(vDIBH), 86% of VMAT(FB), 100% of tomotherapy FB and 100% of PBT plans in vDIBH and FB passed all mandatory constraints. However, coverage of the IMC with 90% of the prescribed dose was significantly better than all other techniques using VMAT(vDIBH), PBT(vDIBH) and PBT(FB) (mean IMC coverage ± 1 standard deviation = 96.0% ± 4.3, 99.8% ± 0.3 and 99.0% ± 0.2, respectively). The mean heart dose was significantly reduced in vDIBH compared with FB for both the WT (P FB). Simple WT radiotherapy delivered in vDIBH achieves satisfactory coverage of the IMC while meeting heart and lung dose constraints. However, where higher isodose coverage is required, VMAT(vDIBH) is the optimal photon technique. The lowest OAR doses are achieved by PBT, in which the use of vDIBH does not improve dose statistics. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a novel educational strategy, including inhaler-based reminder labels, to improve asthma inhaler technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheti, Iman A; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a brief intervention about inhaler technique, delivered by community pharmacists to asthma patients. Thirty-one pharmacists received brief workshop education (Active: n=16, CONTROL: n=15). Active Group pharmacists were trained to assess and teach dry powder inhaler technique, using patient-centered educational tools including novel Inhaler Technique Labels. Interventions were delivered to patients at four visits over 6 months. At baseline, patients (Active: 53, CONTROL: 44) demonstrated poor inhaler technique (mean+/-S.D. score out of 9, 5.7+/-1.6). At 6 months, improvement in inhaler technique score was significantly greater in Active cf. CONTROL patients (2.8+/-1.6 cf. 0.9+/-1.4, p<0.001), and asthma severity was significantly improved (p=0.015). Qualitative responses from patients and pharmacists indicated a high level of satisfaction with the intervention and educational tools, both for their effectiveness and for their impact on the patient-pharmacist relationship. A simple feasible intervention in community pharmacies, incorporating daily reminders via Inhaler Technique Labels on inhalers, can lead to improvement in inhaler technique and asthma outcomes. Brief training modules and simple educational tools, such as Inhaler Technique Labels, can provide a low-cost and sustainable way of changing patient behavior in asthma, using community pharmacists as educators.

  2. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    criticism. Generating unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies—especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection.

  3. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  4. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  5. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  6. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  7. A review of multiple stressor studies that include ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Real, Almudena; Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Studies were reviewed that investigated the combined effects of ionising radiation and other stressors on non-human biota. The aim was to determine the state of research in this area of science, and determine if a review of the literature might permit a gross generalization as to whether the combined effects of multi-stressors and radiation are fundamentally additive, synergistic or antagonistic. A multiple stressor database was established for different organism groups. Information was collected on species, stressors applied and effects evaluated. Studies were mostly laboratory based and investigated two-component mixtures. Interactions declared positive occurred in 58% of the studies, while 26% found negative interactions. Interactions were dependent on dose/concentration, on organism's life stage and exposure time and differed among endpoints. Except for one study, none of the studies predicted combined effects following Concentration Addition or Independent Action, and hence, no justified conclusions can be made about synergism or antagonism. - This review on multiple stressor studies involving radiation, highlights that most experimental designs used did not allow to deduce the nature of the interactive effects.

  8. A Study of Associated Factors, Including Genital Herpes, in Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-24

    Aug 24, 1974 ... examined for evidence of trichomoniasis. Though not as reliable a method as direct culture, the Papanicolaou smear is a simple method of showing a difference between the study and control groups." Evidence of HSV I and 2 infection was derived from direct viral culture and sero- logy. The cervical swabs.

  9. Hydrogels synthesised through photoinitiator-free photopolymerisation technique for delivering drugs including a tumour-tracing porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Loo-Teck; Swami, Salesh; Gordon-Thomson, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogels were synthesised using the photoinitiator-free photopolymerisation technique involving interactions between donor/acceptor pairs for delivering drugs of different molecular weights including a porphyrin used as a tumour-tracing agent. N-(5-hydroxy) pentylmaleimide, an acceptor, formed hydrogels with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and N-vinylcaprolactum. Glucosamine, an effective H-donor in enhancing polymerisation as shown by Differential Photocalorimetric results, was found unsuitable for hydrogel preparation. Drugs of different molecular weights releasing at the same rate was discussed. The hydrogels were found to have no toxic effects and were biocompatible with a human keratinocyte cell line

  10. Review of best available techniques for the control of pollution from the combustion of fuels manufactured from or including waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is a technical review of the techniques available for controlling pollution from combustion processes burning fuels (over 3 MW thermal input) manufactured from or including the following: Waste and recovered oil; Refuse derived fuel; Rubber tyres and other rubber waste; Poultry litter; Wood and straw. This review forms the basis for the revision of the Chief Inspector's Guidance Notes referring to the prescribed processes listed with special emphasis on recommending achievable releases to all environmental media. In formulating achievable releases account is taken of technologies in operation in the UK and overseas. (UK)

  11. A Study on Employee Retention Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Savarimuthu, Dr. A; Hemalatha, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of perusing this study is to assess the level of satisfaction of employee retention techniques at GB Engineering Enterprises PVT Limited., Trichy.This study gains significance because of employee retention techniques can be approached from various angles. It is desirable state of existence involving retention strategies generally fall in to one of four categories salary, working conditions, job enrichment and education. These four elements together constitute. The structure of e...

  12. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  13. The Environmental Assessment Technique: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Jesse U., IV

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Alexander Astin's Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) in describing the environmental press at a large public university, California State University at Los Angeles. Results indicate that EAT is a very economical method for broadly describing aspects of a university's…

  14. Development of mechanoluminescence technique for impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique called, mechanoluminescence technique, is developed for measuring the parameters of impact. This technique is based on the phenomenon of mechanoluminescence (ML), in which light emission takes place during any mechanical action on solids. When a small solid ball makes an impact on the mechanoluminescent thin film coated on a solid, then initially the elastico ML (EML) intensity increases with time, attains a maximum value I m at a particular time t m , and later on it decreases with time. The contact time T c of ball, can be determined from the relation T c =2t c , where t c is the time at which the EML emission due to compression of the sample becomes negligible. The area from where the EML emission occurs can be taken as the contact area A c . The maximum compression h is given by h=A c /(πr), where r is the radius of the impacting ball, and thus, h can be determined from the known values of A c and r. The maximum force at contact is given by F m =(2mU 0 )/T c , where m is the mass of the impacting ball and U 0 is the velocity of the ball at impact. The maximum impact stress σ m can be obtained from the relation, σ m =F m /A c =(2mU 0 )/(T c A c ). Thus, ML provides a real-time technique for determining the impact parameters such as T c , A c , h, F m and σ m . Using the ML technique, the impact parameters of the SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu film and ZnS:Mn coating are determined. The ML technique can be used to determine the impact parameters in the elastic region and plastic region as well as fracture. ML can also be used to determine the impact parameters for the collision between solid and liquid, if the mechanoluminescent material is coated on the surface of the solid. The measurement of fracto ML in microsecond and nanosecond range may provide a tool for studying the fragmentations in solids by the impact. Using the fast camera the contact area and the depth of compression can be determined for different intervals of time. - Research highlights: → A

  15. THE TEMPIO DELLA CONSOLAZIONE IN TODI: INTEGRATED GEOMATIC TECHNIQUES FOR A MONUMENT DESCRIPTION INCLUDING STRUCTURAL DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Radicioni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tempio della Consolazione in Todi (16th cent. has always been one of the most significant symbols of the Umbrian landscape. Since the first times after its completion (1606 the structure has exhibited evidences of instability, due to foundation subsiding and/or seismic activity. Structural and geotechnical countermeasures have been undertaken on the Tempio and its surroundings from the 17th century until recent times. Until now a truly satisfactory analysis of the overall deformation and attitude of the building has not been performed, since the existing surveys record the overhangs of the pillars, the crack pattern or the subsidence over limited time spans. Describing the attitude of the whole church is in fact a complex operation due to the architectural character of the building, consisting of four apses (three polygonal and one semicircular covered with half domes, which surround the central area with the large dome. The present research aims to fill the gap of knowledge with a global study based on geomatic techniques for an accurate 3D reconstruction of geometry and attitude, integrated with a historical research on damage and interventions and a geotechnical analysis. The geomatic survey results from the integration of different techniques: GPS-GNSS for global georeferencing, laser scanning and digital photogrammetry for an accurate 3D reconstruction, high precision total station and geometric leveling for a direct survey of deformations and cracks, and for the alignment of the laser scans. The above analysis allowed to assess the dynamics of the cracks occurred in the last 25 years by a comparison with a previous survey. From the photographic colour associated to the point cloud was also possible to map the damp patches showing on the domes intrados, mapping their evolution over the last years.

  16. Nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1981-09-01

    Recent effort in developing nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies is reviewed. Emphasis is on monolayer detection of adsorbed molecules on surfaces. It is shown that surface coherent antiStokes Raman scattering (CARS) with picosecond pulses has the sensitivity of detecting submonolayer of molecules. On the other hand, second harmonic or sum-frequency generation is also sensitive enough to detect molecular monolayers. Surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects on some rough metal surfaces have been observed. This facilitates the detection of molecular monolayers on such surfaces, and makes the study of molecular adsorption at a liquid-metal interface feasible. Advantages and disadvantages of the nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies are discussed

  17. Imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. Including DRG, cost and risks; Indikationstabellen Bildgebende Verfahren. Mit Hinweisen zu DRG, Kosten und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestmann, J.W. [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2005-07-01

    One important instrument of optimizing the establishing of indications for imaging diagnostics and interventional radiology is the introduction of indication-specific standards and guidelines. This book for the first time combines the presentation of meaningful and necessary imaging techniques for a large number of clinical indications with an economical assessment of this diagnostical techniques. The average costs of imaging techniques are shown in a way easy to comprehend and are compared with the average remuneration of the whole in-house treatment of the case.

  18. A STUDY ON OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Narendra Sahu; Manoj Sonkusare

    2018-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the process which enables a system to without human intervention identifies the scripts or alphabets written into the users’ verbal communication. Optical Character identification has grown to be individual of the mainly flourishing applications of knowledge in the field of pattern detection and artificial intelligence. In our survey we study on the various OCR techniques. In this paper we resolve and examine the hypothetical and numerical models of Opti...

  19. Technique of studying the interaction of charges of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yefremov, E.I.; Kravtsov, V.S.; Myachina, N.I.; Rodak, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for studying the interaction of explosive charges which includes recording of the velocity of detonation of the studied charges, measurement of mechanical stresses developing in this case in the medium and determination of granulometric composition of the model with simultaneous and diverse initiation.

  20. Analytical techniques for the study of polyphenol-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklar Ulrih, Nataša

    2017-07-03

    This mini review focuses on advances in biophysical techniques to study polyphenol interactions with proteins. Polyphenols have many beneficial pharmacological properties, as a result of which they have been the subject of intensive studies. The most conventional techniques described here can be divided into three groups: (i) methods used for screening (in-situ methods); (ii) methods used to gain insight into the mechanisms of polyphenol-protein interactions; and (iii) methods used to study protein aggregation and precipitation. All of these methods used to study polyphenol-protein interactions are based on modifications to the physicochemical properties of the polyphenols or proteins after binding/complex formation in solution. To date, numerous review articles have been published in the field of polyphenols. This review will give a brief insight in computational methods and biosensors and cell-based methods, spectroscopic methods including fluorescence emission, UV-vis adsorption, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and light scattering techniques including small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, and calorimetric techniques (isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry), microscopy, the techniques which have been successfully used for polyphenol-protein interactions. At the end the new methods based on single molecule detection with high potential to study polyphenol-protein interactions will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be discussed as well as the thermodynamic, kinetic or structural parameters, which can be obtained. The other relevant biophysical experimental techniques that have proven to be valuable, such electrochemical methods, hydrodynamic techniques and chromatographic techniques will not be described here.

  1. Comparison of normal tissue dose with three-dimensional conformal techniques for breast cancer irradiation including the internal mammary nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Hans Paul; Dolsma, Willemtje; van t Veld, Aart; Bijl, HP; Langendijk, JA

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the Para Mixed technique for irradiation of the internal mammary nodes (IMN) with three commonly used strategies, by analyzing the dose to the heart and other organs at risk. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four different three-dimensional conformal dose plans were created for 30 breast

  2. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  3. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fozzolari, R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for photo generation of radicals is discussed that can be used in the recovery of oxygen and metals from extraterrestrial resources. The concept behind this work was to examine methods whereby radicals can be generated and used in the processing of refractory materials. In that regard, the focus is on the use of sunlight. Sunlight provides useful energy for processing in the forms of both thermal and quantum energy. A number of experiments were conducted in the chlorination of metals with and without the aid of UV and near UV light. The results of some of those experiments are discussed.

  4. Extended automated separation techniques in destructive neutron activation analysis; application to various biological materials, including human tissues and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Houtman, J.P.W.

    1976-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis may be performed as a multi-element and low-level technique for many important trace elements in biological materials, provided that post-irradiation chemical separations are applied. This paper describes a chemical separation consisting of automated procedures for destruction, distillation, and anion-chromatography. The system developed enables the determination of 14 trace elements in biological materials, viz. antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The aspects of sample preparation, neutron irradiation, gamma-spectrum evaluation, and blank-value contribution are also discussed

  5. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Zirconium Oxides Observed Using a Pulse CV Technique and including the Effect of High Temperature Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qifeng; Zhao, Chun; Mu, Yifei; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Taylor, Stephen; Chalker, Paul R

    2015-07-29

    A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV) technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The results indicated that: (1) more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrO x ; (2) the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N₂ ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 10 12 cm -2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 10 12 cm -2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10 - ⁶ A/cm² at V g = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10 -3 A/cm² at V g = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one.

  6. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Zirconium Oxides Observed Using a Pulse CV Technique and including the Effect of High Temperature Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111 substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. The results indicated that: (1 more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrOx; (2 the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N2 ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 1012 cm−2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 1012 cm−2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10−6 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10−3 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one.

  7. Lumbar interbody fusion: techniques, indications and comparison of interbody fusion options including PLIF, TLIF, MI-TLIF, OLIF/ATP, LLIF and ALIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Malham, Greg; Seex, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine is common in the ageing population, and is one of the most frequent causes of disability. Lumbar spondylosis may result in mechanical back pain, radicular and claudicant symptoms, reduced mobility and poor quality of life. Surgical interbody fusion of degenerative levels is an effective treatment option to stabilize the painful motion segment, and may provide indirect decompression of the neural elements, restore lordosis and correct deformity. The surgical options for interbody fusion of the lumbar spine include: posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF), oblique lumbar interbody fusion/anterior to psoas (OLIF/ATP), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The indications may include: discogenic/facetogenic low back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy due to foraminal stenosis, lumbar degenerative spinal deformity including symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis. In general, traditional posterior approaches are frequently used with acceptable fusion rates and low complication rates, however they are limited by thecal sac and nerve root retraction, along with iatrogenic injury to the paraspinal musculature and disruption of the posterior tension band. Minimally invasive (MIS) posterior approaches have evolved in an attempt to reduce approach related complications. Anterior approaches avoid the spinal canal, cauda equina and nerve roots, however have issues with approach related abdominal and vascular complications. In addition, lateral and OLIF techniques have potential risks to the lumbar plexus and psoas muscle. The present study aims firstly to comprehensively review the available literature and evidence for different lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) techniques. Secondly, we propose a set of recommendations and guidelines

  8. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  9. Tracer techniques for the study of host-parasite relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendgen, K.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques have been used to study the interaction of many facultative and obligate parasites, including viruses. After feeding the host plant with labelled substrates, labelled material accumulates in the infected cells and seems to penetrate into structures of the parasite. After labelling the parasite, its influence on the host may be studied. We use this technique to study the interaction of host (bean) and parasite (bean rust) during the infection process. After infection with uredospores labelled with tritiated orotic acid, the radioactivity is retained almost completely within the young haustorium at 22 h after inoculation. This may indicate a very small influence of the parasite on its compatible host. In incompatible host-parasite combinations, the infection process proceeds in a different way. The use of autoradiographic techniques to compare combinations of varying compatibilities will be discussed. (author)

  10. Studies in small angle scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenbach, K.

    1980-03-01

    Small angle scattering of neutrons, X-rays and γ-rays are found among the spectroscopic methods developed in the recent years. Although these techniques differ from each other in many respects, e.g. radiation sources and technical equipment needed, their power to resolve physical phenomena and areas of application can be discussed in a general scheme. Selected examples are given illustrating the use of specific technical methods. Jahn-Teller driven structural phase transitions in Rare Earth zircons were studied with neutron scattering as well as small angle γ-ray diffraction. The study of neutron scattering from formations of magnetic domains in the Ising ferromagnet LiTbF 4 is a second example. Both these examples represent more than experimental test cases since the theoretical interpretations of the data obtained are discussed as well. As a last example the use of small angle scattering methods for the study of molecular biological samples is discussed. In particular the experimental procedures used in connection with scattering from aqueous solutions of proteins and protein complexes are given. (Auth.)

  11. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Drew P.

    2017-11-01

    We describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event. We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10-3 to 0.3-0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20-2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.

  12. Multi Elemental Study Using Prompt Gamma Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normanshah Dahing; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Normanshah Dahing; Hanafi Ithnin; Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Hearie Hassan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10x10x10 cm 3 and 15x15x15 cm 3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with computer simulation, NAA and XRF as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed. (author)

  13. Noninvasive studies of human visual cortex using neuromagnetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.; George, J.S.; Supek, S.; Maclin, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The major goals of noninvasive studies of the human visual cortex are: to increase knowledge of the functional organization of cortical visual pathways; and to develop noninvasive clinical tests for the assessment of cortical function. Noninvasive techniques suitable for studies of the structure and function of human visual cortex include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), scalp recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). The primary challenge faced by noninvasive functional measures is to optimize the spatial and temporal resolution of the measurement and analytic techniques in order to effectively characterize the spatial and temporal variations in patterns of neuronal activity. In this paper we review the use of neuromagnetic techniques for this purpose. 8 refs., 3 figs

  14. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  15. A Novel Technique to Follow Consequences of Exogenous Factors, Including Therapeutic Drugs, on Living Human Breast Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    and lipid vectors, are being tested. Concurrent with the development of procedures for live - cell imaging , we are examining the distribution of proteins...dimensional matrix. These studies have not yet begun. There are a number of procedures that must be developed and perfected in the live - cell imaging , as...components of the Wnt signaling pathway are too preliminary and require additional research prior to publication. (9) CONCLUSIONS Live cell imaging of

  16. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect

  17. Robust IR Remote Sensing Technique of the Total Column of Trace Gases Including Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Progress on the development of a differential radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (C02) detection in the atmosphere is presented. Methane measurements are becoming increasingly important as a component of NASA's programs to understand the global carbon cycle and quantifY the threat of global warming. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's radiation budget (after water vapor and carbon dioxide) and the second most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming. The importance of global warming and air quality to society caused the National Research Council to recommend that NASA develop the following missions [1]: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of C02 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), GEOCAPE (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), and GACM (Global Atmosphere Composition Mission). Though methane measurements are not specifically called out in these missions, ongoing environmental changes have raised the importance of understanding the methane budget. In the decadal survey is stated that "to close the carbon budget, we would also address methane, but the required technology is not obvious at this time. If appropriate and cost-effective methane technology becomes available, we strongly recommend adding a methane capability". In its 2007 report the International Panel on Climate Change identified methane as a key uncertainty in our understanding saying that the causes of recent changes in the growth rate of atmospheric CH4 are not well understood. What we do know is that methane arises from a number of natural sources including wet lands and the oceans plus man made sources from agriculture, as well as coal and petroleum production and distribution. It has recently been pointed out that large amount of methane are frozen in the permafrost of Canada and Siberia. There is a fear that melting of this permafrost driven by global warming may release large amounts of

  18. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Precision-Oriented Radiation Therapy Techniques Including Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Liu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary results with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Between August 2000 and May 2001, we treated 19 patients with NPC using IMRT. Twelve patients had stage I-II disease and seven had stage III-IV disease. Six patients received 9.0-19.8 Gy three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT before IMRT and 18 patients received a brachytherapy boost after IMRT. The mean follow-up time was 13.0 months. All patients with stage II-IV disease except one received two cycles of chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU during radiotherapy, followed by two to four cycles of chemotherapy after radiotherapy. Tumor response was assessed using clinical examination and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The mean doses administered to the gross tumor volume and clinical tumor volume were 70.9 Gy and 63.2 Gy, respectively. The mean doses administered to the right and left parotid glands were 38.1 Gy and 38.6 Gy, respectively. All 19 patients had a complete response of primary and lymph node disease. Grade III mucositis developed during chemoradiotherapy in 15 patients (79%. In addition, clinical grade I xerostomia was recorded in nine patients, grade II in nine, and grade III in one. This study demonstrated that 3D-CRT, IMRT, intracavitary brachytherapy, and chemotherapy are effective and safe methods to treat NPC. Although IMRT treatment spared parotid gland function, its efficacy may be significantly influenced by disease stage and location of the neck lymph nodes. More cases and a longer follow-up to assess survival and complications are planned.

  19. Parametric studies on the harvested energy of piezoelectric switching techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M; Krack, M; Wallaschek, J

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques have experienced increasing research effort during the last few years. Possible applications including wireless, fully autonomous electronic devices, such as sensors, have attracted great interest. The key aspect of harvesting techniques is the amount of converted and stored energy, because the energy source and the conversion rate is limited. In particular, switching techniques offer many parameters that can be optimized. It is therefore crucial to examine the influence of these parameters in a precise manner. This paper addresses an accurate analytical modeling approach, facilitating the calculation of standard-DC and parallel SSHI-DC energy harvesting circuits. In particular the influence of the frequency ratio between the excitation and the electrical resonance of the switching LR-branch, and the voltage gaps across the rectifier diodes are studied in detail. Additionally a comparison with the SSDI damping network is performed. The relationship between energy harvesting and damping is indicated in this paper

  20. A transferability study of the EPR-tooth-dosimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.; Desrosiers, M.; Bouville, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transferability of a measurement protocol from one laboratory to another is an important feature of any mature, standardised protocol. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-tooth dosimetry technique that was developed in Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, AMS (Ukraine) (SCRM) for routine dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators has demonstrated consistent results in several inter-laboratory measurement comparisons. Transferability to the EPR dosimetry laboratory at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) was examined. Several approaches were used to test the technique, including dose reconstruction of SCRM-NIST inter-comparison samples. The study has demonstrated full transferability of the technique and the possibility to reproduce results in a different laboratory environment. (authors)

  1. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  2. Comparing Outcomes and Cost of 3 Surgical Treatments for Sagittal Synostosis: A Retrospective Study Including Procedure-Related Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Sarah T; Karsy, Michael; Kestle, John R W; Siddiqi, Faizi; Spanos, Stephen P; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2017-10-01

    Neurosurgical techniques for repair of sagittal synostosis include total cranial vault (TCV) reconstruction, open sagittal strip (OSS) craniectomy, and endoscopic strip (ES) craniectomy. To evaluate outcomes and cost associated with these 3 techniques. Via retrospective chart review with waiver of informed consent, the last consecutive 100 patients with sagittal synostosis who underwent each of the 3 surgical correction techniques before June 30, 2013, were identified. Clinical, operative, and process of care variables and their associated specific charges were analyzed along with overall charge. The study included 300 total patients. ES patients had fewer transfusion requirements (13% vs 83%, P cost savings compared with the TCV reconstruction. The charges were similar to those incurred with OSS craniectomy, but patients had a shorter length of stay and fewer revisions. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. Applications of radiotracer techniques for the toxicology studies of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuhui; Zhang Zhiyong; Zhang Yuan; He Xiao; Zhang Haifeng; Chai Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanosciences and nanotechnology, a wide variety of manufactured nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. While nanomaterials possess more novel and unique physicochemical properties than bulk materials, they also have an unpredictable impact on human health. In the toxicology studies of nanomaterials, it is essential to know the basic behaviors in vivo, that is absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of these newly designed materials. Radiotracer techniques are especially well suited to such studies and has got the chance to demonstrate its enchantment. In this presentation, studies on radiotracer techniques used in nanotoxicology will be reviewed and new progresses at Institute of High Energy Physics, including the label methods and behaviors of labeled nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and nanometer metal oxide in animals and in aquatic environments will be reported. (authors)

  4. Increasing transmission capacity : case studies and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R.A. [Laminated Wood Systems, NE (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Many companies are stretching the capacities of their mature transmission lines as a result of deregulation in the electric utility industry. Since electric utilities are no longer in control of new generation locations or capacities, their mission has changed from supplying electricity to regional customers to that of the movement of power over their grid. There will also be even more pressure to maximize the thermal capacity of existing transmission lines once the regional transmission operators (RTOs) are in place. Various methods including conductor replacement or increasing structure height are available options to accomplish this. This paper discussed the available methods to increase ground clearance, including structure changeouts; pole top extensions; nip and tuck conductor; adding mid-span structures; and raising structures. Because the actual cost of line outages for maintenance of rebuild work will make many present day work procedures obsolete, the industry is changing to methods of safely increasing the existing structure heights without removing the line from service. The paper also presented the Phaiseraiser product which is a patented system, consisting of double steel members that are either single or multiple piece units which are used to support the raised structure. The paper discussed the product development of the Phaiseraiser product, with reference to wood stubs; pier foundation; pole enforcer methodology; testing; designs; and ordering requirements. Last, the paper discussed a custom designed installation tool package developed by Laminated Wood Systems (LWS); LWS structural analysis; estimated cost for Phaiseraiser installation on an h-frame; labor resources and training; maintenance considerations; completed Phaiseraiser projects; and a case study on the Omaha Public Power District. figs.

  5. Study of various synthesis techniques of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Madhuri; Sharma, Deepika; Dive, Avinash; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sharma, Ramphal

    2018-05-01

    Development of synthesis techniques of realizing nano-materials over a range of sizes, shapes, and chemical compositions is an important aspect of nanotechnology. The remarkable size dependent physical & chemical properties of particles have fascinated and inspired research activity in this direction. This paper describes some aspects on synthesis and characterization of particles of metals, metal alloys, and oxides, either in the form of thin films or bulk shapes. A brief discussion on processing of thin-films is also described.

  6. Bayer Digester Optimization Studies using Computer Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jan J.; Schleider, Victor H.

    Theoretically required heat transfer performance by the multistaged flash heat reclaim system of a high pressure Bayer digester unit is determined for various conditions of discharge temperature, excess flash vapor and indirect steam addition. Solution of simultaneous heat balances around the digester vessels and the heat reclaim system yields the magnitude of available heat for representation of each case on a temperature-enthalpy diagram, where graphical fit of the number of flash stages fixes the heater requirements. Both the heat balances and the trial-and-error graphical solution are adapted to solution by digital computer techniques.

  7. A STUDY ON NETWORK SECURITY TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.T.Hemalatha; Dr.G.Rashita Banu; Dr.Murtaza Ali

    2016-01-01

    Internet plays a vital role in our day today life. Data security in web application has become very crucial. The usage of internet becomes more and more in recent years. Through internet the information’s can be shared through many social networks like Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn, blogs etc. There is chance of hacking the data while sharing from one to one. To prevent the data being hacked there are so many techniques such as Digital Signature, Cryptography, Digital watermarking, Data Sanit...

  8. Instrumentation techniques for studying heterogeneous combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigier, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Velocity measurements in flames and the simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity with the aid of laser anemometry are considered along with methods of particle size measurement and techniques based on laser Raman spectroscopy. Attention is given to high-speed photography and holography, computer compensated thermocouples, and the determination of turbulence characteristics. The employment of suction probes is also discussed, taking into account sampling methods, the effects of temperature change in sampling probes on particle formation, and the chemical analysis of samples.

  9. Study of positioning techniques for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshinori; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    A good positioning technique is of great importance in radiology in order to obtain accurate diagnostic information and reduce the patient's X-ray exposure. In positioning training, students place the phantom on the table under an X-ray tube, adjust the position of the phantom, and repeat the positioning practices until they can obtain fine diagnostic images. As X-ray films are usually used in radiography, the development of such films is necessary. In this kind of training practice, it takes a great deal of time to obtain the X-ray image at the phantom position. It is desirable for students to perform positioning accurately and to confirm the results of positioning within a short time. In this article, we propose a new positioning training method using digital image processing. First, we scan the skull phantom by CT (computed tomography) and obtain CT images. Next, we measure the positioning information of the phantom under the X-ray equipment by using scene analysis. Then, we develop a method that produces the plane image corresponding to the detected phantom position under the X-ray tube. It is expected that our method will be useful as a teaching device to help in the practice of the positioning techniques for various organs without X-ray exposure and, furthermore, in the development of X-ray films. (author)

  10. Tracer techniques applied to groundwater studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of several aquifer characteristics, primarily in the satured zone, namely: porosity, permeability, transmissivity, dispersivity, direction and velocity of sub-surface water is presented. These techniques are based on artificial radioisotopes utilization. Only field determination of porosity are considered here and their advantage over laboratory measurements are: better representation of volume average, insensibility to local inhomogenities and no distortion of the structure due to sampling. The radioisotope dilution method is used to obtain an independent and direct measurement of the filtration velocity in a water-bearing formation under natural or induced hydraulic gradient. The velocity of the flow is usually calculated from Darcy's formula through the measurement of gradients and requires a knowledge of the permeability of the formation. The filtration velocity interpreted in conjunction with other parameters can, under favourable conditions, provide valuable information on the permeability, transmissibility and amount of water moving through an aquifer

  11. Spatial Modeling of Geometallurgical Properties: Techniques and a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Jared L., E-mail: jdeutsch@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Palmer, Kevin [Teck Resources Limited (Canada); Deutsch, Clayton V.; Szymanski, Jozef [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Etsell, Thomas H. [University of Alberta, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    High-resolution spatial numerical models of metallurgical properties constrained by geological controls and more extensively by measured grade and geomechanical properties constitute an important part of geometallurgy. Geostatistical and other numerical techniques are adapted and developed to construct these high-resolution models accounting for all available data. Important issues that must be addressed include unequal sampling of the metallurgical properties versus grade assays, measurements at different scale, and complex nonlinear averaging of many metallurgical parameters. This paper establishes techniques to address each of these issues with the required implementation details and also demonstrates geometallurgical mineral deposit characterization for a copper–molybdenum deposit in South America. High-resolution models of grades and comminution indices are constructed, checked, and are rigorously validated. The workflow demonstrated in this case study is applicable to many other deposit types.

  12. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  13. Comparison of different magnetic resonance cholangiography techniques in living liver donors including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kinner

    Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of potential living liver donors (PLLDs includes the assessment of the biliary anatomy to avoid postoperative complications. Aim of this study was to compare T2-weighted (T2w and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC techniques in the evaluation of PLLDs.30 PLLDs underwent MRC on a 1.5 T Magnetom Avanto (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany using (A 2D T2w HASTE (Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo fat saturated (fs in axial plane, (B 2D T2w HASTE fs thick slices in coronal plane, (C free breathing 3D T2w TSE (turbo spin echo RESTORE (high-resolution navigator corrected plus (D maximum intensity projections (MIPs, (E T2w SPACE (sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions plus (F MIPs and (G T2w TSE BLADE as well as Gd-EOB-DTPA T1w images without (G and with (H inversion recovery. Contrast enhanced CT cholangiography served as reference imaging modality. Two independent reviewers evaluated the biliary tract anatomy on a 5-point scale subjectively and objectively. Data sets were compared using a Mann-Whitney-U-test. Kappa values were also calculated.Source images and maximum intensity projections of 3D T2w TSE sequences (RESTORE and SPACE proved to be best for subjective and objective evaluation directly followed by 2D HASTE sequences. Interobserver variabilities were good to excellent (k = 0.622-0.804.3D T2w sequences are essential for preoperative biliary tract evaluation in potential living liver donors. Furthermore, our results underline the value of different MRCP sequence types for the evaluation of the biliary anatomy in PLLDs including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1w MRC.

  14. Studies of osteoporosis in Croatia using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanic, D.; Blanusa, M.; Cvijetic, S.; Prester, L.; Uzelac, V.

    1996-01-01

    A short overview is presented of research activities concerning osteoporosis and trace element exposure monitoring carried out by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb during the last forty years. The overview includes: cross-sectional and Prospective epidemiological studies in districts with habitually low and high calcium intake; clinical studies concerning peak bone mass and bone mineral density in Postmenopausal women; studies on trace element exposure monitoring. The collaborating institutions, agencies and relevant recent publications are quoted. A survey is given of relevant methods which were used in earlier studies as well as the techniques which will be used in the current IAEA project. A brief description of the work which will be undertaken (particularly during the first year) within the framework of the IAEA CRP is given. (author)

  15. Ion beam techniques for the analysis of light elements in thin films, including depth profiling. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This publication highlights the achievements of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to promote the potential of accelerator-based nuclear techniques of analysis for light elements in thin films. The objectives of this CRP were to develop a coordinated research effort between accelerator laboratories and materials science research groups in order to assist and promote the development of quality assurance methods, to evaluate databases of parameters needed for quantitative analysis, and to develop and apply techniques to selected problems concerning the surface modification of materials and production of thin films. Through various case studies, this publication assesses and demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerator-based nuclear techniques for analysis to provide valuable data and knowledge not readily accessible using other methods

  16. Isotope techniques in lake water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourcy, L.

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater lakes are among the most easily exploitable freshwater resources. Lakes are also recognized as major sedimentological features in which stored material can be used to study recent climate and pollution evolution. To adequately preserve these important landscape features, and to use them as climatic archives, an improved understanding of processes controlling their hydrologic and bio-geochemical environments if necessary. This article briefly describes the IAEA activities related to the study of lakes in such areas as lake budget, lake dynamics, water contamination, and paleolimnological investigations

  17. Efficient Time-Domain Ray-Tracing Technique for the Analysis of Ultra-Wideband Indoor Environments including Lossy Materials and Multiple Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saez de Adana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient application of the Time-Domain Uniform Theory of Diffraction (TD-UTD for the analysis of Ultra-Wideband (UWB mobile communications for indoor environments. The classical TD-UTD formulation is modified to include the contribution of lossy materials and multiple-ray interactions with the environment. The electromagnetic analysis is combined with a ray-tracing acceleration technique to treat realistic and complex environments. The validity of this method is tested with measurements performed inside the Polytechnic building of the University of Alcala and shows good performance of the model for the analysis of UWB propagation.

  18. NMR techniques in the study of cardiovascular structure and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Haselgrove, J.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter titles of this book are: Introduction to NMR Techniques;Theory of NMR Probe Design;Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Study the Cardiovascular System;Vascular Anatomy and Physiology Studied with NMR Techniques;Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging;The Use of MRI in Congenital Heart Disease;Cardiomyopathies and Myocarditis Studied with NMR Techniques;Determination of Myocardial Mechanical Function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques;Determination of Flow Using NMR Techniques;The Use of Contrast Agents in Cardiac MRI;Can Cardiovascular Disease Be Effectively Evaluated with NMR Spectroscopy? NMR Studies of ATP Synthesis Reactions in the Isolated Heart;Studies of Intermediary Metabolism in the Heart by 13C NMR Spectroscopy;23Na and 39K NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Intact Beating Heart;and Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Using Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  19. Evaluation of dilatometric techniques for studies of sintering kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed Ali, M.; Toft Soerensen, O.

    1985-04-01

    The kinetics of the initial sintering stage of CeO 2 is evaluated by three different techniques: constant heating rate dilatometry, constant shrinkage rate dilatometry and a new technique recently introduced by the authors called Stepwise Isothermal Dilatometry (SID). Comparative measurements with these techniques showed that too high activation energies were obtained with the two first techniques, both of which can be termed as nonisothermal, whereas activation energies comparable to those reported for cation diffusion in other fluorite oxides were obtained with the latter technique. Of the three techniques SID is thus considered to be the most accurate for studies of the sintering kinetics. In contrast to the two nonisothermal techniques SID has the further advantage that both the controlling mechanism and its activation energy can be determined in a single experiment. From the SID-measurement it was concluded that the initial sintering stage of CeO 2 is controlled by grain-boundary diffusion. (author)

  20. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radio Astronomers Develop New Technique for Studying Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    capabilities of current instruments -- the team used their intensity-mapping technique to accumulate the radio waves emitted by the hydrogen gas in large volumes of space including many galaxies. "Since the early part of the 20th Century, astronomers have traced the expansion of the Universe by observing galaxies. Our new technique allows us to skip the galaxy-detection step and gather radio emissions from a thousand galaxies at a time, as well as all the dimly-glowing material between them," said Jeffrey Peterson, of Carnegie Mellon University. The astronomers also developed new techniques that removed both man-made radio interference and radio emission caused by more-nearby astronomical sources, leaving only the extremely faint radio waves coming from the very distant hydrogen gas. The result was a map of part of the "cosmic web" that correlated neatly with the structure shown by the earlier optical study. The team first proposed their intensity-mapping technique in 2008, and their GBT observations were the first test of the idea. "These observations detected more hydrogen gas than all the previously-detected hydrogen in the Universe, and at distances ten times farther than any radio wave-emitting hydrogen seen before," said Ue-Li Pen of the University of Toronto. "This is a demonstration of an important technique that has great promise for future studies of the evolution of large-scale structure in the Universe," said National Radio Astronomy Observatory Chief Scientist Chris Carilli, who was not part of the research team. In addition to Chang, Peterson, and Pen, the research team included Kevin Bandura of Carnegie Mellon University. The scientists reported their work in the July 22 issue of the scientific journal Nature.

  2. Academic disintegrity among medical students: a randomised response technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sameh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Asghari, Fariba; Fotouhi, Akbar; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-02-01

    Medical students, as tomorrow's doctors, are responsible for their patients' health; cheating may affect their academic knowledge and clinical skills. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of and attitudes towards academic disintegrity among medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Anonymous questionnaires including questions about various types of academic disintegrity were distributed among medical students during the clerkship and internship phases of the curriculum. Randomised response technique (RRT) was used to maintain the responders' privacy. Because the study design guaranteed the confidentiality of respondents, the TUMS Institutional Review Board declared that formal ethical approval was not required. A total of 124 students were enrolled in this study, of whom 63 were in the clerkship phase and 61 were in the internship phase. Of these respondents, 29% (n = 36) were male. The most frequently reported type of academic disintegrity was found to be 'impersonating an absent student in a class' (93%) and the least frequent to be 'legitimising absences by using bribes' (5%). Only a small number of interns considered 'buying hospital shifts', 'selling hospital shifts', 'impersonating an absent student' and 'helping others to cheat in examinations' as representing academic disintegrity. Approximately one third of participants stated that the RRT increased their confidence in anonymity and 90% of students found the use of RRT not difficult. Academic integrity is widely disrespected in different ways among medical students. Effective policies and interventions are required to control these misbehaviours in future doctors in order to optimise medical practice. Almost all respondents found it not difficult to use the RRT; the technique proved to be an effective and easily applied method of eliciting truthful responses to sensitive questions and represents an alternative to conventional anonymising techniques.

  3. A study of breast composition using radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal

    2005-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of breast composition is fundamental to the diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases. The goal of the research described in this thesis is to develop a system of experimental methods and theoretical models for studying breast composition using radiographic techniques. This research is divided into three parts. In part one, a technique based on the decomposition of breast components was developed and validated under laboratory conditions through the measurement of mastectomy specimen composition. The technique used double-exposure dual energy subtraction microradiography in conjunction with computed radiography in a five steps sequence, namely; a specimen was exposed at low and high energies alternately, followed by image registration, image subtraction and subsequent analysis of the subtracted image. The technique was then applied to quantify composition of mastectomy specimens. In part two, a quantitative assessment technique of breast density developed using MATLAB based image processing of digital mammograms. A comparison of breast density, classified by computer and subjective evaluation based on Tabar's patterns, was carried out. Inter-observer variations were analysed. In part three, a technique to estimate breast glandularity using phantom attenuation was developed and was used to estimate breast density for a large population sample. The difference in breast glandularity between three ethnic groups was tested for significance using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. This part also included an assessment of mammographic mean glandular dose using phantom-based and patient-based methods. Results from part 1 showed that in the double-exposure dual energy microradiography, the resulting fibroglandular tissue area was in 90.3 % agreement with the corresponding manually delineated areas by radiologists. In part 2 the results of computerised assessment of breast density from digitised mammograms correlated well (r 2 =0.92) with the

  4. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review) Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one fro...

  5. The "Unfinished Sentences" Technique in Studying Loneliness Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the unfinished sentences technique as a soft, qualitative way to collect and analyze sociological data. The article represents an attempt to describe the main features of qualitative approach to designing, conducting and analyzing the semi-structured data of sociological research based on the unfinished sentences technique and aimed at studying the problem of loneliness. The article also proposes a scheme to apply typological analysis principles to the data obtained through the unfinished sentences technique.

  6. Isotope techniques in the study of environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, among its efforts to promote the wider use of isotope techniques in hydrology and related environmental disciplines, organized an International Symposium on Applications of Isotope Techniques in Studying Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere, held in 1993 in Vienna. The broad scientific interest and abundant participation in the symposium, as well as the rapid progress seen in this field since then, encouraged the IAEA to organize a second symposium of this kind. It was held from 14 to 18 April 1997 in Vienna and brought together 177 scientists representing 46 Member States, UNESCO, FAO, WMO, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The symposium was structured in five sessions of oral presentations, a poster session and a round table discussion that focused on trends and future requirements in isotope hydrology and on applications in climate and environmental research. The major themes covered by the presentations included the use of isotopic tracers in studies of atmospheric and hydrospheric changes and of the human impact on water and the environment. Special emphasis was placed on isotopic archives of climatic and environmental change. Some contributions addressed new technical approaches

  7. Mammosomatotroph adenoma of the pituitary associated with gigantism and hyperprolactinemia. A morphological study including immunoelectron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, I A; Horvath, E; Kovacs, K; Smyth, H S; Killinger, D W; Vale, J

    1986-01-01

    A 29-year old giantess with growth hormone excess and hyperprolactinemia underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove her pituitary tumor. Electron microscopy revealed a mammosomatotroph adenoma composed of one cell type. Immunoelectron microscopy, using the immunogold technique, demonstrated predominantly growth hormone or prolactin or a varying mixture of both growth hormone and prolactin in the adenoma cells. The presence of growth hormone and prolactin was found not only in the cytoplasm of the same adenoma cells but also in the same secretory granules. In the nontumorous adenohypophysis, somatotrophs and lactotrophs showed ultrastructural signs of hyperactivity. This finding is in contrast with the presence of suppressed somatotrophs and lactotrophs seen in nontumorous portions of adult pituitaries harboring growth hormone or prolactin-secreting adenomas. Our morphological study reinforces the view that growth hormone-producing pituitary tumors, originating in childhood, are different from those of the adult gland.

  8. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  9. Photoacoustic technique applied to the study of skin and leather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M.; Varela, J.; Hernandez, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the photoacoustic technique is used in bull skin for the determination of thermal and optical properties as a function of the tanning process steps. Our results show that the photoacoustic technique is sensitive to the study of physical changes in this kind of material due to the tanning process

  10. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    and other Greenhouse Gases, has published technical documents on isotope measurement techniques for greenhouse gases (IAEATECDOC-1268 and 1269) and hosted international symposia on Applications of Isotope Techniques in Studying Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere in 1993 and on Isotope Techniques in the Study of Environmental Change in 1997. The International Conference on The Study of Environmental Change Using Isotope Techniques, held in Vienna in April 2001, was jointly co-ordinated by the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences (NAPC) and the Marine Environment Laboratory (NAML) of the IAEA and co-sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Japanese Science and Technology Corporation. The conference was attended by experts from 39 Member States and international organizations. The major themes included isotope tracing of atmosphere - hydrosphere and atmosphere - ocean interactions, palaeoclimate archives, and development of new analytical techniques. These proceedings are anticipated to serve as a valuable resource for those involved in research on climate change and on the impact of climate change on water resources. Each of the 94 contributions contained in this publication was indexed separately.

  11. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    and other Greenhouse Gases, has published technical documents on isotope measurement techniques for greenhouse gases (IAEATECDOC-1268 and 1269) and hosted international symposia on Applications of Isotope Techniques in Studying Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere in 1993 and on Isotope Techniques in the Study of Environmental Change in 1997. The International Conference on The Study of Environmental Change Using Isotope Techniques, held in Vienna in April 2001, was jointly co-ordinated by the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences (NAPC) and the Marine Environment Laboratory (NAML) of the IAEA and co-sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Japanese Science and Technology Corporation. The conference was attended by experts from 39 Member States and international organizations. The major themes included isotope tracing of atmosphere - hydrosphere and atmosphere - ocean interactions, palaeoclimate archives, and development of new analytical techniques. These proceedings are anticipated to serve as a valuable resource for those involved in research on climate change and on the impact of climate change on water resources. Each of the 94 contributions contained in this publication was indexed separately

  12. Comparative study of low-energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging promise to be a revolutionary tool for global imaging of space plasmas. The technical challenges of LENA detection include separating them from the intense ambient UV without losing information about their incident trajectories, quantifying their trajectories, and obtaining high-sensitivity measurements. Two techniques that have been proposed for this purpose are based on fundamentally different atomic interaction mechanisms between LENAs and a solid; LENA transmission through an ultra thin foil and LENA reflection from a solid surface. Both of these methods provide LENA ionization (for subsequent removal from the UV by electrostatic deflection) and secondary electron emission (for time-of-flight start pulse generation and/or coincidence). They present a comparative study of the transmission and reflection techniques based on differences in atomic interactions with solids and surfaces. Transmission methods are shown to be superior for secondary electron emission rather than reflection methods. Furthermore, transmission methods are shown to be a sufficient for LENA imaging at LENA energies of approximately 1 keV to greater than 30 keV. A hybrid instrument using reflection from a low work function surface for LENA ionization and transmission for secondary electron emission is optimal for imaging of LENAs with energies less than approximately 1 keV

  13. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  14. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  15. Combustion modeling including heat loss using flamelet generated manifolds: a validation study in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottino, G.M.; Fancello, A.; Falcone, M.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    In numerical combustion applications the Flamelet Generated Manifolds technique (FGM) is being used at an increasingly number of occasions. This technique is an approach to reduce the chemistry efficiently and accurately. In the present work FGM is coupled to an OpenFOAM-based CFD solver. The

  16. Acupuncture for neurological disorders in the Cochrane reviews:Characteristics of included reviews and studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deren Wang; Weimin Yang; Ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize Cochrane reviews of acupuncture for neurological disorders, and characteristics of included reviews and studies.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of the Cochrane Library (Issue 7 of 12, July 2010) was performed with the key word "acupuncture" and systematic evaluations for acupuncture for neurological disorders were screened.STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders were included, and the characteristics of these reviews were analyzed based on methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basic characteristics, methodological quality, main reasons for excluding trials, results and conclusions of Cochrane reviews were assessed.RESULTS: A total of 18 Cochrane systematic reviews were included, including 13 completed reviews and five research protocols. The 13 completed reviews involved 111 randomized controlled trials, including 43 trials (38.7%) conducted in China, 47 trials (42.3%) using sham-acupuncture or placebo as control, 15 trials (13.5%) with relatively high quality, 91 trials (81.9%) reporting data on follow-up. Primary outcomes used in the Cochrane reviews were reported by 65 trials (58.6%), and adverse events were reported in 11 trials (9.9%). Two hundred and eighty three trials were excluded. Two reviews on headache suggested that acupuncture is a valuable non-drug treatment for patients with chronic or recurrent headache, and has better curative effects on migraine compared with preventative drug treatment. CONCLUSION: Of the Cochrane reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders, two reviews evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating headaches drew positive conculsions, while other reviews did not obtain positive conclusions due to a small sample size or low methodological quality. The methodological quality of acupuncture trials needs further improvement.

  17. The efficacy of the 'mind map' study technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Paul; Hussain, Fearzana; Hennessy, Enid

    2002-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of using the 'mind map' study technique to improve factual recall from written information. To obtain baseline data, subjects completed a short test based on a 600-word passage of text prior to being randomly allocated to form two groups: 'self-selected study technique' and 'mind map'. After a 30-minute interval the self-selected study technique group were exposed to the same passage of text previously seen and told to apply existing study techniques. Subjects in the mind map group were trained in the mind map technique and told to apply it to the passage of text. Recall was measured after an interfering task and a week later. Measures of motivation were taken. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London. 50 second- and third-year medical students. Recall of factual material improved for both the mind map and self-selected study technique groups at immediate test compared with baseline. However this improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group. At 1 week, the factual knowledge in the mind map group was greater by 10% (adjusting for baseline) (95% CI -1% to 22%). However motivation for the technique used was lower in the mind map group; if motivation could have been made equal in the groups, the improvement with mind mapping would have been 15% (95% CI 3% to 27%). Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users.

  18. Combined interpretation of multiple geophysical techniques: an archaeological case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, S.; Reichmann, S.; Tronicke, J.; Lück, E.

    2009-04-01

    In order to locate and ascertain the dimensions of an ancient orangery, we explored an area of about 70 m x 60 m in the Rheinsberg Palace Garden (Germany) with multiple geophysical techniques. The Rheinsberg Park, situated about 100 km northwest of Berlin, Germany, was established by the Prussian emperors in the 18th century. Due to redesign of the architecture and the landscaping during the past 300 years, buildings were dismantled and detailed knowledge about some original buildings got lost. We surveyed an area close to a gazebo where, after historical sources, an orangery was planned around the year 1740. However, today it is not clear to what extent this plan has been realized and if remains of this building are still buried in the subsurface. Applied geophysical techniques include magnetic gradiometry, frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and direct current (DC) resistivity mapping as well as ground penetrating radar (GPR). To get an overview of the site, we performed FDEM electrical conductivity mapping using an EM38 instrument and magnetic gradiometry with caesium magnetometers. Both data sets were collected with an in- and crossline data point spacing of ca. 10 cm and 50 cm, respectively. DC resistivity surveying was performed using a pole-pole electrode configuration with an electrode spacing of 1.5 m and a spacing of 1.0 m between individual readings. A 3-D GPR survey was conducted using 200 MHz antennae and in- and crossline spacing of ca. 10 cm and 40 cm, respectively. A standard processing sequence including 3-D migration was applied. A combined interpretation of all collected data sets illustrates that the magnetic gradient and the EM38 conductivity maps is are dominated by anomalies from metallic water pipes from belonging to the irrigation system of the park. The DC resistivity map outlines a rectangular area which might indicate the extension of a former building south of the gazebo. The 3-D GPR data set provides further insights about

  19. HRTEM study of α-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic projection axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of α-AlMnSi is examined by atomic resolution high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer-based image matching techniques. Six distinct zone axes are examined; including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes of the structural motifs, which have m3-bar 5 icosahedral symmetry. The results provide a sound basis for understanding HRTEM images of the quasicrystalline alloy i-AlMnSi; thus it was examined to what extent the requirements for obtaining so-called structure images of complex alloy structures may be met experimentally and define when the images may be reliably interpreted on the basis of computer simulation and image-matching at about 0.17nm resolution. Most difficulty was experienced in obtaining the experimental images, especially for the non-crystallographic zones, which are very sensitive to slight changes in orientation off the desired zone axis or projection, the rate at which the crystal thickness is increasing (wedge-angle) and the orientation of the surfaces of the specimen. Surface amorphous layers due to oxidation and/or electron-induced irradiation damage also limit the efficiency of the HRTEM analysis. For the thin specimens used for HRTEM, both the electron diffraction patterns and the HRTEM images are characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. It is suggested that this Im3-bar symmetry may be an example of a statistical symmetry, where the local symmetry is close to Pm3-bar but the average symmetry is Im3-bar. The transition from Pm3-bar to Im3-bar may be understood in terms of an analysis of small changes in the outer shells of the large icosahedral structural elements which are located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  20. HRTEM study of {alpha}-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic projection axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-06-01

    The structure of {alpha}-AlMnSi is examined by atomic resolution high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer-based image matching techniques. Six distinct zone axes are examined; including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes of the structural motifs, which have m3-bar 5 icosahedral symmetry. The results provide a sound basis for understanding HRTEM images of the quasicrystalline alloy i-AlMnSi; thus it was examined to what extent the requirements for obtaining so-called structure images of complex alloy structures may be met experimentally and define when the images may be reliably interpreted on the basis of computer simulation and image-matching at about 0.17nm resolution. Most difficulty was experienced in obtaining the experimental images, especially for the non-crystallographic zones, which are very sensitive to slight changes in orientation off the desired zone axis or projection, the rate at which the crystal thickness is increasing (wedge-angle) and the orientation of the surfaces of the specimen. Surface amorphous layers due to oxidation and/or electron-induced irradiation damage also limit the efficiency of the HRTEM analysis. For the thin specimens used for HRTEM, both the electron diffraction patterns and the HRTEM images are characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. It is suggested that this Im3-bar symmetry may be an example of a statistical symmetry, where the local symmetry is close to Pm3-bar but the average symmetry is Im3-bar. The transition from Pm3-bar to Im3-bar may be understood in terms of an analysis of small changes in the outer shells of the large icosahedral structural elements which are located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. The study of cultural objects by nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Tulio A.

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of the techniques that are used at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina for the characterization and study of cultural and archaeological specimens. A short history of these activities is also given. (author)

  2. A Comparative Study between Universal Eclectic Septoplasty Technique and Cottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral Neto, Odim Ferreira do; Mizoguchi, Flavio Massao; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Maniglia, João Jairney; Maniglia, Fábio Fabrício; Maniglia, Ricardo Fabrício

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  Since the last century surgical correction of nasal septum deviation has been improved. The Universal Eclectic Technique was recently reported and there are still few studies dedicated to address this surgical approach. Objective  The objective of this study is to compare the results of septal deviation correction achieved using the Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) with those obtained through Cottle's Technique. Methods  This is a prospective study with two consecutive case series totaling 90 patients (40 women and 50 men), aged between 18 and 55 years. We divided patients into two groups according to the surgical approach. Fifty-three patients underwent septoplasty through Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) and thirty-seven patients were submitted to classical Cottle's septoplasty technique. All patients have answered the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale (NOSE) questionnaire to assess pre and postoperative nasal obstruction. Results  Statistical analysis showed a significantly shorter operating time for the UET group. Nasal edema assessment performed seven days after the surgery showed a prevalence of mild edema in UET group and moderate edema in Cottle's technique group. In regard to complication rates, UET presented a single case of septal hematoma while in Cottle's technique group we observed: 02 cases of severe edemas, 01 case of incapacitating headache, and 01 complaint of nasal pain. Conclusion  The Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) has proven to be a safe and effective surgical technique with faster symptomatic improvement, low complication rates, and reduced surgical time when compared with classical Cottle's technique. PMID:28680499

  3. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables

  4. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  5. Public Management and Administration Studies. Should we Include Marketind in Our Curricula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. VÁZQUEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of continuous adaptation of public institutions to requirements of framing where they perform day by day, Public Management and Administration is behaving once and again as a “reinvented” discipline, aiming a new kind of rational, innovative public entities that focus their activities towards an effective achievement of their intended results and benefits. Concepts such as those of “efficiency”, “effectiveness”, “responsibility”, “organizational culture”, etc. are now not only applied to business disciplines, but also to Public Management and Administration. At this point, Marketing has proved to be an useful subject in PMA curricula, not only being in demand by students and syllabi designers, but also by experts in the public field. However, applying marketing techniques and procedures in the same way as used in private business is clearly nonsense. We must consider a proper “public marketing” or “public sector marketing” development. In this paper we debate on these issues, as well as present an overview into the situation of Spanish public universities offering PMA studies, just when they are facing the Bologna adaptation requirements. As a conclusion, some comments for reflection are suggested.

  6. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  7. A study on quantification of unavailability of DPPS with fault tolerant techniques considering fault tolerant techniques' characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. G.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, H. E.; Seung, P. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    With the improvement of digital technologies, digital I and C systems have included more various fault tolerant techniques than conventional analog I and C systems have, in order to increase fault detection and to help the system safely perform the required functions in spite of the presence of faults. So, in the reliability evaluation of digital systems, the fault tolerant techniques (FTTs) and their fault coverage must be considered. To consider the effects of FTTs in a digital system, there have been several studies on the reliability of digital model. Therefore, this research based on literature survey attempts to develop a model to evaluate the plant reliability of the digital plant protection system (DPPS) with fault tolerant techniques considering detection and process characteristics and human errors. Sensitivity analysis is performed to ascertain important variables from the fault management coverage and unavailability based on the proposed model

  8. Study of laser monitoring techniques of pollutants in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T. A. A.

    2006-01-01

    There are several techniques used as a tool for monitoring the pollutions in the atmosphere, where the laser radiation sending through the sample of atmosphere to be investigated ether transmission or the scattering of the light, all the way through a variety of different techniques for monitoring the air quality. We are showed in this study the comparison of detection techniques through measuring the light scattered in some particular direction, rather than measuring direction the attenuation due to two type of scattering (Rayieh scattering and Mie scattering) during (optical Radar, Roman backscattering and Resonance fluorescence).(Author)

  9. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  10. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  11. Commitment to Study as a Technique to Improve Exam Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a technique that could increase study time by reducing procrastination. Randomly selected college students (N=197) made written commitments to study for an exam. Students in the commitment condition reported significantly more study time than did students in a control group; they also performed significantly better on the exam. (RJM)

  12. An easy irradiation technique (partial half-beam) to reduce renal dose in radiotherapy of cervical cancer including paraaortic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorwerk, H.; Wagner, D.; Christiansen, H.; Hess, C.F.; Hermann, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: for radiation treatment of patients with cervical cancer and a high risk for paraaortic lymph node involvement, an easy three-dimensional (3-D) conformal irradiation technique (partial half-beam [PHB]) for protection of organs at risk, especially of renal tissue, was developed. Patients and methods: in five consecutive female patients a computed tomography scan was performed. Dose-volume histograms of the renal tissue and other organs at risk were analyzed for PHB, three other 3-D conformal techniques, and an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Results: the PHB technique reduced the renal volume and volumes of other organs at risk exposed to radiation doses when comparing all patients to the other 3-D conformal techniques. With use of the IMRT technique more renal tissue volume received very low radiation doses (≤ 6.8 Gy) whereas the D 10 was lower than with the PHB technique. Conclusion: in female patients with cervical cancer and high risk for paraaortic lymph node involvement, the use of the PHB technique is recommended to reduce renal radiation exposure, if no IMRT technique should be applied. The PHB technique is very easily and fast applicable. (orig.)

  13. [Histopathological characteristics of genital and breast cancer included in epidemiologic study cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Mioara; Azoicăi, Doina

    2009-01-01

    The correct management of genitals and breast cancers and the improving of the preventional and therapeutical successes ratio involve the knowledge of the histopathological features of these nosological entities which have different origins, different risk factors, different simptomatology and also different prognosis. The descriptive evaluation of the histopathological features of the genitals and breast cancers to women from North-Eastern region of Romania. We have been included in the study 96 women (age range 23-77 years, mean 54,49) diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer at the hospital admission, residency in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics within 23 months. The following main parameters were assessed: histological types, stage at diagnosis, Pap test. After data collection, these have been codified and included in a MS Excel Database, in order to be processed with SPSS 16 and EpiInfo 3.5.1. (2008) Softwares. The following cases' repartition on diagnostic types was observed: breast cancer (44 cases), cervical cancer (24 cases), endometrial cancer (16 cases) and ovarian cancer (12 cases). In our study, the most affected range of age was 40-69 years for breast cancer, 30-59 years for cervical cancer, over 6 years for endometrial cancer and 50-59 years for ovarian cancer. For the cervical neoplasia, 40% of analyzed cases were in incipient stages (in situ to IB stage lessions). More than 50% of breast cancer cases have been diagnosed in advances stages (IIB to IIIC stages). For the endometrium carcinoma, 45% of cases have been identified in incipient stages (in situ to IC). The ovarian neoplasia cases have been detected, most frequently, in advanced stages (III and IV). 25% of women which participated in our study had showed cervical changes. From a histopathological point of view, for cervical neoplasia, squamous carcinoma was the most frequent type (87%), for breast neoplasia--invasive ductal carcinoma (80

  14. Studies of surface loss of materials by TLA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    Thin Layer Activation technique is very sensitive and useful for the study of surface wear, corrosion and erosion in various machine or engineering components. It is routinely used in automobiles, power and nuclear and oil industries for on-line monitoring and testing. Its potential in application to bio-engineering material is reported. One of the limitations of the technique is the availability of accelerator

  15. Studies of electron transitions using solid He pressure techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the topology of the Fermi surfaces of metals occur with variation of temperature or stoichiometry in a number of metallic systems of current interest. Pressure generated by a variety of techniques has proven to be the most useful experimental variable in the study of these transitions, but in most cases only solid He techniques yield sufficiently hydrostatic conditions to permit direct measurements of the Fermi surface as a function of pressure

  16. Electron diffraction study of {alpha}-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-06-01

    The structure of crystalline {alpha}-AlMnSi is examined by electron diffraction. Six distinct zone axes are examined, including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes, allowing the space group symmetry to be studied. Electron diffraction patterns characteristic of Pm3-bar were obtained for thicker specimens. However, for very thin specimens, as used for HRTEM imaging, the electron diffraction patterns were characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. The structural basis of the Pm3-bar to Im3-bar transformation may be understood in terms of an analysis of the icosahedral structural elements located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. A method for indexing the non-crystallographic zone axis diffraction patterns is described. An electron diffraction pattern of the 5-fold axis of the quasicrystalline phase i-AlMnSi is also included; this is compared with the experimental results and calculations for the [0{tau}1] axis of Pm3-bar and Im3-bar crystalline phases. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  17. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  18. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  19. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  20. A Study on the Operation Strategy for Combined Accident including TLOFW accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Gook Young; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of a feed-and-bleed (F-B) operation when the loss of coolant accident and failure of secondary side occur. An F-B operation directly cools down the reactor coolant system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. The plant is not always necessary the F-B operation when the secondary side is failed. It is not necessary to initiate an F-B operation in the case of a medium or large break because these cases correspond to low RCS pressure sequences when the secondary side is failed. If the break size is too small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the F-B operation is necessary. Therefore, in the case of a combined accident including a secondary cooling system failure, the provision of clear information will play a critical role in the operators' decision to initiate an F-B operation. This study focuses on the how we establish the operation strategy for combined accident including the failure of secondary side in consideration of plant and operating conditions. Previous studies have usually focused on accidents involving a TLOFW accident. The plant conditions to make the operators confused seriously are usually the combined accident because the ORP only focuses on a single accident and FRP is less familiar with operators. The relationship between CET and PCT under various plant conditions is important to decide the limitation of initiating the F-B operation to prevent core damage

  1. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  2. Review of neutron activation analysis in the standardization and study of reference materials, including its application to radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) plays a very important role in the certification of reference materials (RMs) and their characterization, including homogeneity testing. The features of the method are briefly reviewed, particularly aspects relating to its completely independent nuclear basis, its virtual freedom from blank problems, and its capacity for self-verification. This last aspect, arising from the essentially isotopic character of NAA, can be exploited by using different nuclear reactions and induced nuclides, and the possibility of employing two modes, one instrumental (nondestructive), the other radiochemical (destructive). This enables the derivation of essentially independent analytical information and the unique capacity of NAA for selfvalidation. The application of NAA to quantify natural or man-made radionuclides such as uranium, thorium, 237 Np, 129 I and 230 Th is discussed, including its advantages over conventional radiometric methods and its usefulness in providing independent data for nuclides where other confirmatory analyses are impossible, or are only recently becoming available through newer 'atom counting' techniques. Certain additional, prospective uses of NAA in the study of RMs and potential RMs are mentioned, including transmutation reactions, creation of endogenously radiolabelled matrices for production and study of RMs (such as dissolution and leaching tests, use as incorporated radiotracers for chemical recovery correction), and the possibility of molecular activation analysis for specification. (orig.)

  3. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  4. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs

  5. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  7. Should abdominal sequences be included in prostate cancer MR staging studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, S.H.; Lavelle, L.P.; Purcell, Y.M.; Quinlan, D.M.; Skehan, S.J.; Collins, C.D.; McMahon, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESUR guideline that abdominal MR sequences are reserved for high-risk prostate cancer is tested. • Routine abdominal sequences are of low yield in prostate cancer MR staging. • Routine abdominal staging sequences frequently result in incidental findings. • Abdominal staging sequences should be reserved for high-risk prostate cancer cases. - Abstract: Objectives: Prostate cancer staging MR examinations commonly include abdominal sequences to assess for non-regional (common iliac or para-aortic) nodal metastasis. In our experience the diagnostic yield of this is limited, but incidental findings are frequent, often necessitating further investigations. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of abdominal sequences in routine prostate cancer MR staging studies. Methods: Findings on abdominal sequences of consecutive MRI prostate studies performed for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer between September 2011 and September 2013 were reviewed with respect to adenopathy and additional incidental findings. Results were correlated with Gleason grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in each case. Results: 355 MRI prostate examinations were reviewed. 4 (1.1%) showed enlarged non-regional lymph nodes. Incidental findings were found in 82(23.1%) cases, neccessitating further investigation in 45 (12.7%) cases. Enlarged non-regional nodes were associated with higher PSA level and Gleason grade (p = 0.007, p = 0.005 respectively). With a combined threshold of PSA > 20 ng/mL and/or Gleason grade ≥8 the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100, 60, 3 and 100% respectively for predicting the presence of non-regional adenopathy. Conclusions: Routine abdominal sequences are of very low yield in routine prostate cancer MR staging, frequently resulting in incidental findings requiring further work-up and should be reserved for high-risk cases. Our experience supports the use of an abdominal staging sequence in high

  8. Application of positron annihilation techniques for semiconductor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwasz, G.P.; Zecca, A.; Brusa, R.S.; Pliszka, D.

    2004-01-01

    Positron annihilation techniques, being non-destructive, allowing depth profiling down to a few micrometers and detecting open-volume defects (vacancies, dislocations etc.) at single ppm concentrations constitute a valuable and complementary method, compared to other solid-state-physics studies. We give examples of investigation in the field of semiconductors with different techniques, both with and without use of positron low-energy beams. The Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line method and the slow positron beam were used to study helium-implanted silicon and the surface reduction processes in semiconducting glasses. The positron lifetime technique and coincidence spectra of the Doppler broadening were used for systematic studies of metals and semiconductors. Doppler-coincidence method was then used to identify the kinetics of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon

  9. Studies on the reproductive efficiency of cattle using radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1982 the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, initiated a co-ordinated research programme with the aim of stimulating studies to characterize and improve the reproductive performance of indigenous cattle under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in developing countries. This publication represents the results of the five year co-ordinated research programme, individual papers being essentially a synthesis of the work presented by the participants of the programme at the final research co-ordination meeting held in Vienna from 5 to 9 September 1988. Concurrently with the above mentioned research co-ordination meeting, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division held a consultants meeting on the interaction between reproduction, disease, nutrition and the environment, and on field reproductive management strategies. The papers presented by the consultants as well as their recommendations are included in this publication. These recommendations will form the basis of the future direction of livestock reproduction research programmes supported by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  11. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extensive theoretical study on the excited states of the PCl+ molecule including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Siyuan; Liu, Yufang

    2017-07-01

    The entire 23 Λ-S states of the PCl+ molecule have been studied by using the high-level relativistic MRCI+Q method with full-electron aug-cc-pCVQZ-DK basis set. The potential energy curves(PECs) and wavefunctions of the states have been calculated. From the PECs, the spectroscopic constants of the bound states are also determined, and the good agreements could be found with the experiments. The high density region of states exhibits many PECs' crossings, which lead to complicated interaction of the states. Here, the interactions arising from the dipolar interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect have been discussed in detail. Under the influence of the SOC effect, the A2Π state is perturbed by the 14Σ- state. Considering the SOC effect, total 45 Ω states are generated from the original 23 Λ-S states. The transition properties are also predicted, including the transition dipole moments, Franck-Condon factors, and radiative lifetimes. The lifetimes of the transitions A2Π1/2-X2Π1/2 and A2Π3/2-X2Π3/2 are determined to be 478.9 ns and 487.0 ns(v'=0), respectively.

  13. Modern techniques for studying biofilm-influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, I.B.

    1998-01-01

    In natural and made-made environments the presence of biofilms on surfaces of metals and their alloys influences electrochemistry at the biofilm/substratum interface, enhancing or inhibiting corrosion reactions. Due to the complexity of the biocorrosion phenomenon a range of techniques is commonly employed to study mechanisms involved. In addition to traditional methods of corrosion investigation such as electrochemical measurements and light and scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Modern techniques of surface science proved to be very useful in elucidating biofilm/metal interactions. Recent applications of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to biocorrosion studies allowed better understanding of the biologically influenced metal deterioration process. The scope and promise of these latter techniques will be discussed and their use illustrated on practical examples. (Author)

  14. Canine ovarian neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 71 cases, including histology of 12 granulosa cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, A K; Greenlee, P G

    1987-11-01

    In a retrospective study of 71 primary ovarian tumors in the dog, epithelial tumors (46%) were more common than sex cord stromal (34%) and germ cell tumors (20%). There were more adenocarcinomas (64%) than adenomas. Sex cord stromal tumors were equally divided into Sertoli-Leydig (12/24) and granulosa cell tumors (12/24). There were equal numbers (7/14) of dysgerminomas and teratomas among the germ cell tumors. Most teratomas (6/7) were malignant. Most granulosa cell tumors were solid; two were mostly cystic. Patterns included sheets of round and ovoid to spindle-shaped cells separated by thin, fibrovascular stroma; neoplastic cells formed rosettes or Call-Exner bodies. In some areas, neoplastic cells were in cords or columns and formed cyst-like structures. Four granulosa cell tumors were macrofollicular, having cysts lined with granulosa cells. Median ages of dogs with different ovarian neoplasms were similar; all were more than 10 years old, except the dogs with teratoma (mean age, 4 years). Most neoplasms were unilateral (84%), except the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, many of which were bilateral (36%). Size of ovarian neoplasms varied (2 cm3 to 15,000 cm3). Twenty-nine percent of neoplasms metastasized; adenocarcinomas (48%) and malignant teratomas (50%) had the highest rates, and distant metastasis was more common in malignant teratoma. Endometrial hyperplasia was in 67% of the dogs; it was most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors (95%). Uterine malignancy was not seen in dogs with granulosa cell tumors, although hyperplasia endometrium was in all dogs with this tumor. Cysts in the contralateral ovaries were most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors.

  15. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  16. Neutron diffraction technique as a method for material studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhorma, B.; Labrim, H.; Gandou, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Morocco's first Nuclear Research has been constructed in CNESTEN. The reactor divergence has been tested, and the nominal power of 2MW was successfully achieved. The reactor has 4 beam ports two of them are projected for neutron scattering. Such technique allows studying the crystallographic and magnetic structures of materials using the thermal neutrons produced in the reactor. the powder diffractometer has been designed. Component reception and installation procedures are in progress. The second experiment consists on small angle neutron scattering that allows the study of soft matter and polymers in the range of 1-50 nm. The third technique that can complete the two previous is the 4-circle neutron spectrometry which is designed mainly to study structural properties of the mono-crystalline material and texture.This technique is complementary to the X-ray diffraction already available in CNESTEN. Some applications of this technique are: --to determine the crystallographic and magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials.-- to study the texture in metals and alloys.-- to perform holography measurement

  17. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  19. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  20. Study of a new glass matrix by the thermoluminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Pamela Z.; Vedovato, Uly P.; Cunha, Diego M. da; Dantas, Noelio O.; Silva, Anielle C.A.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Carrera, Betzabel N.S.; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2015-01-01

    The thermoluminescence technique is widely used for both personal and for high-dose dosimetry. In this work, the thermoluminescence technique was utilized to study a new glass matrix, with nominal composition of 20Li 2 CO 3 .10Al 2 O 3 .20BaO.50B 2 O 3 (mol%), irradiated with different doses in a 60 Co source. The glow curves and the dose-response curve were obtained for radiation doses between 50 Gy and 900 Gy. The results showed that this new glass matrix presents potential use in high-dose dosimetry. (author)

  1. Study of the ultrasonic technique of elapsed time of notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.C.F.L.; Rebello, J.M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the ultrasonic technique of elapsed time in the dimensionment of notch inclined of 15 and 30 degree and of depth of 5 and 10 mm using the superficial Rayleigh wave and the mode conversion, with a headstock transmitter and other receiver. The dimensionment of notch and of the binding of the piece were made with headstock in different positions. Between the various results obtained can be mentioned the increase of the dimensionment, by two techniques, with the increase of the angle and/or of the depth. (V.R.B.)

  2. Preliminary Studies Of A Phase Modulation Technique For Measuring Chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measure the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper instead modulates the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. This technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it

  3. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of a 3-MV proton accelerator for study of noble gases, including laser ionization of excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.; Judish, J.P.; Nayfeh, M.H.; Parks, J.E.; Payne, M.G.; Wagner, E.B.

    1974-01-01

    The use of a pulsed 3-MV accelerator to study energy pathways in the noble gases is described. The objectives of pathways research are to obtain (1) information on the spectrum of excited states produced by a charged particle in a noble gas, (2) the rate of decay of the various states through various channels as a function of gas pressure, and (3) the modification of the decay channels due to the introduction of foreign species. A new energy pathways model is presented for helium as a general illustration. A method for the study of excited states, using a laser ionization technique is reported. Use is made of a laser which is tuned to a resonance transition between the desired excited state and some higher excited state. Photons in the same pulse photoionize the higher excited state; thus the ionization current vs photon wavelength has a resonance structure. Absolute yields of selected excited states can be obtained whenever the photon fluence per pulse is large enough to saturate the ionization current. A general summary is given of experimental facilities which include a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, electronics for measuring radiation lifetimes, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometers, and a pulsed laser facility for direct study of excited states. Finally, the relevance of pathways research to (1) the interaction of radiation with matter, (2) the development of gas lasers, and (3) methods of ultrasensitive elemental analysis is pointed out

  5. Study of analysis techniques of thermoluminescent dosimeters response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Walber Amorim

    2002-01-01

    The Personal Monitoring Service of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares uses in its dosemeter the TLD 700 material . The TLD's analysis is carried out using a Harshaw-Bicron model 6600 automatic reading system. This system uses dry air instead of the traditional gaseous nitrogen. This innovation brought advantages to the service but introduced uncertainties in the reference of the detectors; one of these was observed for doses below 0,5 mSv. In this work different techniques of analysis of the TLD response were investigated and compared, involving dose values in this interval. These techniques include thermal pre-treatment, and different kinds of the glow curves analysis methods were investigated. Obtained results showed the necessity of developing a specific software that permits the automatic background subtraction for the glow curves for each dosemeter . This software was developed and it bean tested. Preliminary results showed the software increase the response reproducibility. (author)

  6. A clinicopathological study of various oral cancer diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignant tumors in the head and neck regions with high incident rate and mortality rate in the developed countries than in the developing countries. Generally, the survival rate of cancer patients may increase when diagnosed at early stage, followed by prompt treatment and therapy. Recently, cancer diagnosis and therapy design for a specific cancer patient have been performed with the advanced computer-aided techniques. The responses of the cancer therapy could be continuously monitored to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment process that hardly requires diagnostic result as quick as possible to improve the quality and patient care. This paper gives an overview of oral cancer occurrence, different types, and various diagnostic techniques. In addition, a brief introduction is given to various stages of immunoanalysis including tissue image preparation, whole slide imaging, and microscopic image analysis.

  7. Study of a diffusion flamelet model, with preferential diffusion effects included

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Bongers, H.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    The non-premixed flamelet model of Peters [1] (model1), which does not include preferential diffusion effects is investigated. Two similar models are presented, but without the assumption of unity Lewis numbers. One of these models was derived by Peters & Pitsch [2] (model2), while the other one was

  8. Finite element study of a HDR-RPV-section including a nozzle under thermal shock transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Katzenmeier, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Wanner, R; Mercier, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1988-12-31

    This document presents a finite element study of a reactor pressure vessel section under thermal stresses. The strength properties of the vessel walls are studied as well as cracks due to the thermo-shock transient. (TEC). 6 refs.

  9. Rare event techniques applied in the Rasmussen study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Rasmussen Study estimated public risks from commercial nuclear power plant accidents, and therefore the statistics of rare events had to be treated. Two types of rare events were specifically handled, those rare events which were probabilistically rare events and those which were statistically rare events. Four techniques were used to estimate probabilities of rare events. These techniques were aggregating data samples, discretizing ''continuous'' events, extrapolating from minor to catastrophic severities, and decomposing events using event trees and fault trees. In aggregating or combining data the goal was to enlarge the data sample so that the rare event was no longer rare, i.e., so that the enlarged data sample contained one or more occurrences of the event of interest. This aggregation gave rise to random variable treatments of failure rates, occurrence frequencies, and other characteristics estimated from data. This random variable treatment can be interpreted as being comparable to an empirical Bayes technique or a Bayesian technique. In the discretizing event technique, events of a detailed nature were grouped together into a grosser event for purposes of analysis as well as for data collection. The treatment of data characteristics as random variables helped to account for the uncertainties arising from this discretizing. In the severity extrapolation technique a severity variable was associated with each event occurrence for the purpose of predicting probabilities of catastrophic occurrences. Tail behaviors of distributions therefore needed to be considered. Finally, event trees and fault trees were used to express accident occurrences and system failures in terms of more basic events for which data existed. Common mode failures and general dependencies therefore needed to be treated. 2 figures

  10. Assessment Techniques in the Second-Cycle Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Kerevičienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and evaluation are among the essential functions performed by an educator. What is more, they are closely related to the communication of the teaching process efficiency in terms of verification of learner and educator expectations, determination of learning and teaching quality achievement, and generalization of educational activities. The present study aims at the analysis of assessment techniques applied in the master degree linguistic studies. Initially, a brief theoretical overview of both formal and informal assessment me- thods is provided, with the focus on their distinctive features and ways of application in the light of Bloom’s taxonomy and Dublin description representing the competence requirements set for the gain of definite skills. Further, the results of the survey (conducted at Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University are described. Finally, the eligible assessment techniques serving the purpose of efficient educational process in the second-cycle study process are identified.

  11. Positron Plasma Control Techniques Applied to Studies of Cold Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, Ryo

    2003-01-01

    In the year 2002, two experiments at CERN succeeded in producing cold antihydrogen atoms, first ATHENA and subsequently ATRAP. Following on these results, it is now feasible to use antihydrogen to study the properties of antimatter. In the ATHENA experiment, the cold antihydrogen atoms are produced by mixing large amounts of antiprotons and positrons in a nested Penning trap. The complicated behaviors of the charged particles are controlled and monitored by plasma manipulation techniques. The antihydrogen events are studied using position sensitive detectors and the evidence of production of antihydrogen atoms is separated out with the help of analysis software. This thesis covers the first production of cold antihydrogen in the first section as well as the further studies of cold antihydrogen performed by using the plasma control techniques in the second section.

  12. System study of alternative waste management techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity

  13. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  14. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (φ/ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13 C a , chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  15. Button fixation technique for Achilles tendon reinsertion: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awogni, David; Chauvette, Guillaume; Lemieux, Marie-Line; Balg, Frédéric; Langelier, Ève; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insertional tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon is a frequent and disabling pathologic entity. Operative treatment is indicated for patients for whom nonoperative management has failed. The treatment can consist of the complete detachment of the tendon insertion and extensive debridement. We biomechanically tested a new operative technique that uses buttons for fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion on the posterior calcaneal tuberosity and compared it with 2 standard bone anchor techniques. A total of 40 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were used to compare 3 fixation techniques for reinserting the Achilles tendon: single row anchors, double row anchors, and buttons. The ultimate loads and failure mechanisms were recorded. The button assembly (median load 764 N, range 713 to 888) yielded a median fixation strength equal to 202% (range 137% to 251%) of that obtained with the double row anchors (median load 412 N, range 301 to 571) and 255% (range 213% to 317%) of that obtained with the single row anchors (median load 338 N, range 241 to 433N). The most common failure mechanisms were suture breakage with the buttons (55%) and pull out of the implant with the double row (70%) and single row (85%) anchors. The results of the present biomechanical cadaver study have shown that Achilles tendon reinsertion fixation using the button technique provides superior pull out strength than the bone anchors tested. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital radiography: study of an alternative technique to conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Thomas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital radiography, already in use in many industrial applications, appears as a potential alternative technique to conventional radiography in the nuclear field (and more especially to the inspection of welded joints). The advantages of digital radiography are a reduced explosion risk (due to the use of lower energy and activity sources), a lower installation time, a reduced exclusion zone, and the absence of effluents. However, to the contrary of the US case, this technique may not be used in France as it is not referenced in the regulating codes (RCCM, etc.). Areva has launched a R and D study in order to characterize the equivalencies between digital and conventional radiography. First results of this study are given

  17. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Cortes-Toro, E.

    1996-01-01

    Several studies on bone densitometry measurements in healthy individuals have been performed in Chile. However due to the fact that different techniques and no uniform protocols have been used to select patients, the results obtained are not suitable as reference values for a normal chilean population. Therefore, foreign reference values are used. This study will select healthy normal individuals, typical urban chilean residents, and measure bone density using the DEXA technique. The selection will be made according to a well defined protocol. Serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone remodeling, will be measured in all subjects as a means-a assessing bone metabolism. Bone trace element composition will be measured in selected subjects. Samples will be obtained by biopsy or through normal surgical procedures and will be analyzed by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  18. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The development and clinical application of a number of nuclear techniques for studying body composition is described. These techniques include delayed neutron activation for the analysis of calcium, phsophorus, sodium and chlorine and prompt-gamma activation for the measurement of nitrogen and cadmium. In addition, the measurement of in vivo iron by nuclear resonance scattering and lead by x-ray fluorescence is described. (author)

  19. Kundalini yoga as mutual recovery: a feasibility study including children in care and their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Elvira; Ball, Mark; Brown, Poppy; Crepaz-Keay, David; Haslam-Jones, Emily; Crawford, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed-methods feasibility study to test whether incorporating a 20-week Kundalini yoga program into a children’s home community improves wellbeing outcomes. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and retention rates as well as participants’ self-report perceptions on social inclusion, mental health, wellbeing and semi-structured interviews on the benefits of the study. Mutual recovery entailed that children in care (CiC), youth practitioners, and management participated togeth...

  20. Marine pollution studies in Pakistan by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Javed, T.; Tasneem, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive study on pollution aspects of Manora Channel-Karachi Coast, Pakistan. In addition to use of conventional non-nuclear pollution monitoring tools (Coliform population, electrical conductivity, turbidity etc.), we evaluate the role of environmental stable carbon isotope technique (delta /sup 13/C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon-TDIC) to establish marine pollution transport scenario for Manora Channel. Data shows that tidal fluctuations play a key role in distribution of contamination inventories in Manora Channel. (author)

  1. Ion beam analysis and spectrometry techniques for Cultural Heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of experimental techniques for the characterisation of Cultural heritage materials has to take into account some requirements. The complexity of these past materials requires the development of new techniques of examination and analysis, or the transfer of technologies developed for the study of advanced materials. In addition, due to precious aspect of artwork it is also necessary to use the non-destructive methods, respecting the integrity of objects. It is for this reason that the methods using radiations and/or particles play a important role in the scientific study of art history and archaeology since their discovery. X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) are analytical tools at the service of Cultural heritage. This report mainly presents experimental developments for IBA: PIXE, RBS/EBS and NRA. These developments were applied to the study of archaeological composite materials: layered materials or mixtures composed of organic and non-organic phases. Three examples are shown: evolution of silvering techniques for the production of counterfeit coinage during the Roman Empire and in the 16. century, the characterization of composites or mixed mineral/organic compounds such as bone and paint. In these last two cases, the combination of techniques gave original results on the proportion of both phases: apatite/collagen in bone, pigment/binder in paintings. Another part of this report is then dedicated to the non-invasive/non-destructive characterization of prehistoric pigments, in situ, for rock art studies in caves and in the laboratory. Finally, the perspectives of this work are presented. (author) [fr

  2. Comparative study of resist stabilization techniques for metal etch processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerry; Ross, Matthew F.; Wong, Selmer S.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates resist stabilization techniques as they are applied to a metal etch application. The techniques that are compared are conventional deep-UV/thermal stabilization, or UV bake, and electron beam stabilization. The electron beam tool use din this study, an ElectronCure system from AlliedSignal Inc., ELectron Vision Group, utilizes a flood electron source and a non-thermal process. These stabilization techniques are compared with respect to a metal etch process. In this study, two types of resist are considered for stabilization and etch: a g/i-line resist, Shipley SPR-3012, and an advanced i-line, Shipley SPR 955- Cm. For each of these resist the effects of stabilization on resist features are evaluated by post-stabilization SEM analysis. Etch selectivity in all cases is evaluated by using a timed metal etch, and measuring resists remaining relative to total metal thickness etched. Etch selectivity is presented as a function of stabilization condition. Analyses of the effects of the type of stabilization on this method of selectivity measurement are also presented. SEM analysis was also performed on the features after a compete etch process, and is detailed as a function of stabilization condition. Post-etch cleaning is also an important factor impacted by pre-etch resist stabilization. Results of post- etch cleaning are presented for both stabilization methods. SEM inspection is also detailed for the metal features after resist removal processing.

  3. Validation of radioisotopic labelling techniques in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, R.; Stanghellini, V.; Raiti, C.; Calamelli, R.; Salgemini, R.; Barbara, L.; Zarabini, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several techniques are currently employed to label solid and liquid foods with gamma-emitting radioisotopes in order to carry out gamma-camera gastric emptying studies. The present study describes an in vitro technique for evaluating the labelling stability of some of the most commonly employed radiomarkers of both the solid and liquid phases. Technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ( 99m Tc-SC) in vivo and in vitro labelled liver of chickens and other animal species appears to be almost ideal marker of the solid phase (97% of radioactivity still bound to the solid phase after incubation in gastric juice for 90 minutes). On the contrary, 51 CrCl 3 -beef ground meat (81%) and 99m Tc-SC egg white (69%) are unsatisfactory markers of the solid phase. Likewise, 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA cannot be considered satisfactory fluid-phase agents, because of the high proportion of radioactivity that leaves the liquid phase to become bound to the solid phase (respectively 76% and 49% after 90 minutes of incubation). This validation technique appears to be simple, feasible and reprodicible, and can be applied in any Nuclear Medicine Department to evaluate the validity of the labelling procedures, in order to improve the accuracy of the results of radioisotopic gastric emptying studies

  4. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  5. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  6. Study of Power Flow Algorithm of AC/DC Distribution System including VSC-MTDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, distributed generation and a large number of sensitive AC and DC loads have been connected to distribution networks, which introduce a series of challenges to distribution network operators (DNOs. In addition, the advantages of DC distribution networks, such as the energy conservation and emission reduction, mean that the voltage source converter based multi-terminal direct current (VSC-MTDC for AC/DC distribution systems demonstrates a great potential, hence drawing growing research interest. In this paper, considering losses of the reactor, the filter and the converter, a mathematical model of VSC-HVDC for the load flow analysis is derived. An AC/DC distribution network architecture has been built, based on which the differences in modified equations of the VSC-MTDC-based network under different control modes are analyzed. In addition, corresponding interface functions under five control modes are provided, and a back/forward iterative algorithm which is applied to power flow calculation of the AC/DC distribution system including VSC-MTDC is proposed. Finally, by calculating the power flow of the modified IEEE14 AC/DC distribution network, the efficiency and validity of the model and algorithm are evaluated. With various distributed generations connected to the network at appropriate locations, power flow results show that network losses and utilization of transmission networks are effectively reduced.

  7. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5conflict raised in a previous work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  8. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  9. The impact of machine learning techniques in the study of bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librenza-Garcia, Diego; Kotzian, Bruno Jaskulski; Yang, Jessica; Mwangi, Benson; Cao, Bo; Pereira Lima, Luiza Nunes; Bermudez, Mariane Bagatin; Boeira, Manuela Vianna; Kapczinski, Flávio; Passos, Ives Cavalcante

    2017-09-01

    Machine learning techniques provide new methods to predict diagnosis and clinical outcomes at an individual level. We aim to review the existing literature on the use of machine learning techniques in the assessment of subjects with bipolar disorder. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for articles published in any language up to January 2017. We found 757 abstracts and included 51 studies in our review. Most of the included studies used multiple levels of biological data to distinguish the diagnosis of bipolar disorder from other psychiatric disorders or healthy controls. We also found studies that assessed the prediction of clinical outcomes and studies using unsupervised machine learning to build more consistent clinical phenotypes of bipolar disorder. We concluded that given the clinical heterogeneity of samples of patients with BD, machine learning techniques may provide clinicians and researchers with important insights in fields such as diagnosis, personalized treatment and prognosis orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  11. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  12. STUDY OF ELECTROPOLIMERIZATION PROCESSES OF PYRROLE BY CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitasari Suratman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electropolymerization processes and electrochemical properties of polypyrrole as electroactive polymer have been studied by cyclic voltammetric technique. Pyrrole was electropolymerized to form polypyrrole in water-based solvent containing sodium perchlorate as supporting electrolyte in several pH values. The pH of the solutions were varied by using Britton Robinson buffer. The results showed that oxidation potential limit of electropolymerization processes of pyrrole was 1220 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It can be seen that cyclic voltammetric respon of polypyrrole membrane that was prepared by electropolymerization processes of pyrrole at the scanning rate of 100 mV/s was stable. While the processes of pyrrole electropolymerization carried out at the variation of pH showed that the best condition was at the pH range of 2 - 6.   Keywords: polypyrolle, electropolymer, voltammetric technique

  13. Study of corrosion in aluminium using neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Alam, M.K.; Saklayen, M.A.; Ahsan, M.H.; Islam, S.M.A.; Zaman, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron radiography technique has been adopted for detection of corrosion in aluminium by filling artificially made holes on aluminium slab with Al(OH) 3 . The contrast between the optical densities of corrosion products and aluminium slab was assessed from the densitometric measurements. Variation of optical density difference with sample thickness has also been studied. The results confirm that approximately 0.039 mm thick corrosion products having diameter 10 mm can easily be detected in 2 cm thick aluminium slab. The linear attenuation coefficient of Al(OH) 3 has been obtained as 0.9447. From the present investigation it is confirmed that film neutron radiography (NR) technique is helpful for investigation of Al(OH) 3 type corrosion product in aluminium. (author)

  14. Palliative sedation for cancer patients included in a home care program: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Espinos, Claudio; Ruiz de Gaona, Estefania; Gonzalez, Cristina; Ruiz de Galarreta, Lucia; Lopez, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Palliative sedation is a common treatment in palliative care. The home is a difficult environment for research, and there are few studies about sedation at home. Our aim was to analyze this practice in a home setting. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study in a home cohort during 2011. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 18 years or older and enrolled in the Palliative Home Care Program (PHCP) with advanced cancer. The variables employed were: sex, age, primary tumor location, and place of death. We also registered indication, type, drug and dose, awareness of diagnosis and prognosis, consent, survival, presence or absence of rales, painful mouth, and ulcers in patients sedated at home. We also collected the opinions of family members and professionals about the suffering of sedated patients. A total of 446 patients (56% at home) of the 617 admitted to the PHCP between January and December of 2011 passed away. The typical patient in our population was a 70-year-old man with a lung tumor. Some 35 (14%) home patients required sedation, compared to 93 (49%) at the hospital. The most frequent indication was delirium (70%), with midazolam the most common drug (mean dose, 40 mg). Survival was around three days. Rales were frequent (57%) as well as awareness of diagnosis and prognosis (77 and 71%, respectively). Perception of suffering after sedation was rare among relatives (17%) and professionals (8%). In most cases, the decision was made jointly by professionals and family members. Our study confirmed the role of palliative sedation as an appropriate therapeutic tool in the home environment.

  15. A Completeness Study on Certain 2×2 Lax Pairs Including Zero Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike C. Hay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We expand the completeness study instigated in [J. Math. Phys. 50 (2009, 103516, 29 pages] which found all 2×2 Lax pairs with non-zero, separable terms in each entry of each Lax matrix, along with the most general nonlinear systems that can be associated with them. Here we allow some of the terms within the Lax matrices to be zero. We cover all possible Lax pairs of this type and find a new third order equation that can be reduced to special cases of the non-autonomous lattice KdV and lattice modified KdV equations among others.

  16. Fundamental study on repairing technique for cracked or damaged parts of structures by cold gas dynamic spray technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Amao, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Yuji; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative technique for repairing of cracked or damaged parts of structures, such as nuclear or thermal power plants, by means of cold gas dynamic spray (CS) technique. In the case of generation of cracks etc. in the structure, the cracks can be repaired by welding. However, the welding spends considerable time on repair, and also needs special skills. The CS technique is known as a new technique not only for coatings but also for thick depositions. It has many advantages, i.e. dense deposition, high deposition rate and low oxidation. Therefore, it has a possibility to apply the CS technique instead of welding to repair the cracks etc. In this study, the cold gas dynamic spray technique as a new repairing technique for some structures is introduced. (author)

  17. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  18. Environmental impact assessment including indirect effects--a case study using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Shauna A.; Korte, Britta; Dey, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process covered by several international standards, dictating that as many environmental aspects as possible should be identified in a project appraisal. While the ISO 14011 standard stipulates a broad-ranging study, off-site, indirect impacts are not specifically required for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The reasons for this may relate to the perceived difficulty of measuring off-site impacts, or the assumption that these are a relatively insignificant component of the total impact. In this work, we describe a method that uses input-output analysis to calculate the indirect effects of a development proposal in terms of several indicator variables. The results of our case study of a Second Sydney Airport show that the total impacts are considerably higher than the on-site impacts for the indicators land disturbance, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, emissions of NO x and SO 2 , and employment. We conclude that employing input-output analysis enhances conventional EIA, as it allows for national and international effects to be taken into account in the decision-making process

  19. Forgotten, excluded or included? Students with disabilities: A case study at the University of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudaruth, Sameerchand; Gunputh, Rajendra P; Singh, Upasana G

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities in the tertiary education sector are more than a just a phenomenon, they are a reality. In general, little attention is devoted to their needs despite the fact that they need more care and attention. This paper, through a case study at the University of Mauritius, sought to answer some pertinent questions regarding students with disabilities. Does the University of Mauritius have sufficient facilities to support these students? Are students aware of existing facilities? What additional structures need to be put in place so that students with any form of disability are neither victimised, nor their education undermined? Are there any local laws about students with disabilities in higher education? To answer these questions and others, an online questionnaire was sent to 500 students and the responses were then analysed and discussed. The response rate was 24.4% which showed that students were not reticent to participate in this study. Our survey revealed that most students were not aware of existing facilities and were often neglected in terms of supporting structures and resources. ICT facilities were found to be the best support that is provided at the University of Mauritius. The right legal framework for tertiary education was also missing. Ideally, students with disabilities should have access to special facilities to facilitate their learning experiences at tertiary institutions. Awareness about existing facilities must also be raised in order to offer equal opportunities to them and to enable a seamless inclusion.

  20. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  1. Incoherent scatter studies of upper atmosphere dynamics and coding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeggstroem, Ingemar.

    1990-09-01

    Observations by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar are used to study the dynamics of the auroral upper atmosphere. The study describes some effects of the strong plasma convection occurring at these latitudes and a new coding technique for incoherent scatter radars. A technique to determine the thermospheric neutral wind from incoherent scatter measurements is described. Simultaneous Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the wind are compared with those derived from the radar data. F-region electron density depletions in the afternoon/evening sector of the auroral zone, identified as the main ionospheric trough, are investigated. In a statistical study, based on wide latitude scanning experiment made at solar minimum, the trough appearance at a given latitude is compared to the geomagnetic index K p , and an empirical model predicting the latitude of the trough is proposed. Detailed studies, using different experiment modes, show that the equatorward edge of the auroral oval is co-located of up to 1 degree poleward of the trough minimum, which in turn is co-located with the peak convective electric field, with its boundary 1 degree - 2 degree equatorward of the trough minimum. It is shown that the F-region ion composition changes from pure 0 + to molecular ion dominated (NO + /O 2 + ) as the trough moves into the region probed by the radar. In a special case, where a geomagnetic sudden impulse caused an expansion of the plasma convection pattern, the equatorward trough progression is studied together with ionosonde measurements. A new coding technique for incoherent scatter radar measurement is introduced and described. The method, called alternating codes, provides significantly more accurate estimates of the plasma parameters than can be obtained by frequency commutated multipulse measurements. Simple explanations of the method are given as well as a precise definition. Two examples of application of the alternating codes are presented, showing the high

  2. A Study on Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of Reactor Vessel including Irradiated Structural Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kunwoo; Cho, Hyuksu; Im, Inyoung; Kim, Eunkee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Though Material reliability programs (MRPs) have a purpose to provide the evaluation or management methodologies for the operating RVI, the similar evaluation methodologies can be applied to the APR1400 fleet in the design stage for the evaluation of neutron irradiation effects. The purposes of this study are: to predict the thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source; to evaluate effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in relation to isotropic and anisotropic conductivity of porous media for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. The CFD simulations are performed so as to evaluate thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source and effective thermal conductivity for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. In respective of using irradiated structure heat source, the maximum temperature of fluid and core shroud for isotropic ETC are 325.8 .deg. C, 341.5 .deg. C. The total amount of irradiated structure heat source is about 5.41 MWth and not effect to fluid temperature.

  3. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. A review including ultrastructural and pulmonary function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, U.B.; Barham, S.S.; Rosenow, E.C.; Brown, M.L.; Payne, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause in which calcium phosphate microliths are deposited throughout the lungs. These deposits are of sufficient density to be almost diagnostic on chest roentgenograms. The Mayo Clinic experience with 8 patients is added to the approximately 120 cases reported in the world literature. The age range of all patients is from newborn to 80 years, with a mean age at diagnosis of about 35 years. No sexual predominance has been noted, but in about half of the reported cases a familial pattern has been found. The progression of the disease is generally very slow, some patients having been followed up for more than 30 years without evidence of change. No specific treatment is available. Pulmonary function studies demonstrate a tendency toward a restrictive pattern. Technetium-99m scanning and scanning and transmission electron microscopy are useful procedures for analysis of pulmonary alveolar microliths

  4. Florid papillomatosis of the nipple. A study of 51 patients, including nine with mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P P; Caicco, J A

    1986-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to review the pathology of florid papillomatosis (FP) of the nipple and to examine the relationship of FP to breast carcinoma. Clinical features of 49 women studied did not differ appreciably from those noted on prior reports, except that in one instance the lesion was probably congenital. Histologically, three distinct growth patterns were found: sclerosing papillomatosis (17 cases), papillomatosis (12 cases), and adenosis (3 cases). In 17 other cases, mixtures of these proliferative patterns were seen. FP with the sclerosing papillomatosis pattern more frequently had areas of focal necrosis in hyperplastic ducts and scattered mitoses, features that might be interpreted as evidence of carcinoma. No prognostic significance can be attributed to these patterns, since all types were cured by excision with follow-up that averaged 8.3 years. Seven of the 49 women had carcinoma in the same breast as FP: Two women had invasive carcinoma that appeared to arise from FP, and four women had concurrent invasive carcinomas that were separate from the FP; the seventh woman developed diffuse intraductal carcinoma 10 years after FP was excised from the same breast. Three of the seven women were also treated for contralateral breast carcinoma. Also reviewed were lesions from two men who had carcinoma arising in FP. One had intraductal carcinoma with Paget's disease and the other had invasive carcinoma. Appreciation of the diverse histological patterns of FP may be helpful in avoiding an erroneous diagnosis of carcinoma. Features indicative of carcinoma arising in FP are Paget's disease and areas of invasion. FP of the nipple is rarely the substrate for mammary carcinoma and is adequately treated by local excision. Coexistence with carcinoma elsewhere in the same or opposite breast occurs often enough to warrant thorough examination of the breasts when FP of the nipple is diagnosed. The risk of subsequent carcinoma following excision of FP appears to

  5. Laser Radar: A Technique for Studying the Atmosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    article focuses on two specific examples of ground-based ... niques, which study the atmosphere indirectly by investigating the. Nimmi C Parikh ... research interests include .... overlap correction may be determined, which is then applied to.

  6. Immunization of cattle against Schistosome bovis (including pathophysiological studies on schistosome infection in bovines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.F.

    1978-12-01

    Bovine schistosomiasis caused by S. bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, yet very little is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunology of the disease. Over the past 5 years, work on these aspects has been conducted at Khartoum and several outlying areas of the White Nile Province in Sudan. In studies involving over 1,000 cattle, it was found that almost 100% of animals are infected by 2 years of age but that the prevalence falls to less than 60% over the following 7 years. There was also a marked reduction in the intensity of infection with increasing age, indicating the development of a high degree of acquired resistance. This was confirmed experimentally by challenging animals from an endemic area with massive numbers of cercariae. These animals completely resisted the challenge whereas animals never previously exposed either died or became moribund due to the severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea resulting from the passage of schistosome eggs through the gut wall. Attempts were made to vaccinate calves using irradiated organisms. These gave 70-80% protection against a challenge infection and this was sufficient to allow these animals to gain weight and remain clinically healthy. Animals not given the vaccine deteriorated. The efficacy of the vaccine was then tested under field conditions and found to give a high level of protection against S. bovis. These animals were also less susceptible to intercurrent infections

  7. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Risk Factor Analysis for AKI Including Laboratory Indicators: a Nationwide Multicenter Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Risk factor studies for acute kidney injury (AKI in China are lacking, especially those regarding non-traditional risk factors, such as laboratory indicators. Methods: All adult patients admitted to 38 tertiary and 22 secondary hospitals in China in any one month between July and December 2014 were surveyed. AKI patients were screened according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ definition of AKI. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for AKI, and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk of in-hospital mortality for AKI patients; additionally, a propensity score analysis was used to reconfirm the risk factors among laboratory indicators for mortality. Results: The morbidity of AKI was 0.97%. Independent risk factors for AKI were advancing age, male gender, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. All-cause mortality was 16.5%. The predictors of mortality in AKI patients were advancing age, tumor, higher uric acid level and increases in Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. The hazard ratio (HR for mortality with uric acid levels > 9.1 mg/dl compared with ≤ 5.2 mg/dl was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.58 for the AKI patients as a group, and was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.42 for a propensity score-matched set. Conclusion: In addition to traditional risk factors, uric acid level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after AKI.

  9. Radioisotope techniques in the study of protein metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a panel meeting on June 1-5, 1964. The purpose of the panel was to discuss the present status of radioactive tracer techniques for the study of protein metabolism and to suggest ways of extending an co-ordinating the Agency's research programme in this field. The meeting was attended by 13 invited experts from ten different countries, and three representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO). Sessions of the panel were devoted to methods of preparation of labelled proteins and protein-like substances, to techniques of measurement of gastro-intestinal protein absorption and loss and to the clinical applications of these techniques. At each session, working papers were presented by various participants and then discussed in detail. This report gives the full texts of the working papers together with extensive summaries of the discussions and provides a detailed picture of the present situation and likely future developments in this field of work. It is hoped that its publication will be of interest to all concerned with problems of protein metabolism, whether in clinical medicine or the basic medical sciences. 349 refs, figs and tabs

  10. Uranium speciation in biofilms studies by laser fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Thuro; Grossmann, Kay; Baumann, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Biofilms may immobilize toxic heavy metals in the environment and thereby influence their migration behaviour. The mechanisms of these processes are currently not understood, because the complexity of such biofilms creates many discrete geochemical microenvironments which may differ from the surrounding bulk solution in their bacterial diversity, their prevailing geochemical properties, e.g. pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, the presence of organic molecules, e.g. metabolites, and many more, all of which may affect metal speciation. To obtain such information, which is necessary for performance assessment studies or the development of new cost-effective strategies for cleaning waste waters, it is very important to develop new non-invasive methods applicable to study the interactions of metals within biofilm systems. Laser fluorescence techniques have some superior features, above all very high sensitivity for fluorescent heavy metals. An approach combining confocal laser scanning microscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for study of the interactions of biofilms with uranium is presented. It was found that coupling these techniques furnishes a promising tool for in-situ non-invasive study of fluorescent heavy metals within biofilm systems. Information on uranium speciation and uranium redox states can be obtained.

  11. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (Φ/Ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  12. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  14. Model technique for aerodynamic study of boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-02-01

    The help of the Division was recently sought to improve the heat transfer and reduce the exit gas temperature in a pulverized-fuel-fired boiler at an Australian power station. One approach adopted was to construct from Perspex a 1:20 scale cold-air model of the boiler furnace and to use a flow-visualization technique to study the aerodynamic patterns established when air was introduced through the p.f. burners of the model. The work established good correlations between the behaviour of the model and of the boiler furnace.

  15. Loading technique for dynamic response studies of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.I.; Forrestal, M.J.

    1979-04-01

    A loading technique to study the dynamic response of tuff was explored. Loading is provided by electrically exploding etched copper mesh patterns with current from a capacitor discharge. Pressure pulses with peak pressures up to 1.25 kbar and 0.10 to 0.20 ms durations were measured with a pressure bar. The upper value of peak pressure was limited by the strength of the experimental apparatus, and higher pressure generation is possible with a redesign of test hardware. 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Studies of osteoporosis in Shanghai, China, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongpeng

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the osteoporosis model of New Zealand rabbits in order to study the functions of inorganic elements for women patients with osteoporosis. The thirty cases of iliac crest are collected and determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The results show that the Fluorine concentrations in experimental group are higher than those in control group and the Magnesium concentrations are lower significantly (P<0.001), but the concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Ba, Mn, Sr are not remarkable difference. Combined with the serum biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption, the physiological functions of some metal elements in bone are also discussed. (author)

  17. Line identification studies using traditional techniques and wavelength coincidence statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, C.R.; Adelman, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Traditional line identification techniques result in the assignment of individual lines to an atomic or ionic species. These methods may be supplemented by wavelength coincidence statistics (WCS). The strength and weakness of these methods are discussed using spectra of a number of normal and peculiar B and A stars that have been studied independently by both methods. The present results support the overall findings of some earlier studies. WCS would be most useful in a first survey, before traditional methods have been applied. WCS can quickly make a global search for all species and in this way may enable identifications of an unexpected spectrum that could easily be omitted entirely from a traditional study. This is illustrated by O I. WCS is a subject to well known weakness of any statistical technique, for example, a predictable number of spurious results are to be expected. The danger of small number statistics are illustrated. WCS is at its best relative to traditional methods in finding a line-rich atomic species that is only weakly present in a complicated stellar spectrum

  18. Study of atmospheric aerosols by IBA techniques: The LABEC experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Carraresi, L.

    2018-02-01

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN (Florence, Italy) an external beam facility is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of the elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols. All the elements with Z > 10 are simultaneously detected by PIXE typically in one minute. This setup allows us an easy automatic positioning, changing and scanning of samples collected by different kinds of devices: long series of daily PM (Particulate Matter) samples can be analysed in short times, as well as size-segregated and high time-resolution aerosol samples. Thanks to the capability of detecting all the crustal elements, PIXE-PIGE analyses are unrivalled in the study of mineral dust: consequently, they are very effective in the study of natural aerosols, like, for example, Saharan dust intrusions. Among the detectable elements there are also important markers of anthropogenic sources, which allow effective source apportionment studies in polluted urban environments using a multivariate method like Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Examples regarding recent monitoring campaigns, performed in urban and remote areas, both daily and with high time resolution (hourly samples), as well as with size selection, are presented. The importance of the combined use of the Particle Induced Gamma Ray emission technique (PIGE) and of other complementary (non-nuclear) techniques is highlighted.

  19. A Study on Nondestructive Technique Using Laser Technique for Evaluation of Carbon fiber Reinforced Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Hyun; Seo, Kyeong Cheol; Byun, Joon Hyung

    2005-01-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic material should be inspected in fabrication process in order to enhance quality by prevent defects such as delamination and void. Generally, ultrasonic technique is widely used to evaluate FRP. In conventional ultrasonic techniques, transducer should be contacted on FRP. However, conventional contacting method could not be applied in fabrication process and novel non-contact evaluating technique was required. Laser-based ultrasonic technique was tried to evaluate CFRP plate. Laser-based ultrasonic waves propagated on CFRP were received with various transducers such as accelerometer and AE sensor in order to evaluate the properties of waves due to the variation of frequency. Velocities of laser-based ultrasonic waves were evaluated for various fiber orientation. In addition, laser interferometry was used to receive ultrasonic wave in CFRP and frequency was analysed

  20. Reported credibility techniques in higher education evaluation studies that use qualitative methods: A research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongjing; Hitchcock, John

    2018-06-01

    This synthesis study examined the reported use of credibility techniques in higher education evaluation articles that use qualitative methods. The sample included 118 articles published in six leading higher education evaluation journals from 2003 to 2012. Mixed methods approaches were used to identify key credibility techniques reported across the articles, document the frequency of these techniques, and describe their use and properties. Two broad sets of techniques were of interest: primary design techniques (i.e., basic), such as sampling/participant recruitment strategies, data collection methods, analytic details, and additional qualitative credibility techniques (e.g., member checking, negative case analyses, peer debriefing). The majority of evaluation articles reported use of primary techniques although there was wide variation in the amount of supporting detail; most of the articles did not describe the use of additional credibility techniques. This suggests that editors of evaluation journals should encourage the reporting of qualitative design details and authors should develop strategies yielding fuller methodological description. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  2. Reproductive Disorder Studies Using Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Progesterone Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, Boky Jeanne; Totti Tjiptosumirat; Ratnawati Kukuh

    2004-01-01

    Five dairy cattle, cattle A: 6 th parity; cattle B: 7 th parity; cattle C: 2 nd parity; cattle D and F: 3 rd parity, were used in this study. According to Health Extension and Artificial Insemination Technicians anamneses and according to farmers who own the animals, these cattle were showing reproductive failure, and RIA technique was used to study the symptoms. For this purpose, milk progesterone sample were collected twice a week for five weeks to follow the biological reproductive status of every animal. Result from the analysis were plotted for each individual animal and shows that cattle A and B were acyclic, which indicated that no reproductive activity post partum have occurred in both animals; cattle C in the status of prolonged oestrus cycle post partum; and cattle D and F were in the status of recovery of oestrus cycle post partum. With the availability of historical record of the cattle and confirmation of biological status by Health Technicians, the reproductive disorder, which leads to the failure of AI in dairy cattle, can be monitored by RIA Progesterone technique. (author)

  3. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  4. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  5. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.; Sturtridge, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    In-Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) are routinely used in our laboratory for clinical and research investigation of Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD in g/sq.cm). These two techniques differ in many respects. IVNAA is an established technique where 49 Ca radioisotope induced by the 48 Ca(n,gamma) 49 Ca reaction is measured to determine BMC. In DEXA, two X-rays of different energies are used and based on the known attenuation characteristics of bone and soft tissue and the measured attenuated signals, the BMC is calculated. Very little radiation dose (<0.1 mSv) is given in DEXA compared to IVNAA (3 to 5 mSv). Site specific information can be obtained in the former. Although DEXA is easier to use both the techniques are in use in the investigation of Osteopenia. The BMD, a clinical useful parameter, is a function of age and not height. The body calcium content determined by IVNAA is a function of height and not age. These differences are not yet clearly understood. Work is underway to determine the influence of several factors e.g. age, weight on BMD. We are also conducting experiments to determine the peak BMC and BMD of Canadians. The role of various life styles e.g. exercise, diet, ethnicity are being investigated as a determinant of BMD and BMC. Also the effects and safety of many drugs in the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis are also being studied. (author)

  6. Comparative study between two operative techniques of pilonidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bbshehu

    technique has definite advantages over sinus excision and marsupialisation technique. It needed a ... hospital stay with reduction on postoperative pain and early resumption to work. .... the first 5 days and thereafter as and when the patient felt.

  7. Structural priming is a useful but imperfect technique for studying all linguistic representations, including those of pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alice; Bott, Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is a useful tool for investigating linguistics representations. We argue that structural priming can be extended to the investigation of pragmatic representations such as Gricean enrichments. That is not to say priming is without its limitations, however. Interpreting a failure to observe priming may not be as simple as Branigan & Pickering (B&P) imply.

  8. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to

  9. Study on assembly techniques and procedures for ITER tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Sago, Hiromi; Ue, Koichi; Shimizu, Katsusuke; Onozuka, Masanori

    2006-06-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak is mainly composed of a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel (VV), four types of superconducting coils such as toroidal field coils (TF coils) arranged around the VV, and in-vessel components, such as blanket and divertor. The dimensions and weight of the respective components are around a few ten-meters and several hundred-tons. In addition, the whole tokamak assembly, which are composed of these components, are roughly estimated, 26 m in diameter, 18 m in height and over 16,500 tons in total weight. On the other hand, as for positioning and assembly tolerances of the VV and the TF coil are required to be a high accuracy of ±3 mm in spite of large size and heavy weight. The assembly procedures and techniques of the ITER tokamak are therefore studied, taking account of the tolerance requirements as well as the configuration of the tokamak with large size and heavy weight. Based on the above backgrounds, the assembly procedures and techniques, which are able to assemble the tokamak with high accuracy, are described in the present report. The tokamak assembly operations are categorized into six work break down structures (WBS), i.e., (1) preparation for assembly operations, (2) sub-assembly of the 40deg sector composed of 40deg VV sector, two TF coils and thermal shield between VV and TF coil at the assembly hall, (3) completion of the doughnut-shaped tokamak assembly composed of nine 40deg sectors in the cryostat at the tokamak pit, (4) measurement of positioning and accuracy after the completion of the tokamak assembly, (5) installation of the ex-vessel components, and (6) installation of in-vessel components. In the present report, two assembly operations of (2) and (3) in the above six WBS, which are the most critical in the tokamak assembly, are mainly described. The report describes the following newly developed tokamak assembly procedures and techniques, jigs and tools for assembly and metrology

  10. Nonlocal Regularized Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques for MRI: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to revitalize researchers' interest in algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART by expanding their capabilities and demonstrating their potential in speeding up the process of MRI acquisition. Using a continuous-to-discrete model, we experimentally study the application of ART into MRI reconstruction which unifies previous nonuniform-fast-Fourier-transform- (NUFFT- based and gridding-based approaches. Under the framework of ART, we advocate the use of nonlocal regularization techniques which are leveraged from our previous research on modeling photographic images. It is experimentally shown that nonlocal regularization ART (NR-ART can often outperform their local counterparts in terms of both subjective and objective qualities of reconstructed images. On one real-world k-space data set, we find that nonlocal regularization can achieve satisfactory reconstruction from as few as one-third of samples. We also address an issue related to image reconstruction from real-world k-space data but overlooked in the open literature: the consistency of reconstructed images across different resolutions. A resolution-consistent extension of NR-ART is developed and shown to effectively suppress the artifacts arising from frequency extrapolation. Both source codes and experimental results of this work are made fully reproducible.

  11. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  12. Structural studies using X-ray absorption and scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, Agneta.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis presents extended X-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS, and large angle X-ray scattering, LAXS, techniques; instrumentation, data collection and reduction, and applications. These techniques have been used to determine the structures of magnesium halides and organomagnesium halides in diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran solution. The iodides were used for the LAXS measurements and Br K edge EXAFS data were collected for the corresponding bromides. Two different complexes are present in the diethyl ether solution of magnesium iodide; a polymeric chain-type structure where magnesium is tetrahedrally coordinated, as well as dimeric complex with octahedrally coordinated magnesium. Solvated MgI + is the dominating species in tetrahydrofuran solution. The organomagnesium halides are present in diethyl ether solution as both solvated monomeric and dimeric complexes. Magnesium coordinates a halide ion, an alkyl or aryl group and four solvent molecules octahedrally in the monomeric complex. In the dimeric complex magnesium is octahedrally coordinated by two bridging halide ions, an alkyl or aryl group and three solvent molecules. The distribution of monomeric and dimeric complexes in various solutions are given by a dimerisation constant, K dl . The results indicate that the Schlenk equilibrium is present in these solutions, however, in an extended form. In diethyl ether solution, where MgX 2 does not dissociate, no MgX 2 complex and thereby no Schlenk equilibrium has been observed. In tetrahydrofuran solution MgI 2 has dissociated into mainly MgI + and I - . This indicates that the concentration of MgI 2 is low and that the Schlenk equilibrium should be expanded even further to include the dissociation equilibrium of the magnesium halide. In the thesis Fe K edge EXAFS data collected for the semireduced form of protein A of methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus, are also presented. (139 refs.)

  13. Environmental study of the use of biomonitors and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, Sonnia

    2000-06-01

    In June of 1999, the National Nuclear Energy Commission has begun the Project of Investigation Environmental Studies by the employment of biomonitors, summoning and integrating a multidisciplinary team. In the first stage, the Area Sampling of Asuncion area was defined including 16 intersections of important avenues and an area of reference. The criteria in this case has been that the main source of pollution is constituted by vehicular traffic. The pollution studies have been done by means of field measurements [es

  14. Studies on coal flotation in flotation column using statistical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. Jena; S.K. Biswal; K.K. Rao; P.S.R. Reddy [Institute of Minerals & Materials Technology (IMMT), Orissa (India)

    2009-07-01

    Flotation of Indian high ash coking coal fines to obtain clean coal has been reported earlier by many authors. Here an attempt has been made to systematically analyse factors influencing the flotation process using statistical design of experiments technique. Studies carried out in a 100 mm diameter column using factorial design to establish weightage of factors such as feed rate, air rate and collector dosage indicated that all three parameters have equal influence on the flotation process. Subsequently RSM-CCD design was used to obtain best result and it is observed that 94% combustibles can be recovered with 82.5% weight recovery at 21.4% ash from a feed containing 31.3% ash content.

  15. Hydrolysis studies of thorium using solvent extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engkvist, I.; Albinsson, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The Swedish concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel is focused on a repository in crystalline rock at a depth of 500 m. In order to calculate migration rates from such a repository, chemical speciation becomes important. A method for determining complexation of actinides and lanthanides with inorganic ligands using solvent extraction has been developed. The apparatus used is called AKUFVE and the used technique can measure distribution values in a two liquid phase system in the range 10 -5 to 10 5 , pH 1 to 11. Hydrolysis of thorium has been studied in 1 M NaClO 4 in inert atmosphere. Th-234 separated from U-238 was extracted with 0.01-1 M 2,4-pentanedione (HAa) in toluene. From extraction data, calculations of hydrolysis constants have been made, regarding hydroxide complexes as competing and nonextractable. As a result we conclude that the constant for tri- and tetrahydroxide complexes are overestimated. (orig.)

  16. Laser-welded ureteral anastomoses: experimental studies with three techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürpinar, T; Gürer, S; Kattan, M W; Wang, L; Griffith, D P

    1996-01-01

    Tissue welding with laser energy is a new technique for reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of laser welding are (a) lack of foreign body reaction, (b) decreased operative time, (c) less tissue manipulation, and (d) effective union of tissues equivalent to sutured anastomoses. We have performed ureteral anastomoses in adult mongrel dogs using a KTP 532 nm laser at an intensity of 1.4 W. Multiple "spot welds" of 1-s duration were utilized in a single layer anastomosis. Laser-welded anastomoses were performed with and without protein solder (33% and 50% human albumin) and were compared to sutured anastomoses. The laser-welded anastomoses required less operative time and provided bursting pressure levels similar to those of traditional sutured anastomoses. There was no advantage or disadvantage to the addition of human albumin as a solder in these experimental studies.

  17. Study on coal dust wettability measurement using cold briquetting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Xu, H.; Shu, X. [North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Department of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Quantitative measuring of coal dust wettability is essential for the research and development of chemical coal dust suppressants in the field of dust control with wetting-agent-added water. The causes of low repeat rate and poor consistency in present lab testing of coal dust wettability are discussed. The influence of different briquetting pressure (from 0 to 6.5108 Pa) on the wet behavior of coal dust is investigated as a new way to quantitatively evaluate coal dust wettability. The study shows that there is a fairly high coincidence between the coal dust wettability data measured by the briquetting technique and the results gained from the lab dust suppression tests using an MCYZ apparatus designed by the authors. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Study of a new scatter rejection technique in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fortunato, M.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Meucci, M.; Millucci, V.; Paoletti, R.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N.

    2001-01-01

    A new technique for digital mammography based on the use of a collimator and an anti-scatter grid coupled with a mosaic detector has been studied with a Monte Carlo program. The simulation, with a low-energy spectrum X-ray beam and a breast phantom, provides a quantitative assessment of the capability of the method to reduce the physical background of the image due to scattering in the body, without introducing image artifacts. With minor modifications to the existing X-ray facilities, the method could also be applied to area detectors. To verify the results of the simulation, an experimental setup based on a CCD camera coupled via a fiber optic plate to a CsI(Tl) scintillator is under test

  19. Study of a new scatter rejection technique in digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A. E-mail: ciocci@pi.infn.it; Fortunato, M.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Meucci, M.; Millucci, V.; Paoletti, R.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N

    2001-04-01

    A new technique for digital mammography based on the use of a collimator and an anti-scatter grid coupled with a mosaic detector has been studied with a Monte Carlo program. The simulation, with a low-energy spectrum X-ray beam and a breast phantom, provides a quantitative assessment of the capability of the method to reduce the physical background of the image due to scattering in the body, without introducing image artifacts. With minor modifications to the existing X-ray facilities, the method could also be applied to area detectors. To verify the results of the simulation, an experimental setup based on a CCD camera coupled via a fiber optic plate to a CsI(Tl) scintillator is under test.

  20. Does technique matter; a pilot study exploring weighting techniques for a multi-criteria decision support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, Janine; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina; Lieferink, Marijke; Dolan, James; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to support regulatory and reimbursement decision making. The EVIDEM framework was developed to provide pragmatic multi-criteria decision support in health care, to estimate the value of healthcare interventions, and to aid in priority-setting. The objectives of this study were to test 1) the influence of different weighting techniques on the overall outcome of an MCDA exercise, 2) the discriminative power in weighting different criteria of such techniques, and 3) whether different techniques result in similar weights in weighting the criteria set proposed by the EVIDEM framework. A sample of 60 Dutch and Canadian students participated in the study. Each student used an online survey to provide weights for 14 criteria with two different techniques: a five-point rating scale and one of the following techniques selected randomly: ranking, point allocation, pairwise comparison and best worst scaling. The results of this study indicate that there is no effect of differences in weights on value estimates at the group level. On an individual level, considerable differences in criteria weights and rank order occur as a result of the weight elicitation method used, and the ability of different techniques to discriminate in criteria importance. Of the five techniques tested, the pair-wise comparison of criteria has the highest ability to discriminate in weights when fourteen criteria are compared. When weights are intended to support group decisions, the choice of elicitation technique has negligible impact on criteria weights and the overall value of an innovation. However, when weights are used to support individual decisions, the choice of elicitation technique influences outcome and studies that use dissimilar techniques cannot be easily compared. Weight elicitation through pairwise comparison of criteria is preferred when taking into account its superior ability to discriminate between

  1. Studies of osteoporosis in Russia using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    1996-01-01

    Here presented is the programme to study bone characteristics of healthy men and women aged 20-54 comprising the urban population of Moscow and nearby cities to define those of normal population. The study will also include patients with characteristics for early osteoporosis symptoms. The latter includes subjects who took part in the Chernobyl clean-up operation. DEXA (spine, femoral neck, whole body) and ultrasound (heel) will be used to examine those of the normal population group. To study osteoporosis patients the iliac crest biopsy samples will be taken for subsequent neutron activation analysis. Contents of major and trace elements in bone specimens (rib, iliac crest) and teeth (molar, premolar) will be estimated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescent analysis in autopsy material of healthy accident victims depending on the age and sex. (author)

  2. Study of CT image texture using deep learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sandeep; Fan, Jiahua; Chevalier, David

    2018-03-01

    For CT imaging, reduction of radiation dose while improving or maintaining image quality (IQ) is currently a very active research and development topic. Iterative Reconstruction (IR) approaches have been suggested to be able to offer better IQ to dose ratio compared to the conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction. However, it has been widely reported that often CT image texture from IR is different compared to that from FBP. Researchers have proposed different figure of metrics to quantitate the texture from different reconstruction methods. But there is still a lack of practical and robust method in the field for texture description. This work applied deep learning method for CT image texture study. Multiple dose scans of a 20cm diameter cylindrical water phantom was performed on Revolution CT scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha) and the images were reconstructed with FBP and four different IR reconstruction settings. The training images generated were randomly allotted (80:20) to a training and validation set. An independent test set of 256-512 images/class were collected with the same scan and reconstruction settings. Multiple deep learning (DL) networks with Convolution, RELU activation, max-pooling, fully-connected, global average pooling and softmax activation layers were investigated. Impact of different image patch size for training was investigated. Original pixel data as well as normalized image data were evaluated. DL models were reliably able to classify CT image texture with accuracy up to 99%. Results show that the deep learning techniques suggest that CT IR techniques may help lower the radiation dose compared to FBP.

  3. Robotic technique improves entry point alignment for intramedullary nailing of femur fractures compared to the conventional technique: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suero, Eduardo M; Westphal, Ralf; Citak, Musa; Hawi, Nael; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Krettek, Christian; Stuebig, Timo

    2017-08-11

    We aimed to test whether a robotic technique would offer more accurate access to the proximal femoral medullary cavity for insertion of an intramedullary nail compared to the conventional manual technique. The medullary cavity of ten femur specimens was accessed in a conventional fashion using fluoroscopic control. In ten additional femur specimens, ISO-C 3D scans were obtained and a computer program calculated the ideal location of the cavity opening based on the trajectory of the medullary canal. In both techniques, the surgeon opened the cavity using a drill and inserted a radiopaque tube that matched the diameter of the cavity. The mean difference in angle between the proximal opening and the medullary canal in the shaft of the femur was calculated for both groups. Robotic cavity opening was more accurate than the manual technique, with a mean difference in trajectory between the proximal opening and the shaft canal of 2.0° (95% CI 0.6°-3.5°) compared to a mean difference of 4.3° (95% CI 2.11°-6.48°) using the manual technique (P = 0.0218). The robotic technique was more accurate than the manual procedure for identifying the optimal location for opening the medullary canal for insertion of an intramedullary nail. Additional advantages may include a reduction in total radiation exposure, as only one ISO-C 3D scan is needed, as opposed to multiple radiographs when using the manual technique.

  4. Nitrous Oxide Formation and Destruction by Industrial No Abatement Techniques Including Scr Emissions des protoxides d'azote par des techniques industrielles d'abattement de NO y compris le SCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigations on N2O emission from full scale stationary combustion units, equipped with primary or secondary NO control techniques, are scarce or inexistent. Recent results obtained from laboratory scale studies are presented, from which it appears that fuel staging, selective non catalytic NO reduction with ammonia and selective catalytic NO reduction in the presence of ammonia, should be considered as potential sources of nitrous oxide emission enhancement. For the two mentioned gas phase NO abatement techniques (fuel staging and NCSR, this N2O emission enhancement is clearly linked with a decrease of the temperature, a result that might have been expected from the known gas phase reactions of N2O formation and destruction. Production of N2O from NCSR is more important than from fuel staging, and increases with ammonia concentration; this probably is related to the fact that ammonia yields N2O precursors (NH, NH2 readily by its decomposition. Separate injection of pure NO or NH3 suggests that N2O is a product of the interaction of those two reactants, whereas NO also is formed as a primary ammonia decomposition product in the presence of oxygen. A kinetic investigation of N2O formation from SCR has been made. It is shown that catalytic decomposition of neat ammonia yields both NO and N2O, the former as a primary product (from adsorbed ammonia and solid bound oxygen, the latter as a secondary product (from NO and adsorbed ammonia. Both NO and N2O subsequently undergo catalytic decomposition. In the presence of molecular oxygen, another NO formation (from O2 and adsorbed ammonia manifests itself at somewhat higher temperatures, creating the well known optimum temperature window . Comparative tests conducted on a number of metal oxides, tend to show that high efficiency for NO decomposition is often related to high production of N2O within the temperature window . On ne dispose actuellement pas encore de résultats d

  5. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments in China studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dingyong; Qing Changle; Shi Xiaojun; Zheng Yonghua; Li Bo; Yang Xuechun

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic non-essential element. The mercury cycling in natural environments is a complex process. In recent years, the stable mercury isotope tracer and related analytical techniques have been developed. They offer unique possibility to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in various environmental conditions. So a new co-ordinated research project (CRP) on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques has been supported by the IAEA. This paper introduces the research project whose IAEA research contract number is CPR-10874. It includes the scientific background, scope of the project, methods, some results related to this CRP and the plans for future work. (author)

  6. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments in China studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dingyong; Shi Xiaojun; Wei Shiqiang; Zheng Yonghua; Qing Changle

    2002-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic non-essential element. The mercury cycling in natural environments is a complex process. In recent years, the stable mercury isotope tracer and related analytical techniques have been developed. They offer unique possibility to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in various environmental conditions. So a new coordinated research project (CRP), on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques, has been supported by the IAEA. This paper introduces the research project which is IAEA research contract number CPR-10874. It includes the scientific background, scope of the project, methods, some results related to this CRP and the plans for future work. (author)

  7. Biological mineralization of iron: Studies using Moesbauer spectroscopy and complementary techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.; Kim, K.S.; Tran, K.C.; Pierre, T.G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Biological deposition of solid Fe-containing phases can be studied using 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Other techniques are needed in order to understand this complex process. These include proton-induced X-ray and γ-ray emission (PIXE/PIGME), electron microscopy, electron and X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and chemical characterization of organic components. This paper reviews and evaluates the application of these techniques to biological mineralization of Fe, particularly that occurring in the radula teeth of the marine molluscs, chitons and limpets. (orig.)

  8. Spectroscopic techniques in the study of human tissues and their components. Part I: IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, Sylwia; Szymborska-Małek, Katarzyna; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena; Walski, Tomasz; Komorowska, Małgorzata; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Pezowicz, Celina; Kobielarz, Magdalena; Szotek, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Among the currently used methods of monitoring human tissues and their components many types of research are distinguished. These include spectroscopic techniques. The advantage of these techniques is the small amount of sample required, the rapid process of recording the spectra, and most importantly in the case of biological samples - preparation of tissues is not required. In this work, vibrational spectroscopy: ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy will be used. Studies are carried out on tissues: tendons, blood vessels, skin, red blood cells and biological components: amino acids, proteins, DNA, plasma, and deposits.

  9. Some Cognitive Consequences of Maternal Intervention Techniques: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert D.; McDevitt, Teresa M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the relationship between mothers' intervention techniques in both teaching and disciplining and children's school-related abilities. Mothers' techniques were assessed when their children were age 4, and children's academic abilities were measured at ages 4, 5, 6, and 12. Among other results, direct control tactics were negatively…

  10. Biomedical techniques in translational studies: The journey so far ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical techniques have wide clinical application in many fields of medicine such as oncology, rheumatology, immunology, genomics, cardiology and diagnostics; among others. This has been made possible with the use of genetic engineering and a number of techniques like Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Fluorescent ...

  11. Biomechanical study of the funnel technique applied in thoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of vertebra was made for injury model of anterior and central column ... data were collected to eliminate creep and relaxation of soft tissues in .... 3 Pullout strength curve for Magerl technique (A) and Funnel technique (B). 210x164mm (72 x 72 ...

  12. Laser diagnodent: a comparative study with other diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, Reugma Rego

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the Diagnodent equipment (Kavo Company, Germany) for the occlusal caries detection was dane through the comparison with other conventional diagnostic techniques, such as visual inspection, intra-oral micro camera and digital X-ray. The effectiveness of the equipment in the detection of hidden caries and its viability as a diagnosis method for caries in their initial stage was also studied. Fifty eight permanent molars and premolars teeth from patients with age between 6 and 30 years were studied. The obtained results indicated that the conventional methods employed for the caries diagnosis are unable to detect the carious lesion in its initial stage. The Diagnodent equipment has this capability to detect caries presenting a flawless surface, specially the hidden caries, allowing the dentist to decide between a preventive ar a conservative procedure. The main advantage of the Diagnodent is to be an objective method, compared to the visual and radiographic ones, that are dependent on the professional interpretation. The Diagnodent is, therefore, a promising alternative as an objective and standardized diagnosis method for the final diagnostic. (author)

  13. Application of spectroscopic techniques to the study of illuminated manuscripts: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This work focused on the application of the most relevant spectroscopic techniques used for the characterization of illuminated manuscripts. The historical value of these unique and invaluable artworks, together with the increased awareness concerning the conservation of cultural heritage, prompted the application of analytical techniques to the study of these illuminations. This is essential for the understanding of the artist's working methods, which aids conservation–restoration. The characterization of the pigments may also help assign a probable date to the manuscript. For these purposes, the spectroscopic techniques used so far include those that provide information on the elemental content: X-ray fluorescence, total reflection X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Complementary techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, reveal information regarding the compounds present in the samples. The techniques, suitability, technological evolution and development of high-performance detectors, as well as the possibility of microanalysis and the higher sensitivity of the equipment, will also be discussed. Furthermore, issues such as the necessity of sampling, the portability of the equipment and the overall advantages and disadvantages of different techniques will be analyzed. - Highlights: ► The techniques used for studying illuminated manuscripts are described and compared. ► For in situ, non-destructive analysis the most suitable technique is EDXRF. ► For quantitative analysis TXRF is more appropriate. ► Raman spectroscopy is mostly used for pigments identification. ► FTIR was used for the characterization of binders and parchment.

  14. Applications of advanced electron microscopy techniques to the studies of radiation effects in ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes some recent results from the application of several advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to the studies of radiation effects in insulators with the main focus on radiation-induced amorphization. These techniques include in situ TEM during ion-beam irradiation at cryogenic and elevated temperatures, cross-sectional TEM, high-resolution TEM, and image simulation on partially damaged materials, as well as digital TEM with image processing and analysis. The combination of these techniques may often provide very detailed information about the microstructure evolution during energetic particle irradiation, especially at the early stages, which is unobtainable with any other analytical methods. These techniques have been successfully applied to the analysis of a large group of ion-beam-irradiated ceramics, including quartz, silicon carbides, uranium oxide, apatite, spinel and other complex mineral phases. The advantages and limitations of each technique, as well as some important technical details for the analysis of radiation damage in ceramics are presented. (orig.)

  15. A study on CT-guided stereotactic technique for functional neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetsuhara, Koichi; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Hirahara, Kazuho; Gondo, Masazumi; Oda, Hiroshige

    1987-01-01

    Recently, CT-guided stereotactic surgery has become of major interest, and some authors have discussed its potential in functional neurosurgery. The following is a comparative study of the CT-guided stereotactic technique and the conventional roentogenographic stereotactic technique. The Brown-Roberts-Wells apparatus was used for both types of procedures. 37 stereotactic procedures were performed on 35 patients under local anesthesia; 16 for stereotactic biopsy and 21 for stereotactic functional neurosurgery. Target points for stereotactic biopsy were determined by the CT-guided technique and target points for functional neurosurgery were determined by the conventional roentogenographic technique. The correlation with the position of target point determined by both techniques was investigated in the 21 functional neurosurgical procedures. On these occasions the authors used the reformatted horizontal and sagittal CT through the anterior and posterior commissure to determine the position of target point by the CT-guided technique. Results: It was found that the AC-PC line crossed with Reid's base line at angle of 11 ± 1 deg, and therefore it is important to obtain a CT images including AC-PC line at this angle. When applying the CT guided stereotactic procedure for functional surgery, it should be known that there could be a discrepancy within 2 mm from the conventional target determination. (author)

  16. Studies on selected polymeric materials using the photoacoustic spectroscopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Hukum

    2011-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate—graft—polybisphenol—A-carbonate (PMMA-G-PC) with 50% grafting is synthesized. The graft co-polymerization of methylmethacrylate (0.036 mol · lit −1 ) onto polybisphenol—A-carbonate (0.5 g) in the presence of a redox couple formed from potassium persulphate (40 mol · lit −1 ) and thio-urea (30 mmol · lit −1 ) in aqueous nitric acid (0.18 M, 100 ml) in air at (45±2) °C for 3.0 h. Condensation of (PMMA-G-PC) with N- [p-(carboxyl phenyl amino acetic acid)] hydrazide (PCPH) affords polybisphenol-A-carbonate-graft-polymethylmethacrylate hydrazide (PCGH). The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of (PCGH) are recorded in a wavelength range from 200 nm to 800 nm at a modulation frequency of 22 Hz, and compared with those of pure polybisphenol-A-carbonate (PC), (PMMA-G-PC) and (PCPH). In the present work, a non-destructive and non-contact analytical method, namely the photoacoustic technique, is successfully implemented for optical and thermal characterization of selected polymeric materials. The indigenous PA spectrometer used in the present study consists of a 300-W xenon arc lamp, a lock-in amplifier, a chopper, a (1/8)-m monochromator controlled by computer and a home-made PA cell. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. A study of emergency American football helmet removal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Hernandez, Adam E

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to compare head kinematics between the Eject Helmet Removal System and manual football helmet removal. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-two certified athletic trainers (sex, 19 male and 13 female; age, 33 ± 10 years; height, 175 ± 12 cm; mass, 86 ± 20 kg) removed a football helmet from a healthy model under 2 conditions: manual helmet removal and Eject system helmet removal. A 6-camera motion capture system recorded 3-dimensional head position. Our outcome measures consisted of the average angular velocity and acceleration of the head in each movement plane (sagittal, frontal, and transverse), the resultant angular velocity and acceleration, and total motion. Paired-samples t tests compared each variable across the 2 techniques. Manual helmet removal elicited greater average angular velocity in the sagittal and transverse planes and greater resultant angular velocity compared with the Eject system. No differences were observed in average angular acceleration in any single plane of movement; however, the resultant angular acceleration was greater during manual helmet removal. The Eject Helmet Removal System induced greater total head motion. Although the Eject system created more motion at the head, removing a helmet manually resulted in more sudden perturbations as identified by resultant velocity and acceleration of the head. The implications of these findings relate to the care of all cervical spine-injured patients in emergency medical settings, particularly in scenarios where helmet removal is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  19. studies on iron availability in Egyptian soils using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad allah, A.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    four experiments were conducted to study the available fe in some egyptian soils, representing alluvial,, calcareous, and sandy soils, including the following:1) estimation of soil available iron using different chemical methods as well as E-value and evaluated against biological method. 2) differentiation of iron as Fe 2+ and Fe 2+ in some selected egyptian soils by using the modified method (charlot,1966). 3) determination of total Fe in soil using neutron activation analysis. 4) the relative importance of Fe-diffusion in egyptian soils under different treatments

  20. Basalt characterization by means of nuclear and electrical well logging techniques. Case study from Southern Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.

  1. Maternal Relationship, Social Skills and Parental Behavior Through Neuroimaging Techniques and Behavioral Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Mother child relationship is the first and the most important social relationship as it has implications on psychological and neural development of the individual. Here we investigated mother child relationship focusing on different aspects and using a combination of behavioural and neuroimaging techniques. In the first study we addressed the association between brain connectivity and interpersonal competences which are at the basis of every social interaction including the ones involved in m...

  2. Bulk microstructure and local elastic properties of carbon nanocomposites studied by impulse acoustic microscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V.; Petronyuk, Yu.; Morokov, E.; Chernozatonskii, L.; Kuzhir, P.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.; Bellucci, S.; Bistarelli, S.; Mastrucci, M.; Tabacchioni, I.

    2016-05-01

    Bulk microstructure and elastic properties of epoxy-nanocarbon nanocomposites for diverse types and different content of carbon nanofiller has been studied by using impulse acoustic microscopy technique. It has been shown occurrence of various types of mesoscopic structure formed by nanoparticles inside the bulk of nanocomposite materials, including nanoparticle conglomerates and nanoparticle aerogel systems. In spite of the bulk microstructure, nanocarbon composites demonstrate elastic uniformity and negligible influence of nanofiller on elastic properties of carbon nanocomposite materials.

  3. [Amnioinfusion: techniques, indications, and controlled retrospective study of 55 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramellini, D; Fieni, S; Piantelli, G; Faiola, S; Kaihura, C; Verrotti, C; Cavallotti, D; Viola, P; Bacchini, G; Vadora, E

    2000-01-01

    Amnioinfusion is a relatively recent procedure introduced among fetal medicine techniques. Its applications focus on two different methods: transcervical and transabdominal. The first procedure usually is carried out during "intrapartum amnioinfusion" to prevent or treat fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations related to oligohydramnios or to dilute thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. The latter method used during "antepartum amnioinfusion" is usually indicated for severe oligohydramnios in order to avoid the complications related such as pulmonary hypoplasia, deforming effects of oligohydramnios, variable FHR decelerations and intraventricular hemorrhages. Antepartum amnioinfusion, also used to improve ultrasound visualisation in presence of oligohydramnios, is less employed as compared to intrapartum amnioinfusion, therefore its risks are not well established. In order to study possible adverse effects on the mother or foetus, fifty five patients affected by oligohydramnios at 17th-34th week of gestational age were submitted to antepartum amnioinfusion (1-5 procedures) and were matched retrospectively with forty seven women with the same characteristics treated with the conservative and expectant management. The trend of pregnancy was the same for both groups in relation to maternal fever > 38 degrees (10.9% in the amnioinfused group vs 17.0% in control group ns), leukocyte count > 18,000/mm3 (25.5% vs 21.3%, ns), C-reactive protein > 10 ng/ml (10.9% vs 6.4%, ns). The latency period between admission and delivery was significantly longer in the amnioinfused group than in the control one [21 (range 1-98) vs 9 days (range 0-72); p amnioinfused group than in the control group (32.3% vs 66.6%; p amnioinfusion seems to increase the latency period between premature rupture of membranes and delivery, but it remains to clarify if this procedure is as much safe for the fetus as for the mother.

  4. Transvaginal Pelvic Floor Muscle Injection Technique: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Sirls, Larry T; Peters, Kenneth

    Women with pelvic floor dysfunction can have tender areas on vaginal examination, which can be treated with trigger-point injections. There are no publications to evaluate the accuracy of pelvic floor muscle injections. Trigger-point injections were performed on 2 fresh cadaveric pelvises using a curved nasal cannula guide and 7-in spinal needle. This was performed using our standard template of 2 sets of injections at the 1-, 3-, and 5-o'clock positions distally and proximally. The first pelvis was dissected to examine dye penetration. Based on these results, we modified our technique and repeated the injections on the second cadaver. We dissected the second pelvis and compared our findings. The 1-o'clock proximal and distal injections stained the obturator internus and externus near the insertion at the ischiopubic ramus. The 3-o'clock injections stained the midbody of the pubococcygeus and puborectalis. The distal 5-o'clock position was too deep and stained the fat of the ischiorectal space. The proximal 5-o'clock injection stained the area of the pudendal nerve. Our goal at the distal 5-o'clock position was to infuse the iliococcygeus muscle, so we shortened the needle depth from 2 to 1 cm beyond the cannula tip. In our second dissection, the distal 5-o'clock injection again stained only the fat of the ischiorectal space. This is the first study to characterize the distribution of pelvic floor muscle injections in a cadaver model and confirms the ability to deliver medications effectively to the pelvic floor muscles.

  5. Light based techniques for improving health care: studies at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.; Patel, H.S.; Ahlawat, S.

    2015-01-01

    The invention of Lasers in 1960, the phenomenal advances in photonics as well as the information processing capability of the computers has given a major boost to the R and D activity on the use of light for high resolution biomedical imaging, sensitive, non-invasive diagnosis and precision therapy. The effort has resulted in remarkable progress and it is widely believed that light based techniques hold great potential to offer simpler, portable systems which can help provide diagnostics and therapy in a low resource setting. At Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) extensive studies have been carried out on fluorescence spectroscopy of native tissue. This work led to two important outcomes. First, a better understanding of tissue fluorescence and insights on the possible use of fluorescence spectroscopy for screening of cancer and second development of diagnostic systems that can serve as standalone tool for non-invasive screening of the cancer of oral cavity. The optical coherence tomography setups and their functional extensions (polarization sensitive, Doppler) have also been developed and used for high resolution (∼10 µm) biomedical imaging applications, in particular for non-invasive monitoring of the healing of wounds. Chlorophyll based photo-sensitisers and their derivatives have been synthesized in house and used for photodynamic therapy of tumors in animal models and for antimicrobial applications. Various variants of optical tweezers (holographic, Raman etc.) have also been developed and utilised for different applications notably Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped red blood cells. An overview of these activities carried out at RRCAT is presented in this article. (author)

  6. Use of stable isotope techniques in soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    method in estimating absolute rates of mineralisation, immobilisation, nitrification and nitrate reduction in soil, which cannot be directly deduced from non-tracer experiments. A very interesting topic seems to be the measurement of nitrogen released from organic residues, like N-fixing plants, sewage sludge or other manures. Further potential of stable isotope techniques in SOM dynamics studies can be envisaged in the field of quantitating the pools contributing to N-mineralization, the role of soil microbial biomass in this context, the sulphur cycle ( 34 S), climate change and the impact of nitrogen oxide pollution on SOM dynamics, especially in semi-natural environments

  7. A Validation Study of the Impression Replica Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Sofia; Wiking-Lima de Faria, Johanna; Braian, Michael; Ameri, Arman; Ahlgren, Camilla

    2018-04-17

    To validate the well-known and often-used impression replica technique for measuring fit between a preparation and a crown in vitro. The validation consisted of three steps. First, a measuring instrument was validated to elucidate its accuracy. Second, a specimen consisting of male and female counterparts was created and validated by the measuring instrument. Calculations were made for the exact values of three gaps between the male and female. Finally, impression replicas were produced of the specimen gaps and sectioned into four pieces. The replicas were then measured with the use of a light microscope. The values received from measuring the specimen were then compared with the values received from the impression replicas, and the technique was thereby validated. The impression replica technique overvalued all measured gaps. Depending on location of the three measuring sites, the difference between the specimen and the impression replicas varied from 47 to 130 μm. The impression replica technique overestimates gaps within the range of 2% to 11%. The validation of the replica technique enables the method to be used as a reference when testing other methods for evaluating fit in dentistry. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Beneficiation studies of Bajaur manganese ore by different processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, M.; Khan, F.U.; Yamin, A.; Bilquees, R.; Muhammad, N.

    2010-01-01

    The manganese ore of Bajaur Agency of Pakistan was subjected to flotation, heavy medium separation, gravity concentration and magnetic separation techniques for beneficiation. The original composition of the manganese ore was 45.56% Mn , 4% Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 40% SiO/sub 2/. The Mn content was raised to a maximum 48.76 % in the concentrate with the recovery of 67.78 % through flotation technique. Other techniques rendered marginal increase in Mn concentration against the theoretical possibility of substantial enrichment by rejecting the 20 % gangue minerals. The separation of manganese minerals from associated gangue was difficult, due to mineralogical complexity of the ore, extreme fineness of the particle size, texture and minerals intergrowth. High Mn/Fe ratio, phosphorus, and silica contents were within tolerable limits for utilisation of the ore in ferro-manganese production. (author)

  9. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  10. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Studies of osteoporosis in Singapore using isotope related technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, K.; Goh, J.; Lee Soon Tai; Shamal Das De

    1996-01-01

    The main objectives of this study will be to determine the bone density in selected populations for the purposes of i)determining the age of peak bone mass in each study group and ii)quantifying the differences in bone density as functions of the age and sex of persons in the study group as well as quantifying the differences between study groups in different countries. Normal healthy subjects of both sexes across the age range of 15-50 will be recruited for this programme. There will be at least 15 subjects in each 5 year age range (i.e. a total of 105 subjects of each sex). The subjects will be of urban residency. The project will take a maximum of five years. Volunteers will be recruited from the hospital personnel and their friends and relatives. The subjects will be healthy individuals with no history of fractures and they should not be on any medication which may affect the bone density. A questionnaire regarding their lifestyle factors such as exercise, coffee/tea/alcohol intake and medication be filled. The subjects will also have X-rays of the dorsolumbar spine taken to ascertain the absence of scoliosis or crush fractures. Bone mineral density will be measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Norland XR-26 bone densitometer. The BMD in the L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine and right hip which includes the femoral neck, trochanter and Ward's triangle will be scanned. Body composition will also be determined by doing a whole body scan on the subjects. Autopsy samples of rib bones from healthy accident victims in the age range 20-50 years will be obtained and the biomechanical strength of these bones will be tested. Biopsy specimens of the iliac crest will also be obtained to study the differences in trace element composition between osteoporotic patients and controls. (author)

  17. Applications of radioimmunoassay techniques in endocrine studies. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusic, E.T.

    1977-04-01

    The final report consists of a description of the research done, a reference to where the abstract of the results obtained was published, and a list of the corresponding publications and of those in preparation. Work has been done on radioimmunoassay techniques for measuring plasma corticoid values, plasma renin activity (with own reagents), and clinical and research studies measuring aldosterone, corticosterone, and cortisol in control and hypophysectomized patients. Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism has been initiated by radioimmunoassay techniques. Another study concerned the mechanism of K ions on aldosterone production

  18. Study on high density multi-scale calculation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Nakada, H.; Nishikawa, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Yokokawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    To understand degradation of nuclear materials under irradiation, it is essential to know as much about each phenomenon observed from multi-scale points of view; they are micro-scale in atomic-level, macro-level in structural scale and intermediate level. In this study for application to meso-scale materials (100A ∼ 2μm), computer technology approaching from micro- and macro-scales was developed including modeling and computer application using computational science and technology method. And environmental condition of grid technology for multi-scale calculation was prepared. The software and MD (molecular dynamics) stencil for verifying the multi-scale calculation were improved and their movement was confirmed. (A. Hishinuma)

  19. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  20. A comparison of spatial rainfall estimation techniques: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two geostatistical interpolation techniques (kriging and cokriging) were evaluated against inverse distance weighted (IDW) and global polynomial interpolation (GPI). Of the four spatial interpolators, kriging and cokriging produced results with the least root mean square error (RMSE). A digital elevation model (DEM) was ...

  1. The use of tracer techniques in pesticide balance and metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1977-01-01

    The radioisotope tracing technique has been a useful tool in obtaining extensive information on the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant systems, including their uptake, transport and metabolism by plants; their photochemical, chemical and microbial degradation; their adsorption, desorption and translocation in soil; and their bioavailability to untreated crops. A pesticide balance study under practical field conditions using radio labelling can examine a number of factors affecting the fate of a compound at the same time and assess the magnitude of the major processes involved. On the basis of these results, more detailed studies are then formulated to be conducted under an exactly defined environment of a growth chamber or a laboratory. The use of tracer techniques in such studies is reported. (author)

  2. A comparative study of open technique and Z-plasty in management of pilonidal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pilonidal sinus is one of the common problems encountered in general surgical practices and the management of this disease is variable, contentious and problematic. Principles of treatment require eradication of the sinus tract; complete healing and prevention of recurrence. Although several surgical techniques have been described over the years, the management remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the two techniques of the open method and Z-plasty in the management of pilonidal sinus, in terms of incidence of post-operative pain, total hospital stay, total recovery time, complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective comparative study which was conducted in the surgical department of a teaching hospital. A total of 50 cases were included in this study. Of these, 25 cases were operated by the open technique and 25 by excision and Z-plasty. Observation and Result: The mean age at presentation was 29.44 years. Male genders followed by age between 20 and 30 years were the most common predisposing factors. The mean body mass index, early and late post-operative complications were comparable between the two groups. Mean hospital stay and total recovery time was significantly more in open technique group compared with Z-plasty group. Visual analog score was also significantly more in open technique group when compared with Z-plasty group. Conclusion: Excision with Z-plasty was better technique in terms of lesser hospital stay, lesser recovery time, less post-operative pain.

  3. An experimental and numerical study of endwall heat transfer in a turbine blade cascade including tangential heat conduction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Luca; Satta, Francesca; Tanda, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer in the endwall region of a large scale turbine cascade. The steady-state liquid crystal technique has been used to obtain the map of the heat transfer coefficient for a constant heat flux boundary condition. In the presence of two- and three-dimensional flows with significant spatial variations of the heat transfer coefficient, tangential heat conduction could lead to error in the heat transfer coefficient determination, since local heat fluxes at the wall-to-fluid interface tend to differ from point to point and surface temperatures to be smoothed out, thus making the uniform-heat-flux boundary condition difficult to be perfectly achieved. For this reason, numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer in the cascade including the effect of tangential heat conduction inside the endwall have been performed. The major objective of numerical simulations was to investigate the influence of wall heat conduction on the convective heat transfer coefficient determined during a nominal iso-flux heat transfer experiment and to interpret possible differences between numerical and experimental heat transfer results. Results were presented and discussed in terms of local Nusselt number and a convenient wall heat flux function for two values of the Reynolds number (270,000 and 960,000).

  4. A characteristic study of CCF modeling techniques and optimization of CCF defense strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Chull

    2000-02-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs ) are among the major contributors to risk and core damage frequency (CDF ) from operating nuclear power plants (NPPs ). Our study on CCF focused on the following aspects : 1) a characteristic study on the CCF modeling techniques and 2) development of the optimal CCF defense strategy. Firstly, the characteristics of CCF modeling techniques were studied through sensitivity study of CCF occurrence probability upon system redundancy. The modeling techniques considered in this study include those most widely used worldwide, i.e., beta factor, MGL, alpha factor, and binomial failure rate models. We found that MGL and alpha factor models are essentially identical in terms of the CCF probability. Secondly, in the study for CCF defense, the various methods identified in the previous studies for defending against CCF were classified into five different categories. Based on these categories, we developed a generic method by which the optimal CCF defense strategy can be selected. The method is not only qualitative but also quantitative in nature: the selection of the optimal strategy among candidates is based on the use of analytic hierarchical process (AHP). We applied this method to two motor-driven valves for containment sump isolation in Ulchin 3 and 4 nuclear power plants. The result indicates that the method for developing an optimal CCF defense strategy is effective

  5. Study on 95 alumina ceramic metallizing and glazing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qun; Wang Wei

    2007-12-01

    Electric heater is a component of pressurizer in NPP. So the connector of heater must suit for special requirement with high reliability. It need join 95% alumina ceramic and special metal together. Traditional technique is to glazing ceramic at first, then sintering metal powder on ceramic. It result in melting glaze when metallizing at high temperature. The research on high temperature glaze hasn't got ideal result. In another way, the experiments prove low temperature metallizing couldn't get enough strength. Base on present conditions, a new technique is introduced. It is first metallizing then glazing. It can not only provide high strength with high temperature metallizing , but also avoid melting glaze at high temperature. Compared with other ways, the experiments prove it is feasible. The test data can satisfy requirement. This research has been put into production. (authors)

  6. Nuclear techniques using radioactive beams for biophysical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Stachura, Monika Kinga

    Perturbed angular correlation of "-rays (PAC) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance measured by !-decay (betaNMR) spectroscopy are two very sensitive and, among life-scientists, infrequently encountered nuclear techniques. Both of them belong to the family of hyperfine techniques, which allow for measurements of the interactions of extra-nuclear electromagnetic fields with the nuclear moments. In this way - they can provide useful information about the local structure of the investigated systems. The first part of the work presented here focuses on investigating the fundamental chemistry of heavy metal ion - protein interactions mainly with PAC spectroscopy. A variety of questions concerning both the function of metal ions in natural systems and in synthetic biomolecules on the one hand and the toxic effects of some metal ions on the other were addressed, the results of which are described in four different papers. Paper I is a review article entitled ”Selected applications of perturbed angular correl...

  7. Study on Efficiency of Fusion Techniques for IKONOS Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanmei; Yu, Haiyang; Guijun, Yang; Nie, Chenwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Many image fusion techniques have been proposed to achieve optimal resolution in the spatial and spectral domains. Six different merging methods were listed in this paper and the efficiency of fusion techniques was assessed in qualitative and quantitative aspect. Both local and global evaluation parameters were used in the spectral quality and a Laplace filter method was used in spatial quality assessment. By simulation, the spectral quality of the images merged by Brovery was demonstrated to be the worst. In contrast, GS and PCA algorithms, especially the Pansharpening provided higher spectral quality than the standard Brovery, wavelet and CN methods. In spatial quality assessment, the CN method represented best compared with that of others, while the Brovery algorithm was worst. The wavelet parameters that performed best achieved acceptable spectral and spatial quality compared to the others

  8. Radioactive diffusion gaseous probe technique for study adsorbent structure inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyuzin, A.Yu.; Korobkov, V.I.; Bekman, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    One of the versions of the method of diffusion gaseous probe - method of longitudinal shear in combination with autoradiography (ARG) - was used for characterising sorbents and catalysts, which are considered to be promising for reprocessing of sulfur-containing natural gases. Hydrogen sulfide, labelled with 35 S was used as diffusion radioactive probe. Zeolite granules of 4A type and granulated adsorbents on the basis of CR and AM aluminium oxides, which are industrial catalysts of Clauss reaction developed at SNEA company, were used as objects under investigation. It is shown that technique for fabrication of 4A zeolite granules leads to asymmetrical pore distribution over the granule diameter. Technique for AM granule fabrication leads to occuRrence of local inhomogeneities of the structure in the form of narrow coaxial rings with decreased or increased local adsorption ability. Granules of adsorbent of CR type are characterized by rather homogeneous structure. It is recommended to use the mentioned method for industrial adsorbent diagnosis

  9. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Pyrovan, H.; Raoffi, N.J.; Taherpoor, H.

    1985-01-01

    This work is part of project with the IAEA in a coordinated program on 'Trace Elements in Human and Bio-environmental Systems' to evaluate their nutritional requierements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism, etc. Cow's milk is regarded to be one of the most important and most nutritious foodstuffs of mankind. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out: a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of the project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. AAS, PIXE and NAA are presented here. The latter was applied both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is, however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. PIXE analysis is very fast and rather routine, but the technique for trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and improvement. (author)

  10. Preliminary Study of Meteorite and Tektite using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Tangpitayakul, Pisarn; Pimjun, Surapong; Chongkum, Somporn; Sangsuriya, Sineenart; Wiseatsri, Pojanee

    2003-06-01

    The discoveries of suspicious meteorite or tektite around Chaiyapum province and surrounding area were sent to Physics Division, Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). Fourteen samples were analyzed by 3 nuclear techniques; the measurement of natural radiation, x-ray fluorescence analysis and neutron activation analysis. The result shows that the samples can be classified according to the level of natural radiation, the elemental composition and there quantity

  11. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D D; Bailey, G; Martin, J; Garton, D; Noorman, H; Stelcer, E; Johnson, P [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  12. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  13. Uranium chemistry in blood and aqueous media. Techniques of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapolan, St.

    1996-11-01

    The object of this report in a first step, is to understand the chemistry of uranium in aqueous phase by specifying the behavior of this element in function of several parameters such PH, concentration of present species, temperature, ionic force. In a second step, investigation techniques are reviewed: X rays diffraction, potentiometric titrations, polarography, spectrophotometry, NMR of 13 C, 31 P, 17 O, capillary electrophoresis, laser detection. The third part brings elements to understand the uranium complexation in blood medium

  14. Study on biological dosimetry of premature chromosome condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo

    2005-01-01

    The premature chromosome condensation technique has been applied for biological dosimetry purpose. Premature chromo-some condensation was induced by incubating unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of okadaic acid or calyculin A (a phosphatase inhibitor) which eliminated the need for fusion with mitotic cells. It is now possible to examine the early damage induced by radiation. It is simple, exact when it combines with fluorecence in situ hybridization. (authors)

  15. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  16. Techniques necessary for multiple tracer quantitative small-animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Terry L.; Dence, Carmen S.; Engelbach, John A.; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J.; Welch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An increasing number and variety of studies on rodent models are being conducted using small-animal positron emission tomography scanners. We aimed to determine if animal handling techniques could be developed to perform routine animal imaging in a timely and efficient manner and with minimal effect on animal physiology. These techniques need to be reproducible in the same animal while maintaining hemodynamic and physiological stability. Methods: The necessary techniques include (a) the use of inhalant anesthesia, (b) arterial and venous cannulation for multiple tracer administrations and blood sampling, (c) development of small-volume analytic columns and techniques and (d) measurement of the physiological environment during the imaging session. Results: We provide an example of a cardiac imaging study using four radiotracers ( 15 O-water, 1-[ 11 C]-acetate, 1-[ 11 C]-palmitate and 1-[ 11 C]-glucose) injected into normal rats. Plasma substrates, CO 2 production and total metabolites were measured. The animals remained anesthetized over the entire imaging session, and their physiological state was maintained. Conclusion: The intrastudy stability of the physiological measurements and substrate levels and interstudy reproducibility of the measurements are reported

  17. Sample preparation for large-scale bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Bacalum, Elena; David, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Quality of the analytical data obtained for large-scale and long term bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatography depends on a number of experimental factors including the choice of sample preparation method. This review discusses this tedious part of bioanalytical studies, applied to large-scale samples and using liquid chromatography coupled with different detector types as core analytical technique. The main sample preparation methods included in this paper are protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, derivatization and their versions. They are discussed by analytical performances, fields of applications, advantages and disadvantages. The cited literature covers mainly the analytical achievements during the last decade, although several previous papers became more valuable in time and they are included in this review. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. ArthroBroström Lateral Ankle Stabilization Technique: An Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Ortiz, Cristian; Golano, Pau; Nery, Caio

    2015-10-01

    Arthroscopic ankle lateral ligament repair techniques have recently been developed and biomechanically as well as clinically validated. Although there has been 1 anatomic study relating suture and anchor proximity to anatomic structures, none has evaluated the ArthroBroström procedure. To evaluate the proximity of anatomic structures for the ArthroBroström lateral ankle ligament stabilization technique and to define ideal landmarks and "safe zones" for this repair. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric ankle specimens (5 matched pairs) were screened for the study. All specimens underwent arthroscopic lateral ligament repair according to the previously described ArthroBroström technique with 2 suture anchors in the fibula. Three cadaveric specimens were used to test the protocol, and 7 were dissected to determine the proximity of anatomic structures. Several distances were measured, including those of different anatomic structures to the suture knots, to determine the "safe zones." Measurements were obtained by 2 separate observers, and statistical analysis was performed. None of the specimens revealed entrapment by either of the suture knots of the critical anatomic structures, including the superficial peroneal nerve (SPN), sural nerve, peroneus tertius tendon, peroneus brevis tendon, or peroneus longus tendon. The internervous safe zone between the intermediate branch of the SPN and sural nerve was a mean of 51 mm (range, 39-64 mm). The intertendinous safe zone between the peroneus tertius and peroneus brevis was a mean of 43 mm (range, 37-49 mm). On average, a 20-mm (range, 8-36 mm) safe distance was maintained from the most medial suture to the intermediate branch of the SPN. The amount of inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) grasped by either suture knot varied from 0 to 12 mm, with 86% of repairs including the retinaculum. The results indicate that there is a relatively wide internervous and intertendinous safe zone when performing the Arthro

  19. Microemulsion systems studied by positron annihilation techniques. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Olea, O.; Fucugauchi, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The positron annihilation technique was applied to assess the effect of the double bond of the surfactant molecule on the microemulsion formation mechanism by replacing sodium stearate by sodium oleate in surfactant-cosurfactant-solvent-water systems. Diameters of microemulsions were measured by dynamic laser light scattering, and the obtained values concur with the present positron annihilation data. Structures of these microemulsions have been assessed by considering the available conformation and shapes of the surfactant-cosurfactant-solvent-assemblies. Volumes of the same aggregates have been calculated by taking into consideration the packing constraint imposed upon kink formation. (Auth.)

  20. Goals, technique and equipment of meteor study in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashova, A.; Bagrov, A. V.; Bolgova, G. T.; Kruchkov, S. V.; Leonov, V. A.; Mazurov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    Institute of Astronomy RAS is one of the science institutes in the Russian Federation providing systematic optical meteor observations and supervises several meteor groups in our country. The main tasks of our investigations are dedicated to study meteoroid nature as well as meteoroid streams and meteoroid population in the Solar System. In the XXI century we in Russia carry out the reconstruction of our meteor astronomy due to possibilities of new meteor observation equipment (more powerful than were used before as visual and photographic methods) had made possible to select more interesting goals. First of our task is investigation of meteoroid streams crossing the Earth's orbit, and character of meteoroid distributions along of them. The multi stations meteor monitoring from located in the both hemispheres of the Earth can help in this study. According to the analysis of the evolution of meteor orbits, the compact and long lived meteoroid streams consist mainly from large particles. The observation equipment (cheap TV-cameras) with low limiting magnitude we use for gathering observational data. On the other hand, the observations of weak meteors are needed for new meteor shower indication (or confirmation of known meteor shower). The more effective way to do it is comparison of individual meteor orbits parameters (then calculation of radiants of meteor showers). The observations of space debris (as the meteors with low velocity - less 11.2 km/s) can be taking up within this task. The combination of high sensitive TV-cameras WATEC and super-fast lenses COMPUTAR are widely used for meteor TV-monitoring. The TVsystems for round-year meteor observations are fixed and are permanently oriented to the zenith area (the patrol camera - PatrolCa). The mobile TV-cameras (MobileCa) are used for double station observations (if it is possible) and located not far from main cameras PatrolCa (20-30 km). The mobile TVcameras observe 90% of main PatrolCa cameras FOV at altitudes

  1. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs.

  2. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  3. Patient experienced continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system-a study including immigrants, refugees and ethnic danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2014-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  4. Vestibuloplasty: a retrospective study on conventional and laser operation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckel, Claus P.

    1999-05-01

    40 patients with edentulous maxillary jaws were referred to our private practice limited to maxillofacial surgery, due to atrophy of the alveolar ridge. Before prosthetic renewal of the upper removable prosthesis the restorative dentist requested a sufficient vestibule. After supraperiostal preparation, soft tissue advancement and fixation with absorbable sutures. The recipient site was covered with a free gingival graft. Group I was operated on traditionally using a scalpel. In group II incision and soft tissue preparation was performed using a diode laser. Wavelength: 810 nm; Continuous wave mode; 400 micron optic fiber; Output power 1.6 Watt. All operations were performed by one surgeon experienced in both operation techniques. Every patient was followed-up 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The vestibular height directly adjacent to the nasal cavity and 2cm distal to these first measuring locations were taken. Each patient was asked to evaluate their individual discomfort and postoperative pain level. Both groups showed no significant difference in vestibular height after 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The postoperative height of 1.28 cm was reduced to 0.84 cm after 1 year. Furthermore both groups showed uneventful healing and take of the free gingival grafts. The assessment of the pain and discomfort level by the patients brought a significant difference between both groups in favor of the laser assisted operation technique.

  5. Application of ESPI techniques for the study of dynamic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, Rene

    2004-06-01

    Full field optical measurement techniques have already entered into various fields of industrial applications covering static as well as dynamic phenomena. The electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) allows the non contact, sensitive and three dimensional measurement of displacements in the sub micron range of objects with dimensions from mm2 to m2. For dynamic and transient phenomena, the use of pulsed laser have already been reported for various applications and successfully proven for the determination of the structural response of different components. In this paper we would like to present recent developments in the field of pulsed ESPI applications where emphasis is put onto the full field measurement result. The use of a completely computer controlled system allows easy access to mode shape characterization, deformation measurements and the characterization of transient events like shock wave propagation. Recent developments of the 3D-PulseESPI technique led to a very compact and complete system with improved characteristics regarding robustness and operation. The integrated design of the illumination laser and sensors for image acquisition allows easy aiming and adjustments with respect to the object of inspection. The laser is completely computer controlled which is advantageously used in a completely automatic brake squeal inspection system, which captures the squealing signal, automatically fires the laser and provides the complete deformation map of the component under test. Examples of recent applications in the field of dynamic structure response, with an emphasis in the field of automotive applications are given.

  6. Study on short-lived particles with emulsion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentis, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on measuring the lifetimes are reviewed and the decay mechanisms for c-, b-quark, tau-lepton and charmed hadron are disclosed by means of emulsion chambers and hybride techniques (HT) of the emulsion-spectrometer type. The dominant development of hybride emulsion technique is traced beginning with the early experiments on measuring the lifetime of particles with emulsion (approximately 10 -13 s) and emulsion chambers. The layouts of arrangement of emulsions, counters and chambers are presented. Experiments on neutrino beams in the Fermilab and CERN using a foot bubble chamber and the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) are briefly described. HT experiments with a muon beam and neutrino beams in the Fermilab, with a photon beam in CERN with the use of the modified Omega are considered in detail. The results on measuring the lifetimes of the particles investigated are presented. The lengths of decay tracks, hypothetical decays, fitted masses, leVels of permissible limit of kinematic analysis, pulses of charmed baryons and intrinsic lifetimes of candidates for decay Λsub(c)sup(+), D +- , D 0 , F + - mesons are tabulated. The maximum likelihood method has been applied to determine the lifetimes from complete data on decays. It is noted that new developments in the field of semiconductor detectors and automation of emulsion measurements can extend possibilities of HT for investigation of both charmed

  7. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Peyrovan, H.; Raofei, H.N.J.; Taherpour, H. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre)

    This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated programme on ''trace elements in Human Nutrition and Bio-Environmental Systems'' to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism etc. Cow's milk is regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose so a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method applied, both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision for NAA and AAS allows greater degree of acceptance respectively. Although PIXE is very fast and rather routine, the technique of trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and developments.

  8. Study of Pictorial technique in a colonial wall painting from El Padre coffee plantation using XRF and complementary technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Mendoza, A.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation is based on the study of the pictorial technique employed in a wall painting from El Padre coffee plantation situation in Madruga, Havana, and built at beginning of XIX century. The knowledge about pictorical techniques that was used in a painting is a typical research in Archaeometry, because it is so important the art historical information as scientific results to conclude about the real materials and procedures that were used in the past by the artists . The prediction of a wall painting pictorical technique is carrying out trough the knowledge of pigments, mortars layers and binding substance composition. The non destructive inorganic microanalysis of mortars layers and pigments was determined by a portable XRF system, which is very useful because of the most of pigments are of inorganic nature. A pinpoint samples microanalysis of each color from the painting were done by complementary and traditional technique in stratigraphic studies such as: optical microscopy, micro- chemical drop test, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray attachment (SEM-EDX), gas chromatography and Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The overlapping of layers was obtained by optical microscopy, The mortars composition was investigated by micro-chemical drop test and SEM/EDX and further confirmed by FTIR. The presence of binding substances in colors layers was identified by specific staining test and Gas Chromatography

  9. Retrospective Study of Rapid-Exchange Monorail Versus Over-the-Wire Technique for Femoropopliteal Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, Thomas; Schaefer, Jost Philipp; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz; Michalek, Jens; Charalambous, Nicholas; Sapoval, Marc; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to compare procedural outcome of rapid-exchange (RX) monorail versus conventional over-the-wire (OTW) technique for femoropopliteal angioplasty.Materials and MethodsDemographic data, procedure details, angioplasty success, and complications of 328 consecutive percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTAs) were collected from a prospective database and retrospectively analyzed. Procedure details included duration of fluoroscopy, area-dose product, amount of contrast agent, sheath sizes, access route, length of stenosis, presence of total occlusion, technical and anatomical success (residual stenosis <30% in the absence of complications), need for bail-out stenting, and periprocedural complications. The RX technique alone was used in 102 of 328 cases (31%); the OTW technique, in 226 of 328 of cases (68%).ResultsTechnical success was 98% for the RX versus 95.4% for the OTW technique (p = 0.2). A significantly greater number of stents had to be implanted due to angioplasty failure when the OTW technique was used (RX, 5.9%; OTW, 13.7%; p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in fluorocopy time, dose-area product, or amount of contrast medium used. The RX system facilitated the use of smaller sheath sizes (5 Fr = 38% and 6 Fr = 59% for RX versus 5 Fr = 16.8% and ≥6 Fr = 82.5% for OTW) but showed only a tendency toward lower overall complication rates (16.6% [17/102] in the RX group versus 19.9% [45/226] in the OTW group; p = 0.09). There was no effect on length of hospitalization. RX monorail systems were not associated with higher procedural costs when compared to conventional OTW technique.ConclusionWe conclude that RX monorail systems seem to enhance the technical success of femoropopliteal angioplasty. Although smaller sheath sizes can be used due to the lower profile of the RX systems, there is only a tendency toward lower complication rates.

  10. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2017-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) performed the technical studies contributed for the disposal measures of uranium-bearing waste with low concentration and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle. (1) Study of the trench disposal of uranium-bearing waste. As a part of the study of disposal measures of the uranium-bearing waste, we carried out the safety assessment (exposure dose assessment) and derived the upper limit of radioactivity concentration of uranium which was allowed to be included in radioactive waste for trench disposal. (2) Preliminary study for the expansion of material applied to clearance in uranium-bearing waste. Currently, the clearance level of uranium handling facilities was derived from the radioactivity concentration of uranium corresponding to dose criterion about the exposure pathways of the reuse and recycle of metal. Therefore, we preliminarily evaluated whether metal and concrete were able to be applied to clearance by the method of the undergrounding disposal. (3) Study of the concentration limitation scenarios for the intermediate depth disposal-based waste. We carried out dose assessment of intermediate depth disposal of radioactive waste generated from JAEA about radioactive concentration limitation scenarios of which the concept was shown by the study team in Nuclear Regulation Authority. Based on the results, we discussed whether the waste was applied to radioactive waste conforming to concept of intermediate depth disposal. (author)

  12. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  13. Ayurvedic versus conventional dietary and lifestyle counseling for mothers with burnout-syndrome: A randomized controlled pilot study including a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian S; Eisenmann, Clemens; Oberzaucher, Frank; Forster, Martin; Steckhan, Nico; Meier, Larissa; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Ayurveda claims to be effective in the treatment of psychosomatic disorders by means of lifestyle and nutritional counseling. In a randomized controlled study mothers with burnout were randomized into two groups: Ayurvedic nutritional counseling (according to tradition), and conventional nutritional counseling (following the recommendations of a family doctor). Patients received five counseling sessions over twelve weeks. Outcomes included levels of burnout, quality of life, sleep, stress, depression/anxiety, and spirituality at three and six months. It also included a qualitative evaluation of the communication processes. We randomized thirty four patients; twenty three participants were included in the per protocol analysis. No significant differences were observed between the groups. However, significant and clinically relevant intra-group mean changes for the primary outcome burnout, and secondary outcomes sleep, stress, depression and mental health were only found in the Ayurveda group. The qualitative part of the study identified different conversational styles and counseling techniques between the two study groups. In conventional consultations questions tended to be category bound, while counseling-advice was predominantly admonitory. The Ayurvedic practitioner used open-ended interrogative forms, devices for displaying understanding, and positive re-evaluation more frequently, leading to an overall less asymmetrical interaction. We found positive effects for both groups, which however were more pronounced in the Ayurvedic group. The conversational and counseling techniques in the Ayurvedic group offered more opportunities for problem description by patients as well as patient-centered practice and resource-oriented recommendations by the physician. NCT01797887. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  15. Application of Statistical Potential Techniques to Runaway Transport Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguilior, S.; Castejon, F.; Parrondo, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A method is presented for computing runaway production rate based on techniques of noise-activated escape in a potential is presented in this work. A generalised potential in 2D momentum space is obtained from the deterministic or drift terms of Langevin equations. The diffusive or stochastic terms that arise directly from the stochastic nature of collisions, play the role of the noise that activates barrier crossings. The runaway electron source is given by the escape rate in such a potential which is obtained from an Arrenius-like relation. Runaway electrons are those skip the potential barrier due to the effect of stochastic collisions. In terms of computation time, this method allows one to quickly obtain the source term for a runway electron transport code.(Author) 11 refs

  16. The application of radiobiological study by gene chip technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yu; Li Yao

    2002-01-01

    The responses to ionizing radiation are complex and are regulated by a number of overlapping molecular pathways. One such stress-signaling pathway involves p53, which regulates the expression of over 100 genes already identified. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that the pattern of stress gene expression has some cell type specificity. It may be possible to exploit these differences in stress gene responsiveness as molecular markers through the use of a combined informatics and functional genomic approach. The techniques of micro-array analysis potentially offer the opportunity to monitor changes in gene expression across the entire set of expressed genes in a cell or organism. It again highlights the importance of a cellular context to genotoxic stress responses; it also raises the prospect of expression profiling of cell lines, tissues, and tumors. Such profiles may have a predictive value in cancer therapy regimens, or identification of exposures to environmental toxins

  17. Transport of electrons in lead oxide studied by CELIV technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeniuk, O; Juska, G; Oelerich, J O; Jandieri, K; Baranovskii, S D; Reznik, A

    2017-01-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) has a long history of application in optoelectronics and imaging, the transport mechanism for electrons in this material has not yet been clarified. Using the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) technique, we provide the temperature- and field-dependences of electron mobility in poly-PbO. It is found that electrons undergo dispersive transport, i.e. their mobility decreases in the course of time. Multiple trapping of electrons from the conduction band into the developed band tail is revealed as the dominant transport mechanism. This differs dramatically from the dispersive transport of holes in the same material, dominated by topological factors and not by energy disorder. (paper)

  18. Different Applications of Rheological Techniques in Studies of Physical Gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    of associating protein filaments with the characteristic function of individual filaments. The proteins enable the cell to regulate the mechanical properties of the cell by sol-gel transition and a variety of crosslinking reactions. In the food industry texture of products are regulated by addition of gel......, respectively, are particularly useful for investigating slow motions in gels and long-time properties. An example of how these different techniques have been used to investigate the rheological properties of sputum [4] will be discussed. The results demonstrate that sputum is a viscoelastic material...... are dominated by repulsive interactions between micelles, and oscillatory measurements allow a determination of the repulsive potential between micelles. Oscillatory bulk modulus measurements have been used to determine the dynamics of unimer-micelle motions. The strain properties of physical gels are of major...

  19. Isotopic techniques to study phosphorus cycling in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaiah, K.M.; Sreenivasa Chari, M.; Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A sound understanding of phosphorus cycling in soil system is essential in order to manage this system in a sustainable manner. Phosphorus transformations are characterized by physico-chemical (sorption-desorption) and biological processes . The transformation rates need to be taken into account while developing nutrient management strategies for economical and sustainable production. One of the important tools and the method gaining popularity for determining the gross transformation rates of nutrients in the soil is the isotopic dilution technique. The major processes in the soil-plant system which determine the distribution and bioavailability of phosphorus in various inorganic and organic soil components consist of: (1) the dissolution of soil mineral phosphates, (2) retention of phosphorus by inorganic soil constituents, (3) decomposition of organic phosphorus contained in plant, animal and microbial detritus and (4) Immobilization of phosphorus via the soil microbial biomass and plan uptake

  20. Complex technique for studying the machine part wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishko, V.A.; Zhushma, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A technique to determine the wear of steel details rolling with sliding with circulatory lubrication is suggested. The functional diagram of the experimental device and structural diagrams of equipment to register the wear of tested samples and forming the lubricating layer between them, are considered. Results of testing three conples of disc samples and the data characterizing the dependence of sample wear on the value of contact stress are presented. The peculiarity of the device used is synchronous registering of the lubricating layer formation in the place of contact and detail mass loss in time which is realized correspondingly over discharge voltage on the lubricating layer and the intensity of radiation from detail wear products activated by neutrons. On the basis, of the investigation the conclusion is made that MEhF-1 oil has a greater antiwear effectiveness than the universal TAD-17 1 oil used presently [ru

  1. Comparative study of image restoration techniques in forensic image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijhold, Jurrien; Kuijper, Arjan; Westhuis, Jaap-Harm

    1997-02-01

    In this work we investigated the forensic applicability of some state-of-the-art image restoration techniques for digitized video-images and photographs: classical Wiener filtering, constrained maximum entropy, and some variants of constrained minimum total variation. Basic concepts and experimental results are discussed. Because all methods appeared to produce different results, a discussion is given of which method is the most suitable, depending on the image objects that are questioned, prior knowledge and type of blur and noise. Constrained minimum total variation methods produced the best results for test images with simulated noise and blur. In cases where images are the most substantial part of the evidence, constrained maximum entropy might be more suitable, because its theoretical basis predicts a restoration result that shows the most likely pixel values, given all the prior knowledge used during restoration.

  2. Study of uranium dioxide pellets by micro-acoustic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roque, V.

    1999-01-01

    In order to reduce the volume of spent fuel to reprocess and to improve the productivity and the safety of the nuclear reactor, 'Electricite De France' aim to increase the average fuel discharge burn-up. To elaborate the safety reports, EDF develops codes to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the nuclear fuel element. These numeric simulations need to evaluate accurately and locally the evolution of the material and of its properties. One of the major concern today is the local characterisation of the intrinsic volume fraction porosity and the mechanical properties of the irradiated fuel. The fuel pellet fragmentation, the steep radial gradient in its physical properties evolution and the chemical evolution of the irradiated material make difficult nay the use of the conventional techniques. This leads EDF to pay interest for the use of two complementary techniques: micro-indentation on the one hand and acoustic methods on the other hand (acoustic microscopy and micro-echography), with an additional constrain to perform on active materials. The objective of this work has been to adapt the acoustic methods for an application on uranium dioxide pellets, used as nuclear fuel in Water Pressurised Reactor. Acquisitions protocols have been set to measure accurately the Rayleigh velocity and the longitudinal velocity of the UO 2 . Using these protocols, we have calibrated these acoustic methods by analysing non irradiated nuclear pellet which properties were well known. This process enable to quantify the effects of different physico-chemical parameters of the UO 2 on the ultrasonic velocities measured. Particularly, the large influence of the porosity has been demonstrated and empirical laws to express the evolution of the acoustic velocities as a function of the volume fraction porosity were established. Moreover, we have established a methodology to characterise the intrinsic elastic constants and the volume fraction porosity on irradiated UO 2 fuel pellets

  3. Development of techniques for electrochemical studies in power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the oxide films on the engineering alloys used as construction materials in power plants change as a result of exposure to aqueous environments. The susceptibility of the materials to different forms of corrosion is influenced by the properties of these oxide films. The structure and electrochemical properties of the oxide films are in turn dependent on the applied water chemistry. Therefore, water chemistry control has been used in minimising the impact of different corrosion phenomena in operating power plants. Since there is not only one ideal operational specification for all light water reactors, individually designed water chemistry programs are needed to take into account plant-specific design features and particular problem areas. The applicability of alternative water chemistry practices require fast and reliable in-line electrochemical techniques to monitor possible changes in the oxidation behaviour of nuclear power plant materials. This thesis summarises the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland over the past 10 years to increase the knowledge of factors affecting the oxidation behaviour of construction materials in aqueous coolants at high temperatures. The work started with the development of electrodes for measurement of high temperature water chemistry parameters such as pH and the corrosion potential of construction materials. After laboratory testing these electrodes were used both in test reactors and in operating nuclear power plants. These measurements showed that high temperature water chemistry monitoring may be more accurate than corresponding room temperature measurements, particularly during transient situations. However, it was also found that understanding the processes taking place within and on oxide films requires a combination of electrochemical techniques enabling characterisation of the electronic properties of these films. This conclusion resulted in development of a controlled

  4. Sub-classification of Advanced-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Cohort Study Including 612 Patients Treated with Sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Chung, Goh Eun; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Nam, Joon Yeul; Chang, Young; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Hwi Young; Cho, Eun Ju; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2018-04-01

    Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with various clinical conditions including major vessel invasion, metastasis, and poor performance status. The aim of this study was to establish a prognostic scoring system and to propose a sub-classification of the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C. This retrospective study included consecutive patientswho received sorafenib for BCLC stage C HCC at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to develop a scoring system, and internal validationwas performed by a 5-fold cross-validation. The performance of the model in predicting risk was assessed by the area under the curve and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. A total of 612 BCLC stage C HCC patients were sub- classified into strata depending on their performance status. Five independent prognostic factors (Child-Pugh score, α-fetoprotein, tumor type, extrahepatic metastasis, and portal vein invasion) were identified and used in the prognostic scoring system. This scoring system showed good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.734 to 0.818) and calibration functions (both p advanced HCC. A prognostic scoring system with five independent factors is useful in predicting the survival of patients with BCLC stage C HCC.

  5. The use of radionuclide techniques in soil erosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Mabit, L.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion is of concern since it can reduce soil productivity as a result of exportation of inorganic and organic material and nutrients out of the cultivated fields. These are the so-called 'onsite' impacts of erosion. Some of the exported materials, and the associated elements, find their way to water bodies The result is a degradation of the water quality due to suspended solids, sedimentation, eutrophication and pesticide toxicity, what is currently referred to as off-site impacts. Despite its importance, many countries lack reliable and comprehensive data on the problem, its magnitude and spatial extent. One of the reasons is that producing representative and reliable data on erosion is a long and resource intensive process.Fallout radionuclides (FRNs), such as 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have proven to be very powerful tracers of soil movements, that can complement interestingly more conventional approaches. Starting in the mid-1990's the IAEA has been actively involved in supporting coordinated research activities to further develop several methodological aspects related to the use of these isotopes and in the dissemination of the techniques among Member States, through the joint efforts of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the Soil Science Unit (SSU) of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory. A first Coordinated Research Project (CRP), from 1996 to 2001, helped to test and validate the basic assumptions underlying the use of FRN, to accelerate the development of conversion models used to translate FRN data into soil movements and to evaluate the effect of specific land use management on soil erosion. A second CRP, planned for 2003-2007, builds on the results of the first one to assess the efficiency of different soil conservation practices, to continue the validation of conversion models and the development of user-friendly software to

  6. Implementing a benchmarking and feedback concept decreases postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty: A prospective study including 256 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditz, A; Drescher, J; Greimel, F; Zeman, F; Grifka, J; Meißner, W; Völlner, F

    2016-12-05

    Perioperative pain reduction, particularly during the first two days, is highly important for patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Problems are not only caused by medical issues but by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent benchmarking. All patients included into the study had undergone total knee arthroplasty. Outcome parameters were analyzed by means of a questionnaire on the first postoperative day. A multidisciplinary team implemented a regular procedure of data analyzes and external benchmarking by participating in a nationwide quality improvement project. At the beginning of the study, our hospital ranked 16 th in terms of activity-related pain and 9 th in patient satisfaction among 47 anonymized hospitals participating in the benchmarking project. At the end of the study, we had improved to 1 st activity-related pain and to 2 nd in patient satisfaction. Although benchmarking started and finished with the same standardized pain management concept, results were initially pure. Beside pharmacological treatment, interdisciplinary teamwork and benchmarking with direct feedback mechanisms are also very important for decreasing postoperative pain and for increasing patient satisfaction after TKA.

  7. Using the critical incident technique in community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkora, Jeffrey; Stupar, Lauren; O'Donnell, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Successful community-based participatory research involves the community partner in every step of the research process. The primary study for this paper took place in rural, Northern California. Collaborative partners included an academic researcher and two community based resource centers that provide supportive services to people diagnosed with cancer. This paper describes our use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to conduct Community-based Participatory Research. We ask: Did the CIT facilitate or impede the active engagement of the community in all steps of the study process? We identified factors about the Critical Incident Technique that were either barriers or facilitators to involving the community partner in every step of the research process. Facilitators included the CIT's ability to accommodate involvement from a large spectrum of the community, its flexible design, and its personal approach. Barriers to community engagement included training required to conduct interviews, depth of interview probes, and time required. Overall, our academic-community partners felt that our use of the CIT facilitated community involvement in our Community-Based Participatory Research Project, where we used it to formally document the forces promoting and inhibiting successful achievement of community aims.

  8. Study on fine quartz pre-dose techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Wang Weida; Xia Junding

    1996-01-01

    When using the pre-dose technique in ceramic dating, it is essential to add a calibration dose and to eliminate the background dose. For doing this measurement the sample requires multiple activation following multiple administration of a test dose to induce simulated 'ancient' thermoluminescence (TL). However, the procedures introduce many factors that are difficultly corrected. The authors compare existing two kinds of measurement procedures and proposes a new procedure involving single activation following a single test dose administration. An experiment using the single activation procedure is carried out with natural fine quartz where the results obtained exhibit only 0.07 relative error. It appears that this new procedure increases the precision of the ancient TL measurement by about 0.04 and 0.11 over those of existing two kinds of procedures. In addition this method can give realistic values in TL dating for relatively 'young' samples aged tens to hundreds of years where the standard high temperature TL method is relatively insensitive

  9. A study on immobilized ethanol yeast cells by radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengkui; Zhang Bosen

    1994-01-01

    Hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and a series of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate monomers were copolymerized by radiation technique at low temperature (-78 degree C) and hydrophilic hydrogels were obtained. The immobilization of yeast cells with these copolymer carriers led to a higher ethanol productivity than free cells. Of all copolymer carriers, the ethanol yield with poly (HEA-14 G) was the highest, about 2.45 times as high as that of free yeast cells. In addition, the ethanol productivity of 12 batch repeated reactions with poly (HEA-14G) carrier was all higher than that of free yeast cells. The ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells was dependent on the proportion of hydrophilic monomer to other monomers in copolymer systems, the chain length of the bifunctional monomer, the degree of hydration of copolymer carriers, the structure of copolymer carriers and porosity in the internal structure of carriers. The ethanol yield of immobilized cells depended on swelling ability and porosity of copolymer carriers

  10. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Marques, A.P.; Reis, M.A.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Barros, L.I.C.

    2001-01-01

    A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors - natives and transplants - are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal - the Setubal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon - where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10x15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5x2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50x50 km, using a 10x10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively

  11. Studying the structural and optical properties of Zn O:Cu prepared by APCVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manssor, M.

    2012-01-01

    Undoped and Cu-doped Zn O ant (3-9 wt.%) thin films have been prepared by APCVD technique on glass substrates at 500 degree.The structural and optical properties of these films were studied. The results of the structural tests showed that these films are of a polycrystalline hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation in the (002) direction, the optical properties included transmittance, energy gap, ob sorption coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient, the energy gap values were found to decrease from (3.25 to 3.15 eV) and the average transmittance was found about (90%) in the visible region. (author).

  12. Students' Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Moeller, Martin Holdgaard; Paltved, Charlotte; Mors, Ole; Ringsted, Charlotte; Morcke, Anne Mette

    2017-10-06

    The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students' perceptions of psychiatric patients and students' reflections on meeting and communicating with psychiatric patients. The authors conducted group interviews with 30 medical students who volunteered to participate in interviews and applied inductive thematic content analysis to the transcribed interviews. Students taught with text-based patient cases emphasized excitement and drama towards the personal clinical narratives presented by the teachers during the course, but never referred to the patient cases. Authority and boundary setting were regarded as important in managing patients. Students taught with video-based patient cases, in contrast, often referred to the patient cases when highlighting new insights, including the importance of patient perspectives when communicating with patients. The format of patient cases included in teaching may have a substantial impact on students' patient-centeredness. Video-based patient cases are probably more effective than text-based patient cases in fostering patient-centered perspectives in medical students. Teachers sharing stories from their own clinical experiences stimulates both engagement and excitement, but may also provoke unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry.

  13. A study on the quantitative evaluation for the software included in digital systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In general, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) has been used as one of the most important methods to evaluate the safety of NPPs. The PSA, because most of NPPs have been installed and used analog I and C systems, has been performed based on the hardware perspectives. In addition, since the tendency to use digital I and C systems including software instead of analog I and C systems is increasing, the needs of quantitative evaluation methods so as to perform PSA are also increasing. Nevertheless, several reasons such as software did not aged and it is very perplexed to estimate software failure rate due to its non-linearity, make the performance of PSA difficult. In this study, in order to perform PSA including software more efficiently, test-based software reliability estimation methods are reviewed to suggest a preliminary procedure that can provide reasonable guidances to quantify software failure rate. In addition, requisite activities to enhance applicability of the suggested procedure are also discussed. 67 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  14. Aloe vera is non-toxic to cells: A microculture tetrazolium technique colorimetric assay study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera (Av, a succulent of Liliaceae family is now a widely used medicinal plant. Its′ application covers a wide spectrum of human diseases, including oral mucosa, gastric mucosa and skin. Aloe vera preparations in the form of gel, mouth washes and cream are applied topically for many oral diseases. The applications include oral lichen planus, candidiasis, oral submucous fibrosis, geographic tongue, etc. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Av on human fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Aloe vera preparation (70% was applied on the fibroblast cell lineage and the cell viability was evaluated by microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT colorimetric assay. Results: The cell viability at different concentrations was measured. The cells have maintained their viability at different concentrations used in the study. Conclusion: Our study shows the cell viability at different sample concentrations of Av. This could open up wide clinical applications of Av for reactive, inflammatory and potentially malignant oral and other mucocutaneous diseases.

  15. Reduced dietary sodium intake increases heart rate. A meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials including 72 study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels eGraudal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  16. Electron spin resonance studies of radiation effects. Final report, 1964-1979 (including annual progress reports for 1978 and 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.T.

    1979-07-01

    The discovery of new free radicals, largely in irradiated single crystals of nonmetallic solids, and the determination of the molecular and electronic structures of these paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, have been carried out using a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials. The mechanisms of production of radicals in solids, their motions, and their reactions have been investigated and some applicable general principles deduced. Emphasis has been on aliphatic free radicals from irradiated carboxylic acids and amides and their halogen-substituted derivatives, organometallic radicals and substituted cyclic hydrocarbon radicals; inorganic radicals studied include V centers, hypervalent radicals and electron adducts. Extensive investigations of paramagnetic transition metal complexes, particularly cyanides and fluorides, have been made. In all cases quantum mechanical calculations have been employed as far as possible in interpreting the data. An improved method for analyzing experimental ESR spectra of single crystals has been developed and a number of crystal structures have been determined to supplement the ESR studies. Applications of nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy to the study of structure and bonding in inorganic solids have been made and a method for using nuclear magnetic relaxation data for estimating quadrupole coupling constants in liquids has been developed

  17. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytological techniques to study human female meiotic prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Ignasi; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Most of the human aneuploidies have a maternal origin. This feature makes the study of human female meiosis a fundamental topic to understand the reasons leading to this important social problem. Unfortunately, due to sample collection difficulties, not many studies have been performed on human female meiotic prophase. In this chapter we present a comprehensive collection of protocols that allows the study of human female meiotic prophase through different technical approaches using both spread and structurally preserved oocytes.

  19. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  20. One-flap Palatoplasty: A Cohort Study to Evaluate a Technique for Unilateral Cleft Palate Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Rossell-Perry, PhD, FACS

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Use of a 1-flap technique for unilateral cleft palate repair allowed us to achieve results comparable to those of a 2-flap technique in terms of postoperative fistula development and hypernasal speech. Additional studies are required to evaluate the effect of this technique on palatal growth.

  1. Small-angle neutron scattering technique in liquid crystal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidan Radiman

    2005-01-01

    The following topics discussed: general principles of SAS (Small-angle Neutron Scattering), liquid crystals, nanoparticle templating on liquid crystals, examples of SAS results, prospects of this studies

  2. Baseline characteristics of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction included in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donal, Erwan; Lund, Lars H; Oger, Emmanuel; Hage, Camilla; Persson, Hans; Reynaud, Amélie; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Bauer, Fabrice; Sportouch-Dukhan, Catherine; Drouet, Elodie; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Linde, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) is a prospective observational study to characterize heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and to identify prognostic factors for long-term mortality and morbidity. To report characteristics and echocardiography at entry and after 4-8 weeks of follow-up. Patients were included following an acute heart failure presentation with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)>100 ng/L or N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP)>300 ng/L and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)>45%. The mean ± SD age of 539 included patients was 77 ± 9 years and 56% were women. Patient history included hypertension (78%), atrial tachyarrhythmia (44%), prior heart failure (40%) and anemia (37%), but left bundle branch block was rare (3.8%). Median NT-proBNP was 2448 ng/L (n=438), and median BNP 429 ng/L (n=101). Overall, 101 patients did not return for the follow-up visit, including 13 patients who died (2.4%). Apart from older age (80 ± 9 vs. 76 ± 9 years; P=0.006), there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients who did and did not return for follow-up. Mean LVEF was lower at entry than follow-up (56% vs. 62%; P<0.001). At follow-up, mean E/e' was 12.9 ± 6.1, left atrial volume index 49.4±17.8mL/m(2). Mean global left ventricular longitudinal strain was -14.6 ± 3.9%; LV mass index was 126.6 ± 36.2g/m(2). Patients in KaRen were old with slight female dominance and hypertension as the most prevalent etiological factor. LVEF was preserved, but with increased LV mass and depressed LV diastolic and longitudinal systolic functions. Few patients had signs of electrical dyssynchrony (ClinicalTrials.gov.- NCT00774709). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of a modified mid-coronal sectioning technique and Wilson's technique when conducting eye and brain examinations in rabbit teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziejewski, Mary K; Solomon, Howard M; Rendemonti, Joyce; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    There are two methods used when examining fetal rabbit eyes and brain in teratology studies. One method employs prior fixation before serial sectioning (Wilson's technique) and the other uses fresh tissue (mid-coronal sectioning). We modified the mid-coronal sectioning technique to include removal of eyes and brain for closer examination and to increase the number of structures that can be evaluated and compared it to the Wilson's technique. We found that external examination of the head, in conjunction with either sectioning method, is equally sensitive in identifying developmental defects. We evaluated 40,401 New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch-Belted (DB) rabbit fetuses for external head alterations, of which 28,538 fetuses were further examined for eye and brain alterations using the modified mid-coronal sectioning method (16,675 fetuses) or Wilson's technique (11,863 fetuses). The fetuses were from vehicle control or drug-treated pregnant rabbits in embryo-fetal development studies conducted to meet international regulatory requirements for the development of new drugs. Both methods detected the more common alterations (microphthalmia and dilated lateral cerebral ventricles) and other less common findings (changes in size and/or shape of eye and brain structures). While both methods are equally sensitive at detecting common and rare developmental defects, the modified mid-coronal sectioning technique eliminates the use of chemicals and concomitant fixation artifacts that occur with the Wilson's technique and allows for examination of 100% intact fetuses thereby increasing potential for detecting eye and brain alterations as these findings occur infrequently in rabbits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Isotope techniques in the study of the hydrology of fractured and fissured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the hydrology of fractured rocks refers to the occurrence and movement of groundwater in rocks whose porosity is due to cracks, fissures and fractures in compact rocks. Until recently, crystalline rocks were considered to be impervious (the role of karst reservoirs for groundwater storage is already known). Thus, although fractured rocks cover approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, knowledge of groundwater flow dynamics still needs to be substantively improved. The Proceedings include the papers presented at the Advisory Group Meeting on the Application of Isotope Techniques in the Study of the Hydrology of Fractured and Fissured Rocks, which took place in Vienna from 17 to 21 November 1986. The meeting was attended by 21 scientists from 10 Member States. The Group agreed that the following topics should be given the highest priority: (1) Protection of groundwater resources should be incorporated into all future activities. This implies that recharge areas have to be delineated, not only using nuclear techniques but also other hydrogeological and geochemical methods. Research efforts in this direction should be intensified. (2) The Group was aware that new isotope techniques are being developed in hydrogeology and agreed that their application in fractured and fissured rocks showed promise. It was therefore suggested that information on new isotopes such as 36 Cl and 129 I should be gathered, either in the form of the various techniques currently being used by different laboratories or through the various activities that are being undertaken. Ways of co-ordinating the work being done and exchanging information at the international level should be encouraged. The Proceedings should be of interest to scientists responsible for the evaluation of water resources in crystalline rocks. It is hoped that hydrologists and hydrogeologists working in such terrains who are not familiar with the use of isotope techniques will find ideas and

  5. Active release technique in hamstrings strain: Rehabilitation and return to play – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring injuries and its rehabilitation in competitive events such as football targets safe and early return to play. This is because hamstring injuries are more related to prolonged recovery time and high rate of re-injury. In this case study, Zakeer Mundampara, 26-year-old footballer of Chennaiyin FC team (Indian super league tournament, who was rehabilitated for Grade 2 hamstring strain was briefed. To describe the importance of conservative rehabilitation in hamstring injuries and report on player's rehabilitation program and clinical outcome. Zakeer Mundampara was conservatively treated with active release technique for 2 weeks duration. Data collected includes passive knee extension test range of motion and verbal rating score. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation, Zakeer Mundampara had nearly full range of pain-free movement, normal gait and trained to run safely. By the 3rd week, he started to perform all sports specific drills. He was rehabilitated and set fit to play after 4 weeks from the date of injury. Active release technique is effective in hamstring injuries. In this case study, rehabilitation program with an emphasis on active release technique is found to be effective in returning the footballer back to play.

  6. The role of histological techniques for preparation of bone in studies of pl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alati, T.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques and methodologies for histological preparation of bone samples from plutonium-contaminated laboratory mice are described in the present report. These techniques have been set up within a research program on Pu-239 toxicity at low and very low activities. Pu-239 is a well-known alpha emitter with high relative biological effectiveness; when incorporated in mammalian organism it is also taken up by bone surfaces where osteosarcomas may be induced. This effect is very probably associated to the particular spatial relationships between the incorporated radionuclide and the target cells at risk. The research program actually in progress includes both the studies of late pathological effects, mainly in terms of bone tumor incidence and rate, and the quantitative description of the spatial relationships mentioned above. Whithin this framework, the techniques to described refer to the preparation of histological samples of demineralized bones for traditional histopathological analyses and of mineralized bones for studies of Pu-239 microdistributions by means of fission track analyses

  7. Factors that contribute to biomarker responses in humans including a study in individuals taking Vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D

    2001-09-01

    It is possible in many situations to identify humans exposed to potentially toxic materials in the workplace and in the environment. As in most human studies, there tends to be a high degree of interindividual variability in response to chemical insults. Some non-exposed control individuals exhibit as high a level of damage as some exposed individuals and some of these have levels of damage as low as many of the controls. Thus, it is only the mean values of the groups that can substantiate an exposure-related problem; the data on an individual basis are still of limited use. While human lymphocytes remain the most popular cell type for monitoring purposes, sperm, buccal, nasal, epithelial and placental cells are also used. However, for interpretation of responses, the issue of confounding factors must be addressed. There are endogenous confounding factors, such as age, gender, and genetic make-up and exogenous ones, including lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, etc.) There are biomarkers of exposure, effect/response and susceptibility and the last may be influenced by the genotype and polymorphism genes existing in a population. From our own studies, confounding effects on cytogenetic damage and ras oncoproteins will be considered in relation to workers exposed to vinyl chloride and petroleum emissions and to volunteers taking Vitamin C supplementation. Smoking history, exposure and duration of employment affected the worker studies. For petroleum emissions, so did gender and season of exposure. For the non-smoking volunteer Vitamin C supplementation study, cholesterol levels, plasma Vitamin C levels, lipid peroxidation products and DNA damage in the Comet assay were also measured. Gender affected differences in Vitamin C levels, antioxidant capacity and the number of chromosome aberrations induced by bleomycin challenge in vitro. The results were the same for both high and low cholesterol subjects. The relationship between biomarkers and the various factors which

  8. Study of evaluation techniques of software configuration management and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Cheong; Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Han, H. C.; Choi, C. R. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The Study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and Verification and Validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software Testing, V and V and Configuration Management which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can be used to assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems.

  9. How safe are regional techniques? Evidence from large studies with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meta-analysis are inappropriate for a proper assessment of rare events, such as neurological injury.2 Most of the references to adverse effects, particularly those associated with peripheral ... Evidence from large studies with big data.

  10. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  11. Study on the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR including fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, K.; Ito, T.; Fujita, K.; Kurihara, C.; Sawada, Y.; Sakurai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR with fluid-structure interaction. The reactor vessel has bottom support arrangement, the same core support system as Super-Phenix in France. Due to the bottom support arrangement, the level of core support is lower than that of the side support arrangement. So, in this reactor vessel, the displacement of the core top tends to increase because of the core's rocking. In this study, we investigated the vibration and seismic response characteristics of the reactor vessel. Therefore, the seismic experiments were carried out using one-eighth scale model and the seismic response including FSI and sloshing were investigated. From this study, the effect of liquid on the vibration characteristics and the seismic response characteristics of reactor vessel were clarified and sloshing characteristics were also clarified. It was confirmed that FEM analysis with FSI can reproduce the seismic behavior of the reactor vessel and is applicable to seismic design of the pool type LMFBR with bottom support arrangement. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Studies of osteoporosis in Russia using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    1998-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to estimate the age dependence of mineral density for the different body regions in healthy population of the Russian European area (Moscow and surroundings). Besides, bone mineral density (BMD) was to be analyzed by two ways: both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo studies were carried out using the method of DEXA (LUNAR DPX-L Densitometer) at the Central Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (Moscow) on volunteers randomly chosen. Autopsy material received from Forensic Department of Municipal Hospital (Obninsk) was used for in vitro NAA analysis. For August 31, 1996 bone mineral density was studied by DEXA on 94 healthy citizens of Moscow aged 15-55 (62 women and 32 men). Bone mineral density of femoral neck (right and left), spine (front view, L 2 -L 4 ) and total body was measured in each studied person. All the examined people were also put questions by a doctor to fill in the appropriate questionnaire (an adapted version of WHO osteoporosis project questionnaire, case control study, July 15, 1993)

  13. Multi-channel grouping techniques for conducting reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    In conducting safety studies for postulated unprotected accidents in an LMFBR system, it is common practice to employ multi-channel coupled neutronics, thermal hydraulics computer programs such as SAS3A or MELT-III. The multichannel feature of such code systems is important if the natural fuel failure incoherencies and the resulting sodium void/fuel motion reactivity feedbacks--which have strong spatial variations--are to be properly modeled. Because of the large amounts of computer time associated with many channel runs, however, there is a strong incentive to conduct parametric studies with as few channels as possible. The paper presented is focused on methods successfully employed to accomplish this end for a study of the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident conducted for the FFTF

  14. Air Pollution in Shanghai Studied by Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Tan, M.; Chen, J.; Jin, C.; Lin, J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper PIXE, μ-PIXE, XAFS, Moessbauer effect and radioisotope labelling method are briefly introduced. Those methods were used to study the pollution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai. The speciation of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the PM10 and PM2.5 and different character of vehicle exhausted particles from other emission sources were studied. Source apportionment of the atmospheric lead was calculated with a combined method of lead isotope ratios and lead mass balance, along with μ-PIXE analysis of single particles and pattern recognition of the spectra. The fabricated ultrafine particles to simulate aerosol particle was used to study the translocation from alveolus into circulation across the air blood barrier

  15. [How do authors of systematic reviews restrict their literature searches when only studies from Germany should be included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Mathes, Tim; Palm, Rebecca; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-11-01

    The use of search filters (e. g. for study types) facilitates the process of literature searching. Regional limits might be helpful depending on the research question. Regional search filters are already available for some regions, but not for Germany. Our aim is to give an overview of applied search strategies in systematic reviews (SRs) focusing on Germany. We searched Medline (via Pubmed) applying a focused search strategy to identify SRs focusing on Germany in January 2016. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. The search strategies with a focus on Germany were analyzed in terms of reasonableness and completeness relying on the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS) criteria. A narrative evidence synthesis was performed. In total, 36 SRs (13 written in English) were included. 78% were published in 2012 or later. The majority (89%) of SRs utilized at least two different sources for their search with databases and checking references being the most common. 17 SRs did not use any truncations, ten SRs did not restrict their search to Germany, six SRs reported to have searched for German OR Germany. Only ten articles searched for the term Germany (occasionally jointly with the term Deutschland) without any use of an adjective such as German. There is a high interest in regionally focused SRs. The identified search strategies revealed a need for improvement. It would be helpful to develop a regional search filter for Germany that is able to identify studies performed in Germany. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Studies of osteoporosis in Singapore using isotopic related technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Kamal

    2002-01-01

    Osteoporosis is becoming increasingly common in Asia as the population ages. It has been projected that 50% of all hip fractures in the world will occur in Asia by the next century. Singapore is not exempted from this problem of global aging as figures show that there is a rising incidence of hip fractures in the country. So far, studies on bone density in Singapore have been reported only for the Chinese population. Apart from the bone density, it has been reported that femoral neck geometry, like the hip axis length, contributed independently to the risk of hip fracture. The hip axis length is defined as the length from the lateral bone edge below the greater trochanter through the femoral neck to the medial bone edge of the inner pelvic brim. A longer hip axis length was associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. Several studies have also shown some racial differences in hip axis length. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group found that the mean hip axis length of Asian and black women were significantly shorter than that of white women. In a recent study, women of African origin were found to have smaller bone widths and a shorter hip axis length than Caucasians. The authors estimated that this racial difference could contribute to almost 25% decrease risk of hip fracture among blacks. Likewise, a shorter hip axis length in Japanese women compared to American women may explain the lower incidence of hip fractures among the Japanese population despite lower BMD values. The main objectives of this study were: a) To determine the age of peak bone density in each study group b) To quantify differences in bone density as functions of age and sex c) To determine any differences in bone density and hip axis length among Chinese, Malay and Indian population. This report presents the results of BMD measurement and the data analysis performed

  17. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Over three hundred volunteers were recruited through newspaper advertisements and other means to measure the BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of normal healthy Canadians from the Toronto area. Trained scientists or medical personnel with respect to their medical history, lifestyle and habits carefully interviewed all these people. Persons with histories that will affect bone mineral status were excluded from the study. The resulting study population consisted of 200 persons. The data was used to determine the age or the range of ages at which peak BMD is attained in this normal population. The measurements were made using a DEX4 instrument made by Hologic Inc., Model 1000W. (author)

  18. Retrospective Study on Laser Treatment of Oral Vascular Lesions Using the "Leopard Technique": The Multiple Spot Irradiation Technique with a Single-Pulsed Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hidetaka; Ohshiro, Takafumi; Romeo, Umberto; Noguchi, Tadahide; Maruoka, Yutaka; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Tomov, Georgi; Wada, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Kae; Ohshiro, Toshio; Asamura, Shinichi

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser treatment of oral vascular lesions using the multiple spot irradiation technique with a single-pulsed wave. In laser therapy for vascular lesions, heat accumulation induced by excessive irradiation can cause adverse events postoperatively, including ulcer formation, resultant scarring, and severe pain. To prevent heat accumulation and side effects, we have applied a multiple pulsed spot irradiation technique, the so-called "leopard technique" (LT) to oral vascular lesions. This approach was originally proposed for laser treatment of nevi. It can avoid thermal concentration at the same spot and spare the epithelium, which promotes smooth healing. The goal of the study was to evaluate this procedure and treatment outcomes. The subjects were 46 patients with 47 oral vascular lesions treated with the LT using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), including 24 thick lesions treated using a combination of the LT and intralesional photocoagulation. All treatment outcomes were satisfactory without serious complications such as deep ulcer formation, scarring, bleeding, or severe swelling. Laser therapy with the LT is a promising less-invasive treatment for oral vascular lesions.

  19. Assessment techniques and South African community studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews: (i) trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment instruments currently in use and (ii) trauma and PTSD studies in South African children and adolescents. Rates of trauma exposure in South African children and adolescents range from 40% to 100% and rates of PTSD range from 6% to ...

  20. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship found between BMD of the lumbar spine with the anthropomorphic parameters (age, sex, body size and bone area) in the normal Chilean population studied, was different from the relationship found between BMD of both hips with the same parameters. To determine peak bone mass it is necessary to increase the number of individuals studied. This is specially true for BMD of the lumbar spine. It seems important for the correct interpretation of BMD studies to determine local values for normals, specially for the analysis of BMD in the lumbar spine, which is related to body and bone size. It is necessary to normalize the data base for anthropomorphic parameters specially in epidemiological studies. Knowledge of these parameters for the normal data base used in the different densitometers is highly desirable. There are some differences between this data base and that provided by Hologic, specially for spine in both sexes. This difference could be explained by size related factors. There is a correlation between osteocalcin levels and BMD in lumbar spine and both femoral necks only in women

  1. Micronutrient studies in soil-plant system using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.; Sachdev, P.; Rattan, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    The ranges between the critical levels of deficiency and toxicity of the micronutrients are relatively narrow and the utilisation of these nutrients by the crops from the fertilizer source seldom exceeds two per cent. An attempt is made to review the information generated on various aspects of the radioisotope aided micronutrient studies in soil-plant system. 184 refs

  2. A Study of Online Exams Procrastination Using Data Analytics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yair; Ramim, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Procrastination appears to be an inevitable part of daily life, especially for activities that are bounded by deadlines. It has implications for performance and is known to be linked to poor personal time management. Although research related to procrastination as a general behavior has been well established, studies assessing procrastination in…

  3. Study of techniques applicable for monitoring MIC in soil or sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    1999-01-01

    technique have been evaluated including field tests in soil and marine sediment. The conclusions are that EIS can detect combined biofilm and corrosion product film formation, but corrosion rate is overestimated. The ER technique seems to give a correct and sensitive corrosion rate measurement within...

  4. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Over 200 volunteers were recruited through Newspaper advertisements and other means to measure the BMD of the Lumbar Spine, Femoral Neck and Whole Body of normal healthy Canadians from the Toronto Area. All these people were carefully interviewed by trained scientists or medical personnel with respect to their medical history, life style and habits. Persons with histories that will affect bone mineral status were excluded from the study. The resulting study population consisted of 137 persons. The data was used to examine, using statistical methods, the parameters which determine bone mineral status of normal persons. The DEXA and In-vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) data on the same persons were compared. Further, the data was used to determine the age at which peak BMD is attained in this normal population. The Measurements were made using a DEXA instrument made by Hologic Inc., Model 1000 W. (author)

  5. Anatomical explorations of mind: Studies with modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    From studies of patients with various lesions affecting areas of the brain thought to be important in language processing, two general theories have emerged; a serial model that posits information flow in an obligatory, stepwise fashion from perception to speech, and a parallel model that posits a flexible modular organization governed by specific information processing requirements that can vary under particular circumstances. The processing of single words has been studied in normal adult humans using positron emission tomography to determine whether either of these theories best explains the manner in which single words are processed by the human brain. Results indicate that the processing of single words is accomplished in a highly modular, parallel fashion that is flexibly determined by specific task requirements and the familiarity of the subject with the task

  6. Air particulate pollution studies in Asian countries using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Air particulate pollution is regarded as critical in Asian cities. The levels of suspended particulate matter in major Asian cities far exceed the WHO's guideline. Nuclear analytical techniques have been widely used in the studies of air particulate pollution to provide aerosol elemental compositions for the purpose of deriving the structure of emission sources. This paper presents some preliminary observations and findings based on publications in scientific literatures. Data on PM-10 levels and socio-economic indicators are used for searching a relationship between air quality and the level of development across Asia. An inverse linear relationship between PM-10 levels and logarithm of per capita GDP appears to exist, although there are large fluctuations of data caused by the very different climatic and geographical conditions of cities studied. Soil dust is generally a major, or even predominant aerosol source in Asian cities. Other common sources include vehicular emissions, coal and oil combustion, burning of refuse (in open) and biomass (including forest fires). The relevance and the trends of these sources in Asian context are discussed. Multivariate receptor modelling techniques applied in source characterization are illustrated through the cases of Lahore and Hochiminh City. Although having limitations in dealing with mixing and overlapping sources, receptor modelling based on principal component factor analysis has been proven to be uncomplicated and sufficiently reliable for characterising aerosol sources in urban areas. (author)

  7. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Cortes, E.

    2002-01-01

    According to the objectives stated in the last coordination meeting, bone mass density (BMD) measurement in men and women belonging to healthy Chilean population were continued. The selection of individuals was made in the manner described in previous reports using the same exclusion criteria and the modified WHO questionnaire. This report presents the results of BMD measurement performed from the beginning of this study until December 1999

  8. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Cortes, E.

    2000-01-01

    According to the objectives stated in the last coordination meeting, Bone mass density (BMD) measurements in men and women belonging to a healthy Chilean population, were continued. The selection of individuals was made in the manner described in previous reports, using the same exclusion criteria and using the modified WHO questionnaire. We present in this report the results of BMD measurements performed from the beginning of this study until May 1998. A statistical analysis of the data is presented

  9. Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2011-02-01

    stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies of osteoporosis in Shanghai, China, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Zhang Yongpeng; Qin Junfa; Li Deyi; Ma Jixiao; Hua Qian

    1996-01-01

    Using Hologic QDR-2000 DEXA, the BMD determinations of subjects suffering from osteoporosis and normal persons are in progress in Shanghai, China. A primary correlation between the kidney disease and the osteoporosis has been obtained. The studies of multi elemental distribution in cancellous bone of femoral head are also performed by PIXE. According to IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), a further working arrangement has been planned. (author)

  11. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cy...

  12. Indications and new diagnostic techniques in micturating cystourethrographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, W.; Bruenger, J.

    1978-01-01

    Urological radiographic procedures on children are of great importance. The frequency of examinations is comparable to the number of Gl tract studies. In diagnosing chronically recurrent urinary tract infections, micturating cystourethrography is a valuable addition to excretory urography. Indications and performance of micturating cystourethrography at juvenile age are described. All measures reducing radiation exposure must be taken into consideration. New technological devices grant improved diagnostic information with a minimal radiation exposure for patients. (orig.) [de

  13. NPR and ANSI Containment Study Using Passive Cooling Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. J.; Iotti, R. C.; Wright, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Passive containment cooling study of NPR (New Production Reactor) and ANSI (Advanced Neutron Source) following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally. All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified Contempt code Contempt-Npr. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and halt foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of Contempt-Npr and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale Npr. It is concluded that Npr and ANSI containments can be passively cooled with air alone without extended cooling surfaces or passive water spray

  14. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.; Dey, A.; Bostock, J.

    2002-01-01

    In Europe, there are great geographic variations in rates of osteoporotic fracture. The MEDOS study, a case-control study of hip fracture in southern Europe, demonstrated rates that in some age groups varied geographically by more than an order of magnitude. Additionally the prevalences of vertebral deforinities vary over a 3-fold range in both sexes. The incidence of hip fracture has also been shown to vary between another populations with apparently lower rates in Hong Kong and South Africa in Europe and North America. The greatest projected increases in hip fracture incidence will occur in China and South East Asia. It seems likely that the spread of fracture risk can at least be accounted for partly by differences in bone density. Bone density in later life is dependent on the maximum bone mass ('peak' bone mass) attained in early adulthood and the subsequent rate of loss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early adult BMD varied between populations and to explore environmental and nutritional contributions to any detennined differences. The data analysed to-date demonstrate a highly significant difference in young adult bone mass across the centers. These differences are only partly attributable to differences in height and weight. By and large, low femoral neck BMD is accompanied by low spinal BMD. Femoral neck BMD appears constant between the age of 25-45 years, but this will require confirmation by further statistical analysis. The impact of family history, environmental factors and nutrition will be explored in subsequent analyses

  15. Experimental study of bubbly flow using image processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycfu@vt.edu; Liu, Yang, E-mail: liu130@vt.edu

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental study of bubbly flows at relatively high void fractions using an advanced image processing method. Bubble overlapping is a common problem in such flows and the past studies often treat the overlapping bubbles as a whole, which introduces considerable measurement uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid method combining intersection point detection and watershed segmentation is used to separate the overlapping bubbles. In order to reconstruct bubbles from separated segments, a systematic procedure is developed which can preserve more features captured in the raw image compared to the simple ellipse fitting method. The distributions of void fraction, interfacial area concentration, number density and velocity are obtained from the extracted bubble information. High-speed images of air-water bubbly flows are acquired and processed for eight test runs conducted in a 30 mm × 10 mm rectangular channel. The developed image processing scheme can effectively separate overlapping bubbles and the results compare well with the measurements by the gas flow meter and double-sensor conductivity probe. The development of flows in transverse and mainstream directions are analyzed and compared with the prediction made by the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE) and the bubble number density transport equation.

  16. Basic studies in X-ray radiography and imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Paresh R.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the basic characteristics related to a new branch of radiography viz. the micro-focal radiography. The most important among them was to find methods of measurement of focal spot size of these X-ray sources. It is important to accomplish this because the design of such units is specifically meant to produce very fine source size. To this end. first the process of radiography test was introduced. Among other things. various properties of an image and image forming systems (like PSF, LSF, MTF etc.) were introduced and explained. Methods used for microfocus measurement of focal spot size in conventional units were reviewed. It was shown how they are not suitable for microfocal tubes. Next the microfocus X-ray unit meant for the study was installed and commissioned. Features which are different from conventional X-ray units were observed more carefully. Data was collected and analyzed for various aspects. Procedure for focussing the electron beam while getting the feed back about beam diameter from the oscilloscope was established by experiments. In addition, influence of change in tube voltage and tube current on the focal spot size was studied. Relationship between tube current and target current vis-a-vis focus size was established. Radiation zone was determined. Focal spot size was qualitatively compared with that of a conventional X-ray unit by taking radiographs of different wire meshes at different magnifications by both the units

  17. Ion beam induced defects in solids studied by optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comins, J.D.; Amolo, G.O.; Derry, T.E.; Connell, S.H.; Erasmus, R.M.; Witcomb, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Optical methods can provide important insights into the mechanisms and consequences of ion beam interactions with solids. This is illustrated by four distinctly different systems. X- and Y-cut LiNbO 3 crystals implanted with 8 MeV Au 3+ ions with a fluence of 1 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 result in gold nanoparticle formation during high temperature annealing. Optical extinction curves simulated by the Mie theory provide the average nanoparticle sizes. TEM studies are in reasonable agreement and confirm a near-spherical nanoparticle shape but with surface facets. Large temperature differences in the nanoparticle creation in the X- and Y-cut crystals are explained by recrystallisation of the initially amorphised regions so as to recreate the prior crystal structure and to result in anisotropic diffusion of the implanted gold. Defect formation in alkali halides using ion beam irradiation has provided new information. Radiation-hard CsI crystals bombarded with 1 MeV protons at 300 K successfully produce F-type centres and V-centres having the I 3 - structure as identified by optical absorption and Raman studies. The results are discussed in relation to the formation of interstitial iodine aggregates of various types in alkali iodides. Depth profiling of I 3 - and I 5 - aggregates created in RbI bombarded with 13.6 MeV/A argon ions at 300 K is discussed. The recrystallisation of an amorphous silicon layer created in crystalline silicon bombarded with 100 keV carbon ions with a fluence of 5 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 during subsequent high temperature annealing is studied by Raman and Brillouin light scattering. Irradiation of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with 1 MeV protons with fluences from 1 x 10 15 to 250 x 10 15 ions/cm -2 induces visible darkening over a broad spectral region that shows three stages of development. This is attributed to the formation of defect clusters by a model of defect growth and also high fluence optical absorption studies. X-ray diffraction studies show

  18. Ion beam induced defects in solids studied by optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, J. D.; Amolo, G. O.; Derry, T. E.; Connell, S. H.; Erasmus, R. M.; Witcomb, M. J.

    2009-08-01

    Optical methods can provide important insights into the mechanisms and consequences of ion beam interactions with solids. This is illustrated by four distinctly different systems. X- and Y-cut LiNbO 3 crystals implanted with 8 MeV Au 3+ ions with a fluence of 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 result in gold nanoparticle formation during high temperature annealing. Optical extinction curves simulated by the Mie theory provide the average nanoparticle sizes. TEM studies are in reasonable agreement and confirm a near-spherical nanoparticle shape but with surface facets. Large temperature differences in the nanoparticle creation in the X- and Y-cut crystals are explained by recrystallisation of the initially amorphised regions so as to recreate the prior crystal structure and to result in anisotropic diffusion of the implanted gold. Defect formation in alkali halides using ion beam irradiation has provided new information. Radiation-hard CsI crystals bombarded with 1 MeV protons at 300 K successfully produce F-type centres and V-centres having the I3- structure as identified by optical absorption and Raman studies. The results are discussed in relation to the formation of interstitial iodine aggregates of various types in alkali iodides. Depth profiling of I3- and I5- aggregates created in RbI bombarded with 13.6 MeV/A argon ions at 300 K is discussed. The recrystallisation of an amorphous silicon layer created in crystalline silicon bombarded with 100 keV carbon ions with a fluence of 5 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 during subsequent high temperature annealing is studied by Raman and Brillouin light scattering. Irradiation of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with 1 MeV protons with fluences from 1 × 10 15 to 250 × 10 15 ions/cm -2 induces visible darkening over a broad spectral region that shows three stages of development. This is attributed to the formation of defect clusters by a model of defect growth and also high fluence optical absorption studies. X-ray diffraction studies show

  19. Studies of osteoporosis in Russia using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.; Shavladze, Z.; Morozov, V.; Burdygina, N.; Kolotov, V.; Dogadkin, N.

    2002-01-01

    The peak and age losses of bone mineral density (BMD) among residents of Moscow and Obninsk (Russia) were determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlations between BMD and such individual parameters (in accordance with the WHO questionnaire) as weight, height, family history, life style including physical activity, smoking, milk intake, etc. were assessed. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck of 466 healthy subjects (233 females and 333 males) aged from 15 to 55 years were examined by Lunar DPX-L. bone densitometer. The concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, Sr, Na, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Zn in bone samples (iliac crest, femoral neck and rib) were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with short- and long-lived radionuclides. The highest level of spinal BMD among females was 1.205 g/cm 2 and 1.298 g/cm 2 among males. This was achieved at 25-34 years and 25-29 years, respectively. The highest level of femoral neck BMD among females was 1.045 g/cm 2 and 1.165 g/cm 2 among males. This was achieved at 15-19 years and 20-29 years, respectively. The obtained mean contents of Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in bone agree well with medians of the mean values of reference data. The exclusion is the content of Sr. In average the bone concentrations of Sr are about 3-fold higher than the median of mean values obtained by other researchers. (author)

  20. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer morbidity in British military veterans included in chemical warfare agent experiments at Porton Down: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, L; Brooks, C; Keegan, T J; Langdon, T; Doyle, P; Maconochie, N E S; Fletcher, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Beral, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Design Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Data source Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. Participants All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17 013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16 520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Main outcome measures Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. Results 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.05), Porton Down veterans had higher rates of ill defined malignant neoplasms (1.12, 1.02 to 1.22), in situ neoplasms (1.45, 1.06 to 2.00), and those of uncertain or unknown behaviour (1.32, 1.01 to 1.73). Conclusion Overall cancer morbidity in Porton Down veterans was no different from that in non-Porton Down veterans. PMID:19318700

  2. Comparative study of quantitative phase imaging techniques for refractometry of optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dorlodot, Bertrand; Bélanger, Erik; Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Vallée, Réal; Marquet, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The refractive index difference profile of optical fibers is the key design parameter because it determines, among other properties, the insertion losses and propagating modes. Therefore, an accurate refractive index profiling method is of paramount importance to their development and optimization. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) is one of the available tools to retrieve structural characteristics of optical fibers, including the refractive index difference profile. Having the advantage of being non-destructive, several different QPI methods have been developed over the last decades. Here, we present a comparative study of three different available QPI techniques, namely the transport-of-intensity equation, quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry and digital holographic microscopy. To assess the accuracy and precision of those QPI techniques, quantitative phase images of the core of a well-characterized optical fiber have been retrieved for each of them and a robust image processing procedure has been applied in order to retrieve their refractive index difference profiles. As a result, even if the raw images for all the three QPI methods were suffering from different shortcomings, our robust automated image-processing pipeline successfully corrected these. After this treatment, all three QPI techniques yielded accurate, reliable and mutually consistent refractive index difference profiles in agreement with the accuracy and precision of the refracted near-field benchmark measurement.

  3. Studies of osteoporosis in Croatia using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanic, D.; Cvijetic, S.; Bolanca, S.; Blanusa, M.; Prester, L.; Korsic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Research activities concerning the IAEA Osteoporosis Study in Croatia, during the period November 1995 - September 1996, are presented, as well as a brief summary of the study, revealing the effect of combined therapy with antiresorptive and bone stimulating agents on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was measured by the method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX) in the lumbar spine (L 2 -L 4 ) and at the left proximal femur (neck, Ward, trochanter) in a representative sample of 112 subjects of both sexes in the age range 15-50 years, from the city of Zagreb. Analysis of the scans and statistical evaluation of data are in progress. In a pilot study conducted in a sample of 67 college girls, ages 16-18, calcium intake, type and frequency of physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habit were roughly evaluated by use of a questionnaire. Height (cm), weight (kg) and calcium intake (mg/day) were (mean - + SD) 169.4- + 5.7, 57.8- + 6.1, 937- + 327, respectively. About 20 percent of girls drank less than 10 dL of wine or beer and less than 2 dL of spirits weekly, while 8% of them consumed 15-20 dL of wine or beer and 3-6 dL of spirits weekly. Fifteen percent smoked up to 20 cigarettes weekly and 5 percent 30-60 cigarettes weekly. Approximately 50 percent were regularly involved, in some kind of sporting activity, 2-3 times a week. Steps have been undertaken to organize evaluation of the present - day dietary habits of children from Istria, a part of Croatia, which was previously known as a low calcium region. All procedures necessary to start the work on a supplementary programme have been carried out. The plan for future work within the framework of the IAEA-CRP Osteoporosis Study is presented. The effect on bone mineral density of intermittent cyclical treatment with etidronate (group A) alone (400 mg orally for two weeks, followed by 500 mg of calcium daily for the next 10 weeks

  4. Nuclear-based techniques for the in vivo study of human body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report comprises working papers presented at an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen contributions from seven countries describe measurement systems, and their applications, for the in vivo study of human body composition, mainly with respect to the elements calcium, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus, cadmium and lead. The techniques used include neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, computerized axial tomography, nuclear resonance scattering and photon absorptiometry. Also included is a collection of ''system descriptions'' containing information on equipment developed for such measurements at seventeen centres in eight countries (institute address and name of persons to contact for more information, overall system performance, irradiation and country device, estimated cost)

  5. Studies of impurity recycling by the collector probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Herrmann, A.; Laux, M.; Pech, P.; Reiner, H.D.; Wolff, H.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study recycling effects of the nonintrinsic impurity Li discharges with and without LiD-pellet injection were investigated. The observed maximum impurity level of Li in the SOL plasma of discharges without injection reaches less than 10% of that observed in discharges with injection. The measurements offer the possibility to distinguish between influxes from the wall and those which reach the collector probe via the core plasma. The time evolution, orientation and radial dependence of the impurity fluxes are characteristic features of their origin. The consideration of all these features facilitates a better understanding of collector probe measurements in the SOL-plasma. (orig.)

  6. Studies of osteoporosis in Croatia using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvijetic, Selma

    2002-01-01

    The study about bone stiffness in children and adolescents is finished. The relationship between habitual calcium intake, anthropometric measurements and bone stiffness was determined. In order to establish a national reference database, bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and of the left femoral neck of randomly chosen subjects, aged 20-49 years, was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX). This report presents the results of BMD measurement and the data analysis performed

  7. Study of Lactic Acid Thermal Behavior Using Thermoanalytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Komesu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Actually, there is a growing interest in the biotechnological production of lactic acid by fermentation aiming to substitute fossil fuel routes. The development of an efficient method for its separation and purification from fermentation broth is very important to assure the economic viability of production. Due to its high reactivity and tendency to decompose at high temperatures, the study of lactic acid thermal behavior is essential for its separation processes and potential application. In the present study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses showed endothermic peaks related to the process of evaporation. Data of thermogravimetry (TG/DTG were correlated to Arrhenius and Kissinger equations to provide the evaporation kinetic parameters and used to determine the vaporization enthalpy. Activation energies were 51.08 and 48.37 kJ·mol−1 and frequency values were 859.97 and 968.81 s−1 obtained by Arrhenius and Kissinger equations, respectively. Thermogravimetry, coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS, provided useful information about decomposition products when lactic acid was heated at 573 K for approximately 30 min.

  8. Studies of osteoporosis in Singapore using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, K.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this study was to determine the bone density for the purposes of i) determining the age of peak bone mass in each study group and ii) quantifying the differences in bone density as functions of age and sex. The results of estimating the age dependence of mineral density for the femoral neck, spine and total body of healthy women and men using DEXA are given. The age changes in concentrations of major minerals and electrolytes found for compact and trabecular bones of healthy male femoral neck with regard for the wet and dry tissue calculations are represented. Information about femoral neck water content depending on the age of healthy men is tabulated. The number of performed observations and analyses is evidently insufficient to make any final decision, however some preliminary conclusions can be drawn. In accordance with DEXA results, BMD maximum for the femoral neck, spine and total body of healthy women is found for 31-35 age period while that of healthy men is reached by 21-25 age period, i.e. 10 year earlier. Follow INAA results, the full-value mineralization for both compact and trabecular tissue of healthy male femoral neck takes place by 15-20 age period

  9. Techniques and Behaviors Associated with Exemplary Inpatient General Medicine Teaching: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchens, Nathan; Harrod, Molly; Moody, Stephanie; Fowler, Karen; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-07-01

    Clinician educators face numerous obstacles to their joint mission of facilitating high-quality learning while also delivering patient-centered care. Such challenges necessitate increased attention to the work of exemplary clinician educators, their respective teaching approaches, and the experiences of their learners. To describe techniques and behaviors utilized by clinician educators to facilitate excellent teaching during inpatient general medicine rounds. An exploratory qualitative study of inpatient teaching conducted from 2014 to 2015. Inpatient general medicine wards in 11 US hospitals, including university-affiliated hospitals and Veterans Affairs medical centers. Participants included 12 exemplary clinician educators, 57 of their current learners, and 26 of their former learners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews of exemplary clinician educators, focus group discussions with their current and former learners, and direct observations of clinical teaching during inpatient rounds. Interview data, focus group data, and observational field notes were coded and categorized into broad, overlapping themes. Each theme elucidated a series of actions, behaviors, and approaches that exemplary clinician educators consistently demonstrated during inpatient rounds: (1) they fostered positive relationships with all team members by building rapport, which in turn created a safe learning environment; (2) they facilitated patient-centered teaching points, modeled excellent clinical exam and communication techniques, and treated patients as partners in their care; and (3) they engaged in coaching and collaboration through facilitation of discussion, effective questioning strategies, and differentiation of learning among team members with varied experience levels. This study identified consistent techniques and behaviors of excellent teaching during inpatient general medicine rounds. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  10. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Tiwaa Marfo

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old. Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old; the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum, followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb, however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb, but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, not quantified and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified. Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified, and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb. Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb. The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  11. Language study on Spliced Semigraph using Folding techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, K.; Padmashree, J.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed algorithm to identify cut vertices and cut edges for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph and splicing the n-Cut Spliced Semigraph using cut vertices else cut edges or combination of cut vertex and cut edge and applying sequence of folding to the spliced semigraph to obtain the semigraph quadruple η(S)=(2, 1, 1, 1). We observed that the splicing and folding using both cut vertices and cut edges is applicable only for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph where n > 2. Also, we transformed the spliced semigraph into tree structure and studied the language for the semigraph with n+2 vertices and n+1 semivertices using Depth First Edge Sequence algorithm and obtain the language structure with sequence of alphabet ‘a’ and ‘b’.

  12. Study of groundwater recharge in Rechna Doab using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Hussain, S.D.; Khan, I.H.; Akram, W.

    1992-04-01

    Isotopic studies were performed in the Rechna Doab area to understand the recharge mechanism, investigate the relative contributions from various sources such as rainfall, rivers and canal system and to estimate the turn over times and replenishment rate of groundwater. The isotopic data suggest that the groundwater in the project area can be divided into different zones each having its own characteristic isotopic composition. The enriched isotopic values show rain recharge and depleted isotopic values are associated with river/canal system while the intermediate isotopic values show a mixing of two or more sources of water. The major contribution, however, comes from canal system. The isotopic data suggest that there is no quick movement of groundwater in the area. 18 figs. (author)

  13. MRI compatibility of robot actuation techniques--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L; Gabor, Fichtinger

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRJ images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles.

  14. Groundwater salinity study in the Mekong Delta using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Khoi, Nguyen Kien Chinh; Do Tien Hung

    2002-01-01

    Environmental isotopes D, 18 O and chemical composition were used for study of recharge and salinization of groundwater in the are located between Bassac and Mekong Rivers. The results showed that: (a) Pleistocene aquifers are recharged through flood plains and outcrops located at the same altitude. The sanility of groundwater in these aquifers is mostly due to dissolution of the aquifer material, (b) Pliocene and Miocene aquifers receive recharge through outcrops located at the higher altitude on the northeast extension of the Delta and Cambodia. The salinity of groundwater in the coastal region of the aquifer is attributable to sea water intrusion. There appears to be significant retention of sea water in the coastal sediment during intrusion. (Author)

  15. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles. PMID:18982643

  16. A preliminary study of landslide gouge dating by TL technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fengju, Ji; Jianping, Li [Inst. of Geology, National Seismological Bereau, Beijing (China); Mingda, Liu [Inst. of Crustal Dynamics, SSB, Beijing (China)

    1993-04-01

    The key to date slipping of landslide by TL method is whether the temperature and pressure caused by slipping can lead the original TL to 'zero'for some minerals within the slipping band. For this purpose, the simulated experiments under different temperature-pressure were made and the TL annealing effect of landslide gouge was studied. The results show that the frictional heating caused during slipping is a main factor leading the mineral's TL to decrease on the slip plane and that increment of temperature is in close relation with strength of shear stress, thickness of landslide gouge and amount of displacement. As an example, the slipping age of a paleo-landslide at Huangtupo, Hubei Province, has been dated to be about 140 ka.

  17. Studies of structural material degassing in cryogenic vacuum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshmarov, Yu.A.; Kupriyanov, V.I.; Ivanov, A.E.; Chubarov, E.V.; Dryamov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The choice and design of cryogenic vacuum pumping equipment require a reliable knowledge of qualitative and quantitative gassing parameters characteristic of the structural materials now in use. The gassing study has been made on the plates of stainless steel, copper and aluminium at a pressure of 1.33 (10 -3 -10 -5 ) Pa (10 -5 -10 -7 mm Hg) at room temperature and degassing duration up to 50 hours. An approximate method is proposed for the determination of the diffusion coefficients initial concentration of dissolved in metals gases, and gaseous exchange coefficient for various components of the gas dissolved in steel copper and aluminium alloys. The data obtained permit the designing of pumping equipment for various vacuum systems

  18. Digital autoradiography technique for studying of spatial Impurity distributions Delara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the possibilities of the digital image processing for autoradiographic investigations of impurity distributions in the different objects (crystals, biology, geology et al) are shown. Activation autoradiography based on the secondary beta-irradiation is the method spread widely for investigations of the spatial distribution of chemical elements in the different objects. The analysis of autoradiography features is connected with the elucidation of optical density distribution of photoemulsion by means of photometry. The photoemulsion is used as detector of secondary beta irradiation. For different technological and nature materials to have elemental shifts the fine structure of chemical element distribution is often interested. But photometry makes it difficult to study the inhomogeneous chemical elements with the little gradient of concentration (near 20%). Therefore, the suppression of the background and betterment of linear solvability are the main problems of autoradiographic analysis. Application of the fast-acting digital computers and the technical means of signals treatment are allowed to spread the possibilities and the resolution of activation autoradiography. Mechanism of creation of autoradiographic features is described. The treatment of autoradiograms was conducted with the help of the dialogue system having matrix in 512 x 512 elements. For the interpretation of the experimental data clustering analysis methodology was used. Classification of the zones on the minimum of the square mistake was conducted according to the data of histograms of the optical densities of the studying autoradiograms. It was proposed algorithm for digital treatment for reconstruction of autoradiographic features. At a minimal contrast the resolution of the method has been enhanced on the degree by adaptation of methods of digital image processing (DIP) to suppress background activity. Results of the digital autoradiographic investigations of spatial impurity

  19. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  20. Challenges for INAA in studies of materials from advanced material research including rare earth concentrates and carbon based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; Van Meerten, Th.G.

    2000-01-01

    Rare-earth elements are increasingly applied in advanced materials to be used, e.g., in electronic industry, automobile catalysts, or lamps and optical devices. Trace element analysis of these materials might be an interesting niche for NAA because of the intrinsic high accuracy of this technique, and the shortage of matrix matching reference materials with other methods for elemental analysis. The carbon composite materials form another category of advanced materials, where sometimes a very high degree of purity is required. Also for these materials, NAA has favorable analytical characteristics. Examples are given of the use of NAA in the analysis of both categories of materials. (author)

  1. In vitro radioassay techniques in the study of reproductive hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarola, M.

    1980-01-01

    Testosterone (T) levels in the testicular tissue in varicocele were studied in relation to alterations of testicular function. Testicular T levels were measured by a modified radioimmunoassay procedure in which 3 H-testosterone was used as a tracer to monitor losses during extraction of the hormone. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and T levels were measured by conventional radioimmunoassay. Testicular function was evaluated from patient histories and physical examinations, and from the results of sperm counts and histological examinations of biopsy specimens. In 4 control patients mean testicular T was 520 +- 127 ng/g tissue and the mean ratio testicular T/serum T 104 +- 47. In the majority of 17 patients with unilateral varicocele, testicular T was within normal limits, but in 3 patients with severe testicular damage values of 2700, 2373 and 1437 ng/g were recorded. Serum T levels were normal in the majority of patients and decreased in 2. Serum FSH levels were normal in the majority of patients and increased in 3. Serum LH levels were increased in approximately one half of patients. The results are considered indicative of impaired Leydig cell function in varicocele. It appears, however, that decreased T production is compensated by increased LH production and that the germinal cells are not deprived of T

  2. Studies of osteoporosis in Croatia using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozegovic, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Pilot study was held to evaluate bone stiffness in children and adolescents in two districts of Croatia which, according to previous knowledge, differ in calcium intake. The relationship between habitual calcium intake and bone stiffness was determined. It was difficult and expensive to organise a transport of Istrian children to Zagreb in order to perform x-rays absorptiometry. Therefore, bone stiffness was determined with a portable ultrasound system. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were continued in subjects of both sex, across the age range 20-50 years from the central district of the city of Zagreb. Subjects were randomly selected from the demographic list. There is a tendency of BMD fall after the age of menopause in women. It appears that peak bone mass in women is obtained in the mid- 20s and In men at 30 years of age. The general conclusion about the trends observed In the population will be given after collection of all data. Calcium intake has an influence on peak bone mass, which becomes evident at the adolescent age. Children who had higher calcium intake had a higher bone mass, although that difference was not statistically significant That finding was more apparent in males. The calcium intake in Zagreb children was higher, so was the energy intake, but the mean body mass Index was identical, which indicates higher physical activity in children from Zagreb. Besides the calcium intake, the role of energy value of the food and habitual physical activities seem to be important in bone maturation

  3. A study on the modeling techniques using LS-INGRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Park, S. W

    2001-03-01

    For the development of radioactive material transport packages, the verification of structural safety of a package against the free drop impact accident should be carried out. The use of LS-DYNA, which is specially developed code for impact analysis, is essential for impact analysis of the package. LS-INGRID is a pre-processor for LS-DYNA with considerable capability to deal with complex geometries and allows for parametric modeling. LS-INGRID is most effective in combination with LS-DYNA code. Although the usage of LS-INGRID seems very difficult relative to many commercial mesh generators, the productivity of users performing parametric modeling tasks with LS-INGRID can be much higher in some cases. Therefore, LS-INGRID has to be used with LS-DYNA. This report presents basic explanations for the structure and commands, basic modelling examples and advanced modelling of LS-INGRID to use it for the impact analysis of various packages. The new users can build the complex model easily, through a study for the basic examples presented in this report from the modelling to the loading and constraint conditions.

  4. Study on degradation of dimefuron in soil by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakkong, P.; Vadeilai, J.

    1996-01-01

    Study on degradation of herbicide dimefuron in soil by using bio meter flask experiment was conducted under laboratory condition, 14 C-dimefuron was applied to three conditions of sterile soil normal and bio fertilizer added soil. Every month 14 CO 2 was collected from 1 N KOH in bio meter flask with in eight months period. Carbon-14 activity was analyzed by liquid scintillation counter. The result of dimefuron degradation as 14 CO 2 in sterile normal and bio fertilizer added soil were 0.96 percent 6.31 percent and 9.36 percent. It can be concluded that increasing in dimefuron degradation rate was involved by micro-organism activity. After eight month extracted and bounded residue of dimefuron in soil were analysed. Radioassay show that extracted and bounded residue were 58.62 and 29.58 percent in sterile soil 45.73 and 41.91 percent in normal soil 45.28 and 36.3 percent in bio fertilizer added soil

  5. Study of mungbean intercropping in cotton planted with different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Khaliq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bio-economic efficiency of different cotton-based intercropping systems was determined at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, (Pakistan) during 1996-1997 and 1997-98. Cotton cultivar NIAB-78 was planted in 80-cm apart single rows and 120-cm spaced double row strips with the help of a single row hand drill. Intercropping systems were cotton alone and cotton + mungbean. Experiment was laid out in a RCBD with split arrangements in four replications. Planting patterns were kept in main plots and intercropping systems in sub-plots. Inter crop was sown in the space between 80-cm apart single rows as well as 120-cm spaced double row strips. Competition functions like relative crowding coefficient, competitive ratio, aggressivity, land equivalent ratio and area time equivalent ratio were calculated for the assessment of the benefits of the intercropping. Partial budget was prepared for determining net field benefits of the systems under study. Growing of cotton in 120-cm spaced double row strips proved superior to 80-cm spaced single rows. Intercropping decreased the seed cotton production significantly in both years, however, inter crop not only covered this loss but also increased overall productivity. Higher net field benefit (NFB) was obtained from cotton + mungbean than sole cropping of cotton. Farmers with small land holdings, seriously constrained by low crop income can adopt the practice of intercropping of mungbean in cotton. (author)

  6. Use of conventional-and radioisotope techniques to study the dynamic behavior of a particulate solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Ferreira, L. dos.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of solids in particlephase is studied with the purpose of determining the drop pressure through orificius of a Hopper, with conventional techniques as well as a new technique with radioisotopes to measure the porosity near the orifice of the Hopper. The rate of discharge was also studied. The use of radioisotopes presented similar results as those obtained elsewhere by conventional techniques. (Author) [pt

  7. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick

    2016-02-01

    Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects

  8. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M; Bay, Robin F; Bean, Daniel W; Bissonnete, Gabriel J; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L; Makarick, Lori J; Ostoja, Steven M; Reynolds, Lindsay V; Robinson, W Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2017-09-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species. © 2017 by the

  9. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients.HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events.In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs and vascular events. Such results are preliminary and require

  10. A Comparative Study of Two Techniques of Cryotherapy in the Treatment of Seborrheic Kreatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Seborrheic keratosis is a benign epidermal tumour that is generally pigmented and develop from the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. In this study, two different techniques, spray or probe applications used cryotherapy during the treatment of seborrheic keratosis were compared in terms of efficiency and undesired effects. By this way, it is aimed to find the most suitable technique in seborrheic keratosis treatment. Method: Eighty lesions were included in the study with the diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis. These 80 lesions were divided randomly into two groups of 40; to one of which spray cryotherapy to the second cryotherapy with probe were applied. If clinical improvement were seen treatment was accepted as successful. The patiens were evaluated 2 and 4 months after the therapy for the comparison of two treatment. The patients in both groups scored their pain from 1 to 10 during the cryotherapy.Results: In the study, great success was achieved in the treatment of seborrheic keratosis by using different cryotherapy methods. All the patients in both groups were diagnosed with hipopigmentation. They were found to continue hipopigmentation in the second and fourth months. It was found that the intensity of the pain which those in the probe cryotherapy group suffered was significantly greater statistically.Conclusion: It was concluded that spray cryotherapy should be preferred since it was less painful and required less equipment than probe cryotherapy.

  11. An integrated spectroscopic approach for the non-invasive study of modern art materials and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, F.; Miliani, C.; Clementi, C.; Kahrim, K.; Presciutti, F.; Vagnini, M.; Manuali, V.; Daveri, A.; Cartechini, L.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2010-09-01

    A non-invasive study has been carried out on 18 paintings by Alberto Burri (1915-1995), one of Italy’s most important contemporary painters. The study aims to demonstrate the appropriate and suitable use of portable non-invasive instrumentation for the characterization of materials and techniques found in works dating from 1948 to 1975 belonging to the Albizzini Collection. Sampling of any kind has been forbidden, in order to maintain the integrity of the paintings. Furthermore, the material heterogeneity of each single artwork could potentially result in a poorly representative sampling campaign. Therefore, a non-invasive and in situ analytical approach has been deemed mandatory, notwithstanding the complexity of modern materials and challenging data interpretation. It is the non-invasive nature of the study that has allowed for the acquisition of vast spectral data (a total of about 650 spectra including XRF, mid and near FTIR, micro-Raman and UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopies). In order to better handle and to extrapolate the most meaningful information from these data, a statistical multivariate analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA), has been applied to the spectral results. In particular, the possibility of combining elemental and molecular information has been explored by uniting XRF and infrared spectra in one PCA dataset. The combination of complementary spectroscopic techniques has allowed for the characterization of both inorganic and organic pigments, extenders, fillers, and binders employed by Alberto Burri.

  12. A study of ′cough trick′ technique in reducing vaccination prick pain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram S. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ′cough trick′ (CT technique is used in reducing intramuscular prick (IMP pain during vaccinations and also for brief painful procedures like subcutaneous injection, intravenous cannulation, and so forth. We present the utility study of this technique in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: A Randomized Crossover Volunteer Study of 50 early adolescent male children (age 11-13 receiving immunizations was performed. Participants were recruited from four outpatient pediatric clinics. The strategy required a single "warm-up" cough of moderate force, followed by a second cough that coincided with needle puncture. The principle outcome was self-reported pain. Results: Paired ′t′ test revealed that the procedure was effective at a statistically and clinically significant level for participants. Children found the procedure acceptable and effective. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CT can be an effective strategy for the reduction of pain for male adolescent children undergoing routine immunizations. However, additional research is needed with a larger sample size with different age groups and also including girl children.

  13. Nuclear techniques in the study of pollutant transport in the environment. Interaction of solutes with geological media (methodological aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This volume includes a summary of the 5-year co-ordinated research programme to use nuclear techniques for the study of the transport of pollutants (both radioactive and non-radioactive) in the environment as well as twelve individual reports of the different activities performed under the programme. These have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Experimental techniques for the study of radiation damage in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de.

    1983-06-01

    In this review, one presents the main experimental techniques used to study point defects and defect clusters introduced by irradiation in metals and alloys; emphasis will be put on some recent techniques. In particular, the studies allowing to analyse the very small agglomerates of point defects (Huang and small angle scattering, positron annihilation, electron microscopy) will be compared [fr

  15. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin V. Bann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA, which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.

  16. Molecular dynamics in porous media studied by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattea, C.

    2006-01-01

    Field cycling NMR relaxometry was used to study dynamics of fluids under confinement in different scenarios: fluids flowing through porous media, fluids partially filling porous media and polymer melts in nanoscopic pores. Diffusion in partially filled porous media was also studied with the aid of an NMR diffusometry technique. It is shown that hydrodynamic flow influences the spin-lattice relaxation rate of water confined in mesoscopic porous media under certain conditions. The effect is predicted by an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and confirmed experimentally by field-cycling NMR relaxometry. Field-cycling NMR relaxometry has been applied to polar and non polar adsorbates in partially filled silica porous glasses. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the filling degree shows that limits for slow and fast exchange between different phases can be distinguished and identified depending on the pore size and polarity of the solvents. Diffusion in the same unsaturated systems was studied with the aid of NMR diffusometry technique. The effective diffusion coefficient of solvents with different polarities displays opposite tendencies as a function of the liquid content. A two-phase fast exchange model including Knudsen and ordinary diffusion and different effective tortuosities is presented accounting for these phenomena. In the case of polymer melts confined in narrow artificial tubes of a porous solid matrix with variable diameter (9 to 57 nm), the characteristics of reptation were experimentally verified using proton field cycling NMR relaxometry technique. This observation is independent of the molecular mass and pore size. In bulk, the same polymer melts show either Rouse or renormalized Rouse dynamics, depending on the molecular mass. The polymers under confinement show features specific for reptation even with a pore diameter 15 times larger than the Flory radius while bulk melts of the same polymers do not. (orig.)

  17. Isotope techniques in studies of selenium deficiency and toxicity syndromes in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    In a brief review of the Se deficiency syndrome in ruminants, studies using non-isotopic methods are applied to an introductory description of the disease. They include methods currently applied for determining Se deficiency status in feed and in ruminant animals. Detection of potential white muscle disease in lambs and calves is discussed. The application of 75 Se in studies on absorption, tissue distribution and excretion under feeding regimes with different Se levels and partly with addition of SO 4 ions or vitamin E is reviewed. In vitro studies with 75 Se include a description of the 75 Se uptake test with red blood cells, the metabolism of selenite, selenate and selenomethionine in rumen microorganisms, and the distribution of 75 Se in cow's and goat's milk. Methods of Se supplementation in Se-deficient areas are summarized and tests with 75 Se-labelled ruminal pellets in sheep and cattle are described. The Se toxicity syndrome is surveyed with respect to causative agents, symptomatology and gross pathology. Special reference is made to the blind staggers and the alkali disease types of selenosis. Isotope techniques are found to be less frequently applied in studies on Se toxicity than in Se deficiency studies. (author)

  18. Students’ Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Holdgaard, Martin Møller; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    ' perceptions of psychiatric patients and students' reflections on meeting and communicating with psychiatric patients. METHODS: The authors conducted group interviews with 30 medical students who volunteered to participate in interviews and applied inductive thematic content analysis to the transcribed....... Students taught with video-based patient cases, in contrast, often referred to the patient cases when highlighting new insights, including the importance of patient perspectives when communicating with patients. CONCLUSION: The format of patient cases included in teaching may have a substantial impact...... unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry....

  19. Feasibility study on diagnosis of material damage using bulk wave mixing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Seok; Cho, Youn Ho [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Ultrasonic nonlinear evaluation is generally utilized for detection of not only defects but also microdamage such as corrosion and plastic deformation. Nonlinearity is determined by the amplitude ratio of primary wave second harmonic wave, and the results of its comparison are used for evaluation. Owing to the experimental features, the experimental nonlinearity result contains system nonlinearity and material nonlinearity. System nonlinearity is that which is unwanted by the user; hence, it acts as an error and interrupts analysis. In this study, a bulk wave mixing technique is implemented in order to minimize the system nonlinearity and obtain the reliable analysis results. The biggest advantage of this technique is that experimental nonlinearity contains less system nonlinearity than that for the conventional nonlinear ultrasonic technique. Theoretical and experimental verifications are performed in this study. By comparing the results of the bulk wave mixing technique with those of the conventional technique, the strengths, weaknesses, and application validity of the bulk wave mixing technique are determined.

  20. The fate of neurotization techniques on reinnervation after denervation of the gastrocnemius muscle: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, I; Sabuncuoglu, B T; Yormuk, E; Saray, A

    2001-07-01

    In nerve injuries, if it is not possible to reinnervate muscle by using neurorrhaphy and nerve grafting technique, reinnervation should be provided by the use of neuroization-directly implanting motor nerve into muscle. A comparative study of three techniques of neurotization is presented in rabbits. In this experimental study, a total of 40 white New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into four groups, each including 10 rabbits. In the first group (control--Group 1), only surgical exposure of the gastrocnemius muscle, main muscle nerve (tibial nerve), and peroneal nerve was done, without any injury to the nerves. In the second group (direct neurotization group--Group 2), the tibial nerve was transected, and the peroneal nerve, which had already been divided into fascicles, was implanted into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle aneural zone. In the third group (dual neurotization group--Group 3), the tibial nerve which had been transected and re-anastomosed, and the peroneal nerve were implanted into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle. In the last experimental group (hyperneurotization group--Group 4), fascicles of the peroneal nerve were implanted into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius, preserving the tibial nerve. Six months later, changes in the histologic pattern and the functional recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle were investigated. It was found that functional recovery was achieved in all neurotization groups. Groups with the tibial nerve transected had less muscular weights than those of groups with the tibial nerve intact. EMG recordings showed that polyphasic and late potentials were frequently seen in groups with the tibial nerve transected. Degeneration and regeneration of myofibrils was observed in such groups as well. New motor end-plates, including vesicles, were formed in a scattered manner in all neurotization groups. As a result, the authors conclude that direct and dual neurotization techniques are useful in peripheral

  1. A study on the fault diagnostic techniques for reactor internal structures using neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Jeong, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Park, Jin Suk

    1994-08-01

    The unfavorable phenomena, such as flow induced vibration and aging process in reactor internals, cause degradation of structural integrity and may result in loosing some mechanical binding components which might impact other equipments and components or cause flow blockage. Since these malfunctions and potential failures change reactor noise signal, it is necessary to analyze reactor noise signal for early fault diagnosis in the point of few of safety and plant economics. The objectives of this study are to establish fault diagnostic and TS(thermal shield), and to develop a data acquisition and signal processing software system. In the first year of this study, an analysis technique for the reactor internal vibration using the reactor noise was proposed. With the technique proposed and the reactor noise signals (ex-core neutron and acceleration), the dynamic characteristics of Ulchin-1 reactor internals were obtained, and compared with those of Tricastin-1 which is the prototype of Ulchin-1. In the second year, a PC-based expert system for reactor internals fault diagnosis is developed, which included data acquisition, signal processing, feature extraction function, and represented diagnostic knowledge by the IF-THEN rule. To know the effect of the faults, the reactor internals of Ulchin-1 is modeled using FEM and simulated with an artificial defect given in the hold-down spring. Trend in the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals is also observed during one fuel cycle to know the effect of boron concentration. 100 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs. (Author)

  2. Utilization of two different surgical techniques in gingival recession treatment: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Miljan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gingival recession is a displacement of gingival margin apically to cementenamel junction. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the results achieved with two different surgical procedures used in gingival recession treatment. Methods. Ten patients with bilateral buccal recession on maxillary canines or premolars were included in the study. Professional teeth cleaning was performed before surgery. Recession on the experimental side was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with coronally advanced, split thickness flap (tunnel technique. Control side recession was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with trapezoidal coronally advanced, full thickness flap. Coin toss was used for side decision. The following parameters were evaluated before surgery and 6 months post-op: Vertical Recession Dimension, Clinical Attachment Level, Apico-coronal width of the keratinized tissue, Healing index (Laundry, RES index, and Patient evaluation of esthetic results. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Six months after surgery, mean root coverage was 91.5±14.1% and 90.1±14.6% on the experimental and on the control side, respectively. RES index, Healing index (Laundry and Patient Subjective evaluation of esthetic results showed significantly better results (p≤0.05. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures produce highly successful clinical results based on evaluated parameters, but this tunnel technique provides significantly better esthetic results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41008: Interakcija etiopatogenetskih mehanizama parodontopatije i periimplantitisa sa sistemskim bolestima današnjice

  3. Studies of molecular dynamics with neutron scattering techniques. Part of a coordinated programme on neutron scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, L.A.

    1980-05-01

    Molecular dynamics was studied in samples of tert-butanol, cyclohexanol and methanol, using neutron inelastic and quasi-elastic techniques. The frequency spectra of cyclohexanol in crystalline phase were interpreted by assigning individual energy peaks to hindered rotation of molecules, lattice vibration, hydrogen bond stretching and ring bending modes. Neutron quasi-elastic scattering measurements permitted the testing of models for molecular diffusion as a function of temperature. The interpretation of neutron incoherent inelastic scattering on methanol indicated the different modes of molecular dynamics in this material; individual inelastic peaks in the spectra could be assigned to vibrations of crystalline lattice, stretching of hydrogen bond and vibrational and torsional modes of CH 3 OH molecule. The results of the experimental work on tertbutanol indicate two distinct modes of motion in this material: individual molecular librations are superposed to a cooperative rotation diffusion which occurs both in solid and in liquid state

  4. Spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques study of the interaction between oxymetholone and human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail: madrakian@basu.ac.ir; Bagheri, Habibollah; Afkhami, Abbas; Soleimani, Mohammad

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the binding of oxymetholone (OXM), a doping drug, to human serum albumin (HSA) was explored at pH 7.40 by spectroscopic methods including spectrofluorimetry, three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3D EEM), UV–vis absorption, resonance rayleigh scattering (RRS) and molecular docking. The fluorescence results showed that there was a considerable quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA upon binding to OXM by static quenching mechanism. The Stern–Volmer quenching constants (K{sub SV}) between OXM and HSA at three different temperatures 295, 303, 308 K, were obtained as 4.63×10{sup 4}, 3.05×10{sup 4} and 1.49×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1}, respectively. Furthermore this interaction was confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometric and RRS techniques. The binding site number, n, apparent binding constant, K{sub b}, and corresponding thermodynamic parameters (ΔS, ΔH and ΔG) were measured at different temperatures. The Van der Waals and hydrogen-bond forces were found to stabilize OXM–HSA complex. The distance (r) between the donor and acceptor was obtained from Förster's theory of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and found to be 1.67 nm. The 3D EEM showed that OXM slightly changes the secondary structure of HSA. Furthermore, the molecular docking was employed for identification of drug binding sites and interaction of OXM with amino acid residues. - Highlights: • The binding of OXM as a doping drug with HSA was studied by different techniques. • The binding constant of HSA–OXM was calculated. • The binding site of OXM on HSA was characterized with molecular docking. • The thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to fluorescence technique.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF ROCABADO'S TECHNIQUE FOR SUBJECTS WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION - A SINGLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niha Siraj Mulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:A temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction or TMD is a group of conditions characterized by pain in the muscles of mastication, the temporo-mandiblar joint or both. Rocabado has described techniques includes the Rocabado’s manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises which have both been individually advocated for treatment of TMD. The purpose of study is to determine the effectiveness of Rocabado’s techniques on TMJ dysfunction symptoms, pain, TMJ Range of Motion (ROM and jaw functional limitation for subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design, subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction randomized into two groups with 15 subjects into each group with total of 30 subjects in Study and control group, respectively. The study group received the Rocabado’s technique which consisted of Rocabado’s non-thrust TMJ manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises along with conventional TMJ exercises and the control group received only conventional TMJ exercises. The exercises were performed for 6 times per each session, six times in a day, one session under supervision and remaining five sessions by the subject at home for 6 days in a week for duration of 2 weeks. The outcome measurements such as VAS for pain, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire rating for TMJ dysfunction symptoms and jaw function limitation score (JFLS was measured before and after two weeks of intervention. Results: Comparative analysis, using Independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U- test found that the means of VAS, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire and JFLS scores showed statistically significant difference (p <0.05 when the pre-intervention means and post-intervention means were compared between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that Rocabado’s technique found to have statistically and clinically significant added effect with conventional TMJ exercises shown greater percentage of improvements obtained

  6. Study of Materials and Techniques for the Conservation of Two Miniature Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Attia Mohie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research includes a study on the conservation of two miniature paintings produced by unknown artists and probably dated to the second half of the 18th century. These paintings are registered at the Museum of Helwan University, Faculty of Applied Arts, Giza, Egypt, No. (A of 100/6.This research also includes a historical and artistic study of the paintings. To study the materials and techniques used in their execution, several methods were used. XRD, XRD-EDAX was used for the examination and analysis of inorganic materials; in the case of organic materials, FTIR, UV was used to identify the pigment materials, glue, varnish, isolation layer or condition of the paper support. The oil medium in the paint layer was identified by the GLC method. Cross sections of both paintings were examined to find out about the technical knowledge used in constructing the painting / pictorial layers.Finally, this research involves a study of how to separate two oil paintings executed on one paper support, and the most important procedures needed to carry out this step, as well as those necessary for reconstructing the painting layers. In addition, a new method is described to treat cracks.Another new method was used to protect the paper support of these paintings from high relative humidity. This research also proposes a new tear mending method for paper objects instead of the traditional methods used in international paper and manuscript conservation laboratories.

  7. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  8. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  9. [Anatomical study and clinical application of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Hao, X; Goan, M

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the blood supply patterns and the clinical liability of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Fresh cadaver legs with thirty-two in infants and two in adults were anatomically examined after the intravenous injection of the red Chlorinated Poly Vingl Choride (CPVC). Five patients with the soft tissue defects were selected for the treatment with the flap pedicle-included with the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Four main cutaneous nerves were found in the leg after they perforated the deep fascia out. They were companioned with their concomitant vessels with different blood-supply pateeerns, which the upper part of the leg was in an axial pattern and the lower part was in a "chain-type anastomosing" pattern. Following the above-mentioned findings, five cases were successfully treated with this led flap. The leg flap should be designed along the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. When the flap is applied in the area of blood supply with "chain-type anastomosing" pattern, the deep fascia should also be included in the flap.

  10. [The Autocad system for planimetric study of the optic disc in glaucoma: technique and reproducibility study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, A; Honrubia López, F M; Larrosa Poves, J M; Polo Llorens, V; Melcon Sánchez-Frieras, B

    2001-09-01

    To develop a lens planimetry technique for the optic disc using AutoCAD. To determine variability magnitude of the optic disc morphological measurements. We employed AutoCAD R.14.0 Autodesk: image acquisition, contour delimitation by multiple lines fitting or ellipse adjustment, image sectorialization and measurements quantification (optic disc and excavation, vertical diameters, optic disc area, excavation area, neuroretinal sector area and Beta atrophy area). Intraimage or operator and interimage o total reproducibility was studied by coefficient of variability (CV) (n=10) in normal and myopic optic discs. This technique allows to obtain optic disc measurement in 5 to 10 minutes time. Total or interimage variability of measurements introduced by one observer presents CV range from 1.18-4.42. Operator or intraimage measurement presents CV range from 0.30-4.21. Optic disc contour delimitation by ellipse adjustment achieved better reproducibility results than multiple lines adjustment in all measurements. Computer assisted AutoCAD planimetry is an interactive method to analyse the optic disc, feasible to incorporate to clinical practice. Reproducibility results are comparable to other analyzers in quantification optic disc morphology. Ellipse adjustment improves results in optic disc contours delimitation.

  11. Donor versus no-donor comparison of newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the HOVON-50 multiple myeloma study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, Henk M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Kersten, Marie-José; van Oers, Marinus; Raymakers, Reinier; Minnema, Monique C.; Zweegman, Sonja; Janssen, Jeroen J.; Zijlmans, Mark; Bos, Gerard; Schaap, Nicolaas; Wittebol, Shulamiet; de Weerdt, Okke; Ammerlaan, Rianne; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for myeloma as part of first-line therapy, a donor versus no-donor analysis was performed of patients treated in the HOVON-50 study, a study that was originally designed to examine thalidomide combined with intensive therapy.

  12. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  13. Air pollution studies in Macedonia using the moss biomonitoring technique, NAA, AAS and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barandovski, L.; Urumov, V.; Cekova, M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Stafilov, T.; Steinnes, E.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Samples of the terrestrial mosses Hypnum cupressiforme, Campothecium lutescens, and Homolothecium sericium were collected in September-October 2002 in accordance with the sampling strategy of the European moss survey programme. The sampling network included 73 sites evenly distributed over the territory of the country. A total of 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and flame

  14. Strategic Management Tools and Techniques: A Comparative Analysis of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Berisha Qehaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that strategic management tools and techniques are important parts of the strategic management process. Their use in organizations should be observed in a practice-based context. This paper analyzes the empirical studies on the usage of strategic management tools and techniques. Hence, the main aim of this study is to investigate and analyze which enterprises, according to their country development level, use more strategic management tools and techniques and which of these are used the most. Also, this paper investigates which strategic management tools and techniques are used globally according to the results of empirical studies. The study presents a summary of empirical studies for the period 1990–2015. The research results indicate that more strategic tools and techniques are used in developed countries, followed by developing countries and fewest in countries in transition. This study is likely to contribute to the field of strategic management because it summarizes the most used strategic tools and techniques at the global level according to varying stages of countries’ economic development. Also, the findings from this study may be utilized to maximize the full potential of enterprises and reduce the cases of entrepreneurship failures, through creating awareness of the importance of using strategic management tools and techniques.

  15. Cutaneous respirometry as novel technique to monitor mitochondrial function: A feasibility study in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Harms (Floor A.); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique (PpIX-TSLT) is proposed as a potential clinical non-invasive tool to monitor mitochondrial function. This technique has been evaluated in several animal studies. Mitochondrial respirometry allows measurement in vivo of

  16. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  17. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  18. Retrospective study of rapid-exchange monorail versus over-the-wire technique for femoropopliteal angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Thomas; Schäfer, Jost Philipp; Bolte, Hendrik; Schäfer, Fritz; Michalek, Jens; Charalambous, Nicholas; Sapoval, Marc; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare procedural outcome of rapid-exchange (RX) monorail versus conventional over-the-wire (OTW) technique for femoropopliteal angioplasty. Demographic data, procedure details, angioplasty success, and complications of 328 consecutive percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTAs) were collected from a prospective database and retrospectively analyzed. Procedure details included duration of fluoroscopy, area-dose product, amount of contrast agent, sheath sizes, access route, length of stenosis, presence of total occlusion, technical and anatomical success (residual stenosis or = 6 Fr = 82.5% for OTW) but showed only a tendency toward lower overall complication rates (16.6% [17/102] in the RX group versus 19.9% [45/226] in the OTW group; p = 0.09). There was no effect on length of hospitalization. RX monorail systems were not associated with higher procedural costs when compared to conventional OTW technique. We conclude that RX monorail systems seem to enhance the technical success of femoropopliteal angioplasty. Although smaller sheath sizes can be used due to the lower profile of the RX systems, there is only a tendency toward lower complication rates.

  19. Comparative study of 2 commissural dorsal flap techniques for the treatment of congenital syndactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Cindy; Ilharreborde, Brice; Jehanno, Pascal; Litzelmann, Estelle; Valenti, Philippe; Mazda, Keyvan; Penneçot, Georges-François; Fitoussi, Franck

    2013-03-01

    Many commissural reconstruction techniques have been described for the treatment of syndactyly. This study is the first to compare long-term results of 2 commissural dorsal flap procedures (T-flap and omega-flap). Fifty-nine web-spaces in 39 patients, operated on between 1991 and 2008, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-six T-flap and 23 omega-flap procedures were performed using full-thickness skin graft in every case for digital resurfacing. Factors that could affect the long-term outcome were collected, including development of web-creep, clinodactyly, and flexion contracture. Patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 5 years and 8 months. Preoperative complexity of syndactyly influenced the development of clinodactyly and flexion contracture. Among the patients who developed clinodactyly, 96% had surgery for complex syndactyly. No difference was found between the 2 flap methods concerning digital deformation and mobility. However, web-creep occurred more frequently after T-flap than after omega-flap procedures (17% vs. 5%). The combination of either dorsal commissural T-flaps or omega-flaps with full-thickness graft to resurface digits is a reliable technique for the treatment of syndactyly with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Long-term results are not influenced by the type of flap. Nevertheless, the omega-flap technique, using 2 triangular lateral-palmar flaps, avoids use of skin graft to cover lateral-palmar aspects of the new commissure, consequently reducing the incidence of web-creep. In cases of syndactyly, the primary prognostic factor is whether the patient has simple or complex syndactyly. In complex syndactyly, the risk of long-term unfavorable results is higher. When complex complicated syndactyly is involved, postoperative complication rates increase. Level III.

  20. THE USE OF CRITICAL THINKING TECHNIQUE STUDYING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT A HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надія Бреславець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of skills formation and to the use of critical thinking technique when studying a foreign language at a higher educational establishment. The essence, stages and phases of critical thinking technique have been highlighted, methods of its usage have been grounded. The process of investigation has revealed that introduction of critical thinking technique skills facilitates the increase of foreign language study effectiveness, livens up the work of the students aimed at achieving their personal goals of studies, calls the teachers to rethink the essence of the updated educational process.

  1. Microdeletions including FMR1 in three female patients with intellectual disability - further delineation of the phenotype and expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, A M; Wohlleber, E; Engels, H

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide...... clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random...

  2. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of spouted beds, including in particular an experimental study on the void fraction of the dense phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eljas, Yves.

    1975-10-01

    The spouted bed is a gas-solid contact technique used to replace fluidisation when the solid particles are too large and too dense. Part one gives a bibliographical study on the aerodynamic aspect of spouted beds. Part two describes an experimental study of the void fraction distribution in a two-dimensional bed [fr

  4. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO system (TRMS considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, artificial bee colony (ABC, and differential evolution (DE. In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.

  5. A modified bonded-interface technique with improved features for studying indentation damage of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    A modified 'bonded-interface' technique with improved features for studying contact damage of ceramic (Al 2 O 3 graded Al 2 TiO 5 /Al 2 O 3 , Ti 3 SiC 2 ) and non-ceramic (epoxy, tooth) materials is developed and compared with the conventional method. This technique enables the surface damage around and below an indentor to be studied. When used in conjunction with Nomarski illumination and atomic force microscopy, this technique can reveal substantial information on the topography of indentation surface damage. In particular, it is ideal for monitoring the evolution of deformation-micro fracture damage of quasi-plastic materials. The technique is much less sophisticated, less time consuming, and user-friendly. It does not require a highly experience user to be proficient in the procedure. When compared with the conventional tool- clamp method, this modified technique gives similar, if not, identical results. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  6. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; Macgregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We

  7. Including Remote Participants and Artifacts: Visual, Audio, and Tactile Modalities in an Ethnographic Study of Globally Distributed Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Pederson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study how globally distributed Danish and Indian engineers co-construct and reconfigure a shared socio-technical collaborative place for global collaborative interaction: War Room meetings. We investigate the empirical case of War Room meetings based on three modalities in which ...

  8. Theoretical study on the low-lying excited states of the phosphorus monoiodide (PI) including the spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaoting; Liang, Guiying; Li, Rui; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The potential energy curves (PECs) of the 22 Λ-S states of the phosphorus monoiodide (PI) molecule have been calculated at the level of MRCI+Q method with correlation-consistent quadruple-ζ quality basis set. The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined, which well reproduce the available measurements. The metastable a1Δ state has been reported for the first time, which lies between the X3Σ- and b1Σ+ states and have much deeper well than the ground state. The R-dependent spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements are calculated with the full-electron Breit-Pauli operator. Based on the SO matrix elements, the perturbations that the 23Π state may suffer from are analyzed in detail. The SOC effect makes the original Λ-S states split into 51 Ω states. In the zero-field splitting of the ground state X3Σ-, the spin-spin coupling contribution (2.23 cm-1) is found to be much smaller compared to the spin-orbit coupling contribution (50 cm-1). The avoided crossings between the Ω states lead to much shallower potential wells and the change of dissociation relationships of the states. The Ω-state wavefunctions are analyzed depending on their Λ-S compositions, showing the strong interactions among several quasidegenerate Λ-S states of the same total SO symmetry. The transition properties including electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), and electric quadrupole (E2) transition moments (TMs), the Franck-Condon factors, the transition probabilities and the radiative lifetimes are computed for the transitions between Ω components of a1Δ and b1Σ+ states and ground state. The transition probabilities induced by the E1, E2, and M1 transitions are evaluated. The E2 makes little effect on transition probabilities. In contrast, the E1 transition makes the main contribution to the transition probability and the M1 transition also brings the influence that cannot be neglected. Finally, the radiative lifetimes are determined with the transition moments including E

  9. A Comparative Study of Two Different Uncinectomy Techniques: Swing-Door and Classical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit A Singhania

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique.  Materials and Methods: Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS. Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. Results: The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. Conclusion: The authors recommend

  10. A comparative study of two different uncinectomy techniques: swing-door and classical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Ankit A; Bansal, Chetan; Chauhan, Nirali; Soni, Saurav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique. Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal) was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. The authors recommend swing door technique as it is easy to learn, allows complete removal of the

  11. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  12. Acute cardiotoxicity with concurrent trastuzumab and radiotherapy including internal mammary chain nodes: A retrospective single-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Richard; Tyldesley, Scott; Rolles, Martin; Chia, Stephen; Mohamed, Islam

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the acute cardiotoxicity of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation with concurrent trastuzumab. Materials and Methods: Clinical and cardiac function data were collected on 59 patients with early breast cancer who were treated with adjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy (often including IMC) at BC Cancer Agency in 2005. Results: Forty-four of fifty-nine patients received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Thirteen had left-sided IMC RT. For left-sided RT, IMC inclusion increased the mean percentage dose to 5% of the heart, but the mean doses to 50% and 90% of the heart were similar. Median baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 62% and similar in all groups. Median absolute decrease in LVEF after RT was 4%, which was not significantly different according to side or inclusion of IMCs. Trastuzumab was stopped in 11 of 59 patients (18.6%) due to decrease in LVEF. After median follow up of 15 months, three patients developed clinical congestive heart failure, none of whom received left-sided IMC RT. Conclusions: There was no excess acute cardiotoxicity observed with the combination of left-sided IMC irradiation and concurrent trastuzumab

  13. Probabilistic seismic safety assessment of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant including ambient vibration tests: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of

  14. Macro Ergonomics Interventions and their Impact on Productivity and Reduction of Musculoskeletal disorders: Including a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sadra Abarqhouei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available   Background and aims : The present studies show that the theoretical discussions and the applications of ergonomics have not been seriously handled in our country, Iran. So, the aim of the current study was to present an appropriate method which could help in increasing the productivity and decreasing the risk factors of ergonomics in socio-technical systems.   Methods: During the present study, a theoretical model was developed to guide the “ergonomic intervention processes” and its evaluation and application was carried out for an educational organization (EO. The faculty members were selected as the subjects of statistical survey and simple random sampling was performed. The level of musculoskeletal disorders was evaluated in control and treatment groups. Comparative analysis of the obtained data was carried out using fuzzy numbers and their level of confinement.   Results: According to the results of present study with the help of ergonomic interventions, an increase in the activity of staff members, increased revenue, expansion of work with the least number of manpower and a decrease in the overall expenses was seen as compared to the base year. In addition, the analysis of questionnaires with fuzzy approach has shown that the level of musculoskeletal disorders in the experimental group was less as compared to that of control group.   Conclusion: The results obtained by the use of macro and micro ergonomic interventions (Total ergonomics have proved that these methods were successful by increasing the innovation and motivation of the staff members to solve the organizational problems as compared to the base year. The decrease of musculoskeletal disorders among the members resulted to an increase of performance in different units of the educational organization.  

  15. Analytical Study of Ventilated Wind Tunnel Boundary Interference on V/ STOL Models Including Wake Curvature and Decay Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    ol the abstract entered In Block 30. II dlllerent from Report) IB. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Available in DDC 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revetee...Stream. " UTME TP 6808, June 1968. 20. Davis, D. D. , Jr. and Moore, Dewey . "Analytical Study of Blockage- and Lift-Interference...The variables N and NM must be right justified in their fields, and punched without a decimal point. The variables XLAM, UE, DO, BO, XMIN, and

  16. Power flow modeling of Back-to-Back STATCOM: Comprehensive simulation studies including PV curves and PQ circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.

  17. Determinants of exercise-induced oxygen desaturation including pulmonary emphysema in COPD: Results from the ECLIPSE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Celli, Bartolome R; Franssen, Frits M E; Pinto-Plata, Victor M; Calverley, Peter M A; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Vestbo, Jørgen; Agusti, Alvar; Bakke, Per S; Rennard, Stephen I; MacNee, William; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Yates, Julie C; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2016-10-01

    Exercise-induced oxygen desaturation (EID) is related to mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated: (1) the prevalence of EID; (2) the relative-weight of several physiological determinants of EID including pulmonary emphysema, and (3) the relationship of EID with certain patients' clinical characteristics. Data from 2050 COPD patients (age: 63.3 ± 7.1years; FEV 1 : 48.7 ± 15.7%pred.) were analyzed. The occurrence of EID (SpO 2 post ≤88%) at the six-minute walking test (6MWT) was investigated in association with emphysema quantified by computed-tomography (QCT), and several clinical characteristics. 435 patients (21%) exhibited EID. Subjects with EID had more QCT-emphysema, lower exercise capacity and worse health-status (BODE, ADO indexes) compared to non-EID. Determinant of EID were obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m 2 ), impaired FEV 1 (≤44%pred.), moderate or worse emphysema, and low SpO 2 at rest (≤93%). Linear regression indicated that each 1-point increase on the ADO-score independently elevates odds ratio (≤1.5fold) for EID. About one in five COPD patients in the ECLIPSE cohort present EID. Advanced emphysema is associated with EID. In addition, obesity, severe airflow limitation, and low resting oxygen saturation increase the risk for EID. Patients with EID in GOLD stage II have higher odds to have moderate or worse emphysema compared those with EID in GOLD stage III-IV. Emphysematous patients with high ADO-score should be monitored for EID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Data preparation techniques for a perinatal psychiatric study based on linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fenglian; Hilder, Lisa; Austin, Marie-Paule; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2012-06-08

    In recent years there has been an increase in the use of population-based linked data. However, there is little literature that describes the method of linked data preparation. This paper describes the method for merging data, calculating the statistical variable (SV), recoding psychiatric diagnoses and summarizing hospital admissions for a perinatal psychiatric study. The data preparation techniques described in this paper are based on linked birth data from the New South Wales (NSW) Midwives Data Collection (MDC), the Register of Congenital Conditions (RCC), the Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) and the Pharmaceutical Drugs of Addiction System (PHDAS). The master dataset is the meaningfully linked data which include all or major study data collections. The master dataset can be used to improve the data quality, calculate the SV and can be tailored for different analyses. To identify hospital admissions in the periods before pregnancy, during pregnancy and after birth, a statistical variable of time interval (SVTI) needs to be calculated. The methods and SPSS syntax for building a master dataset, calculating the SVTI, recoding the principal diagnoses of mental illness and summarizing hospital admissions are described. Linked data preparation, including building the master dataset and calculating the SV, can improve data quality and enhance data function.

  19. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; MacGregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Delcourt, Cécile; Maubaret, Cecilia; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; MacGregor, Stuart; Lu, Yi; Jonas, Jost B.; Xu, Liang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Jonas, Jost B.; Nangia, Vinay; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Vitart, Veronique; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Vitart, Veronique; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Young, Terri L.; Feng, Sheng; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Metspalu, Andres; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Wojciechowski, Robert; Baird, Paul N.; Schache, Maria; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Höhn, René; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Peng; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Wegner, Aharon; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Pärssinen, Olavi; Yip, Shea Ping; Ho, Daniel W.H.; Pirastu, Mario; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Biino, Genevra; Wilson, James F.; Fleck, Brian; Vitart, Veronique; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Hewitt, Alex W.; Ang, Wei; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Mackey, David A.; MacGregor, Stuart; Hammond, Christopher J.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Reinhart, William; Belin, Michael W.; Schultze, Robert L.; Morason, Todd; Sugar, Alan; Mian, Shahzad; Soong, Hunson Kaz; Colby, Kathryn; Jurkunas, Ula; Yee, Richard; Vital, Mark; Alfonso, Eduardo; Karp, Carol; Lee, Yunhee; Yoo, Sonia; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cohen, Elisabeth; Laibson, Peter; Rapuano, Christopher; Ayres, Brandon; Croasdale, Christopher; Caudill, James; Patel, Sanjay; Baratz, Keith; Bourne, William; Maguire, Leo; Sugar, Joel; Tu, Elmer; Djalilian, Ali; Mootha, Vinod; McCulley, James; Bowman, Wayne; Cavanaugh, H. Dwight; Verity, Steven; Verdier, David; Renucci, Ann; Oliva, Matt; Rotkis, Walter; Hardten, David R.; Fahmy, Ahmad; Brown, Marlene; Reeves, Sherman; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Lindstrom, Richard; Hauswirth, Scott; Hamilton, Stephen; Lee, W. Barry; Price, Francis; Price, Marianne; Kelly, Kathleen; Peters, Faye; Shaughnessy, Michael; Steinemann, Thomas; Dupps, B.J.; Meisler, David M.; Mifflin, Mark; Olson, Randal; Aldave, Anthony; Holland, Gary; Mondino, Bartly J.; Rosenwasser, George; Gorovoy, Mark; Dunn, Steven P.; Heidemann, David G.; Terry, Mark; Shamie, Neda; Rosenfeld, Steven I.; Suedekum, Brandon; Hwang, David; Stone, Donald; Chodosh, James; Galentine, Paul G.; Bardenstein, David; Goddard, Katrina; Chin, Hemin; Mannis, Mark; Varma, Rohit; Borecki, Ingrid; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J.; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Donnelly, Peter; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Barroso, Ines; Deloukas, Panos; Mathew, Christopher G.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Corvin, Aiden; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Genuth, S.; Nathan, D.M.; Zinman, B.; Crofford, O.; Crandall, J.; Reid, M.; Brown-Friday, J.; Engel, S.; Sheindlin, J.; Martinez, H.; Shamoon, H.; Engel, H.; Phillips, M.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Mayer, L.; Pendegast, S.; Zegarra, H.; Miller, D.; Singerman, L.; Smith-Brewer, S.; Novak, M.; Quin, J.; Dahms, W.; Genuth, Saul; Palmert, M.; Brillon, D.; Lackaye, M.E.; Kiss, S.; Chan, R.; Reppucci, V.; Lee, T.; Heinemann, M.; Whitehouse, F.; Kruger, D.; Jones, J.K.; McLellan, M.; Carey, J.D.; Angus, E.; Thomas, A.; Galprin, A.; Bergenstal, R.; Johnson, M.; Spencer, M.; Morgan, K.; Etzwiler, D.; Kendall, D.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Golden, E.; Jacobson, A.; Beaser, R.; Ganda, O.; Hamdy, O.; Wolpert, H.; Sharuk, G.; Arrigg, P.; Schlossman, D.; Rosenzwieg, J.; Rand, L.; Nathan, D.M.; Larkin, M.; Ong, M.; Godine, J.; Cagliero, E.; Lou, P.; Folino, K.; Fritz, S.; Crowell, S.; Hansen, K.; Gauthier-Kelly, C.; Service, J.; Ziegler, G.; Luttrell, L.; Caulder, S.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Colwell, J.; Soule, J.; Fernandes, J.; Hermayer, K.; Kwon, S.; Brabham, M.; Blevins, A.; Parker, J.; Lee, D.; Patel, N.; Pittman, C.; Lindsey, P.; Bracey, M.; Lee, K.; Nutaitis, M.; Farr, A.; Elsing, S.; Thompson, T.; Selby, J.; Lyons, T.; Yacoub-Wasef, S.; Szpiech, M.; Wood, D.; Mayfield, R.; Molitch, M.; Schaefer, B.; Jampol, L.; Lyon, A.; Gill, M.; Strugula, Z.; Kaminski, L.; Mirza, R.; Simjanoski, E.; Ryan, D.; Kolterman, O.; Lorenzi, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Sivitz, W.; Bayless, M.; Counts, D.; Johnsonbaugh, S.; Hebdon, M.; Salemi, P.; Liss, R.; Donner, T.; Gordon, J.; Hemady, R.; Kowarski, A.; Ostrowski, D.; Steidl, S.; Jones, B.; Herman, W.H.; Martin, C.L.; Pop-Busui, R.; Sarma, A.; Albers, J.; Feldman, E.; Kim, K.; Elner, S.; Comer, G.; Gardner, T.; Hackel, R.; Prusak, R.; Goings, L.; Smith, A.; Gothrup, J.; Titus, P.; Lee, J.; Brandle, M.; Prosser, L.; Greene, D.A.; Stevens, M.J.; Vine, A.K.; Bantle, J.; Wimmergren, N.; Cochrane, A.; Olsen, T.; Steuer, E.; Rath, P.; Rogness, B.; Hainsworth, D.; Goldstein, D.; Hitt, S.; Giangiacomo, J.; Schade, D.S.; Canady, J.L.; Chapin, J.E.; Ketai, L.H.; Braunstein, C.S.; Bourne, P.A.; Schwartz, S.; Brucker, A.; Maschak-Carey, B.J.; Baker, L.; Orchard, T.; Silvers, N.; Ryan, C.; Songer, T.; Doft, B.; Olson, S.; Bergren, R.L.; Lobes, L.; Rath, P. Paczan; Becker, D.; Rubinstein, D.; Conrad, P.W.; Yalamanchi, S.; Drash, A.; Morrison, A.; Bernal, M.L.; Vaccaro-Kish, J.; Malone, J.; Pavan, P.R.; Grove, N.; Iyer, M.N.; Burrows, A.F.; Tanaka, E.A.; Gstalder, R.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Wigley, C.; Ricks, H.; Kitabchi, A.; Murphy, M.B.; Moser, S.; Meyer, D.; Iannacone, A.; Chaum, E.; Yoser, S.; Bryer-Ash, M.; Schussler, S.; Lambeth, H.; Raskin, P.; Strowig, S.; Zinman, B.; Barnie, A.; Devenyi, R.; Mandelcorn, M.; Brent, M.; Rogers, S.; Gordon, A.; Palmer, J.; Catton, S.; Brunzell, J.; Wessells, H.; de Boer, I.H.; Hokanson, J.; Purnell, J.; Ginsberg, J.; Kinyoun, J.; Deeb, S.; Weiss, M.; Meekins, G.; Distad, J.; Van Ottingham, L.; Dupre, J.; Harth, J.; Nicolle, D.; Driscoll, M.; Mahon, J.; Canny, C.; May, M.; Lipps, J.; Agarwal, A.; Adkins, T.; Survant, L.; Pate, R.L.; Munn, G.E.; Lorenz, R.; Feman, S.; White, N.; Levandoski, L.; Boniuk, I.; Grand, G.; Thomas, M.; Joseph, D.D.; Blinder, K.; Shah, G.; Boniuk; Burgess; Santiago, J.; Tamborlane, W.; Gatcomb, P.; Stoessel, K.; Taylor, K.; Goldstein, J.; Novella, S.; Mojibian, H.; Cornfeld, D.; Lima, J.; Bluemke, D.; Turkbey, E.; van der Geest, R.J.; Liu, C.; Malayeri, A.; Jain, A.; Miao, C.; Chahal, H.; Jarboe, R.; Maynard, J.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Quin, J.; Gaston, P.; Palmert, M.; Trail, R.; Dahms, W.; Lachin, J.; Cleary, P.; Backlund, J.; Sun, W.; Braffett, B.; Klumpp, K.; Chan, K.; Diminick, L.; Rosenberg, D.; Petty, B.; Determan, A.; Kenny, D.; Rutledge, B.; Younes, Naji; Dews, L.; Hawkins, M.; Cowie, C.; Fradkin, J.; Siebert, C.; Eastman, R.; Danis, R.; Gangaputra, S.; Neill, S.; Davis, M.; Hubbard, L.; Wabers, H.; Burger, M.; Dingledine, J.; Gama, V.; Sussman, R.; Steffes, M.; Bucksa, J.; Nowicki, M.; Chavers, B.; O’Leary, D.; Polak, J.; Harrington, A.; Funk, L.; Crow, R.; Gloeb, B.; Thomas, S.; O’Donnell, C.; Soliman, E.; Zhang, Z.M.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Ryan, C.; Sandstrom, D.; Williams, T.; Geckle, M.; Cupelli, E.; Thoma, F.; Burzuk, B.; Woodfill, T.; Low, P.; Sommer, C.; Nickander, K.; Budoff, M.; Detrano, R.; Wong, N.; Fox, M.; Kim, L.; Oudiz, R.; Weir, G.; Espeland, M.; Manolio, T.; Rand, L.; Singer, D.; Stern, M.; Boulton, A.E.; Clark, C.; D’Agostino, R.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Garvey, W.T.; Lyons, T.J.; Jenkins, A.; Virella, G.; Jaffa, A.; Carter, Rickey; Lackland, D.; Brabham, M.; McGee, D.; Zheng, D.; Mayfield, R.K.; Boright, A.; Bull, S.; Sun, L.; Scherer, S.; Zinman, B.; Natarajan, R.; Miao, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen;, Z.; Nathan, D.M.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K.H.; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W.; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL (RSPO1, C3orf26, LAMA2, GJD2, ZNRF3, CD55, MIP, and ALPPL2) and confirmed one previously reported AL locus (ZC3H11B). Of the nine loci, five (LAMA2, GJD2, CD55, ALPPL2, and ZC3H11B) were associated with refraction in 18 independent cohorts (n = 23,591). Differential gene expression was observed for these loci in minus-lens-induced myopia mouse experiments and human ocular tissues. Two of the AL genes, RSPO1 and ZNRF3, are involved in Wnt signaling, a pathway playing a major role in the regulation of eyeball size. This study provides evidence of shared genes between AL and refraction, but importantly also suggests that these traits may have unique pathways. PMID:24144296

  20. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Basic study for Joint Implementation Pipeline System Optimization Project including rehabilitation of gas pipeline in Ukraine for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)

  2. Vulnerability assessment including tangible and intangible components in the index composition: An Amazon case study of flooding and flash flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena Marília Nogueira de; Szlafsztein, Claudio Fabian

    2018-07-15

    The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data. Several vulnerability assessments have used sensitivity and exposure analyses and, recently, adaptive capacity has been considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis allows spatial regional modeling using quantitative vulnerability indicators. This paper presents a local-scale vulnerability assessment in an urban Amazonian area, Santarém City, using interdisciplinary methods. Data for exposure and sensitivity were gathered by remote sensing and census data, respectively. However, adaptive capacity refers to local capacities, whether infrastructural or not, and the latter were gathered by qualitative participatory methods. For the mixed data used to study adaptive capacity, we consider tangible components for countable infrastructure that can cope with hazards, and intangible components that reflect social activities based on risk perceptions and collective action. The results indicate that over 80% of the area is highly or moderately vulnerable to flooding and flash flooding. Exposure and adaptive capacity were determinants of the results. Lower values of adaptive capacity play a significant role in vulnerability enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trichoderma virens β-glucosidase I (BGLI) gene; expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including docking and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Gammadde Hewa Ishan Maduka; Rathnayake, Pilimathalawe Panditharathna Attanayake Mudiyanselage Samith Indika; Chandrasekharan, Naduviladath Vishvanath; Weerasinghe, Mahindagoda Siril Samantha; Wijesundera, Ravindra Lakshman Chundananda; Wijesundera, Wijepurage Sandhya Sulochana

    2017-06-21

    Cellulose, a linear polymer of β 1-4, linked glucose, is the most abundant renewable fraction of plant biomass (lignocellulose). It is synergistically converted to glucose by endoglucanase (EG) cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase (BGL) of the cellulase complex. BGL plays a major role in the conversion of randomly cleaved cellooligosaccharides into glucose. As it is well known, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently convert glucose into ethanol under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, S.cerevisiae was genetically modified with the objective of heterologous extracellular expression of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens making it capable of utilizing cellobiose to produce ethanol. The cDNA and a genomic sequence of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens was cloned in the yeast expression vector pGAPZα and separately transformed to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The size of the BGLI cDNA clone was 1363 bp and the genomic DNA clone contained an additional 76 bp single intron following the first exon. The gene was 90% similar to the DNA sequence and 99% similar to the deduced amino acid sequence of 1,4-β-D-glucosidase of T. atroviride (AC237343.1). The BGLI activity expressed by the recombinant genomic clone was 3.4 times greater (1.7 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ) than that observed for the cDNA clone (5 x 10 -4  IU ml -1 ). Furthermore, the activity was similar to the activity of locally isolated Trichoderma virens (1.5 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ). The estimated size of the protein was 52 kDA. In fermentation studies, the maximum ethanol production by the genomic and the cDNA clones were 0.36 g and 0.06 g /g of cellobiose respectively. Molecular docking results indicated that the bare protein and cellobiose-protein complex behave in a similar manner with considerable stability in aqueous medium. The deduced binding site and the binding affinity of the constructed homology model appeared to be reasonable. Moreover, it was identified that the five hydrogen bonds formed

  4. The Effect of Selected Cleaning Techniques on Berkshire Lee Marble: A Scientific Study at Philadelphia City Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf; Fries, Terry L.; Coombs, Mary Jane; Naude, Virginia N.; Soderberg, Lisa; Wheeler, George S.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a scientific investigation of the effects of eight different cleaning techniques on the Berkshire Lee marble component of the facade of the East Center Pavilion at Philadelphia City Hall; the study was commissioned by the city of Philadelphia. The eight cleaning techniques evaluated in this study were power wash (proprietary gel detergent followed by water rinse under pressure), misting (treatment with potable, nebulized water for 24-36 hours), gommage (proprietary Thomann-Hanry low-pressure, air-driven, small-particle, dry abrasion), combination (gommage followed by misting), Armax (sodium bicarbonate delivered under pressure in a water wash), JOS (dolomite powder delivered in a low-pressure, rotary-vortex water wash), laser (thermal ablation), and dry ice (powdered-dry-ice abrasion delivered under pressure). In our study approximately 160 cores were removed from the building for laboratory analysis. We developed a computer program to analyze scanning-electron-micrograph images for the microscale surface roughness and other morphologic parameters of the stone surface, including the near-surface fracture density of the stone. An analysis of more than 1,100 samples cut from the cores provided a statistical basis for crafting the essential elements of a reduced-form, mixed-kinetics conceptual model that represents the deterioration of calcareous stone in terms of self-organized soiling and erosion patterns. This model, in turn, provided a basis for identifying the variables that are affected by the cleaning techniques and for evaluating the extent to which such variables influence the stability of the stone. The model recognizes three classes of variables that may influence the soiling load on the stone, including such exogenous environmental variables as airborne moisture, pollutant concentrations, and local aerodynamics, and such endogenous stone variables as surface chemistry and microstructure (fracturing, roughness, and so on). This study

  5. Characteristics of Yoga Practitioners, Motivators, and Yoga Techniques of Choice: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe characteristics of yoga practitioners and factors motivating people to practice yoga have been studied in the US and in Australia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of yoga users in India, the factors that motivate them to practice yoga, and the yoga techniques of choice.Materials and methodsThe study was a one-time, cross-sectional survey based on convenience sampling. Inclusion criteria were (a a minimum of 1 week experience of yoga and (b at least 10 years of age. 14,250 people received the survey. After excluding those who did not meet the inclusion criteria or filled in the survey incompletely or incorrectly, 5,157 respondents were included in the study.ResultsOut of 5,157 respondents, there were more males (67.3%, aged between 21 and 44 years (33.7% of the sample surveyed, educated up to high school (62.5%, students (39.3%, and those who had between 1 and 12 months of experience in yoga (54.4%. The first most common reason to practice yoga for all respondents was physical fitness. Three of the remaining reasons to practice yoga differed significantly with age: (i yoga for disease management (χ2 = 17.62, p < 0.005, (ii yoga as a hobby (χ2 = 10.87, p < 0.05, and (iii yoga based on the guru’s (teacher’s instructions (χ2 = 20.05, p < 0.001. The yoga technique of choice [i.e., (i asanas (χ2 = 23.17, p < 0.001, (ii pranayama (χ2 = 19.87, p < 0.001, or (iii meditation (χ2 = 9.64, p < 0.05] differed significantly across age groups.ConclusionIn India, a yoga practitioner was more likely to be male, between 21 and 44 years of age, high school educated, and a student. The reasons to practice yoga and the yoga technique of choice differed significantly with age.

  6. Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

  7. How a deliberative approach includes women in the decisions of screening mammography: a citizens' jury feasibility study in Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Luque-Ribelles, Violeta; Quílez-Cutillas, Alicia; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación; Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Rivera-Bautista, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To verify whether a citizens' jury study is feasible to the Andalusian population and to know if women, when better informed, are able to answer the research question of whether the Andalusian Public Health System must continue offering screening mammography to women aged 50–69. The reasons for the pertinent decision and recommendations to the political authorities will be stated. Design Qualitative research study with the methodology of citizens' jury. Setting Breast cancer screening programme in Andalusia (Spain). Participants Thirteen women aged 50–69 with secondary school or higher education accepted to participate as a jury. Two epidemiologists were the expert witnesses. The main researcher was the neutral moderator. Interventions Jury met on Monday, 15 February 2016. The moderator indicated to the jury that it had to assess the screening programme’s key benefits and main harm. On Tuesday, 16 February, the expert witnesses positioned for and against the programme. On Thursday, 18 February, the jury deliberated, reached final conclusions, submitted its vote and stated its recommendations to politicians. The deliberation session was transcribed and analysed with the support of ATLAS.ti.5.2 software. Primary and secondary outcome measures Feasibility in the Andalusian population, women’s vote and opinion, reasons for votes and recommendations to political authorities. Results Eleven participants voted yes and two voted no. There are three reasons to vote ‘yes’: health, the test nature, and individual freedom. Some women invoke the lack of efficacy and the cost to justify their negative vote, at least in universal terms. On completion, they made suggestions to be submitted to the pertinent authorities for the improvement of information, psychology services and research. Conclusions The deliberative strategy is feasible and causes a favourable positioning regarding screening mammography, although information changes the opinion of some women

  8. Multiple sectioning and perforation techniques for TEM sub-surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for preparing multiple electron transparent regions at several depth levels below the surface of a metal disk specimen are described. These techniques are relatively rapid and find application in many areas involving surface studies. Examples are shown of multiple thin areas produced at intervals of approximately 200 nm below the original surface of a stainless steel bombarded with 4 MeV Ni +2 ions for void swelling studies

  9. Strategic Priorities, Company Performance and Attitudes Towards Management Accounting Techniques: an Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Bo-Göran

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates whether there is an association between different combinations of emphasis on generic strategies (product differentiation and cost efficiency) and perceived usefulness of management accounting techniques. Previous research has found that cost leadership is associated with traditional accounting techniques and product differentiation with a variety of modern management accounting approaches. The present study focuses on the possible existence of a strategy that mixes the...

  10. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer.

  11. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  12. Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques when promoting physical activity: A systematic review comparing experimental and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Breanne E; Cook, Jill L; Freene, Nicole; Finch, Caroline F; Kemp, Joanne L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Gaida, James E

    2018-06-01

    Physiotherapists promote physical activity as part of their practice. This study reviewed the behaviour change techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity in experimental and observational studies. Systematic review of experimental and observational studies. Twelve databases were searched using terms related to physiotherapy and physical activity. We included experimental studies evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapist-led physical activity interventions delivered to adults in clinic-based private practice and outpatient settings to individuals with, or at risk of, non-communicable diseases. Observational studies reporting the techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity were also included. The behaviour change techniques used in all studies were identified using the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy. The behaviour change techniques appearing in efficacious and inefficacious experimental interventions were compared using a narrative approach. Twelve studies (nine experimental and three observational) were retained from the initial search yield of 4141. Risk of bias ranged from low to high. Physiotherapists used seven behaviour change techniques in the observational studies, compared to 30 behaviour change techniques in the experimental studies. Social support (unspecified) was the most frequently identified behaviour change technique across both settings. Efficacious experimental interventions used more behaviour change techniques (n=29) and functioned in more ways (n=6) than did inefficacious experimental interventions (behaviour change techniques=10 and functions=1). Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques. Less behaviour change techniques were identified in observational studies compared to experimental studies, suggesting physiotherapists use less BCTs clinically than experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan Librizzi

    2016-05-01

    Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management. The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience. The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States. All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39). Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week. Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait

  14. Spectroscopic and electric properties of the LiCs molecule: a coupled cluster study including higher excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L. K.; Fleig, T.; Olsen, J.

    2009-08-01

    Aimed at obtaining complete and highly accurate potential energy surfaces for molecules containing heavy elements, we present a new general-order coupled cluster method which can be applied in the framework of the spin-free Dirac formalism. As an initial application we present a systematic study of electron correlation and relativistic effects on the spectroscopic and electric properties of the LiCs molecule in its electronic ground state. In particular, we closely investigate the importance of excitations higher than coupled cluster doubles, spin-free and spin-dependent relativistic effects and the correlation of outer-core electrons on the equilibrium bond length, the harmonic vibrational frequency, the dissociation energy, the dipole moment and the static electric dipole polarizability. We demonstrate that our new implementation allows for highly accurate calculations not only in the bonding region but also along the complete potential curve. The quality of our results is demonstrated by a vibrational analysis where an almost complete set of vibrational levels has been calculated accurately.

  15. Spectroscopic and electric properties of the LiCs molecule: a coupled cluster study including higher excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, L K; Fleig, T; Olsen, J

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at obtaining complete and highly accurate potential energy surfaces for molecules containing heavy elements, we present a new general-order coupled cluster method which can be applied in the framework of the spin-free Dirac formalism. As an initial application we present a systematic study of electron correlation and relativistic effects on the spectroscopic and electric properties of the LiCs molecule in its electronic ground state. In particular, we closely investigate the importance of excitations higher than coupled cluster doubles, spin-free and spin-dependent relativistic effects and the correlation of outer-core electrons on the equilibrium bond length, the harmonic vibrational frequency, the dissociation energy, the dipole moment and the static electric dipole polarizability. We demonstrate that our new implementation allows for highly accurate calculations not only in the bonding region but also along the complete potential curve. The quality of our results is demonstrated by a vibrational analysis where an almost complete set of vibrational levels has been calculated accurately.

  16. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  17. Theoretical study of the low-lying electronic states of magnesium sulfide cation including spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Ning; Li, Song; Chen, Shan-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Highly correlated ab initio calculations have been performed for an accurate determination of electronic structures and spectroscopic features for the low-lying electronic states of the MgS+ cation. The potential energy curves for the four Λ-S states correlating to the lowest dissociation asymptote are studied for the first time. Four Λ-S states split into nine Ω states through the spin-orbit coupling effect. Accurate spectroscopic constants are deduced for all bound states. The spin-orbit couplings and the transition dipole moments, as well as the PECs, are utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetimes of the vibrational levels. To verify our computational accuracy, analogous calculations for the ground state of MgS are also carried out, and our derived results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. In addition, photoelectron spectrum of MgS has been simulated. The predictive results are anticipated to serve as guidelines for further researches such as assisting laboratorial detections and analyzing observed spectrum.

  18. Performance analysis of clustering techniques over microarray data: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Rasmita; Misra, Bijan Bihari

    2018-03-01

    Handling big data is one of the major issues in the field of statistical data analysis. In such investigation cluster analysis plays a vital role to deal with the large scale data. There are many clustering techniques with different cluster analysis approach. But which approach suits a particular dataset is difficult to predict. To deal with this problem a grading approach is introduced over many clustering techniques to identify a stable technique. But the grading approach depends on the characteristic of dataset as well as on the validity indices. So a two stage grading approach is implemented. In this study the grading approach is implemented over five clustering techniques like hybrid swarm based clustering (HSC), k-means, partitioning around medoids (PAM), vector quantization (VQ) and agglomerative nesting (AGNES). The experimentation is conducted over five microarray datasets with seven validity indices. The finding of grading approach that a cluster technique is significant is also established by Nemenyi post-hoc hypothetical test.

  19. Experimental Study on Corrosion Detection of Aluminum Alloy Using Lamb Wave Mixing Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heeung; Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the Lamb wave mixing technique, which is basised on advanced research on the nonlinear bulk wave mixing technique, is applied for corrosion detection. To demonstrate the validity of the Lamb wave mixing technique, an experiment was performed with normal and corroded specimens. Comparison group in an experimentation are selected to mode and frequency with dominant in-plane displacement and out-of-plane displacement of Lamb waves. The results showed that the Lamb wave mixing technique can monitor corrosion defects, and it has a trend similar to that of the conventional Lamb wave technique. It was confirmed that the dominant displacement and mode matching the theory were generated. Flaw detectability is determined depending on displacement ratio instead of using the measurement method and mode selection.

  20. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  1. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  2. BER-3.2 report: Methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures including a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Sinkko, K.; Walmod-Larsen, O.; Gjoerup, H.L.; Salo, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report is a part of the Nordic BER-3 project's work to propose and harmonize Nordic intervention levels for countermeasures in case of nuclear accidents. This report focuses on the methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures in case of a reactor accident situation with a large release of fission products to the environment. The down-wind situation is very complicated. The dose to the exposed society is almost unpredictable. The task of the radiation protection experts: To give advice to the decision makers on averted doses by the different actions at hand in the situation - is complicated. That of the decision makers is certainly more: On half of the society they represent, they must decide if they wish to follow the advices from their radiation protection experts or if they wish to add further arguments - economical or political (or personal) - into their considerations before their decisions are taken. Two analysis methods available for handling such situations: cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis are described in principle and are utilized in a case study: The impacts of a Chernobyl-like accident on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea are analyzed with regard to the acute consequences. The use of the intervention principles found in international guidance (IAEA 91, ICRP 91), which can be summarized as the principles of justification, optimization and avoidance of unacceptable doses, are described. How to handle more intangible factors of a psychological or political character is indicated. (au) (6 tabs., 3 ills., 17 refs.)

  3. Non-Conventional Techniques for the Study of Phase Transitions in NiTi-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Villa, Elena; Passaretti, Francesca; Albertini, Franca; Cabassi, Riccardo; Pasquale, Massimo; Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Coïsson, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and electrical resistance measurements are the two most common techniques for the study of the phase transition path and temperatures of shape memory alloys (SMA) in stress-free condition. Besides, it is well known that internal friction measurements are also useful for this purpose. There are indeed some further techniques which are seldom used for the basic characterization of SMA transition: dilatometric analysis, magnetic measurements, and Seebeck coefficient study. In this work, we discuss the attitude of these techniques for the study of NiTi-based phase transition. Measurements were conducted on several fully annealed Ni50- x Ti50Cu x samples ranging from 3 to 10 at.% in Cu content, fully annealed at 850 °C for 1 h in vacuum and quenched in water at room temperature. Results show that all these techniques are sensitive to phase transition, and they provide significant information about the existence of intermediate phases.

  4. Laser/fluorescent dye flow visualization technique developed for system component thermal hydraulic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser flow visualization technique is presented together with examples of its use in visualizing complex flow patterns and plans for its further development. This technique has been successfully used to study (1) the flow in a horizontal pipe subject to temperature transients, to view the formation and breakup of thermally stratified flow and to determine instantaneous velocity distributions in the same flow at various axial locations; (2) the discharge of a stratified pipe flow into a plenum exhibiting a periodic vortex pattern; and (3) the thermal-buoyancy-induced flow channeling on the shell side of a heat exchanger with glass tubes and shell. This application of the technique to heat exchangers is unique. The flow patterns deep within a large tube bundle can be studied under steady or transient conditions. This laser flow visualization technique constitutes a very powerful tool for studying single or multiphase flows in complex thermal system components

  5. The emerging functionality of endogenous lectins: A primer to the concept and a case study on galectins including medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Wu, Albert M

    2006-01-01

    Biochemistry textbooks commonly make it appear that it is a foregone conclusion that the hardware of biological information storage and transfer is confined to nucleotides and amino acids, the letters of the genetic code. However, the remarkable talents of a third class of biomolecules are often overlooked. For example, one of them far surpasses the building blocks of nucleic acids and proteins in terms of theoretical coding capacity by oligomer formation. Although often exclusively assigned to duties in energy metabolism, carbohydrates as part of cellular glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycolipids) have, in fact, other important tasks. Currently, they are increasingly gaining recognition as an operative high-density information coding system. An elaborate enzymatic machinery enables cells to be versatile enough to produce a glycan profile (glycome) that is as characteristic as a fingerprint. Moreover, swift modifications during dynamic processes, such as differentiation or malignant transformation, are readily possible. The translation of the information presented in oligosaccharide determinants to biological responses is carried out by lectins. Recognition of foreign glycosignatures in innate immunity, regulation of cell-cell/matrix interactions, cell migration or growth, and intra- and intercellular glycan routing etc represent physiologically far-reaching lectin-carbohydrate functionality. The classification of endogenous lectins is guided by sequence alignments and conservation of distinct structural traits. For example, a jelly-roll-like folding pattern and maintenance of key residue positioning involved in stacking and C-H/pi-interactions as well as directional hydrogen bonds to the 1-galactoside ligands are common denominators among galectins. Biochemical and biophysical studies are beginning to unravel the intricacies of the selection of a limited set of endogenous ligands, such as certain integrins or ganglioside GM1, and combined with

  6. The Offer of Advanced Imaging Techniques Leads to Higher Acceptance Rates for Screening Colonoscopy - a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Heinz; Gallitz, Julia; Hable, Robert; Vieth, Michael; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Riemann, Jurgen Ferdinand; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy plays a fundamental role in early diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer and requires public and professional acceptance to ensure the ongoing success of screening programs. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess whether patient acceptance rates to undergo screening colonoscopy could be improved by the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Overall, 372 randomly selected patients were prospectively included. A standardized questionnaire was developed that inquired of the patients their knowledge regarding advanced imaging techniques. Second, several media campaigns and information events were organized reporting about advanced imaging techniques, followed by repeated evaluation. After one year the evaluation ended. At baseline, 64% of the patients declared that they had no knowledge about new endoscopic methods. After twelve months the overall grade of information increased significantly from 14% at baseline to 34%. The percentage of patients who decided to undergo colonoscopy because of the offer of new imaging methods also increased significantly from 12% at baseline to 42% after 12 months. Patients were highly interested in the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Knowledge about these techniques could relatively easy be provided using local media campaigns. The offer of advanced imaging techniques leads to higher acceptance rates for screening colonoscopies.

  7. Glenohumeral joint injection: a comparative study of ultrasound and fluoroscopically guided techniques before MR arthrography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.; Collins, J.M.; Maresch, B.J.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Janssen, C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Jager, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the variability in accuracy of contrast media introduction, leakage, required time and patient discomfort in four different centres, each using a different image-guided glenohumeral injection technique. Each centre included 25 consecutive patients. The ultrasound-guided anterior (USa) and

  8. International conference on the study of environmental change using isotope techniques. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This publication contains extended synopses of the oral and poster presentations delivered at the meeting. The main topics of the meeting included: Isotopes in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere; Interaction between the atmosphere and the hydrosphere; Isotope indicators of past climatic and environmental changes; and Advances in isotope and other analytical techniques. The individual papers have been indexed separately.

  9. International conference on the study of environmental change using isotope techniques. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This publication contains extended synopses of the oral and poster presentations delivered at the meeting. The main topics of the meeting included: Isotopes in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere; Interaction between the atmosphere and the hydrosphere; Isotope indicators of past climatic and environmental changes; and Advances in isotope and other analytical techniques. The individual papers have been indexed separately

  10. Radioisotopic techniques for the study of reproductive physiology in domestic animals: 2. Physiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabenfeldt, G.H.; Edqvist, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopic techniques have been important for studying endocrinological reproductive function in domestic animals. Normal physiological events in which hormone determination has been useful for elucidation of basic concepts include the ovulatory process, cyclic regression of the corpus luteum, hormone requirements for the manifestation of sexual receptivity, establishment of pregnancy and the termination of gestation (parturition). Hormone assays have been useful for understanding the mechanism by which intra-uterine infusion and/or prostaglandin administration in both the cow and the mare shortens the oestrus cycle, namely, through the initiation of regression of the corpus luteum. Endocrine assay has also been valuable in understanding the physiology of premature parturition (abortion), as well as the abnormal prolongation of gestation. Practical uses for hormone assays include the identification of prolonged luteal syndromes such as occur in the mare, cyclic ovarian activity in the absence of sexual receptivity, and follicular or luteal cysts as well as the determination of pregnancy (progesterone in milk or blood) about three weeks post-breeding. (author)

  11. Safety Assessment of Two Hybrid Instrumentation Techniques in a Dental Student Endodontic Clinic: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Card, Steven John; Tawil, Peter Zahi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the safety potential of a hybrid technique combining nickel-titanium (NiTi) reciprocating and rotary instruments by third- and fourth-year dental students in the predoctoral endodontics clinic at one U.S. dental school. For the study, 3,194 root canal treatments performed by 317 dental students from 2012 through 2015 were evaluated for incidence of ledge creation and instrument separation. The hybrid reciprocating and rotary technique (RRT) consisted of a glide path creation with stainless steel hand files up to size 15/02, a crown down preparation with a NiTi reciprocating instrument, and an apical preparation with NiTi rotary instruments. The control was a traditional rotary and hand technique (RHT) that consisted of the same glide path procedure followed by a crown down preparation with NiTi rotary instruments and an apical preparation with NiTi hand instruments. The results showed that the RHT technique presented a rate of ledge creation of 1.4% per root and the RRT technique was 0.5% per root (protary technique for root canal instrumentation by these dental students provided good safety. This hybrid technique offered a low rate of ledge creation along with no NiTi instrument separation.

  12. Methodology for electrical studies in industrial networks including the study of electric arc; Metodologia para los estudios electricos en redes industriales incluyendo el estudio de arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasgado Casique, Jose Pepe; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jrasgado@iie.org.mx; jlsilva@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents a methodology for conducting electrical studies in industrial networks. The methodology included the study of arc flash as a very important area of current basic electrical studies, such as power flow, short circuit and coordination. The aim of this study is to determine the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and flash protection boundary for personnel working with or near energized equipment, based on the IEEE Std 1584-2004 and NFPA-70E- 2004. Also included are criteria and recommendations to reduce incident energy level (cal/cm{sup 2}). At work we used a distribution network for industrial type test. The studies were carried out using a commercial program for the analysis of electrical networks. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para llevar a cabo los estudios electricos en redes industriales. En la metodologia se incluye al estudio de arco electrico como un area muy importante de los estudios electricos basicos actuales, como: flujos de potencia, cortocircuito y coordinacion de protecciones. El objetivo de dicho estudio es determinar el Equipo de Proteccion Personal (EPP) apropiado y los limites de proteccion para el personal que opera con o cerca de equipo energizado, con base en las normas IEEE Std. 1584-2004 y la NFPA-70E-2004. Ademas, se incluyen criterios y recomendaciones para disminuir el nivel de energia incidente (cal/cm{sup 2}). En el trabajo se utilizo una red de distribucion tipo industrial de prueba. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo utilizando un programa comercial para el analisis de redes electricas.

  13. DNA-binding studies of valrubicin as a chemotherapy drug using spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hajian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the molecular interactions between valrubicin, an anticancer drug, and fish sperm DNA have been studied in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4 using UV–Vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Valrubicin intercalated into double stranded DNA under a weak displacement reaction with methylene blue (MB molecule in a competitive reaction. The binding constant (kb of valrubicin-DNA was determined as 1.75×103 L/mol by spectrophotometric titration. The value of non-electrostatic binding constant (kt0 was almost constant at different ionic strengths while the ratio of kt0/kb increased from 4.51% to 23.77%. These results indicate that valrubicin binds to ds-DNA via electrostatic and intercalation modes. Thermodynamic parameters including ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 for valrubicin-DNA interaction were determined as −25.21×103 kJ/mol, 1.55×102 kJ/mol K and −22.03 kJ/mol, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry study shows a pair of redox peaks for valrubicin at 0.45 V and 0.36 V (vs. Ag/AgCl. The peak currents decreased and peak positions shifted to positive direction in the presence of DNA, showing intercalation mechanism due to the variation in formal potential.

  14. Use of neutron activation techniques for studying elements distribution. Applications in geochemistry, ecology and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitsyan, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The essence of the radiography method, sensitivity of which is within a range of 10 -2 - 10 -7 g · mm -2 and resolution ability extend from 0,01 to 100 μm, consists in determining the distributions of ionising irradiation sources on a surface under study by using the two-dimensional field of their irradiation registered by means of photoemulsion or dielectric track detector. Statistical analysis and computer processing of the radiographic images have allowed one to solve the two main tasks of the method , namely, the determination of true distributions of ionising irradiation sources on the surface of an object under study and the quantitative estimation within given accuracy of the content of an element under study in a sample. A complex of radiographic techniques based on the registration of secondary irradiation of the activated nuclei, instantaneous products of the nuclear reactions, and fusion fragments of the transuranium elements, has been developed to solve a series of the problem in geology and geochemistry, as well as for an analysis of technological and environment samples. Upon designing and constructing special comparison standards modelling a sample in composition and structure, the quantitative data on distributions of more than forty elements in rock sections and these of the main microcomponents, including oxygen, in the superconducting ceramics samples have also been obtained. (author)

  15. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  16. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  17. The twitch interpolation technique for study of fatigue of human quadriceps muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Mehlsen, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine if the twitch interpolation technique could be used to objectively measure fatigue in the quadriceps muscle in subjects performing submaximally. The 'true' maximum isometric quadriceps torque was determined in 21 healthy subject using the twitch interpolation...... technique. Then an endurance test was performed in which the subjects made repeated isometric contractions at 50% of the 'true' maximum torque for 4 s, separated by 6 s rest periods. During the test, the force response to single electrical stimulation (twitch amplitude) was measured at 50% and 25......). In conclusion, the twitch technique can be used for objectively measuring fatigue of the quadriceps muscle....

  18. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maiara S.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Ferreira, Antonio G.; Boffo, Elisangela F.; Figueira, Glyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as 'quebra-pedras' in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, 1 H HR-MAS NMR and 1 H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques. (author)

  19. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR Techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara S. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as "quebra-pedras" in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, ¹H HR-MAS NMR and ¹H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques.

  20. Comparative Study of Modulation Techniques for Two-Level Voltage Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W. Williams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed comparative study of modulation techniques for single and three phase dc-ac inverters is presented.  Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation, Triplen Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation, Space Vector Modulation, Selective Harmonic Elimination and Wavelet Modulation are assessed and compared in terms of maximum fundamental output, harmonic performance, switching losses and operational mode.  The presented modulation techniques are applied to single and three phase voltage source inverters and are simulated using SIMULINK.  The simulation results clarify the inverter performance achieved using the different modulations techniques.

  1. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maiara S.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Boffo, Elisangela F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Figueira, Glyn M., E-mail: maiarassantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2012-07-01

    The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as 'quebra-pedras' in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, {sup 1}H HR-MAS NMR and {sup 1}H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques. (author)

  2. Positronium in metal-oxide powders studied with age. The age-momentum correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeyenberge, B. van; Dauve, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time positronium is investigated in the fine powders of MgO and Al 2 O 3 using age-momentum correlation technique based on a relativistic positron beam. The application of this technique for investigating the interaction of positronium with the grain surfaces is discussed and compared with other techniques. The previously reported interaction of the positronium with paramagnetic centers is further studied. A qualitative interpretation of the spectra is given. In the Al 2 O 3 samples we found some unexpected behaviour of the conversion quenching of ortho-positronium at irradiation induced paramagnetic surface defect. (author)

  3. Authenticity study of Phyllanthus species by NMR and FT-IR techniques coupled with chemometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maiara S.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Boffo, Elisangela F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Figueira, Glyn M., E-mail: maiarassantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2012-07-01

    The importance of medicinal plants and their use in industrial applications is increasing worldwide, especially in Brazil. Phyllanthus species, popularly known as 'quebra-pedras' in Brazil, are used in folk medicine for treating urinary infections and renal calculus. This paper reports an authenticity study, based on herbal drugs from Phyllanthus species, involving commercial and authentic samples using spectroscopic techniques: FT-IR, {sup 1}H HR-MAS NMR and {sup 1}H NMR in solution, combined with chemometric analysis. The spectroscopic techniques evaluated, coupled with chemometric methods, have great potential in the investigation of complex matrices. Furthermore, several metabolites were identified by the NMR techniques. (author)

  4. P-R-R Study Technique, Group Counselling And Gender Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Read-Recall (P-R-R) study technique and group counselling on the academic performance of senior secondary school students. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of Group Counselling combined with P-R-R study ...

  5. Studies for determining drain solid flow in bed silt, using radioisotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.

    1976-01-01

    A process for measuring solid flow in silt bed using isotopic technique is studied. Comparative studies for initial movement of grinded glass grains and sand grains is done. The development for determining the minimum mass of radioative grains of sand, used for flow evaluation is also studied. Further experiments in the field of reference confirm technological conditions for the method [pt

  6. Muscle tissue saturation in humans studied with two non-invasive optical techniques: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharin, Alfi; Krite Svanberg, Emilie; Ellerström, Ida; Subash, Arman Ahamed; Khoptyar, Dmitry; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Åkeson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) has been measured with two non-invasive optical techniques and the results were compared. One of the techniques is widely used in the hospitals - the CW-NIRS technique. The other is the photon timeof- flight spectrometer (pTOFS) developed in the Group of Biophotonics, Lund University, Sweden. The wavelengths used in both the techniques are 730 nm and 810 nm. A campaign was arranged to perform measurements on 21 (17 were taken for comparison) healthy adult volunteers (8 women and 13 men). Oxygen saturations were measured at the right lower arm of each volunteer. To observe the effects of different provocations on the oxygen saturation a blood pressure cuff was attached in the upper right arm. For CW-NIRS, the tissue saturation values were in the range from 70-90%, while for pTOFS the values were in the range from 55-60%.

  7. Study on Production of Useful Metabolites by Development of Advanced Cell Culture Techniques Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. S.; Shyamkumar, B.; An, B. C.; Moon, Y. R.; Lee, E. M.; Lee, M. H.

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Establishment of a tissue culture system (Rubus sp., Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and Rhodiola rosea); characterization of radiation activated gene expression from cultivated bokbunja (Rubus sp.) and Synechocystis sp., identification of gamma-ray induced color change in plants; identification of sensitivity to gamma-ray from Omija (Schisandra chinensis) extract; identification of the response of thylakoid proteins to gamma-ray in spinach and Arabidopsis; identification of gamma-ray induced gene relating to pigment metabolism; characterization of different NPQ changes to gamma-irradiated plants; verification of the effects of rare earth element including anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties and as a growth enhancer; identification of changes in the growth of gamma-irradiated Synechocystis; and investigation of liquid cell culture conditions from Rhodiola rosea

  8. Study on Production of Useful Metabolites by Development of Advanced Cell Culture Techniques Using Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. S.; Shyamkumar, B.; An, B. C.; Moon, Y. R.; Lee, E. M.; Lee, M. H.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Establishment of a tissue culture system (Rubus sp., Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and Rhodiola rosea); characterization of radiation activated gene expression from cultivated bokbunja (Rubus sp.) and Synechocystis sp., identification of gamma-ray induced color change in plants; identification of sensitivity to gamma-ray from Omija (Schisandra chinensis) extract; identification of the response of thylakoid proteins to gamma-ray in spinach and Arabidopsis; identification of gamma-ray induced gene relating to pigment metabolism; characterization of different NPQ changes to gamma-irradiated plants; verification of the effects of rare earth element including anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties and as a growth enhancer; identification of changes in the growth of gamma-irradiated Synechocystis; and investigation of liquid cell culture conditions from Rhodiola rosea

  9. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  10. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Idris; Nasil Sakkir; Kishore Gopalakrishna Naik; Nandakishore Kunijal Jayaram

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alve...

  11. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; Singh, Sudhir; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Park, Chul Hong; Srilatha, B.; Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Ohchul

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture for Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz.; Identification and functional analysis of AtTDX (chaperone and peroxidase activities); Functional analysis of radiation(gamma ray, electron beam, and proton beam) induced chaperon protein activities (AtTDX); Determine the action mechanism of yPrx2; Development of transgenic plant with bas I gene from Arabidopsis; Development of transgenic plant with EoP gene from centipedegrass; Identification of radiation induced multi functional compounds from Aloe; Determination of the effects of radiation on removing undesirable color and physiological activities (Schizandra chinensis baillon, centipedegrass); Determine the action mechanism of transgenic plant with 2-Cys Prx for heat stress resistance; Determination of the effects of centipedegrass extracts on anti-cancer activities; Functional analysis of centipedegrass extracts (anti-virus effects)

  12. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Jae Taek; Kim, Mi Ja

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Isolation and identification of radiation induced basI gene; Determination of stresses sensitivities by transformating basI gene into arabidopsis; Isolation and identification of radiation induced chaperon proteins (PaAhpC and yPrxII) from Pseudomonas and yeast, and structural and functional analysis of the proteins; Determination of oxidative and heat resistance by transformating PaAhpC; Isolation and identification of maysin and its derivatives from centipedgrass; Investigation of enhancement technique for improving maysin and its derivatives production using radiation; Investigation of removing undesirable color in maysin and its derivatives using radiation; Determination of the effect of radiation on physiological functions of centipedgrass extracts; Identification of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removing enzyme in radiation irradiated plant (Spinach); Determination of the effects of centipedgrass extracts on anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities.

  13. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Jae Taek; Kim, Mi Ja

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Isolation and identification of radiation induced basI gene; Determination of stresses sensitivities by transformating basI gene into arabidopsis; Isolation and identification of radiation induced chaperon proteins (PaAhpC and yPrxII) from Pseudomonas and yeast, and structural and functional analysis of the proteins; Determination of oxidative and heat resistance by transformating PaAhpC; Isolation and identification of maysin and its derivatives from centipedgrass; Investigation of enhancement technique for improving maysin and its derivatives production using radiation; Investigation of removing undesirable color in maysin and its derivatives using radiation; Determination of the effect of radiation on physiological functions of centipedgrass extracts; Identification of H 2 O 2 removing enzyme in radiation irradiated plant (Spinach); Determination of the effects of centipedgrass extracts on anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities

  14. Pediatric excretory MR urography: comparative study of enhanced and non-enhanced techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borthne, Arne S. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Kirkeveien 166, Ullevaal University Hospital, 0407 Oslo (Norway); Pierre-Jerome, Claude [Department of Central Radiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, Kirkeveien 166, 0407 Oslo (Norway); Gjesdal, Kjell I.; Storaas, Tryggve; Courivaud, Frederic [Department of Medical Physics, Ullevaal University Hospital, Kirkeveien 166, 0407 Oslo (Norway); Eriksen, Morten [Institute of Experimental Research, Ullevaal University Hospital, Kirkeveien 166, 0407 Oslo (Norway)

    2003-06-01

    Our purpose was to compare the quality of ureteral imaging in pediatric patients using two different MR sequences: the non-enhanced heavily T2-weighted (W) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE) and the gadolinium-enhanced T1W fast-field-echo sequence (T1 FFE). An experimental study on three pigs was first performed. The TSE, before and after furosemide injection, was followed by the T1 FFE sequence. The clinical study included 11 infants and 10 children. With some modifications the same MR parameters and techniques were used as in the animal study. The TSE with TR 8000 ms and TE 650 ms implied 6 radial stacks each of 40 mm thickness. The T1 FFE included TR 18 ms, TE 2.9 ms, flip angle 60, and 50 slices with thickness 0.7 mm. After post-processing, image reconstructions qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed. Complete visualization of the ureters was achieved in 35 of 42 (83%) cases. Seventy-four percent of the ureters were completely visualized with T1 FFE compared with only 19% with TSE. Sixty-nine percent of the ureters were better imaged with T1 FFE than TSE and 21% equally well imaged. Four ureters (10%), either obstructed or due to poor renal function, were better imaged with TSE. The two sequences are complementary. Visualization of non-obstructed ureters is excellent with T1 FFE and the sequence is superior to TSE. The TSE, however, may be equal to or even better than T1 FFE in visualizing obstructed ureters or ureters draining malfunctioning kidneys. (orig.)

  15. DNA binding studies of Sunset Yellow FCF using spectroscopy, viscometry and electrochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Sara; Hajian, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Color is one of the important factors in food industry. All food companies use synthetic pigments to improve the aesthetic of products. Studies on the interaction between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and food dye molecules is important because DNA is responsible for some processes including replication and transcription of cells, mutations, genetic diseases, and some synthetic chemical nucleases. In this study, the molecular interaction between Sunset Yellow FCF (SY) as a common food coloring additive and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and viscometry techniques. The binding constant between ct-DNA and SY in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) was calculated as 2.09 × 103 L mol-1. The non-electrostatic bonding constant (K0t) was almost consistent and the ratio of K0t/Kb increased by increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 of KCl. This observation shows that, the molecular bonding of SY to ct-DNA is a combination of electrostatic and intercalation interactions. In the electrochemical studies, an oxidation peak at 0.71 V and a reduction peak at about 0.63 V was observed with the peak potential difference (ΔEp) of 0.08 V, showing a reversible process. The oxidation and reduction peaks were significantly decreased in the presence of ct-DNA and the reduction peak current shifted to negative values. In spectrofluorometric study, the fluorescence intensity of SY increased dramatically after successive addition of DNA due to the increasing of molecular surface area and decreasing of impact frequency between solvent and SY-DNA adduct. Moreover, viscometric study shows that the increasing of viscosity for SY solution in the presence of DNA is due to the intercalation mechanism with double strand DNA (ds-DNA).

  16. Establishment of atherosclerotic model and USPIO enhanced MRI techniques study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonggang; Zhu Mo; Dai Yinyu; Chen Jianhua; Guo Liang; Ni Jiankun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the methods of establishment of atherosclerotic model and USPIO enhanced MRI techniques in rabbits. Methods: Thirty New Zealand male rabbits were divided randomly into two groups: 20 animals in the experiment group, 10 animals in the control group. Animal model of atherosclerosis was induced with aortic balloon endothelial injury and high-fat diet feeding. There was no intervention with the rabbits in control group. MRI examination included plan scan, USPIO enhanced black-blood sequences and white-blood sequence. The features of the plaques was analyzed in the experimental group and the effection on the image quality of different coils, sequences and parameters and a statistical study was also analyzed. Results: Animal model of atherosclerosis was successfully made in 12 rabbits and most plaques located in the abdomen aorta. There were 86 plaques within the scanning scope among which 67 plaques were positive to the Prussian blue staining. The image quality of knee joint coil was better than that of other coils. Although there was no difference in the detection of numbers of AS plaques between USPIO enhanced black-blood sequences and white-blood sequence (P > 0.05), blackblood sequences was superior to white-blood sequence in the demonstration of the components of plaque. Conclusion: The method of aortic balloon endothelial injury and high-fat diet feeding can easily establish the AS model in rabbits with a shorter period and it may be used for controlling the location of the plaques. USPIO enhanced MRI sequences has high sensitivity in the detection of the AS plauqes and can reveal the component of AS plaques. The optimization of MRI techniques is very important in the improvement of the image quality and the detection of the plaques. (authors)

  17. Study on wetting properties of periodical nanopatterns by a combinative technique of photolithography and laser interference lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yung-Lang

    2010-03-01

    This study presents the wetting properties, including hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and anisotropic behavior, of water droplets on the silicon wafer surface with periodical nanopatterns and hierarchical structures. This study fabricates one- and two-dimensional periodical nanopatterns using laser interference lithography (LIL). The fabrication of hierarchical structures was effectively achieved by combining photolithography and LIL techniques. Unlike conventional fabrication methods, the LIL technique is mainly used to control the large-area design of periodical nanopatterns in this study. The minimum feature size for each nanopattern is 100 nm. This study shows that the wetting behavior of one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and hierarchical patterns can be obtained, benefiting the development of surface engineering for microfluidic systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon

  19. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  20. Analysis techniques of charging damage studied on three different high-current ion implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felch, S. B.; Larson, L. A.; Current, M. I.; Lindsey, D. W.

    1989-02-01

    One of the Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group's recent activities has been to sponsor a round-robin on charging damage, where identical wafers were implanted on three different state-of-the-art, high-current ion implanters. The devices studied were thin-dielectric (250 Å SiO2), polysilicon-gate MOS capacitors isolated by thick field oxide. The three implanters involved were the Varian/Extrion 160XP, the Eaton/Nova 10-80, and the Applied Materials PI9000. Each implanter vendor was given 48 wafers to