WorldWideScience

Sample records for technique vitamin supplements

  1. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  2. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  3. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    also known as cholecalciferol . This is a result of the reaction between 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and ultraviolet radiation in the...skin) (From Diet) Vitamin D3 ( Cholecalciferol ) UV light Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Liver 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxy...monthly oral vitamin D3 ( cholecalciferol ) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomized double

  6. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  7. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  8. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  9. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  10. Molecular Approaches for Optimizing Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D can be synthesized endogenously within UV-B exposed human skin. However, avoidance of sufficient sun exposure via predominant indoor activities, textile coverage, dark skin at higher latitude, and seasonal variations makes the intake of vitamin D fortified food or direct vitamin D supplementation necessary. Vitamin D has via its biologically most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the transcription factor vitamin D receptor a direct effect on the epigenome and transcriptome of many human tissues and cell types. Different interpretation of results from observational studies with vitamin D led to some dispute in the field on the desired optimal vitamin D level and the recommended daily supplementation. This chapter will provide background on the epigenome- and transcriptome-wide functions of vitamin D and will outline how this insight may be used for determining of the optimal vitamin D status of human individuals. These reflections will lead to the concept of a personal vitamin D index that may be a better guideline for an optimized vitamin D supplementation than population-based recommendations. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin blood concentration and vitamin supplementation in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in European facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmel, Angela Emilia Ricarda; Baumgartner, Katrin; Liesegang, Annette

    2016-09-05

    As fish eaters bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in human care need to receive daily vitamin supplementation, because whole thawed fish lacks certain vitamins. However, the exact concentration of supplementation has not been established and is a matter of discussion. To ensure adequate vitamin supplementation in pets, vitamin blood concentrations are measured. This is not a common practice in dolphins. The objective of the present study was to collect information about vitamin supplementation in bottlenose dolphins and on vitamin blood concentrations of healthy animals in European facilities. In addition, these results were compared with blood levels of wild animals. Conclusions on how to provide bottlenose dolphins in human care with an effective vitamin supplementation will then be drawn. Initially, fish-handling techniques and vitamin supplementation were evaluated by questionnaire, which was sent to 25 European facilities that house bottlenose dolphins. Secondly, blood samples from 57 dolphins living in 10 facilities were taken and sent by mail to a reference laboratory. They were analysed for retinol, thiamine pyrophosphate, cobalamin, calcidiol and tocopherol. The blood concentrations were then correlated with vitamin supplementation, fish handling techniques and pre-existing blood concentrations of free-ranging dolphins. Finally, the data was subjected to a standard analysis of variance techniques (ANOVA) and a linear model analysis. Fish was mainly thawed in a refrigerator. Further, the 95 % confidence interval for retinol blood concentrations was 0.048 to 0.059 mg/l and for tocopherol 17.95 to 20.76 mg/l. These concentrations were 27 and 53 %, respectively, higher than those found in free-ranging animals. In contrast, calcidiol concentrations (143.9-174.7 ng/ml) of the dolphins in human care were lower than in blood found for free-ranging animals. Regarding thiamine pyrophosphate and cobalamin, concentrations ranged between 0.42 and 0.55

  12. Vitamin D supplements in the Indian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Lhamo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5% or alfacalcidiol (43% as tablets (51.1% and capsules (35.2%. Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large.

  13. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Y Lhamo; Preeta Kaur Chugh; Tripathi, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of ea...

  14. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  15. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  16. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin

  17. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria De-Regil

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015 and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015. Selection criteria: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials with randomization at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently i assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii extracted data from included studies, and iii assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements

  18. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-14

    Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015) and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements alone, particularly on a daily basis, had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D than those receiving no intervention or placebo, but this

  19. Vitamin D supplementation in adults - guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Walicka, Magdalena; Tałałaj, Marek; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Sewerynek, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary in maintaining appropriate calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the body (classical function) and ensuring appropriate functioning of many tissues, organs and cells, unrelated to mineral economy (non-classical function). Vitamin D deficiency in adults may cause osteomalacia, increase fracture risk in osteoporosis, induce cardiovascular diseases, diabetes type 1 and 2, multiple sclerosis, Lesniowski-Crohn disease, and cancer, including colon, breast, and prostate cancer. Possible causes of vitamin D deficiency in a healthy population include decreased cutaneous synthesis and an inadequate intake of vitamin D, both in food and in supplements. Vitamin D deficiency level (25(OH) D. 〈 20 ng/mL), is fairly widespread, being found in a substantial percentage of healthy subjects around the world, regardless of race, gender and age. Daily vitamin D dose, as determined by the Food and Nutrition Board in 1997, is now rather insufficient, the biggest problem being associated with maximal vitamin D levels (50 μg/day) in actually available food supplements. Nowadays, it is recommended that adults need a minimum of 800-1,000 U/day when their exposure to the sun is inadequate (in Poland from October to April). This dosage should be provided to all subjects who avoid sunlight, as well as to those aged over 65 because of their slower skin synthesis of vitamin D and for its proven anti-fracture and anti-fall effects.

  20. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates.Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placeboData from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements alone, particularly on a daily basis, had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D than those receiving no intervention or placebo, but this response was highly heterogeneous. Also, data from two trials involving 219 women suggest that women who received vitamin D supplements may have a lower risk of pre-eclampsia than those receiving no intervention or placebo (8.9% versus 15.5%; risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.05, low quality). Data from two trials involving 219 women suggest a similar risk of gestational diabetes among those taking vitamin D supplements or no intervention/placebo (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.05, 3.45, very low quality). There were no clear differences in adverse effects, with only one reported case of nephritic syndrome in the control group in one study (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women, low quality). Given the scarcity of data for this outcome, no firm conclusions can be drawn. No other adverse effects were reported in any of the other

  1. Vitamin A supplementation and risk of atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, Nicholas; Balde, Aliu; Lisse, Ida Marie;

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood.......The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood....

  2. [Vitamin D supplementation in adults--guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Walicka, Magdalena; Tałałaj, Marek; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Sewerynek, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary in maintaining appropriate calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the body (classical function) and ensuring appropriate functioning of many tissues, organs and cells, unrelated to mineral economy (non-classical function). Vitamin D deficiency in adults may cause osteomalacia, increase fracture risk in osteoporosis, induce cardiovascular diseases, diabetes type 1 and 2, multiple sclerosis, Lesniowski-Crohn disease, and cancer, including colon, breast, and prostate cancer. Possible causes of vitamin D deficiency in a healthy population include decreased cutaneous synthesis and an inadequate intake of vitamin D, both in food and in supplements. Vitamin D deficiency level (25(OH) D. Nutrition Board in 1997, is now rather insufficient, the biggest problem being associated with maximal vitamin D levels (50 μg/day) in actually available food supplements. Nowadays, it is recommended that adults need a minimum of 800-1,000 U/day when their exposure to the sun is inadequate (in Poland from October to April). This dosage should be provided to all subjects who avoid sunlight, as well as to those aged over 65 because of their slower skin synthesis of vitamin D and for its proven anti-fracture and anti-fall effects.

  3. Effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, R K; Rathee, S; Lata, V; Mudgil, S

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium, inorganic phosphate and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase (HLAP) have been estimated in maternal and cord sera of 120 pregnant women at labour. 75 women who did not take any vitamin D supplements during pregnancy showed statistically significant hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and elevation of HLAP. Hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia were present in cord blood, too. 25 women who had received 1,200 U vitamin D/day throughout the 3rd trimester, showed significantly lower HLAP levels and increased fetal birth weight but there was no other improvement in maternal or cord blood chemistry. Administration of vitamin D in two large doses of 600,000 U each in the 7th and 8th months of pregnancy in 20 women proved more efficacious. Statistically significant improvement was observed in all the three biochemical parameters in maternal as well as cord sera. Fetal birth weight was also significantly greater with this mode of therapy.

  4. Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g. diabe

  5. Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g. diabe

  6. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register...... vitamin D₃, one trial tested vitamin D₂, and three trials tested calcitriol supplementation. Cancer occurrence was observed in 1927/25,275 (7.6%) recipients of vitamin D versus 1943/25,348 (7.7%) recipients of control interventions (RR 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.06); P = 0.88; I² = 0......% relative risk reduction. We did not observe substantial differences in the effect of vitamin D on cancer in subgroup analyses of trials at low risk of bias compared to trials at high risk of bias; of trials with no risk of for-profit bias compared to trials with risk of for-profit bias; of trials assessing...

  7. Calcium and vitamin D in sarcoidosis: is supplementation safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lieke S; Bonte-Mineur, Femke; van Laar, Jan A; van Hagen, P Martin; van Daele, Paul L

    2014-11-01

    Granulomas in sarcoidosis express high levels of 1α-hydroxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of 25-OH vitamin D to its active form, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D. Overproduction of 1α-hydroxylase is held responsible for the development of hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis patients. Corticosteroids are used as first-line treatment in organ-threatening sarcoidosis. In this light, osteoporosis prevention with calcium and vitamin D (CAD) supplementation is often warranted. However, sarcoidosis patients are at risk for hypercalcemia, and CAD supplementation affects the calcium metabolism. We studied calcium and vitamin D disorders in a large cohort of sarcoidosis patients and investigated if CAD supplementation is safe. Retrospectively, data of 301 sarcoidosis patients from July 1986 to June 2009 were analyzed for serum calcium, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D), and use of CAD supplementation. Disease activity of sarcoidosis was compared with serum levels of vitamin D. Hypercalcemia occurred in 8%. A significant negative correlation was found between 25-(OH)D and disease activity of sarcoidosis measured by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. In our study, 5 of the 104 CAD-supplemented patients developed hypercalcemia, but CAD supplementation was not the cause of hypercalcemia. Patients without CAD supplementation were at higher risk for developing hypercalcemia. During CAD supplementation, no hypercalcemia developed as a result of supplementation. Hypovitaminosis D seems to be related with more disease activity of sarcoidosis and, therefore, could be a potential risk factor for disease activity of sarcoidosis. Thus, vitamin D-deficient sarcoidosis patients should be supplemented.

  8. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Mary E; van den Broek, Nynke; Dou, Lixia; Othman, Mohammad

    2015-10-27

    The World Health Organization recommends routine vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy or lactation in areas with endemic vitamin A deficiency (where night blindness occurs), based on the expectation that supplementation will improve maternal and newborn outcomes including mortality, morbidity and prevention of anaemia or infection.   To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating the effect of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We reviewed 106 reports of 35 trials, published between 1931 and 2015. We included 19 trials including over 310,000 women, excluded 15 trials and one is ongoing. Overall, seven trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, three were high risk of bias and for nine it was unclear. 1) Vitamin A alone versus placebo or no treatmentOverall, when trial results are pooled, vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.20; four trials Ghana, Nepal, Bangladesh, UK, high quality evidence), perinatal mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07; one study, high quality evidence), neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.01, five studies, high quality evidence), or the risk of having a low birthweight baby.Vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk of maternal night blindness (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98; two trials). There is evidence that vitamin A supplements may reduce maternal clinical infection

  9. Putative Corneal Neuralgia Responding to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Singman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient with putative corneal neuralgia was incidentally discovered to have hypovitaminosis D. Supplementation of vitamin D appears to have led to a resolution of the patient's pain, whereas other efforts to treat the patient were unsuccessful.

  10. Redistribution of vitamin A after iron supplementation in Indonesion infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; West, C.E.; Thurnham, D.I.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. Objective: This study invest

  11. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it investiga

  12. [Vitamin D supplementation: not too much, not too little!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamo, S; Freychet, C; Bertholet-Thomas, A; Poulat, A-L; Cochat, P; Vuillerot, C; Bacchetta, J

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the general population and even more frequent in patients with chronic diseases. The prevention of rickets with native vitamin D supplementation is one of the oldest and most effective prophylactic measures ever reported in medicine, leading to an almost complete eradication of vitamin D-deficient rickets in developed countries. We report on two children with vitamin D abnormalities: the first, 10-year-old child developed rickets without any vitamin D supplementation despite different risk factors (autism, ethnicity, nutritional problems, chronic antiepileptic therapies). In contrast, the second, 8-month-old child received double doses of native vitamin D from birth for several months and was referred for acute and symptomatic hypercalcemia. As such, vitamin D supplementation must follow specific rules: neither too much nor too little! We also discuss the emergence of "new" genetic diseases such as mutations in the 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) gene inducing neonatal hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis: we believe that before prescribing conventional vitamin D supplementation as recommended by the national guidelines, pediatricians should quickly rule out a potential genetic abnormality in phosphate/calcium metabolism (namely a history of lithiasis or hypercalcemia) that would lead to further biological investigations.

  13. Vitamin D supplementation and testosterone concentrations in male human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Oosterwerff, Mirjam; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Chel, Victor G. M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Lips, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveA possible association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and testosterone levels has been reported; however, contradictory results have emerged. DesignTo investigate a causal link between vitamin D and testosterone status, we studied the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum testoste

  14. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  15. An Assessment of Vitamin Supplements in the Indian Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Preeta K.; Lhamo, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from an annual Drug Compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. A large number of vitamin supplements are available in the Indian market. It includes single-ingredient products and various combinations of vitamins, minerals, and other constituents. Among single products, the maximum number was that of vitamin D3 (n=150). Most of the supplements are available as combinations (76.49%), with vitamin-minerals combinations constituting the maximum number. In a large number of products, amount of the vitamins was not specified. The most common formulation for oral administration was capsules (34.1%). In our research, majority of the supplements contained nutrient amounts higher than the recommended intakes recommended dietary allowance. Unsupervised intake of vitamins can pose a serious health risk in the susceptible population. The composition and amount of each constituent in the dietary supplement should be detailed and properly labelled for each preparation. Availability of a large number of preparations with unknown composition as ‘over the counter’ agents requires a serious review of the legal provisions in India for drug manufacturing and marketing. There is a need for proper guidelines and regulations for the manufacturing, labelling and marketing of dietary supplements in India. Strict enforcement of such provisions is essential to safeguard the health of the population at large. PMID:23716879

  16. An assessment of vitamin supplements in the indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta K Chugh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from an annual Drug Compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. A large number of vitamin supplements are available in the Indian market. It includes single-ingredient products and various combinations of vitamins, minerals, and other constituents. Among single products, the maximum number was that of vitamin D3 (n=150. Most of the supplements are available as combinations (76.49%, with vitamin-minerals combinations constituting the maximum number. In a large number of products, amount of the vitamins was not specified. The most common formulation for oral administration was capsules (34.1%. In our research, majority of the supplements contained nutrient amounts higher than the recommended intakes recommended dietary allowance. Unsupervised intake of vitamins can pose a serious health risk in the susceptible population. The composition and amount of each constituent in the dietary supplement should be detailed and properly labelled for each preparation. Availability of a large number of preparations with unknown composition as ′over the counter′ agents requires a serious review of the legal provisions in India for drug manufacturing and marketing. There is a need for proper guidelines and regulations for the manufacturing, labelling and marketing of dietary supplements in India. Strict enforcement of such provisions is essential to safeguard the health of the population at large.

  17. An assessment of vitamin supplements in the Indian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Preeta K; Lhamo, Y

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from an annual Drug Compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. A large number of vitamin supplements are available in the Indian market. It includes single-ingredient products and various combinations of vitamins, minerals, and other constituents. Among single products, the maximum number was that of vitamin D3 (n=150). Most of the supplements are available as combinations (76.49%), with vitamin-minerals combinations constituting the maximum number. In a large number of products, amount of the vitamins was not specified. The most common formulation for oral administration was capsules (34.1%). In our research, majority of the supplements contained nutrient amounts higher than the recommended intakes recommended dietary allowance. Unsupervised intake of vitamins can pose a serious health risk in the susceptible population. The composition and amount of each constituent in the dietary supplement should be detailed and properly labelled for each preparation. Availability of a large number of preparations with unknown composition as 'over the counter' agents requires a serious review of the legal provisions in India for drug manufacturing and marketing. There is a need for proper guidelines and regulations for the manufacturing, labelling and marketing of dietary supplements in India. Strict enforcement of such provisions is essential to safeguard the health of the population at large.

  18. Effectiveness of B vitamin supplementation following bariatric surgery: rapid increases of serum vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolyn E; Sherman, Vadim

    2015-04-01

    Few prospective studies have compared changes of nutrient intake while assessing effectiveness of thiamin, vitamin B12, and folate supplementation to prevent B vitamin deficiencies immediately following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Therefore, we determined the response to 3 months supplementation on maintaining blood B vitamin concentrations. Women undergoing RYGB (n = 11) and SG (n = 11) consumed bariatric vitamin supplements (12 mg thiamin, 350 μg vitamin B12, 800 μg folic acid) daily for 3 months. Height, weight, body mass index, and blood vitamin concentrations were measured preoperatively and at 3 months. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses compared body weight parameters, laboratory indices, and nutrient intake at baseline and 3 months. Supplementation for 3 months maintained blood thiamin, increased serum folate from 13.1 ± 5.4 to 16.3 ± 6.0 nmol/L (P = 0.049), and increased serum vitamin B12 concentrations from 498 ± 150 to 736 ± 340 pg/mL (P = 0.005). Dietary intake of thiamin and folate decreased in the combined surgical groups, while dietary intake of B12 was maintained. Bariatric B vitamin supplements provided multiple intakes of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (1090% thiamin, 14,583% vitamin B12, 200% folate). Although energy intake decreased 64%, B vitamin supplementation for 3 months resulted in a 48% increase of serum vitamin B12, a modest increase of serum folate, and no reduction of blood thiamin concentrations. Long-term effects of the rapid rise of serum B12 levels attributed to the high content of supplements warrant further investigation.

  19. Who should receive calcium and vitamin D supplementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Gielen, Evelien; Milisen, Koen; Boonen, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Until recently, supplementation was perceived as harmless without adverse effects. However, recent meta-analyses have provided evidence suggesting that calcium supplements, whether or not in combination with vitamin D, may be associated with cardiovascular risks. Although this finding constitutes a safety signal that has to be taken seriously, these data have to be interpreted with some caution. Current data do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn, but require further independent confirmation, since in numerous large studies, combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation did not increase cardiovascular events, even in the most frail and elderly populations. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate to correct calcium deficiency preferably by enhancing dietary intake and to target supplementation on individuals at high risk of fracture or in whom calcium and vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent. Other trials have shown an increased risk of falls and fractures with annual oral administration of high dose of vitamin D. Therefore, supplementation with more frequent, lower doses is preferred. Yet, the optimal dosing schedule is unknown and needs further study. In order to correct age-associated secondary hyperparathyroidism and to prevent osteoporotic fractures, a daily dose of 1,000-1,200 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D is recommended in elderly or institutionalised people, patients with established osteoporosis and individuals on glucocorticoids.

  20. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  1. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    prospective population-based cohort, who gave birth to singletons and donated a blood sample for s-25(OH)D measurements were included (n = 2082). RESULTS: The prevalence of cord vitamin D deficiency was 16.7% and 41.0% for insufficiency. White skin, winter season at birth, maternal supplementation dose of ... μg/day, non-western ethnicity and high body mass index (BMI) were identified as independent risk factors of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Adherence to the recommended vitamin D supplementation dose (10 μg/day) was reported by 87% (primipara 91% vs. multipara 81%, p

  2. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stepien, Magdalena; O'Mahony, Louise; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Collier, John; Fraser, William D.; Gibney, Michael J.; Nugent, Anne P.; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is emerging worldwide and many studies now suggest its role in the development of several chronic diseases. Due to the low level of vitamin D naturally occurring in food there is a need for supplementation and use of vitamin D-enhanced products. The aim of the present study was to determine if daily consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased vitamin D status in free-living healthy adults or affected markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of ninety voluntee...

  3. Calcium and vitamin d supplementation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, John F; Dhaliwal, Ruban; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul; Yeh, James K

    2013-11-01

    Bone health is influenced by the intake of both calcium and vitamin D. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on PTH and bone turnover. SETTING, PATIENTS, AND DESIGN: At an ambulatory research center, 159 postmenopausal healthy white women participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel, longitudinal factorial study that was 6 months in duration. Subjects were randomly allocated to 4 groups: 1) double placebo, 2) calcium (1200 mg daily) plus placebo, 3) vitamin D3 (100 μg) plus placebo, and 4) vitamin D3 and calcium. Serum and urine were collected fasting and 2 hours after a calcium load at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Serum PTH, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were measured. Before study medication, a calcium load resulted in a decline in PTH and CTX and an increase in urinary calcium excretion. Serum CTX and P1NP declined over time with calcium supplementation but did not change with increased vitamin D intake. There was a decline in PTH in the vitamin D groups in the fasting state compared with placebo. Suppression of PTH was greater after a calcium load in the vitamin D groups. A calcium load decreased PTH and CTX and raised urinary calcium. Fasting PTH declines with vitamin D supplementation. PTH declines after calcium intake. Supplementation of the diet with 1200 mg calcium/d reduces bone turnover markers, whereas supplementation with up to100 μg vitamin D3/d does not.

  4. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on some pregnancy health indices: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bastani P; Hamdi K; Abasalizadeh F; Navali N

    2011-01-01

    Parvin Bastani, Kobra Hamdi, Fatemeh Abasalizadeh, Nazli NavaliWomen's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranObjective: Available evidence about the role of supplementary vitamin E in normal pregnancy is inadequate. This study assessed the potential benefit of vitamin E supplementation on some pregnancy health indices.Methods: A 1:2 weighted simple randomization technique was used to allocate 104 eligible pregnant women to receive vita...

  5. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on infant and childhood mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vitamin A is important for the integrity and regeneration of respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia and is involved in regulating human immune function. It has been shown previously that vitamin A has a preventive effect on all-cause and disease specific mortality in children under five. The purpose of this paper was to get a point estimate of efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in reducing cause specific mortality by using Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG guidelines. Methods A literature search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional data bases using various free and Mesh terms for vitamin A and mortality. Data were abstracted into standardized forms and quality of studies was assessed according to standardized guidelines. Pooled estimates were generated for preventive effect of vitamin A supplementation on all-cause and disease specific mortality of diarrhea, measles, pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. We did a subgroup analysis for vitamin A supplementation in neonates, infants 1-6 months and children aged 6-59 months. In this paper we have focused on estimation of efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in children 6-59 months of age. Results for neonatal vitamin A supplementation have been presented, however no recommendations are made as more evidence on it would be available soon. Results There were 21 studies evaluating preventive effect of vitamin A supplementation in community settings which reported all-cause mortality. Twelve of these also reported cause specific mortality for diarrhea and pneumonia and six reported measles specific mortality. Combined results from six studies showed that neonatal vitamin A supplementation reduced all-cause mortality by 12 % [Relative risk (RR 0.88; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.79-0.98]. There was no effect of vitamin A supplementation in reducing all-cause mortality in infants 1-6 months of age [RR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.88-1.26]. Pooled results for

  6. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; O'Mahony, Louise; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Collier, John; Fraser, William D; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is emerging worldwide and many studies now suggest its role in the development of several chronic diseases. Due to the low level of vitamin D naturally occurring in food there is a need for supplementation and use of vitamin D-enhanced products. The aim of the present study was to determine if daily consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased vitamin D status in free-living healthy adults or affected markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of ninety volunteers (aged 40-65 years) were randomly assigned to one of two 4-week studies: mushroom study (15 µg vitamin D2 or placebo mushroom powder) and capsule study (15 µg vitamin D3 or placebo capsules). Consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) by 128 % from baseline (3·9 (sd 1·9) nmol/l; P D3 increased significantly in the vitamin D3 capsule group (a 55 % increase from a baseline of 44.0 (sd 17·1) nmol/l; P Vitamin D status (25(OH)D) was affected only in the vitamin D3 group. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was lowered by vitamin D2 intake. Vitamin D2 from enhanced mushrooms was bioavailable and increased serum 25(OH)D2 concentration with no significant effect on 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D.

  7. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell

    2012-10-01

    The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to

  8. Assessment of adequacy of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skowrońska-Jóźwiak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Deficiency of vitamin D in pregnancy leads to higher incidences of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis, and also affects the health of the infants. According to Polish recommendations published in 2009, vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women should be provided from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy in daily dose of 800–1000 IU. The aim of the presented study is: 1 to estimate how many pregnant women comply with those recommendations and 2 to determine the 25(OHD levels in pregnant women. Patients and methods. The study included 88 pregnant women, aged 20–40 years, between 12–35 week of gestation. Vitamin D concentrations [25(OHD] were measured by a direct electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys, Roche. Results. 31 of 88 pregnant women (35.2% did not use any supplementation. Mean level of 25(OHD was 28.8±14.8 ng/mL (range from 4.0 – 77.5 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as 25(OHD concentration below 20 ng/mL, was found in 31.8% of the women (28/88. Insufficiency of vitamin D [25(OHD concentration between 20–30 ng/mL] was present in 26.1% of the women (23/88. Optimal level of 25(OHD (over 30 ng/mL was present in 37/88 (42.0% women. Hence, in 46.2% of women taking vitamin D supplementation, the levels of 25(OHD were still below 30 ng/mL. Conclusions. Supplementation of vitamin D in the investigated group was inadequate. More than 35% of pregnant women did not take any supplements, while half of the subjects who had declared taking vitamin D, failed to achieve optimal serum 25(OHD concentration.

  9. Vitamin and mineral supplementation of term infants: are they necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the evidence behind the need or not to routinely administer multivitamin and/or mineral preparations to term infants. We reviewed the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamins and minerals during the first year of life and examined whether standard nutritional options, i.e. human milk or infant formulae consistent with major international guidelines, satisfy these requirements. We found that RDA cannot adequately be met by either human milk or standard formulas for most vitamins and minerals. We suggest that RDAs are widely overestimated. A particular emphasis is placed on vitamin D and iron, where supplements are needed, and on iodine and vitamin B12, where supplements may be needed depending upon the circumstances.

  10. Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Powers, Sally I; Spangler, Leslie; Larson, Joseph; Michael, Yvonne L; Millen, Amy E; Bueche, Maria N; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Brunner, Robert L; Ockene, Ira; Ockene, Judith K; Liu, Simin; Manson, Joann E

    2012-07-01

    While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995-2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ≥0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D(3) along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression.

  11. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Vitamin D Supplement in Adult Patients with Asthma Exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantveerawong, Teerapol; Pradubpongsa, Panitan; Sangasapaviliya, Atik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Objective. This study aimed to compare vitamin D status during the period of severe asthma exacerbations and investigate if vitamin D supplementation improves asthma control. Methods. A total of 47 asthmatic patients and 40 healthy subjects participated in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), asthma control test (ACT) score, and % predicted peak expiratory flow rate were evaluated in the period with and without severe asthma exacerbations. After that, we provided vitamin D2 supplements to the patients with low vitamin D levels for 3 months. Results. At the period of asthma exacerbation, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was 38.29% and 34.04%. There was no significant difference in the levels of serum 25(OH)D with and without asthma exacerbations but the levels were significantly higher in the healthy group. Serum 25(OH)D levels significantly correlated with ACT score. Moreover, vitamin D2 supplementation improved asthma control in uncontrolled asthma group. Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D was common in asthmatic patients but was not the leading cause of asthma exacerbations. Serum 25(OH)D levels correlated with the ability to control asthma. Improving vitamin D status might be a benefit in uncontrolled asthmatic patients. PMID:27974898

  12. Primary vitamin D target genes allow a categorization of possible benefits of vitamin D₃ supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Carlberg

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of developing a number of diseases. Here we investigated samples from 71 pre-diabetic individuals of the VitDmet study, a 5-month high dose vitamin D3 intervention trial during Finnish winter, for their changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentrations and the expression of primary vitamin D target genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and adipose tissue. A negative correlation between serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 25(OHD3 suggested an overall normal physiological vitamin D response among the participants. The genes CD14 and thrombomodulin (THBD are up-regulated primary vitamin D targets and showed to be suitable gene expression markers for vitamin D signaling in both primary tissues. However, in a ranking of the samples concerning their expected response to vitamin D only the top half showed a positive correlation between the changes of CD14 or THBD mRNA and serum 25(OHD3 concentrations. Interestingly, this categorization allows unmasking a negative correlation between changes in serum concentrations of 25(OHD3 and the inflammation marker interleukin 6. We propose the genes CD14 and THBD as transcriptomic biomarkers, from which the effects of a vitamin D3 supplementation can be evaluated. These biomarkers allow the classification of subjects into those, who might benefit from a vitamin D3 supplementation, and others who do not.

  13. Vitamin-mineral supplement use and nutritional status of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzarre, T L; Scarpino, A; Sigmon, R; Marquart, L F; Wu, S M; Izurieta, M

    1993-04-01

    Dietary, anthropometric, and chronic disease risk factors (CDRF) including blood lipids and blood pressure (BP), were measured in 91 vitamin-mineral supplement users (SU) and nonusers (NU) representing a wide range of athletic interests. Supplements were used by 46 (51%) subjects; 100% of female athletes and 51% of male athletes used supplements while none of a group of 15 control female subjects currently used supplements. Both dietary intake and energy expenditure were measured using 7-day records. Adiposity was determined from body weight, body mass index, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, zinc, copper, and vitamin C were based on 12-hour fasting blood samples. Dietary intake (excluding supplements) for SU tended to be greater than NU for vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, calcium, iron and magnesium. Plasma vitamin C levels were significantly higher among SU than NU of both gender groups (p < 0.05). Although SU may exhibit additional healthy lifestyle practices, lipid profiles for many of these athletes were unfavorable with regard to CDRF.

  14. Vitamin E, Selenium Supplements Won't Curb Men's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164174.html Vitamin E, Selenium Supplements Won't Curb Men's Dementia ... 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A daily dose of vitamin E or selenium supplements won't keep dementia ...

  15. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on some pregnancy health indices: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastani P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Parvin Bastani, Kobra Hamdi, Fatemeh Abasalizadeh, Nazli NavaliWomen's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranObjective: Available evidence about the role of supplementary vitamin E in normal pregnancy is inadequate. This study assessed the potential benefit of vitamin E supplementation on some pregnancy health indices.Methods: A 1:2 weighted simple randomization technique was used to allocate 104 eligible pregnant women to receive vitamin E and 168 women (control not to receive the drug. Treated women received capsules containing 400 IU vitamin E from week 14 of gestation to the end of the pregnancy.Results: Background variables including maternal age were found to be similarly distributed between the study groups. The rate of maternal and perinatal outcomes including Apgar score and birth weight did not differ significantly between groups. Preeclampsia occurred in 1% of treated women vs 1.78% of control women.Conclusion: Giving supplemental vitamin E from the second trimester of pregnancy did not appear to affect the risk of pregnancy outcomes and occurrence of preeclampsia.Keywords: antioxidants, vitamin E, pregnancy, supplementation, preeclampsia

  16. Vitiligo treatment with vitamins, minerals and polyphenol supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Akrem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mammalian pigmentation results from the synthesis and accumulation of photo protective epidermal melanin. Melanin was formed from the amino acid precursor L-tyrosine within specialized cells, the melanocytes. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be the initial pathogenetic event in melanocyte degeneration with H 2 O 2 accumulation in the epidermis of patients with active disease. Auto immunity has been also suggested as another hypothesis in the pathogenesis of depigmentation disorders. Topical corticosteroids and phototherapy as common treatment modalities have been prescribed in patients with vitiligo. However, they are often not effective and safe (epidermal atrophy. Therefore, research for alternative therapies continues. Aims: To evaluate the beneficial effects of a supplementation with antioxidant vitamins (A, C, E and minerals (zinc, selenium for vitiligo treatment. Methods: Forty experimental autoimmune vitiligo mice C57BL6, aged from 5 to 12 months showing visible signs of induced vitiligo, were sequentially randomized into five parallel groups (8 mice per group. Each group mice was allocated an identical pre coded cage. the first group (SZV received the ED+1,4 g zinc (Zn+0.04 g selenium (Se+vitamins (A 118 UI, C 8,5 mg, E 5,4 UI /kg diet, the second group (PSZV received the ED+1,4 g zinc (Zn+0.04 g selenium (Se+vitamins (A 118 UI, C 8.5 mg, E 5,4 UI/kg diet+Polyphenol orally, the group 3 (PSZ received the ED+green tea decoction prepared from 100 g/l (polyphenol orally+1,4 g Zn+0.04 g Se, the 4 (P received the ED+green tea decoction prepared green tea decoction prepared from 100 g/l, the control group 5(C received the ED++ distilled water. Cure was defined as repigmentation of treated sites. Photographic and optical techniques were used both at the baseline and on weekly basis. Results: By the end of the study, mices showed visible repigmentation. Using the investigator′s global assessment, therapeutic success in terms

  17. Assessment of vitamin A supplementation coverage and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with childhood illness in Boloso Sore Woreda, Welayta Zone, SNNP Region, ... and to measure the coverage of vitamin A supplementation among children aged ... [AOR=1.15 (95%CI 0.77-1.72)], Eye infection [AOR=1.22 (95%CI 0.78-1.89)], ...

  18. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in soft drinks and vitamin supplements using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Matthias; Razzazi, Ebrahim; Luf, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    A method for the determination of six water-soluble vitamins based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) operated in micellar mode was developed. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), nicotinamide (vitamin B3), and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) could be separated in a single run. All CE parameters such as buffer composition and operation temperature were optimized in order to achieve better separation. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the described method ranged from 1.08 to 3.68% (intra-day precision) and 1.26 to 3.35% (inter-day precision). The method was then used for measuring various soft drinks and vitamin supplements directly without any step of sample cleanup. The determination of niacin was successful for all samples tested, reaching recoveries near 100%. Riboflavin and pyridoxine were quantified successfully in some but not all samples. Therefore, an evaluation on a case-by-case basis is mandatory. When applicable, this method provides a fast, accurate, simple, and inexpensive way to quantify selected vitamins, and is therefore well suited for routine analysis in soft drink industry.

  19. Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide following supplementation with vitamin D or D plus B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Awwad, Hussain M; Kirsch, Susanne H; Waldura, Christiane; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Graeber, Stefan; Geisel, Juergen

    2017-02-01

    We compared the effect of supplementation with vitamin D + B or vitamin D on plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and choline metabolites. This is a randomized single-blinded nonplacebo-controlled study. Twenty-seven participants received 1200 IU vitamin D3 and 800 mg calcium, and 25 participants received additionally 0.5 mg folic acid, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 for 1 year. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), TMAO, and choline metabolites were measured at baseline and 12 months later. TMAO declined in the vitamin D arm by 0.5 versus 2.8 μmol/L in the D + B arm (p = 0.005). Hcy decreased and betaine increased in the D + B compared to the D arm. Within-subject levels of plasma choline and dimethylglycine and urine betaine increased in both arms and changes did not differ between the arms. TMAO reduction was predicted by higher baseline TMAO and lowering Hcy in stepwise regression analysis. The test-retest variations of TMAO were greater in the D + B arm compared to vitamin D arm. B vitamins plus vitamin D lowered plasma fasting TMAO compared to vitamin D. Vitamin D caused alterations in choline metabolism, which may reflect the metabolic flexibility of C1-metabolism. The molecular mechanisms and health implications of these changes are currently unknown. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Randomized controlled safety and efficacy trial of 2 vitamin A supplementation schedules in Tanzanian infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Idindili, Boniphace; Masanja, Honarati; Urassa, Honorathy; Bunini, Wilbert; van Jaarsveld, Paul; John J Aponte; Kahigwa, Elizeus; Mshinda, Hassan; Ross, David; Schellenberg, David M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality in children living in areas endemic for vitamin A deficiency. Routine vitamin A supplementation usually starts only at age 9 mo, but high rates of illness and mortality are seen in the first months of life. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation at the same time as routine vaccination in infants aged 1-3 mo. DESIGN We recruited 780 newborn...

  1. BONE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Colet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  2. Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements, fortified food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, E F A; Bakker, M I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Zuidema, T; Alewijn, M

    2014-06-01

    In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a reliable intake estimation, it is important to know the accurateness of the claimed vitamin concentration on the product label. In the current study, the amount of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid in different products and their maximum bioavailability (bioaccessibility) were investigated. In about half of the products, the amount of vitamins significantly deviated from the declared amounts. The vitamin bioaccessibility ranged from <1% to 100%. When assessing the dietary intake exposure of vitamins, it is important to take into account both the possible deviation from the declared level and (the variability of) the bioaccessibility of the vitamin in the products.

  3. Vitamin B Supplementation: What's the Right Choice for Your Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-07-01

    As many patients turn to vitamins and supplements to enhance energy, relieve fatigue, or generally feel better, it is important to understand the connection between the B vitamins and psychiatric symptomatology. Vitamins B6, B8, and B12 have been shown not only to reduce psychiatric symptoms but also shorten the duration of illness. Vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid, has also been associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, when patients lack a specific genetic enzyme, which converts folate/folic acid to its most usable form, L-methylfolate, the neuroprotective and neuropsychiatric benefits are lost. L-methylfolate allows for the synthesis of the three major neurochemicals-serotonin, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine-across the blood-brain barrier. Exploring the conversion of folate/folic acid into L-methylfolate and the various polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and examining the B vitamins associated with the treatment of psychiatric symptoms will further allow nurses to comprehensively treat their patients with the appropriate B vitamins. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(7), 7-11.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  5. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 microg), vitamin B(12) (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA

  6. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  7. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  8. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 microg), vitamin B(12) (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA

  9. Vitamin D Intoxication with Hypercalcemia Due to Overuse of Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadBagher Oghazian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with hypercalcemia associated with the injection of high doses vitamin D as supplement for a period of six months. A 76-year-old woman had been taking an intramuscular injection of vitamin D 300,000 IU every ten days for six months. She was hospitalized with symptoms of hypercalcemia: chronic constipation, unstable gait, a chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain and increased fatigue. On admission her 25 (OH vitamin D and Calcium levels were 559 nmol/L and 13.85 mg/dL respectively, and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH level was 7.1 pg/mL. Immediately she received diuresis therapy with saline and furosemide in conjunction with calcitonin and pamidronate. At discharge her serum calcium level was 11.5 mg/dL. To lower endogenous overproduction of calcitriol, prednisolone 20 mg/day for 10 days was administered at discharge time.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with functional decline and falls in frail elderly women despite supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarczyk, M P; Perera, S; Ferchak, M A; Nace, D A; Resnick, N M; Greenspan, S L

    2017-04-01

    We examined the impact of daily supplementation on vitamin D deficiency, function, and falls in female long-term care residents. Initial vitamin D deficiency was associated with greater functional decline and increased fall risk despite guideline-recommended supplementation, highlighting the importance of preventing vitamin D deficiency in frail elderly.

  11. The influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelazzo, Fernanda B; Oliveira, Julicristie M; Stefanello, Juliana; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C

    2013-11-07

    Vitamin A (VA) and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.

  12. The Influence of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelazzo, Fernanda B.; Oliveira, Julicristie M.; Stefanello, Juliana; Luzia, Liania A.; Rondó, Patricia H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis. PMID:24212089

  13. The Influence of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia H. C. Rondó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.

  14. Inadequate vitamin D status in pregnancy: evidence for supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Sarah; Khan, Khalid S; Hitman, Graham A; Griffiths, Chris; Martineau, Adrian; Meads, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    The role of vitamin D in maintaining a healthy pregnancy has seen emerging interest among clinicians and researchers in recent years. The functions of this hormone are widespread and complex, and during pregnancy and breastfeeding it facilitates crucial transfer of calcium from mother to child for skeletal development. Aside from the role of vitamin D in bone development and health, a myriad of other physiological actions are now known, and it is hypothesized that maternal deficiency may increase susceptibility to adverse pregnancy events during pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia. The role of vitamin D in pregnancy and breastfeeding is summarized and applied to the knowledge from studies associating vitamin D deficiency with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma. Current clinical guidelines for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy are discussed in the context of the available evidence. The need for robust randomized controlled trials to address areas of existing uncertainty is highlighted. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids: A Critical Evaluation, Part 1- Vitamins and Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.; Rucker, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates vitamins/minerals, distinguishing whether studies cited used animal or human subjects. Vitamins discussed include niacin and vitamins B-12, C, A, D, E, and megavitamin supplementation (intake of vitamins at levels 10 times the recommended daily allowance). Minerals considered include dolomite/bone meal, chromium (glucose tolerance…

  16. Rumen-protected choline and vitamin E supplementation in periparturient dairy goats: effects on milk production and folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin E status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, L; Campagnoli, A; D'Ambrosio, F; Susca, F; Innocenti, M; Rebucci, R; Fusi, E; Cheli, F; Savoini, G; Dell'orto, V; Baldi, A

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) and vitamin E (VITE) administration on milk production and status of folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin E during the periparturient period of dairy goats. Forty-eight Saanen multiparous goats were selected for the 72-day experiment, being moved to a maternity pen 30 days before expected parturition and assigned to one of the four experimental groups: control (CTR), no choline or vitamin E supplementation; choline (RPC), supplemented with 4 g/day choline chloride in rumen-protected form; vitamin E (VITE), supplemented with 200 IU/day vitamin E in rumen-protected form; and choline and vitamin E (RPCE), supplemented with 4 g/day RPC chloride and 200 IU/day vitamin E. Supplements were administered individually before the morning feed to ensure complete consumption, starting 30 days before kidding and continuing for 35 days after. During the experiment, milk yield and 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield were, respectively, 210 and 350 g/day higher in RPC-supplemented goats than in non-supplemented goats. Milk fat concentration and fat yield were also increased by RPC treatment. Milk yield and composition were unaffected by vitamin E supplementation. There were no significant interactions between RPC and VITE for any of the variables measured. Plasma metabolites did not differ between treatments before and after kidding except that plasma folate at parturition was higher in RPC-supplemented goats. Neither choline nor vitamin E affected vitamin B12 plasma concentrations, while a time effect was evident after the second week of lactation, when B12 levels in each treatment group started to increase. Vitamin E administration resulted in plasma α-tocopherol levels that were 2 to 2.5 times higher than in non-supplemented goats. Overall, these results suggest that greater choline availability can improve milk production and methyl group metabolism in transition dairy goats.

  17. Vitamin deficiencies in rice-eating populations. Effects of B-vitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, M S

    1983-01-01

    Rice is the staple food in many countries of Asia. Recent nutrition surveys in eight states, conducted by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau of India, show that though the average energy intake is adequate, more than 50% of the households surveyed consumed less than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of energy. These households generally had per capita incomes of less than Rupees 2/- (US+ 0.25) per day. The average intake of vitamin A was only 42% of the RDA and that of riboflavin, 70% of the RDA. The average intake of other nutrients such as thiamin, niacin, ascorbic acid, iron and calcium was adequate, although thiamin deficiency was present in populations where rice was the main cereal, but not in populations where rice was the main cereal, but not in populations that consumed mixed cereal or cereal-millet diets. The magnitude of the riboflavin deficiency (after correction or energy) was also more marked in the former. Vitamin A intake was not related to the type of cereal, but had some relationship to the quantity of vegetables consumed. Nutrition surveys from Japan also reveal deficiencies in intake of energy, vitamin A, thiamin and riboflavin. The Japanese diet tends to be deficient by 20% in vitamin A and riboflavin, but not thiamin. Thus, vitamin A, riboflavin and energy (in that order) are the major nutritional constraints in rice-eating populations. Clear-cut correlations between the magnitude of dietary deficiency and the prevalence of signs and symptoms of vitamin deficiency were not apparent in the comparisons between populations, suggesting that as well as dietary deficiency other environmental factors play a role in the development of clinical deficiency. Attempts to correlate clinical deficiency with the magnitude of biochemical deficiency have also failed. Recent studies aimed at examining the effects of food supplements (rural Gambian women) or vitamin supplements (rural Indian boys) on vitamin status suggest that in some communities

  18. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  19. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Holroyd, Christopher; Ntani, Georgia; Javaid, Kassim; Cooper, Philip; Moon, Rebecca; Cole, Zoe; Tinati, Tannaze; Godfrey, Keith; Dennison, Elaine; Bishop, Nicholas J; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus

    2014-07-01

    It is unclear whether or not the current evidence base allows definite conclusions to be made regarding the optimal maternal circulating concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] during pregnancy, and how this might best be achieved. To answer the following questions: (1) What are the clinical criteria for vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women? (2) What adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes are associated with low maternal circulating 25(OH)D? (3) Does maternal supplementation with vitamin D in pregnancy lead to an improvement in these outcomes (including assessment of compliance and effectiveness)? (4) What is the optimal type (D2 or D3), dose, regimen and route for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy? (5) Is supplementation with vitamin D in pregnancy likely to be cost-effective? We performed a systematic review and where possible combined study results using meta-analysis to estimate the combined effect size. Major electronic databases [including Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database] were searched from inception up to June 2012 covering both published and grey literature. Bibliographies of selected papers were hand-searched for additional references. Relevant authors were contacted for any unpublished findings and additional data if necessary. Abstracts were reviewed by two reviewers. pregnant women or pregnant women and their offspring. either assessment of vitamin D status [dietary intake, sunlight exposure, circulating 25(OH)D concentration] or supplementation of participants with vitamin D or food containing vitamin D (e.g. oily fish). offspring - birthweight, birth length, head circumference, bone mass, anthropometry and body composition, risk of asthma and atopy, small for gestational dates, preterm birth, type 1 diabetes mellitus, low birthweight, serum calcium concentration, blood

  20. Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixed epidemiological data and the known benefits of vitamin D for bone health, McAlindon and colleagues aimed to determine if giving a vitamin D supplement to patients with well-established knee ...

  1. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones studied by vibrational spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lani, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Baliouskas, Gerasimos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is utilized to examine the effects of increased calcium, vitamin D, and combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones with induced inflammation...

  2. Influence of seafood and vitamin supplementation on maternal and umbilical cord blood mercury concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hui Huang

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: High seafood consumption was an independent risk factor for high maternal Hg level, while vitamin supplementation was a protective factor. Further study is needed to investigate the specific effect of vitamins on Hg level.

  3. Baseline selenium status and effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, AR; Darke, AK; Morris, JS; Tangen, CM; Goodman, PJ; Thompson, IM; Meyskens, FL; Goodman, GE; Minasian, LM; Parnes, HL; Lippman, SM; Klein, EA

    2014-01-01

    Background The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial found no effect of selenium supplementation on prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a 17% increased risk from vitamin E supplementation. This case-cohort study investigates effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation conditional upon baseline selenium status. Methods There were 1739 total and 489 high-grade (Gleason 7-10) PCa cases and 3117 men in the randomly selected cohort. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR...

  4. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on insulin resistance assessment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardabili, Hania R; Gargari, Bahram P; Farzadi, Laya

    2012-03-01

    Insulin resistance is one of the most common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may have a role in insulin resistance; thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in women with PCOS and a vitamin D deficiency. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation would lower the glucose level and insulin resistance in women with PCOS and a vitamin D deficiency. The current study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial with 50 women with PCOS and a vitamin D deficiency, 20 to 40 years old, assigned to receive 3 oral treatments consisting of 50,000 IU of vitamin D₃ or a placebo (1 every 20 days) for 2 months (vitamin D, n = 24; placebo, n = 26). The fasting blood glucose, insulin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels, as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were measured at baseline and after treatment. In the vitamin D group, the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased (6.9 ± 2.8 to 23.4 ± 6.1 ng/mL, P insulin resistance did not change significantly by the end of the study. We were not able to demonstrate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency.

  5. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ...

  6. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  7. Relationship of mineral and vitamin supplementation with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritee Gangwar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty lactating buffaloes were divided into five groups viz. four treated and one control group. The treated groups received Ashwagandha, Vitamin E, Selenium, Copper and Zinc in different combinations. Animals of group IV (provided with 50 gm of Ashwagandha and 500 IU Vitamin E, 800 mg zinc methionine, 250 mg copper sulphate and 5 mg of selenium showed highest recovery (80.00% with an average post treatment CMT score point 1.53 + 0.75, as compared to rest of the treated groups. Supplementation of trace minerals is only required at low levels to improve immune functions such as decreasing the incidence of mastitis. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 103-104

  8. Complex Effects of Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplementation on in Vitro Neonatal Mononuclear Cell Responses to Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Barker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Low maternal dietary vitamin E (but not vitamin C intake during pregnancy has been associated with increased in vitro cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC proliferative responses, childhood wheezing and asthma. We investigated whether these associations reflect direct effects of vitamin E by investigating the effects of supplementing CBMC cultures with physiological concentrations of vitamin E. CBMC from seventy neonates were cultured supplemented with either nothing, α-tocopherol or ascorbic acid. Proliferative, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β responses were measured. In general, vitamin E supplementation was associated with a trend for reduced proliferative responses after stimulation with antigens and house dust mite, and with increased proliferation after stimulation with timothy grass allergen. There was a trend for CBMC cultures to exhibit decreased secretion of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4. Supplementation with vitamin C had no effect on CBMC proliferation, but increased IFN-γ and IL-4 production, and decreased IL-10 production. In conclusion, in vitro vitamin E and C supplementation of CBMC modifies neonatal immune function, but not in a manner predicted by observational epidemiological studies. The observed associations between vitamin E and childhood respiratory disease are complex, and the nature and form of nutritional intervention need to be carefully considered before inclusion in trials.

  9. Skeletal and hepatic changes induced by chronic vitamin A supplementation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J; Tryfonidou, M A; Grinwis, G C M; Schotanus, B; Molenaar, M R; Voorhout, G; Vaandrager, A B; Heuven, H C M; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation influenced the effects of high vitamin A intake on new bone formation in adult cats. The second aim was to determine whether high vitamin A intake in cats caused liver pathology and, if so, whether the current upper limit for the dietary intake of vitamin A for healthy adult cats would be safe. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were divided into four groups that received a control diet supplemented with peanut oil (control), or peanut oil containing a 100-fold increase in vitamin A (HA), or a 100-fold increase in vitamin A and a fivefold increase in vitamin D (HAMD), or a 100-fold increase in vitamin A and a 65-fold increase in vitamin D (HAHD) over a period of 18 months. Cats did not show abnormal locomotion or clinical signs of liver failure after 18 months of supplementation but did show subtle skeletal changes and liver pathology, suggesting that the current National Research Council (2006) safe upper limit for vitamin A for cats is too high. The addition of vitamin D did not seem to influence bone pathology. While moderately elevated dietary vitamin D levels (HAMD) seemed to protect cats against the liver pathology caused by the consumption of large amounts of vitamin A, higher dietary levels of vitamin D (HAHD) did not seem to be protective.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation in pregnancy in a multiethnic population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggemoen, Åse R; Falk, Ragnhild S; Knutsen, Kirsten V; Lagerløv, Per; Sletner, Line; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne K

    2016-01-19

    To investigate ethnic differences in vitamin D levels during pregnancy, assess risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with deficiency in early pregnancy. This is a population-based, multiethnic cohort study of pregnant women attending Child Health Clinics for antenatal care in Oslo, Norway. Serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in 748 pregnant women (59% ethnic minorities) at gestational weeks (GW) 15 (SD:3.6) and 28 (1.4). Women with 25(OH)D vitamin D3 supplementation. Main outcome measure was 25(OH)D, and linear regression models were performed. Severe deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D were independently associated with 25(OH)D. At GW 28, the mean 25(OH)D had increased from 23 (SD:7.8) to 47 (27) nmol/L (p vitamin D supplementation, with small or no change in women with sufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among South Asian, Middle Eastern and African women. The serum levels of 25(OH)D increased significantly from GW 15 to 28 in vitamin D deficient women who received a recommendation for supplementation. This recommendation of vitamin D supplementation increased vitamin D levels in deficient women.

  11. Vitamin D-containing supplements for children between 1-3 years of age: are they essential for bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Emel; Kahraman, Feyza Ustabas; Osmanoğlu, Nurcan Keskin; Kucukkoc, Mehmet; Donmez, Tugrul; Orucoglu, Suera; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga

    2015-01-01

    We aim to evaluate how vitamin D-containing supplements affect the vitamin D status of children 1-3 years old and to assess the variation of the vitamin D concentrations across different seasons. This retrospective study included a review of medical reports of 1035 patients (aged 1-3 years) who presented to our hospital between October 2011 and October 2013. The children were divided into 3 groups: Group 1: those supplemented with vitamin D₃ (400 IU/day), Group 2: those supplemented with multivitamins, which included 200-400 IU/day of vitamin D₂ or D₃, and Group ₃, the controls: those not supplemented with vitamin D. The groups were compared as to their biochemical findings and variation of vitamin D status with over four seasons. Gender distribution was not statistically different between the three groups (p=0.38). The children who had taken vitamin D-containing supplements had significantly higher vitamin D levels compared with the children who were given no vitamin D supplementation (pvitamin D supplementation had significantly lower calcium and phosphorus levels compared with Groups 1 and 2. Vitamin D levels were affected by vitamin D supplementation (f=16.125, pvitamin D-containing supplements had insufficient vitamin D and low levels of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D levels were affected by vitamin D supplementation but not by season.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease: prevalence, risk factors and supplement use in an outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suibhne, Treasa Nic

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency impacts on bone health and has potential new roles in inflammation. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and to explore vitamin D supplement usage in patients with Crohn\\'s disease (CD) in an outpatient setting, compared with controls.

  13. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, G; Hoving-Bolink, A H; Kluitman, I; Houben, J H; Klont, R E

    2000-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin E upon colour, waterholding capacity, bacterial growth and lipid oxidation of beef longissimus thoracis (LT) and psoas major (PM) muscle were examined during aerobic display of fresh muscle and after aging in vacuum for 26 days. Forty crossbred beef bulls received a whole crop corn silage, supplemented with concentrate. Twenty bulls were each supplemented with 2025 mg vit E per day (added to the concentrate) for 136 day prior to slaughter and compared with non-supplemented control animals (n=20). In fresh LT muscle drip loss did not differ between treatment groups, while in PM muscle drip loss was significantly higher for the supplemented group. The treatment did not affect bacterial growth in fresh and aged muscles. Lipid oxidation during 12 day storage of fresh muscle was significantly lower for the supplemented group, as indicated by the lower TBA-values. No effect of the vitamin E treatment was observed on a (∗)-values of both fresh and aged LT muscle during display for 8 and 5 days, respectively. In PM muscle, supplemented beef had lower a (∗)-values in fresh (at day 1) and aged (at days 1 and 2) muscle, due to a lower oxygenation. The reason for this lower oxygenation is unclear. After aging, colour stability was decreased and more variable than in fresh muscle. Similar results were obtained when the difference in reflection values at 630 and 580 nm (R630-580), instead of the a (∗) value, was used as a parameter for colour stability. The absence of an effect of vit. E on the rate of discoloration, might possibly be explained from the observation that α-tocopherol levels in control muscle were relatively high (LT: 2.1 and PM: 3.2 μg/g muscle), compared with data from literature. Analysis of the feed for vit. E suggests that this was due to a relatively high natural vit. E uptake from the feed, which was calculated to be approx. 330 mg vit. E per animal per day for the control group.

  14. High-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with vaccinations after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Bale, Carlito; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul

    2013-01-01

    WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated.......WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated....

  15. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on C-reactive Protein in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Foroughi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on CRP and other variables in the intervention group compared with the placebo group. Further studies with strong design and more sample must conduct to demonstrate the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in patients with NAFLD.

  16. Meta-analysis : High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, ER; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Dalal, D; Riemersma, RA; Appel, LJ; Guallar, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Experimental models and observational studies suggest that vitamin E supplementation may prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, several trials of high-dosage vitamin E supplementation showed non-statistically significant increases in total mortality. Purpose: To perform a me

  17. Effects of supplementation of antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carla R. Nogueira; Fernanda Borges; Edson Lameu; Carlos Franca; Andréa Ramalho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Critical patients present systemic inflammatory process that can be followed by decrease in plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins. Objetive: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of antioxidant vitamins in critical patients and their relation with lipid peroxidation. Methods: 23 patients went on a standard diet (G1) and 11 went on a diet with daily supplementation of 10,000 IU of vitamin A, 400 mg of vitamin E and 600 mg of vitamin C (G2...

  18. Different Supplementation Regimes to Treat Perioperative Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelt, H J M; Pouwels, S; Smulders, J F

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 dosage in multivitamin supplementation in the current literature is quite variable. There is no consensus about the optimal treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency. A systematic literature search on different supplementation regimes to treat perioperative vitamin B12 deficiencies in bariatric surgery was performed. The methodological quality of ten included studies was rated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale and ranged from moderate to good. The agreement between the reviewers was assessed with a Cohen's kappa (0.69). The current literature suggests that 350 μg oral vitamin B12 is the appropriate dose to correct low vitamin B12 levels in many patients. Further research must focus on a better diagnosis of a vitamin B12 deficiency, the optimal dose vitamin B12 supplementation, and clinical relevance next to biochemical data.

  19. Vitamin C and E Supplementation Effects in Professional Soccer Players Under Regular Training

    OpenAIRE

    Stancanneli Mirtes; Neto Joaquim; Lazarim Fernanda L; Silva Fernando C.; Hohl Rodrigo; Zoppi Claudio C; Macedo Denise V

    2006-01-01

    Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n=5) received vitamins C...

  20. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Stine B; Tjønneland, Anne; Stripp, Connie

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among postmenopausal women...... was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements....

  1. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamułka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Pawłowska, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the application of diet supplements in pregnant women, as well as the intake of vitamins and minerals with pharmaceuticals. Sixty women in age 19 - 40 years coming from the Mazowsze district were examined. The information about applying supplements was obtained using questionnaire method. The intake of vitamin and mineral supplements before and during pregnancy was declared on the level of 55% and 98.3% respectively. The average intake of vitamin D (157%), folic acid (128%), vitamin B2 (125%), vitamin C (121%), iron (120%), iodine and zinc (113%) from supplements was above recommended values. The average intake of vitamin B1, B12 and B6 from supplements was about 95-105% of RDA. The lowest average consumption was noted for vitamin A (60%) as well as calcium and magnesium (10-12% of recommended value). Pregnant women who have lived in country consumed less vitamins and minerals from supplements, however differences were statistically significant in case vitamin A, E, magnesium, cooper, iodine and manganese.

  2. Controversies of antioxidant vitamins supplementation in exercise: ergogenic or ergolytic effects in humans?

    OpenAIRE

    Draeger, Cainara Lins; Naves, Andréia; Marques, Natália; Baptistella, Ana Beatriz; Carnauba, Renata Alves; Paschoal, Valéria; Nicastro, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this commentary was to discuss the last studies regarding the effect of antioxidant vitamins supplementation on oxidative stress in exercise in humans. The inclusion criteria encompassed published studies done in adult males and females between 2006 and 2013. The keywords used in the search engine were: endurance athlete, diet, oxidative stress, physical activity, diet, nutrition, antioxidant, antioxidant status, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, β-carotene and combinations. Twelve ...

  3. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in LDLR -/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...

  4. Performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows supplemented with vitamin E and fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rohollah Amirifard; Mohammad Khorvash; Masiholla Forouzmand; Hamid-Reza Rahmani; Ahmad Riasi; Mohammad Malekkhahi; Mojtaba Yari; Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE; 1500 or 3000 international units (IU) d–1) and fat (2% of dry matter calcium salt of soybean oil) supplementation during the transition period on feed intake, milk yield and composition and blood metabolites of dairy cows. 48 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of vitamin E and supplemental dietary fat during the transition period. Treatments were: 1) 1500 IU d–1 vitamin E without fat supplementation (1500VE–F); 2) 1500 IU d–1 vitamin E with fat supplement (1500VE+F); 3) 3000 IU d–1 vitamin E without fat supplementation (3000VE–F); and 4) 3000 IU d–1 vitamin E with fat supplement (3000VE+F). Dietary treatments were initiated at approximately 28 d before expected calving dates and con-tinued through 28 d postpartum. Dry matter intake (DMI) was unaffected (P>0.05) by prepartum treatment. Regardless of vitamin E supplementation, DMI was greater (P0.05) by treatments. Postpartum diets had no signiifcant effect on milk yield or milk composition. Plasma concentra-tions of non-esteriifed fatty acids, glucose, and insulin were not affected (P>0.05) by treatments. Regardless of vitamin E supplementation, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was greater (P<0.05) in fat-supplemented cows compared with un-supplemented cows during the postpartum period. These results showed no indication of positive effects on lactation performance associated with vitamin E and dietary fat supplement in transition cows.

  5. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur.

  6. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on health status in non-vitamin D deficient people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of depressive symptoms, fatigue or pain (all dimensions of reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL)) are common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Earlier studies have reported associations between low vitamin D status and fatigue and depressive symptoms...... both groups was seen concerning the SF-36 domain role limitations due to physical problems in disadvantage of the vitamin D group. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of vitamin D supplementation did not improve HRQOL in non-vitamin D-deficient people with type 2 DM managed on oral antidiabetic therapy........ The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on dimensions of HRQOL in people with type 2 DM. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: The effect of monthly cholecalciferol 50,000 IU vs placebo on HRQOL was assessed in 275 adults...

  7. Tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in minipigs after cutaneous synthesis, supplementation and deprivation of vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the endogenous storages of vitamin D3 after cutaneous vitamin D synthesis compared to oral vitamin D3 supplementation is sparse. Furthermore it is not known whether vitamin D3 can be stored for later use during periods of shortages of vitamin D3. To investigate the endogenous...... storages of vitamin D3 two studies were carried out in Göttingen minipigs. In study 1 one group of minipigs (n=2) was daily exposed to UV light corresponding to 10–20min of midday sun and another group (n=2) of pigs were fed up to 60μg vitamin D3/day corresponding to 3.7–4.4μg/kg body weight.Study 1...... demonstrated that daily UV-exposure of minipigs stimulated the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 and resulted in increasing serum vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, but also carcasses containing vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3. The vitamin D3 content in adipose tissue from the UV-exposed minipigs...

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose (25,000 IU weekly) vitamin D3 supplementation in obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese children

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose (25,000 IU weekly) vitamin D3 supplementation in obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese

  10. Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Irish community-dwelling older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2011-03-01

    Ireland is at 53°N, and its population risk of vitamin D deficiency is high. Previous Irish studies suggested a significant seasonality of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and a beneficial effect of supplementation in raising 25(OH)D levels. However, in Irish older people, little is known about the magnitude of the supplementation effect and whether supplementation affects 25(OH)D seasonality.

  11. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital....... INTERVENTION: Neonates who weighed less than 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to 25 000 IU vitamin A or placebo, as well as to early BCG vaccine or the usual late BCG vaccine, and were followed until age 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, calculated as mortality rate ratios (MRRs), after follow-up to 12...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality...

  12. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammed Hadithi; Chris JJ Mulder; Frank Stam; Joshan Azizi; J Bart A Crusius; Amado Salvador Pe(n)a; Coen DA Stehouwer; Yvo M Smulders

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vitamin supplements on homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: Vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and fasting plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 51 consecutive adults with celiac disease [median (range) age 56 (18-63) years; 40% men, 26 (51%) had villous atrophy, and 25 (49%) used B-vitamin supplements] and 50 healthy control individuals matched for age and sex. Finally, the C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was evaluated in 46 patients with celiac disease and all control individuals. RESULTS: Patients with celiac disease and using vitamin supplements had higher serum vitamin B6 ( P = 0.003), folate ( P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 ( P = 0.012) levels than patients who did not or healthy controls ( P = 0.035, P < 0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not ( P = 0.001) or healthy controls ( P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly and independently associated with homocysteine levels. Twenty-four (48%) of 50 controls and 23 (50%) of 46 patients with celiac disease carried the MTHFR thermolabile variant T-allele ( P = 0.89). CONCLUSION: Homocysteine levels are dependent on Marsh classification and the regular use of B-vitamin supplements is effective in reduction of homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease and should be considered in disease management.

  13. Influence of vitamin D mushroom powder supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage in vitamin D insufficient high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Knab, Amy M; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with vitamin D2 from Portobello mushroom powder would enhance skeletal muscle function and attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage in low vitamin D status high school athletes. Participants were randomised to Portobello mushroom powder (600 IU/d vitamin D2) or placebo for 6 weeks. Participants then completed a 1.5-h exercise session designed to induce skeletal muscle damage. Blood samples and measures of skeletal muscle function were taken pre-supplementation, post-supplementation/pre-exercise and post-exercise. Six weeks supplementation with vitamin D2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 by 9.9-fold and decreased serum 25(OH)D3 by 28%. Changes in skeletal muscle function and circulating markers of skeletal muscle damage did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 600 IU/d vitamin D2 increased 25(OH)D2 with a concomitant decrease in 25(OD)D3, with no effect on muscular function or exercise-induced muscle damage in high school athletes.

  14. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  15. Vitamin A supplementation reduces the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 intestinal immune response of Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kurt Z; Santos, Jose Ignacio; Estrada Garcia, Teresa; Haas, Meredith; Firestone, Mathew; Bhagwat, Jui; Dupont, Herbert L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Rosado, Jorge L; Nanthakumar, Nanda N

    2006-10-01

    The impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood diarrhea may be determined by the regulatory effect supplementation has on the mucosal immune response in the gut. Previous studies have not addressed the impact of vitamin A supplementation on the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), an essential chemokine involved in pathogen-specific mucosal immune response. Fecal MCP-1 concentrations, determined by an enzyme-linked immuno absorption assay, were compared among 127 Mexican children 5-15 mo of age randomized to receive a vitamin A supplement ( or =12 mo, 45,000 iu) every 2 mo or a placebo as part of a larger vitamin A supplementation trial. Stools collected during the summer months were screened for MCP-1 and gastrointestinal pathogens. Values of MCP-1 were categorized into 3 levels (nondetectable, or =median). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether vitamin A-supplemented children had different categorical values of MCP-1 compared with children in the placebo group. Differences in categorical values were also analyzed stratified by gastrointestinal pathogen infections and by diarrheal symptoms. Overall, children who received the vitamin A supplement had reduced fecal concentrations of MCP-1 compared with children in the placebo group (median pg/mg protein +/- interquartile range: 284.88 +/- 885.35 vs. 403.39 +/- 913.16; odds ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-97, P = 0.03). Vitamin A supplemented children infected with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) had reduced MCP-1 levels (odds ratio = 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.80) compared with children in the placebo group. Among children not infected with Ascaris lumbricoides vitamin A supplemented children had reduced MCP-1 levels (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94). These findings suggest that vitamin A has an anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract by reducing MCP-1 concentrations.

  16. The Effect of Various Vitamin D Supplementation Regimens in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J.; Huston, Alissa J.; Reid, Mary E.; Rosier, Randy N.; Zakharia, Yousef; Trump, Donald L.; Mustian, Karen M.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Purnell, Jason Q.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D deficiency in patients treated for breast cancer is associated with numerous adverse effects (bone loss, arthralgia, and falls). The first aim of this study was to assess vitamin D status, determined by 25-OH vitamin D levels, among women diagnosed with breast cancer according to demographic/clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily low-dose and weekly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on 25-OH vitamin D levels. Methods This retrospective study included 224 women diagnosed with Stage 0-III breast cancer who received treatment at the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Total 25-OH vitamin D levels (D2 + D3) were determined at baseline for all participants. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25-OH vitamin D level < 20 ng/mL, insufficiency as 20-31 ng/mL, and sufficiency as ≥ 32 ng/mL. BMD was assessed during the period between 3 months prior to and 6 months following the baseline vitamin D assessment. Based on the participants’ baseline levels, they received either no supplementation, low-dose supplementation (1,000 IU/day), or high-dose supplementation (≥ 50,000 IU/week), and 25-OH vitamin D was reassessed in the following 8-16 weeks. Results Approx 66.5% had deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Deficiency/insufficiency was more common among non-Caucasians, women with later-stage disease, and those who had previously received radiation therapy (p<0.05). Breast cancer patients with deficient/insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels had significantly lower lumbar BMD (p=0.03). Compared to the no supplementation group, weekly high-dose supplementation significantly increased 25-OH vitamin D levels, while daily low-dose supplementation did not significantly increase levels. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among women with breast cancer and associated with reduced BMD in the spine

  17. Vitamin D Supplementation for Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome Refractory to Conventional Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seok Hyun; Shin, Young Joo; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang; Park, Shin Goo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES) refractory to conventional treatment with vitamin D deficiency. A total of 105 patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and vitamin D deficiency that was treated with an intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol (200,000 IU). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured. Eye discomfort was assessed using ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and visual analogue pain score (VAS). Tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein staining score (FSS), eyelid margin hyperemia, and tear secretion test were measured before treatment, and 2, 6, and 10 weeks after vitamin D supplementation. Mean serum 25(OH)D level was 10.52 ± 4.61 ng/mL. TBUT, and tear secretion test showed an improvement at 2 and 6 weeks after vitamin D supplementation compared to pretreatment values (p vitamin D supplementation (p vitamin D supplementation is effective and useful in the treatment of patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27698364

  18. Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, M J; Grey, A; Reid, I R

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the highest level of evidence to inform clinical practice. Meta-analyses of large RCTs of calcium and/or vitamin D supplements completed in the last 15 years provide strong evidence for clinical recommendations. These meta-analyses with data for > 50,000 older adults reported that calcium with or without vitamin D has only weak, inconsistent effects on fracture, and that vitamin D without calcium has no effect on fracture. Only one RCT of co-administered calcium and vitamin D in frail, institutionalized, elderly women with low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D levels showed significant reductions in fracture risk. These RCTs have also reported previously unrecognized adverse events of calcium supplements including kidney stones, myocardial infarction, hypercalcemia, and hospitalization with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The small risk of these important adverse effects, together with the moderate risk of minor side-effects such as constipation, probably outweighs any benefits of calcium supplements on fracture. These data suggest the role for calcium and vitamin D supplements in osteoporosis management is very limited. Neither calcium nor vitamin D supplements should be recommended for fracture prevention in community-dwelling adults, although vitamin D should be considered for prevention of osteomalacia in at-risk individuals.

  19. Evaluation for magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation among Polish elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Jakub; Lebiedzińska, Anna; Marszałł, Marcin; Szefer, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary sport requires a lot of effort from sportsmen, frequently exceeding their maximum physical and mental efficiency. Athletes often report poor dietary habits and reach for magnesium and vitamin B supplements to avoid dietary deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine magnesium and vitamin B6 content in daily food rations of Polish athletes and to verify the justification of diet supplementation. Magnesium and vitamin B6 concentrations were determined in 62 collected and 12 reconstructed daily food rations of elite Polish runners. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry and HPLC methods were used for quantification of magnesium and vitamin B6, respectively. The analyzed female diets provided daily 256 +/- 111 mg of magnesium and 2.04 +/- 0.63 mg of vitamin B6 whereas male diets provided 284 +/- 58 mg of magnesium and 2.12 +/- 0.68 mg of vitamin B6. Computer analysis calculated 159-181% higher content o magnesium and vitamin B6 comparing to determined laboratory values. The results of this study indicate that in the analyzed daily food rations of athletes low magnesium intake was observed, thus diet supplementation with this mineral may be justified. Daily food rations fulfilled RDA for vitamin B6, thus supplementation with this vitamin was not justified.

  20. The role of vitamin supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chirag K; Huang, Jennifer; Lokhandwala, Adil; Fernandez, Aaron; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Alpert, Joseph S

    2014-09-01

    The production, sale, and consumption of multiple vitamins is a multibillion-dollar industry. Most Americans take some form of supplement ostensibly for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It has been claimed that vitamin A retards atherogenesis. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and is thought to possibly decrease free radical-induced endothelial injury, which can lead to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Vitamin E has been extensively studied for its possible effects on platelet function as well as inhibition of foam-cell formation. Low levels of vitamin D have been thought to negatively impact myocardial structure and increase the risk for cardiovascular events. Increased intake of vitamin B6, B12, and folate has been associated with reduction of homocysteine levels; elevated homocysteine blood levels have been associated with the occurrence of stroke, heart attack, and cardiovascular death. The purpose of this study was to review the currently available literature for vitamin supplementation with respect to prevention of cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, the current evidence suggests no benefit exists with vitamin supplementation in the general US population. Further research is needed to evaluate whether there are specific populations that might benefit from vitamin supplementation.

  1. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.;

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (Pbody fat was seen on the vitamin D status response following the intervention with vitamin D. In conclusion, there was no baseline association between body fat percentage and vitamin D status, and body fat percentage had...

  2. [Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)--excessive dosage in food supplements and OTC medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Huminer, David; Stahl, Bracha

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is sold in Israel as a supplement and is available over-the-counter (OTC) without regulation. High intake of this vitamin is found in patients with premenstrual syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, pregnancy associated nausea and vomiting, decreasing homocysteine levels and improving cognitive function. Mega-doses of this vitamin may result in intoxication. In this review we will outline vitamin B6 function, daily recommended intake, deficiency signs and patients in deficiency risk, and the clinical spectrum of vitamin B6 intoxication.

  3. Vitamin A supplementation in early life enhances the intestinal immune response of rats with gestational vitamin A deficiency by increasing the number of immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune

  4. The role of vitamin D supplementation in patients with rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    the function of the immune, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Vitamin D deficiency, due to insufficient sunlight exposure, dietary uptake and/or abnormalities in its metabolism, has been associated with rheumatic diseases, and both the classical and nonclassical effects of vitamin D might be of relevance......Vitamin D is a dietary vitamin that can also be synthesized in adequate amounts from cholesterol in most mammals exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D has classical roles in calcium and phosphate metabolism, and thus the skeleton; however, this molecule also has nonclassical effects that might influence......, harmful or beneficial, are observational in nature, linking clinical events to vitamin D exposure or serum levels of vitamin D metabolites. Evidence from high quality, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials should be obtained before vitamin D supplementation is recommended...

  5. Dietary and Supplemental Vitamin C and D on Symptom Severity and Physical Function in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren W; Gu, Yushan; Crum, Anthony B; Tang, Philip

    2017-05-30

    Vitamins C and D have been associated with decreasing pain and increasing function but these associations are not definitive. This cross-sectional study explores what relationships supplemental and dietary intake of vitamins C and D have on pain severity and physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, we performed regression analyses to examine relationships between vitamins C and D, pain, and function. Dietary vitamin D and dietary vitamin C were divided into >90th, 50th-90th, and D was divided into >85th percentile, whereas the high percentile group for supplemental vitamin C was divided into >90th percentile. We found the 90th/85th percentile levels of dietary and supplemental vitamin D to be positively associated with pain (β = 0.180; p = 0.028) and inversely related to physical function (β = -0.150, p = 0.028), respectively. Daily intake of vitamin C showed no statistical significance. We found that supplementary vitamin D was strongly associated with lessened disability for knee OA patients. The unexpected finding that associated dietary vitamin D with greater knee pain merits further study.

  6. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...

  7. Changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D according to vitamin D binding protein genotypes after vitamin D3 or D2 supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Nimitphong, Hataikarn; Saetung, Sunee; Chanprasertyotin, Suwannee; Chailurkit, La-or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not known whether genetic variation in the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) influences 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels [25(OH)D] after vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to investigate the changes of total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 in a Thai cohort, according to type of vitamin D supplement (vitamin D3 or D2) and DBP genotype, after receiving vitamin D3 or D2 for 3 months. Methods Thirty-nine healthy subjects completed the study. All subjects received 400 IU of either vitamin...

  8. Vitamin D supplementation does not affect serum lipids and lipoproteins in Pakistani immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Brot, Christine; Mejborn, Heddie

    2009-01-01

    Potential long-term negative effects of increased vitamin D consumption are not thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A 1-year long randomised double-blinded placebo......-controlled intervention study with two doses of vitamin D3 (10 and 20 g/day) was carried out among 89 women (18–53 years of age) and 84 men (18–64 years of age) of Pakistani origin living in Denmark with low vitamin D status. This study did not find changes in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL......-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol after daily supplementation with 10 or 20 g vitamin D for 1 year. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake by 10–20 g per day for 1 year is safe for Pakistani immigrants with regards to serum lipids and lipoproteins....

  9. Characterization and Quantitation of Vitamin B12 Compounds in Various Chlorella Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Bito, Mariko; Asai, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tago, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Masato; Mizoguchi, Toru; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-11-16

    Vitamin B12 was determined and characterized in 19 dried Chlorella health supplements. Vitamin contents of dried Chlorella cells varied from B12-containing Chlorella tablets, respectively. In four Chlorella tablet types with high and moderate vitamin B12 contents, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (approximately 32%) and methylcobalamin (approximately 8%) were considerably present, whereas the unnaturally occurring corrinoid cyanocobalamin was present at the lowest concentrations. The species Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly Chlorella pyrenoidosa) is commonly used in dietary supplements and did not show an absolute requirement of vitamin B12 for growth despite vitamin B12 uptake from the medium being observed. In further experiments, vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase activities were detected in cell homogenates. In particular, methionine synthase activity was significantly increased following the addition of vitamin B12 to the medium. These results suggest that vitamin B12 contents of Chlorella tablets reflect the presence of vitamin B12-generating organic ingredients in the medium or the concomitant growth of vitamin B12-synthesizing bacteria under open culture conditions.

  10. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, N; Benn, Christine Stabell; Biering-Sørensen, S

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood....

  11. The effect of homocysteine reduction by B-vitamin supplementation on markers of endothelial dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.C.T.; Molen, E.F. van der; Blom, H.J.; Heijer, M. den

    2004-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for arterial vascular disease and venous thrombosis. The pathophysiology of this relation is unclear, but several studies suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia impairs endothelial function. We examined the effect of homocysteine lowering by B-vitamin supplementation

  12. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial? Lessons learned from randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2010-01-01

    controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...

  13. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum DHEA and neopterin levels in elderly subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, van J.; Horst-Graat, van der J.; Bischoff, E.; Steerenberg, P.; Opperhuizen, A.; Schouten, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    Contradictory results have been published on the immune-stimulating effects of vitamin E. Using a randomized placebo-controlled design, the effect of 15 month¿s daily supplementation with 200 mg vitamin E on two biomarkers of immunocompetence, i.e. serum DHEA sulfate ester (DHEA-S) and neopterin,

  14. Effect of Vitamin K Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have suggested a potentially beneficial role for vitamin K on insulin resistance, but this has not been examined in a randomized controlled trial. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin K supplementation for 36 months will improve insulin resistance in older men and women. This is ...

  15. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of iron deficiency anemic patients supplemented with vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhikarmi, Nirjala Laxmi; Murthy, Kora Rudraiah Siddalinga

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at Pantioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved.

  16. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on various elements in elite taekwondo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlar, Suleyman; Boyali, Ekrem; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2011-03-01

    The present study aims to examine the effects of both physical activity and vitamin A supplementation on trace element metabolism in individuals engaged in taekwondo. The study registered seven healthy male national taekwondo players whose mean age was 21.86 ± 0.34 years and mean weight was 64.86 ± 2.72 kg. The subjects were supplemented with oral administration of 100 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 6 weeks, and concurrently, they were subjected to taekwondo training 5 days a week. Before starting the vitamin A supplementation, blood samples were taken from the subjects twice, once at rest and once after exhaustion. Similarly, at the end of the 6-week vitamin A supplementation, two blood samples were taken from the subjects, once at rest and once after exhaustion, in order to determine (by atomic emission) and compare serum cobalt, molybdenum, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, sodium, nickel, phosphorus, sulfur, iron, boron, and zinc (mg/L) levels. Values of boron and nickel dropped significantly after 6-week vitamin A supplementation (p < 0.001). Reduced levels of boron and nickel we obtained in the present study are believed to result from the antioxidant effect of long-term vitamin A supplementation.

  17. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.

  18. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862.

  19. Klinische betekenis van extra vitaminen uit supplementen en verrijkte voedingsmiddelen [Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g.

  20. The Effect of Different Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegar Hoseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and vitamin D deficiency are both too common during menopause. Since the effect of different doses of vitamin D supplements on blood sugar, insulin concentration  and insulin resistance are unknown, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of the vitamin D supplements on visceral fat, blood sugar, insulin concentration,  and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: In this randomized experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups  as follows: three groups . that received vitamin D supplements (high, moderate, and low dose and one control group. After 8 weeks of different doses of vitamin D supplementation plasma concentration of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were measured  in the three groups. The obtained data  was statistically analyzed by means of dependent t-test and ANOVA . at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: After a period of eight-week  intervention, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat, insulin, blood glucose and HOMA-IR at high, moderate, and low doses of vitamin D supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. High dose of vitamin D compared with moderate and low doses significantly caused reduction in insulin, blood glucose, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 for all three variables. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed that a high dose of vitamin D causes significant improvements in FPG, insulin, and insulin resistance  evaluated by HOMA-IR. It was also found that adding vitamin D supplements can improve glucose control in menopause model of rats.

  1. Association between vitamin D supplementation and severity of tuberculosis in wild boar and red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Cerrato, R; Gutierrez-Merino, J; Lanham-New, S; Barquero-Pérez, O; Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Fernández-Llario, P

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease affecting humans and other mammal species. Severity of TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans seems to be influenced by nutritional factors like vitamin D3 intake. However, this relationship has been scarcely studied in cattle and other mammals infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The aim of this work was to assess if wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis show different levels of TB severity depending on the level of vitamin D found in serum after supplementation with vitamin D3. Forty hunted wildlife mammals were included in this study: 20 wild boar and 20 red deer. Ten wild boar and ten red deer had been supplemented with a vitamin D3-enriched food, whereas the remaining animals had received no supplementation. TB diagnosis was carried out in each animal based on microbiological isolation of M. bovis. Animals infected with M. bovis were then classified as animals with localized or generalized TB depending on the location and dissemination of the lesions. Furthermore, serum levels of vitamin D2 and D3 were determined in each animal to evaluate differences not only between supplemented and non-supplemented animals but also between those with localized and generalized TB. Levels of vitamin D3 found in both, supplemented wild boar and red deer, were significantly higher than those found in the non-supplemented animals. Interestingly, higher levels of vitamin D3 were observed in animals suffering localized TB when compared to animals with generalized TB suggesting that vitamin D3 concentration correlates negatively with TB severity in these wildlife reservoirs.

  2. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  3. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Dong

    Full Text Available Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke.A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.

  4. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on the growth of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiyo, Lenient M O; Madu, Chuka T; Eze, Stanley S

    2006-08-01

    A 12-week growth experiment was conducted to establish the necessity of vitamin C in the nutrition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. Vitamin C was supplemented at levels of 0 and 50 mg x kg(-1) to a basal diet (42.5% CP), which was fed to triplicate groups of H. longifilis fingerlings. Fish receiving the vitamin C-supplemented diet had significantly improved weight gain (20.7 vs. 16.7 g per fish), feed efficiency ratio (1.03 vs. 1.42), specific growth rate (3.00 vs. 2.74%), protein efficiency ratio (2.26 vs. 1.64), and survival rate (90% vs. 50%). There was a significant decrease in haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of fish fed no supplemental vitamin C. Furthermore, this group exhibited retarded growth and pathological changes such as vertebral curvature, condensation associated with fragility of the spinal bones. Supplementation of 50 mg vitamin C per kg diet was adequate to prevent the occurrence of vitamin C deficiency in H. longifilis and it was concluded that vitamin C is essential in the nutrition of these fishes.

  5. [Is daily supplementation with vitamin D2 equivalent to daily supplementation with vitamin D3 in the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Mariana; Mastaglia, Silvina; Brito, Graciela; Somoza, Julia; Oliveri, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence of cholecalciferol (D3) and ergocalciferol (D2) as well as their corresponding doses and administration route remain controversial to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of daily supplementation with 800 IU of D2 (drops) and D3 (pills) on 25-hydroxivitamin D (25OHD) levels (= 30 ng/ml). Twenty-one ambulatory postmenopausal women from Buenos Aires City with a mean (X ± SD) age of 77.1 ± 6.8 years were included. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: GD2 (n = 13): 800 IU (drops) and GD3 (n = 8): 800 IU (pills). Serum 25OHD levels were measured (RIA-DIASORIN) at baseline, and at 7, 28 and 45 days. Nineteen out of twenty one women showed deficient levels of 25OHD at baseline (vitamin D3 during 45 days was more effective than D2 in increasing 25OHD, but both failed to achieve adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml). but neither succeeded in achieving adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml).

  6. The influence of vitamin E supplementation on the oxidative status of rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurašević S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested to see if the additional intake of vitamin E in the form of α-tocopheryl-succinate would improve liver antioxidative protection. Thus, we studied the tissue oxidative status in rats supplemented by two doses of the antioxidant over a four week period of time. Our results confirmed that the additional intake of vitamin E decreased the liver lipid peroxidation level and SOD activity level and preserved its vitamin C content. However, the hydrogen peroxide content and catalase activity remained unchanged, probably due to the mechanism of vitamin E liver metabolism. .

  7. Changes in oxidative status of the heart in rats receiving vitamin C supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurašević S.F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the oxidative status of the heart in rats receiving by two doses of vitamin C over a period of four weeks. The activities of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, and catalase, hydrogen peroxide concentration, the level of lipid peroxidation, and total vitamin C content were determined in the heart of the experimental animals, as well as the concentration of vitamin C in their serum. Our results indicate that, apart from the ability of rats to synthesize vitamin C, supplementation leads to additional antioxidative protection.

  8. Maternal vitamin A supplementation and immunity to malaria in pregnancy in Ghanaian primigravids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Sharon E; Staalsoe, Trine; Arthur, Paul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is believed to enhance immune responses to infection but few studies have assessed its effects on anti-malarial immunity, especially during pregnancy when women are at increased risk from both vitamin A deficiency and pregnancy-associated malaria....... The pathological effects of malaria in pregnancy are believed to be due to the sequestration of parasites in the placenta mediated via binding of variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed on the surface of P. falciparum infected red blood cells to placental chondroitin sulphate A (CSA). METHODS: We conducted...... a randomized double-blind controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation in 98 primigravid Ghanaian women to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation on levels of IgG antibodies binding to VSA of a clinical, P. falciparum placental isolate and to two isolates selected (or not) for adherence to CSA...

  9. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration of tre...

  10. A randomized trial of vitamin D₃ supplementation in children: dose-response effects on vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R D; Laing, E M; Hill Gallant, K M; Hall, D B; McCabe, G P; Hausman, D B; Martin, B R; Warden, S J; Peacock, M; Weaver, C M

    2013-12-01

    Changes in serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption with varying doses of oral vitamin D₃ in healthy children are unknown. Our objective was to examine the dose-response effects of supplemental vitamin D₃ on serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in children living at two U.S. latitudes. Black and white children (n = 323) participated in a multisite (U.S. latitudes 34° N and 40° N), triple-masked trial. Children were randomized to receive oral vitamin D₃ (0, 400, 1000, 2000, and 4000 IU/d) and were sampled over 12 weeks in winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)₂D) were measured using RIA and intact PTH (iPTH) by immunoradiometric assay. Fractional calcium absorption was determined from an oral stable isotope ⁴⁴Ca (5 mg) in a 150-mg calcium meal. Nonlinear and linear regression models were fit for vitamin D metabolites, iPTH, and calcium absorption. The mean baseline 25(OH)D value for the entire sample was 70.0 nmol/L. Increases in 25(OH)D depended on dose with 12-week changes ranging from -10 nmol/L for placebo to 76 nmol/L for 4000 IU. Larger 25(OH)D gains were observed for whites vs blacks at the highest dose (P pill compliance, race, sex, or baseline 25(OH)D. Large increases in serum 25(OH)D with vitamin D₃ supplementation did not increase calcium absorption in healthy children living at 2 different latitudes. Supplementation with 400 IU/d was sufficient to maintain wintertime 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy black, but not white, children.

  11. Sunlight exposure or vitamin D supplementation for vitamin D-deficient non-western immigrants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, I S; Boeke, A J P; van der Meer, I M; van Schoor, N M; Knol, D L; Lips, P

    2011-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is very common in non-western immigrants. In this randomized clinical trial, vitamin D 800 IU/day or 100,000 IU/3 months were compared with advised sunlight exposure. Vitamin D supplementation was more effective than advised sunlight exposure in improving vitamin D status and lowering parathyroid hormone levels. Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] sunlight exposure. To determine whether the effect of vitamin D(3) supplementation (daily 800 IU or 100,000 IU/3 months) or sunlight exposure advice is similar with regard to serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. Randomized clinical trial in 11 general practices in The Netherlands. Non-western immigrants, aged 18-65 years (n = 232) and serum 25(OH)D sunlight exposure for 6 months (March-September). Blood samples were collected at baseline, during treatment (3 months, 6 months), and at follow-up (12 months). Statistical analysis was performed with multilevel regression modelling. The intention-to-treat analysis included 211 persons. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was 22.5 ± 11.1 nmol/l. After 6 months, mean serum 25(OH)D increased to 53 nmol/l with 800 IU/day, to 50.5 nmol/l with 100,000 IU/3 months, and to 29.1 nmol/l with advised sunlight exposure (supplementation vs sunshine p sunlight group (p sunlight exposure for treating vitamin D deficiency in non-western immigrants.

  12. Vitamin D supplementation and systemic inflammation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røsjø, Egil; Steffensen, Linn H; Jørgensen, Lone; Lindstrøm, Jonas C; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Michelsen, Annika E; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Kampman, Margitta T; Torkildsen, Øivind; Holmøy, Trygve

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies have suggested that vitamin D may reduce inflammation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), but this has not been clearly confirmed in randomized controlled trials. To further explore the possible anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D in RRMS, we examined the effect of high-dose oral vitamin D3 on eleven markers of systemic inflammation in 68 RRMS patients enrolled in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation (20,000 IU/week) (NCT00785473). Serum inflammation markers and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured at baseline and week 96, and no restrictions were set on additional standard immunomodulatory treatment for RRMS. The mean 25(OH)D level rose from 56 ± 29 to 123 ± 34 nmol/L among patients receiving vitamin D3 supplementation, whereas only a minor increase from 57 ± 22 to 63 ± 24 nmol/L was seen in the placebo group. However, no significant differences appeared between the vitamin D group and the placebo group for any of the inflammation markers. Patients on immunomodulatory therapy had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 than patients without immunomodulatory treatment, but there were no clear synergistic effects between immunomodulatory therapy and vitamin D3 supplementation on any of the inflammation markers. The rise in 25(OH)D levels after vitamin D3 supplementation was unaffected by immunomodulatory treatment. We conclude that in this study of RRMS patients, high-dose oral vitamin D3 supplementation prominently increased serum 25(OH)D levels without affecting markers of systemic inflammation, while a more anti-inflammatory phenotype was found among patients on immunomodulatory treatment.

  13. Marginal Ascorbate Status (Hypovitaminosis C) Results in an Attenuated Response to Vitamin C Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Anitra C; Pullar, Juliet M; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2016-06-03

    Inadequate dietary intake of vitamin C results in hypovitaminosis C, defined as a plasma ascorbate concentration ≤23 μmol/L. Our objective was to carry out a retrospective analysis of two vitamin C supplementation studies to determine whether supplementation with 50 mg/day vitamin C is sufficient to restore adequate ascorbate status (≥50 μmol/L) in individuals with hypovitaminosis C. Plasma ascorbate data from 70 young adult males, supplemented with 50 or 200 mg/day vitamin C for up to six weeks, was analyzed. Hypovitaminosis C status was identified based on plasma ascorbate being ≤23 μmol/L and the response of these individuals to vitamin C supplementation was examined. Of the participants consuming 50 mg/day vitamin C for up to six weeks, those with hypovitaminosis C at baseline achieved plasma concentrations of only ~30 μmol/L, whereas the remainder reached ~50 μmol/L. Participants who consumed 200 mg/day vitamin C typically reached saturating concentrations (>65 μmol/L) within one week, while those with hypovitaminosis C required two weeks to reach saturation. Regression modelling indicated that the participants' initial ascorbate status and body weight explained ~30% of the variability in the final ascorbate concentration. Overall, our analysis revealed that supplementation with 50 mg/day vitamin C, which resulted in a total dietary vitamin C intake of 75 mg/day, was insufficient to achieve adequate plasma ascorbate concentrations in individuals with hypovitaminosis C. Furthermore, increased body weight had a negative impact on ascorbate status.

  14. Effect of B-vitamin supplementation on stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Chi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: B vitamins have been extensively used to reduce homocysteine levels; however, it remains uncertain whether B vitamins are associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of B vitamins on stroke. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify studies for our analysis. Relative risk (RR was used to measure the effect of B-vitamin supplementation on the risk of stroke. The analysis was further stratified based on factors that could affect the treatment effects. Of the 13,124 identified articles, we included 18 trials reporting data on 57,143 individuals and 2,555 stroke events. B-vitamin supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction in the risk of stroke (RR, 0.91, 95%CI: 0.82-1.01, P = 0.075; RD, -0.003, 95%CI: -0.007-0.001, P = 0.134. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation might reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg. Furthermore, in a cumulative meta-analysis for stroke, the originally proposed nonsignificant B-vitamin effect was refuted by the evidence accumulated up to 2006. There is a small effect with borderline statistical significance based on data gathered since 2007. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that B-vitamin supplementation is not associated with a lower risk of stroke based on relative and absolute measures of association. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg.

  15. The effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vitamin D levels and insulin sensitivity is dose related in vitamin D-deficient HIV-1-infected patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukel, CJ van den Bout-va; Bos, M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Sweep, F.C.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bosch, M.E.; Burger, D.M.; Koopmans, P.P.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of cholecalciferol supplementation on vitamin D levels, bone mineral density (BMD), body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in vitamin D-deficient HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Twenty vitamin D-deficient HIV-1-infected patients we

  16. Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation and UVb exposure on the growth and plasma concentration of vitamin D3 metabolites in juvenile bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Stevens, Y.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Leeuwen, van J.P.T.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of dietary vitamin D3 and UVb exposure on plasma vitamin D metabolites in growing bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was studied. A total of 84 (40 males and 44 females) newly hatched bearded dragons were allocated to six levels of oral vitamin D3 supplementation (0 to 400%) or six

  17. Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Wirth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A supplementation (VAS programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006, which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made.

  18. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian T. Lugg; Howells, Phillip A; Thickett, David R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also...

  19. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Sebastian T; Howells, Phillip A; Thickett, David R

    2015-01-01

    First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also discussed. We review the current knowledge gathered from experimental studies, observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and subsequent systematic reviews in order to suggest the optimal vitamin D level for CVD protection.

  20. Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Meremikwu, Martin M; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization...... (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to December week 3, 2015), Embase...... (1974 to December 2015) and LILACS (1985 to December 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. DATA COLLECTION...

  1. A case study of discordant overlapping meta-analyses: vitamin d supplements and fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Bolland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are now very common, and discordant results often occur. To explore why discordant results arise, we examined a common topic for overlapping meta-analyses- vitamin D supplements and fracture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 24 meta-analyses of vitamin D (with or without calcium and fracture in a PubMed search in October 2013, and analysed a sample of 7 meta-analyses in the highest ranking general medicine journals. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the quality of the meta-analyses, and compared their methodologies, analytic techniques and results. Applying the AMSTAR tool suggested the meta-analyses were generally of high quality. Despite this, there were important differences in trial selection, data extraction, and analytical methods that were only apparent after detailed assessment. 25 trials were included in at least one meta-analysis. Four meta-analyses included all eligible trials according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria, but the other 3 meta-analyses "missed" between 3 and 8 trials, and 2 meta-analyses included apparently ineligible trials. The relative risks used for individual trials differed between meta-analyses for total fracture in 10 of 15 trials, and for hip fracture in 6 of 12 trials, because of different outcome definitions and analytic approaches. The majority of differences (11/16 led to more favourable estimates of vitamin D efficacy compared to estimates derived from unadjusted intention-to-treat analyses using all randomised participants. The conclusions of the meta-analyses were discordant, ranging from strong statements that vitamin D prevents fractures to equally strong statements that vitamin D without calcium does not prevent fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in trial selection, outcome definition and analytic methods between overlapping meta-analyses led to discordant estimates of the efficacy of vitamin D for fracture prevention

  2. Variation in vitamin D supplementation among adults in a multi-race/ethnic health plan population, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Nancy P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D may have a role in many chronic conditions in addition to bone health. Nutritional surveys among Americans have reported high levels of vitamin D insufficiency, especially among Blacks and Latinos. Our study examined variation in vitamin D supplementation practices in an adult health plan population by age, gender, and race-ethnicity. Methods Self-report data from a 2008 general health survey in a large Northern California health plan were used to characterize number and types of sources of vitamin D supplementation (multivitamin, calcium with D, singular D among women and men aged 25-85, overall, by race-ethnicity, and for obese, diabetic, and hypertensive subgroups. Results In this population, 40% of women and 54% of men ≤ 50, and 24% of women and 53% of men aged 51-85 get no vitamin D from dietary supplements. Higher vitamin D supplementation among women > 50 is associated with higher reported intake of calcium with D. Black and Latina women aged 25-85 and Filipinas in the ≤ 50 age group were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to get vitamin D from supplements, whereas vitamin D supplementation practices among Chinese women did not significantly differ from non-Hispanic Whites. Among men, Latinos aged 25-85 and Black and Chinese ≤ 50 were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to get vitamin D from supplements. Similar race-ethnic differences in vitamin D supplementation patterns were observed for people in the obese, diabetic, and hypertensive groups. Conclusions Our survey results suggest that in 2008, a large percentage of women and an even larger percentage of men in a large Northern California health plan get no vitamin D from dietary supplements, and that Blacks and Latinos and obese adults, who are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency, are also the least likely to get any vitamin D from dietary supplements.

  3. Vitamin D status assessed by a validated HPLC method: within and between variation in subjects supplemented with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between......-subject variation of vitamin D status in serum samples from four different dietary intervention studies in which subjects (n=92) were supplemented with different doses of vitamin D3 (5-12 g/day) and for different durations (4-20 months). Results. The HPLC method was applicable for 4.0-200 nmol S-25OHD/L, while...... was in the range 47-120 nmol/L. Conclusions. The validated HPLC method was applied in samples from human intervention studies in which subjects were supplemented with vitamin D3. The estimated standard deviation between and within subjects is useful in the forthcoming decision on setting limits for optimal vitamin...

  4. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  5. Increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men who took 400 international units of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,

  6. Plasma folate but not vitamin B(12) or homocysteine concentrations are reduced after short-term vitamin B(6) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Holzapfel, A; Czech, N; Müller, M J

    2001-01-01

    Adverse effects of high vitamin B(6) intake include peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies focussing on the reduction of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease showed that vitamin B(6) reduces plasma folate levels. The significance of this finding is unclear. We therefore analyzed plasma folate and basal homocysteine levels as well as the response to an oral methionine loading test in 8 healthy individuals before and after a controlled supplementation with oral doses of 25 mg pyridoxine for 10 days. Plasma pyridoxal phosphate increased from 40.6 +/- 13.6 to 426.8 +/- 200.3 nmol/l (p < 0.001), whereas plasma folate decreased from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 4.6 +/-1.5 ng/ml (p < 0.01), respectively. Plasma vitamin B(12) and basal homocysteine levels remained unchanged (234.0 +/- 27.8 vs. 217.1 +/- 50.4 pg/ml and 10.9 +/- 4.8 vs. 10.1 +/- 3.6 micromol/l). There was no significant effect of vitamin B(6) supplementation on the area under methionine and homocysteine concentration versus time curve. Significant correlations were found between pre- and post-supplement levels of folate as well as PLP levels (r = 0.73, p < 0.05; r = 0.75, p < 0.05). These data suggest that a dose of 25 mg vitamin B(6) supplemented for 10 days reduces plasma folate but did not affect basal and postprandial homocysteine levels suggesting (1) a normal cellular availability of folate or (2) a compensation of impaired homocysteine remethylation by increased transsulfuration.

  7. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

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    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  8. Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wacker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented.

  9. Suppression of S antigen-induced uveitis by vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pararajasegaram, G; Sevanian, A; Rao, N A

    1991-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin E were investigated using the S antigen model of uveoretinitis. Thirty-six 3-week-old Lewis rats were separated into three groups and maintained on a specially formulated diet. One group of animals received a diet deficient in vitamin E; a second group received a normal diet containing vitamin E, and the third group, in addition to receiving the normal diet, received vitamin E supplementation. At 9 weeks of age, all rats were sensitized to S antigen. Six animals in each group were killed on day 14 and the remaining animals on day 21 following immunization. Both histopathologic and biochemical studies were conducted to evaluate the tissue damage observed in animals maintained on different dietary levels of the vitamin. The intraocular inflammation in the vitamin E-supplemented group was considerably smaller than in the other two groups (p less than 0.01). The former group had the highest level of vitamin E in both the eye and plasma (mean value 1.13 micrograms/mg protein and 23.9 micrograms/ml, respectively), while the vitamin E-deficient group had the lowest levels (mean values of 0.16 micrograms/mg protein and 0.48 micrograms/ml in the eye and plasma, respectively). Results of the radioimmunoassay for the determination of the arachidonic acid metabolites revealed significantly lower levels of thromboxane B2 in the vitamin E-supplemented group (2.04 +/- 0.45 pg/mg) than in the normal (4.33 +/- 0.98 pg/mg) or the vitamin E-deficient (5.21 +/- 1.12 pg/mg) groups (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation in the elderly: review of safety and effectiveness of different regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P M; Freaney, R; McKenna, M J

    1995-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly, especially in countries where effective sunlight or exposure to sunlight is limited. Two regimes for vitamin D supplementation--low-dose daily oral administration and intermittent high-dose administration--were examined with regard to safety and effectiveness. Eleven papers reporting studies in 449 elderly subjects were reviewed. On low-dose continuous supplementation mean concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ranged from 57 to 105 nmol/L compared to 55 to 87 nmol/L following high-dose supplementation. These mean values fall within the physiological range for young adults. Hypercalcemia occurred in only 3 subjects and was associated with a predisposing cause in 2 of 3 subjects. We suggest that low dose continuous supplementation (10 to 20 micrograms daily) is the regime of choice but high-dose intermittent supplementation (2.5 mg six monthly) may be suitable where compliance is poor.

  12. Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-02-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving, on glucose and methionine metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 2 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply methionine as 1.83% metabolizable protein, equivalent to 76% of methionine requirement, whereas the 2 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented daily with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine. Within each diet, the cows were administrated either no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid plus 10 mg of vitamin B(12.) To investigate metabolic changes at 12 wk of lactation, glucose and methionine kinetics were measured by isotope dilution using infusions of 3[U-(13)C]glucose, [(13)C]NaHCO(3) and 3[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)] methionine. Milk and plasma concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B(12) increased with vitamin injections. Supplementary B-vitamins increased milk production from 34.7 to 38.9 +/- 1.0 kg/d and increased milk lactose, protein, and total solids yields. Whole-body glucose flux tended to increase with vitamin supplementation with a similar quantitative magnitude as the milk lactose yield increase. Vitamin supplementation increased methionine utilization for protein synthesis through increased protein turnover when methionine was deficient and through decreased methionine oxidation when rumen-protected methionine was fed. Vitamin supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of homocysteine independently of rumen-protected methionine feeding, although no effect of vitamin supplementation was measured on methionine remethylation, but this could be due to the limitation of the technique used. Therefore, the effects of these B-vitamins on lactation performance

  13. [Vitamin D, determinant of bone and extrabone health. Importance of vitamin D supplementation in milk and dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Valverde, Cristina; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel

    2015-04-07

    proper supplementation of milk with vitamin D is an attractive chance and a challenge for Public Health of Spain and the European Union. It has provided excellent results in the US, Canada, Northern Europe Countries, etc. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Is vitamin D supplementation a viable treatment for Crohn's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D, important for maintaining bone health in Crohn's disease (CD), may have potential as a treatment for the core inflammatory disease process. There is plausible evidence in favor of vitamin D as an anti-inflammatory from animal models, epidemiological and cross sectional studies of CD. Few clinical trials, however, have been published and therefore the translation of this promise into clinical benefit for people with CD remains unclear. The purpose of this piece is to consider the viability of vitamin D as a treatment for CD based on the current available evidence.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in supplemented and non-supplemented women with systemic lupus erythematosus in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Almirall, M; Corzo, Patricia; Mojal, Sergi; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously reported that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among SLE patients than in the general population. We sought to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and their related factors, its relationship to SLE symptoms and disease activity on a group of supplemented and non-supplemented female SLE patients from the Mediterranean region. We performed a cross-sectional study including female SLE patients who regularly attended the outpatient Lupus Unit at Parc de Salut Mar-IMAS in Barcelona, from January 2012 to May 2014. Collected data were sociodemographics, vitamin D supplementation, fatigue degree visual analog scale, pharmacological treatment, main SLE serological markers, indexes, scales and plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. One hundred and two consecutive female SLE patients were included. Vitamin D overall insufficiency and deficiency were exhibited by 46 and 22.5 % of patients, respectively. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 50 % of supplemented and 60 % of non-supplemented patients. Among non-supplemented female SLE patients, it was found that patients with vitamin D insufficiency showed more fatigue (p = 0.009) and received more oral corticosteroids (p = 0.02) than those with normal levels. Patients with vitamin D insufficiency (supplemented and non-supplemented) received more oral corticosteroids than those without insufficiency (p = 0.008). Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent among female SLE patients, even in southern regions. Non-supplemented female SLE patients showed more fatigue and received more oral corticosteroids than those with normal levels of vitamin D. These data were not found in supplemented patients although having a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (up to 50 %). Further studies with longer follow-up and larger population are needed to confirm our observations.

  16. Proposed Criteria for the Use of Low-Dose Vitamin K Supplementation in Patients Using Vitamin K Antagonists: A Literature Review of a Clinical Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christy E; Getchell, Katerine E; Ivy, Delaney R

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been used for decades to prevent thromboembolic events, but can be burdensome to patients based on numerous factors impacting anticoagulation control. Low-dose vitamin K supplementation has been theorized to improve anticoagulation control in patients on VKAs that may be vitamin K deficient. The objective of this literature review is to propose criteria for implementing low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. The CHEST 2012 antithrombotic guidelines recommended against routine use of vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. An observational study and three randomized controlled trials pertaining to this recommendation were evaluated. A literature review was also performed on other studies looking at the impact of low-dose vitamin K supplementation on anticoagulation control through a search in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. One retrospective and two prospective studies were reviewed. Six of the seven studies demonstrated a non-statistically significant trend in data supporting improvement in anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation. While many of the studies did not achieve significant results, the majority demonstrated a trend in support of the improvement of anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs.

  17. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  18. Vitamin A capsule supplementation in Malawi villages: missed opportunities and possible interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R A; Courtright, P; Barrows, J

    1995-01-01

    A population-based survey was used to assess childhood and maternal vitamin A capsule coverage in Malawi and to investigate missed opportunities for capsule distribution. Overall, 9.3% of children had received vitamin A supplementation in the previous 6 months. Missed opportunities for receiving vitamin A were high in younger children. Fifty-five percent of mothers were covered in 8 villages served by volunteers and 23% in the 58 villages without volunteers. Existing strategies need to be redesigned and new strategies defined. For instance, mothers could receive supplementation during infant BCG vaccination, and children could receive initial supplementation during measles vaccination. Village health volunteers could be used to target children over 2 years of age. PMID:7733436

  19. Prenatal vitamin d supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Goldring

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest high prenatal vitamin D intake may be associated with reduced childhood wheezing. We examined the effect of prenatal vitamin D on childhood wheezing in an interventional study. METHODS: We randomised 180 pregnant women at 27 weeks gestation to either no vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery or single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol, in an ethnically stratified, randomised controlled trial. Supplementation improved but did not optimise vitamin D status. Researchers blind to allocation assessed offspring at 3 years. Primary outcome was any history of wheeze assessed by validated questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included atopy, respiratory infection, impulse oscillometry and exhaled nitric oxide. Primary analyses used logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 158 of 180 (88% offspring at age 3 years for the primary outcome. Atopy was assessed by skin test for 95 children (53%, serum IgE for 86 (48%, exhaled nitric oxide for 62 (34% and impulse oscillometry of acceptable quality for 51 (28%. We found no difference between supplemented and control groups in risk of wheeze [no vitamin D: 14/50 (28%; any vitamin D: 26/108 (24% (risk ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.49, 1.50; P = 0.69]. There was no significant difference in atopy, eczema risk, lung function or exhaled nitric oxide between supplemented groups and controls. CONCLUSION: Prenatal vitamin D supplementation in late pregnancy that had a modest effect on cord blood vitamin D level, was not associated with decreased wheezing in offspring at age three years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68645785.

  20. Childhood Vitamin A Capsule Supplementation Coverage in Nigeria: A Multilevel Analysis of Geographic and Socioeconomic Inequities

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde Aremu; Stephen Lawoko; Koustuv Dalal

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a huge public health burden among preschool-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa, and is associated with a high level of susceptibility to infectious diseases and pediatric blindness. We examined the Nigerian national vitamin A capsule (VAC) supplementation program, a short-term cost-effective intervention for prevention of VAD-associated morbidity for equity in terms of socioeconomic and geographic coverage. Using the most current, nationally representative data ...

  1. We Need Studies of the Mortality Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation, Not Surveys of Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD. This is no longer a tenable assumption. The justification for using VAS is to reduce child mortality, but there is now doubt that VAS has any effect on overall child mortality. What we need now are not surveys of VAD, but proper randomized trials to evaluate whether VAS has beneficial effects on overall child survival.

  2. Should antioxidant vitamin supplementation be applied in patients with metabolic syndrome? A case-control study

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    Małgorzata Godala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : All cells in the human body are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS, which disturb the metabolic reactions in the organism. The antioxidant system in the human body consists of enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms, among which vitamins A, C, and E play a major role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the supply of vitamins A, C, and E from daily food rations (DFR in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS in relation to current nutrition standards. Material and methods: The study involved 184 women with MS, aged 45-68 years (mean 57.38 ±8.17 years. The control group comprised 90 women, aged 41-65 years (mean 57.48 ±5.79 years without MS. The food intake was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Results: The evaluation of intake of vitamins measured with daily food rations (DFR demonstrated that the optimal level of 90-110% according to standards was achieved only in 3.62% of women with metabolic syndrome for vitamin A, in 8.88% for vitamin C, and in 11.41% for vitamin E, which was significantly less often found than in the control group (p < 0.001. Conclusions : Women with MS are characterised by diversified intake of vitamins A, C and E, and a subgroup of this patients present low level of antioxidant vitamins intake. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins should be prescribed individually to postmenopausal women with MS.

  3. Chronic disease risk factors in vitamin/mineral supplement users and nonusers in a farm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzarre, T L; Hopkins, R G; Wu, S M; Murdoch, S D

    1991-06-01

    Dietary, anthropometric, and chronic disease risk factors (CDRF) in vitamin/mineral supplement users (U) and non-users (NU) were measured in a farm population consisting of 162 subjects (46% females and 54% males; 20-79 years of age, mean age: 52 years). Subjects were white, except for two black males. Supplements were used by 62 subjects (38%); 47% of females and 31% of males used supplements; 43% of subjects over 50 years of age and 32% of subjects age 50 or under used supplements. Both dietary intake and energy expenditure were measured using 4-day records. Indices of adiposity included body weight, BMI, and estimated body fat. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, zinc, copper, and vitamin C were based on 12-hr fasting blood samples. Dietary intake (excluding supplements) for vitamin/mineral U was greater than NU for vitamin C (p = 0.006), thiamin (p = 0.01), riboflavin (p = 0.03), niacin (p = 0.02), folic acid (p = 0.001), vitamin B6 (p = 0.01), and magnesium (p = 0.019). Vitamin C levels were significantly higher and the sum of four skinfolds was significantly lower among U than NU. In this population, 24% of males and 18% of females had TC levels over 240 mg%; 8% of both males and females had blood pressures (BP) greater than 140/90 mm Hg, while 49% of males and 46% of females had BP between 120/80 and 140/90; and 71% of males were more than 25% fat, and 56% of females were more than 35% fat. Despite the high prevalence of CDRF, there were no significant differences between supplement U and NU.

  4. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones studied by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lani, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Baliouskas, Gerasimos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is utilized to examine the effects of increased calcium, vitamin D, and combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones with induced inflammation. The study includes different bone sites (femur, tibia, humerus, vertebral rib) in an effort to explore possible differences among the sites. We evaluate the following parameters: mineral-to-matrix ratio, carbonate content, and non-apatitic species (labile acid phosphate and labile carbonate) contribution to bone mineral. Results show that a relatively high dose of calcium or calcium with vitamin D supplementation increases the bone mineralization index significantly. On the other hand, vitamin D alone is not as effective in promoting mineralization even with high intake. Mature B-type apatite was detected for the group with calcium supplementation similar to that of aged bone. High vitamin D intake led to increased labile species concentration revealing bone formation. This is directly associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines linked to induced inflammation. The latter is known to adversely alter bone metabolism, contributing to the aetiopathogenesis of osteoporosis. Thus, a high intake of vitamin D under inflammation-induced osteoporosis does not promote mineralization but suppresses bone resorption and restores metabolic balance.

  5. The hepatoprotective potential of Spirulina and vitamin C supplemention in cisplatin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Mehta, Pooja

    2012-02-01

    Spirulina platensis is a microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. We investigated the mechanism of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity and whether this natural antioxidant provided protection against cisplatin hepatotoxicity. The study was carried out in a mice model where the animals were segregated into different groups according to their treatments, e.g. control group with no treatment, cisplatin treated, cisplatin + Spirulina treated, cisplatin + vitamin C treated and cisplatin + Spirulina + vitamin C treated. The liver marker enzymes were found to be elevated following cisplatin treatment, signifying hepatotoxicity. The supplementation of Spirulina and vitamin C could effectively bring down the levels of these enzymes. Light microscopy also showed that cisplatin treatment induced liver injury and that histopathological abnormalities were prevented by Spirulina and vitamin C supplementation. This protective effect was further substantiated by the estimation of antioxidant levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in the Spirulina, vitamin C and Spirulina + vitamin C supplemented groups as compared to cisplatin alone.

  6. Vitamin K supplementation for meat quail in growth of 1 to 14 days old

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    Caroline Espejo Stanquevis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried outto determine the levels of vitamin K for meat quails (Coturnixcoturnixsp from 1 to 14 days of age. Atotal of 2200 birds were used, complete by random experimental design, with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions and 55 meat quails per experimental unit. The levels of vitamin K supplementation were 0; 0.7; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 1.9; 2.2; 2.5 mg/kg diets. The performance was measured through weighing weekly from the birds and feed, and at the end of the experiment was carried out collects blood and bones for the assessment of bone quality parameters. The levels of vitamin K supplementation had no influence on performance orbone quality, except thatthe bone density and calcium concentration of the femur and the bone density of the tibia showeda quadratic effect, with estimates of 0.98; 0.92 and 1.18 respectively. The length of the tibia showed a linear increase according to the levels of vitamin K. There was no effect in the concentration of serum calcium, but there was a quadratic effect in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase. The vitamin K supplementation did not affect the performance of the meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age, showing that the amount of vitamin K present in ground corn and soybean meal-based diets is sufficient to meet the needs of the birds’ performance.

  7. Dangerous nutrition? Calcium, vitamin D, and shark cartilage nutritional supplements and cancer-related hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan

    2003-04-01

    The use of nutritional supplements in the general population and in cancer patients has become very popular. These supplements are not perceived as medications and are presumed to be safe by cancer patients, who may however be at risk for hypercalcemia. We note that many of our patients who have developed symptomatic hypercalcemia were taking vitamin D, calcium, or shark cartilage supplements. We report eight cases of hypercalcemia in cancer patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in whom these nutritional supplements may have contributed to the prevalence or severity of hypercalcemia.

  8. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010–2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD—outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND—weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN—track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL—track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  9. Vitamin C: optimal dosages, supplementation and use in disease prevention

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    Callen Pacier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin C as a way to prevent scurvy has been known for centuries. More recent research on vitamin C has expanded beyond scurvy prevention, providing promising evidence for additional health benefits and clinical applications. This review of scientific literature will evaluate many aspects of vitamin C including deficient versus optimal blood plasma levels, adequate daily amounts necessary to maintain ideal levels, and the safety of higher doses. It will also focus on the importance of vitamin C as a powerful bioactive compound, and its utilization in the prevention and management of different chronic diseases. This review is necessary to express the importance of alternative healthcare methods in both preventative and clinical care. Vitamin C was chosen as a representative of this concept due to its powerful antioxidant capacity, incredibly important physiological implications, and very minimal chance of side-effects. This review focuses on studies involving human participants that address how vitamin C is important for our health

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment Before and After Vitamin Supplementation in a Patient With Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Sádaba, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery.We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vitamin A confirmed the diagnosis and patient started vitamin A supplementation. Visual fields, macular thickness, and ganglion cell layer thickness were recorded and monitored 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the beginning of therapy. Visual fields were significantly altered and central macular thickness and ganglion cell layer thickness were reduced, but the first 2 showed a significant recovery with vitamin supplementation therapy. By the 1st month of treatment patient referred a complete remission of visual symptoms. Further, we observed hyperreflective material accumulating beneath a partially disrupted ellipsoid band in the high definition optical coherence tomography that also improved progressively with vitamin repletion.Newer and more sophisticated imaging systems have increased our knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for retinal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin supplementation on macular thickness. This case also highlights the importance of considering bariatric bypass surgery as a cause of vitamin A deficiency in developed countries.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during pregnancy. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the risk of adverse gestational outcomes. To update a previous meta-analysis on the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) during pregnancy on maternal 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, impaired glucose tolerance, caesarean section, gestational hypertension and other adverse conditions. We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized trials through the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, and direct communications with relevant organizations. Assessments of inclusion criteria, extraction of data from included studies, and risk of bias' assessments of the included studies were done independently by two review authors. We included 15 trials, excluded 27 trials and 23 trials are still ongoing/unpublished. Data from seven trials with 868 women suggest that pregnant women supplemented with vitamin D had significantly higher 25(OH)D levels compared to controls (mean difference: 54.7nmol/L; 95% CI 36.6, 72.9). Two trials found a lower risk of preeclampsia (8.9% versus 15.5%; average risk ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.25, 1.05) and two other trials found no difference in the risk of gestational diabetes with vitamin D supplementation. Also, three trials found that supplementation with vitamin D plus calcium reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia (5% versus 9%; average risk ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.32, 0.80). Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D led to significantly higher levels of 25(OH)D at term compared to placebo/control but results were inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, may be related to lower risk of preeclampsia but more studies are needed to confirm this

  12. Controversies of antioxidant vitamins supplementation in exercise: ergogenic or ergolytic effects in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Cainara Lins; Naves, Andréia; Marques, Natália; Baptistella, Ana Beatriz; Carnauba, Renata Alves; Paschoal, Valéria; Nicastro, Humberto

    2014-02-19

    The aim of this commentary was to discuss the last studies regarding the effect of antioxidant vitamins supplementation on oxidative stress in exercise in humans. The inclusion criteria encompassed published studies done in adult males and females between 2006 and 2013. The keywords used in the search engine were: endurance athlete, diet, oxidative stress, physical activity, diet, nutrition, antioxidant, antioxidant status, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, β-carotene and combinations. Twelve studies were identified and organized according to the methodology and results of supplementation: ergogenic, ergolytic, partial or no difference between groups. The results of these studies showed no effect on physiological parameters and activity of antioxidant enzymes (n = 07), better response of the placebo treatment (ergolytic effect; n = 02), partial results (n = 01) and ergogenic results of antioxidant supplementation (n = 02). It is concluded that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins has controversial effects to oxidative damage induced by endurance exercise. The discordances among the studies are presented and discussed.

  13. Vitamin, mineral and iron supplementation in pregnancy: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the use of vitamin, mineral and iron supplements during pregnancy in Zagreb and Novi Sad. Methods. The study was conducted by use of a structured standardized questionnaire consisting of two parts, i. e. data obtained by maternal interview and hospital records. It is designed as a cross-sectional study in two countries (Croatia and Serbia. The study included 893 pregnant women from Zagreb and 6099 pregnant women from Novi Sad. Results. In Zagreb, pregnant women reported highest utilization of vitamin-mineral supplements (n = 508; 56.9 %, whereas in Novi Sad these supplements ranked third (n = 408; 20.3 %, following tocolytics and iron supplements. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of congenital malformations between neonates at in utero exposure to vitamins, minerals and iron supplements and those without such exposure in either Zagreb or Novi Sad arm, with the exception of iron and calcium supplementation in the Zagreb arm. Conclusions. In spite of certain study limitations, the results obtained pointed to the unreasonable and potentially harmful use of these supplements in pregnant women from Zagreb.

  14. Vitamin D supplementation during rehabilitation in COPD: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornikx Miek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Pulmonary rehabilitation is an important treatment for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, who are often vitamin D deficient. As vitamin D status is linked to skeletal muscle function, we aimed to explore if high dose vitamin D supplementation can improve the outcomes of rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Material and methods This study is a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a larger randomized trial comparing a monthly dose of 100.000 IU of vitamin D with placebo to reduce exacerbations. 50 Subjects who followed a rehabilitation program during the trial are included in this analysis. We report changes from baseline in muscle strength and exercise performance between both study arms after 3 months of rehabilitation. Results Vitamin D intervention resulted in significantly higher median vitamin D levels compared to placebo (51 [44-62] ng/ml vs 15 [13-30] ng/ml; p 0.050. Conclusion High dose vitamin D supplementation during rehabilitation may have mild additional benefits to training.

  15. NIH-funded study shows increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. |

  16. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on drip loss of bovine longissimus lumborum, psoas major and semitendinosus muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog-Meischke, M.J.; Smulders, F.J.M.; Houben, J.H.; Eikelenboom, G.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation (2150 1U/head/day) on drip loss and related quality traits of bovine M. longissimus lumborum, M. psoas major and M. semitendinosus was examined. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on drip loss seemed to depend on muscle studied. Drip loss of longi

  17. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment Before and After Vitamin Supplementation in a Patient With Vitamin A Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Sádaba, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery. We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vi...

  18. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on the bone specific biomarkers in HIV infected individuals under treatment with efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etminani-Esfahani Maryam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was reported that antiretroviral drugs such as efavirenz can increase the catabolism of vitamin D in HIV infected individuals. We have not found any study that evaluated effects of vitamin D supplementation on the bone specific biomarkers in HIV positive patients under treatment with antiretroviral regimen containing efavirenz. Findings Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 88.4 % of included patients. Baseline osteocalcin, but not collagen telopeptidase, serum levels were lower than normal range in all of these individuals. Both bone biomarkers’ concentrations increased significantly (p  Conclusion In the HIV-infected patients under treatment with efavirenz, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent. After supplementation with single dose of 300,000 IU vitamin D in this population, the activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts stimulates bone formation and resorption respectively with favorable bone formation without any adverse event. Significant percent of HIV infected individuals are vitamin d deficient that could benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

  19. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  20. A randomized clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Melissa S; Pitts, Sarah A B; Milliren, Carly E; Feldman, Henry A; Reinold, Kristina; Gordon, Catherine M

    2013-05-01

    The most safe and effective dose of vitamin D supplementation for healthy adolescents is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 200 IU versus 1,000 IU of daily vitamin D3 for supplementation in healthy adolescents with baseline vitamin D sufficiency. We conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Fifty-six subjects, ages 11-19 years, with baseline vitamin D sufficiency received 1,000 IU or 200 IU of daily vitamin D3 for 11 weeks. Compliance was assessed using MEMS6 Trackcaps and pill counts. Fifty-three subjects completed the clinical trial. Subjects in the two treatment arms were similar in terms of age, race, gender, body mass index, and dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. Serum 25(OH)D level in the 200 IU treatment arm was 28.1 ± 6.2 ng/mL at baseline (mean ± SD) and 28.9 ± 7.0 ng/mL at follow-up. In the 1,000 IU treatment arm, 25(OH)D levels were 29.0 ± 7.3 and 30.1 ± 6.6 at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Mean change in 25(OH)D level did not differ significantly between treatment arms (p = .87), nor did mean change in parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, bone turnover markers, fasting glucose, or fasting insulin. In healthy adolescents with baseline vitamin D sufficiency, supplementation with vitamin D3 doses of 200 and 1,000 IU for 11 weeks did not increase serum 25(OH)D levels, with no significant difference observed between treatment arms. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Supplementation of vitamin D in pregnancy and its correlation with feto-maternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablok, Aanchal; Batra, Aruna; Thariani, Karishma; Batra, Achla; Bharti, Rekha; Aggarwal, Abha Rani; Kabi, B C; Chellani, Harish

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent throughout the world. Pregnant women, neonates and infants form most vulnerable groups for vitamin D deficiency. (1) To find prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women. (2) To evaluate the effect of supplementation with cholecalciferol in improving vitamin D levels in pregnant women and evaluate its correlation with feto-maternal outcome. Randomized control trial from years 2010 to 2012. Tertiary care centre, Delhi, India. One-hundred and eighty pregnant women. Study population divided randomly into two groups: group A: nonintervention (60 women) and group B: intervention (120 women). The intervention group received supplementation of vitamin D in dosages depending upon 25(OH)-D levels. Risk of maternal complications such as preterm labour, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes associated with vitamin D deficiency and risk of low birthweight and poor Apgar score in infants of mothers with vitamin D deficiency. Adjusted serum 25(OH)-D concentration was lower in group A as compared to group B (mean 46·11 ± 74·21 nmol/l vs 80 ± 51·53 nmol/l). Forty-four percent patients in group A and 20·3% patients in group B developed preterm labour/pre-eclampsia/gestational diabetes. Newborns of mothers in group A had lower cord blood levels of 25(OH)-D levels as compared to group B (mean 43·11 ± 81·32 nmol/l vs 56·8 ± 47·52 nmol/l). They also had lower birthweight of mean 2·4 ± 0·38 kg as compared to group B 2·6 ± 0·33 kg. Vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of maternal comorbidities and helps improve neonatal outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dairy Intake Is Protective against Bone Loss in Older Vitamin D Supplement Users: The Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-04-01

    Background: Previous studies showed beneficial effects of specific dairy foods on bone health in middle-aged adults.Objective: We examined the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, fluid dairy (milk + yogurt), and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes with bone mineral density (BMD) and 4-y percentage of change in BMD [▵%BMD; femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS)]. We further assessed whether these associations were modified by vitamin D supplement use in this cohort of older adults.Methods: Food-frequency questionnaire responses, baseline BMD (hip and spine, n = 862 in 1988-1989), and follow-up BMD (n = 628 in 1992-1993) were measured in the Framingham study, a prospective cohort study of older Caucasian men and women aged 67-93 y. Outcomes included baseline BMD and ▵%BMD. Dairy-food intakes (servings per week) were converted to energy-adjusted residuals, and linear regression was used, adjusting for covariates. These associations were further examined by vitamin D supplement use.Results: The mean age of the participants was 75 y. In the full sample, dairy-food items were not associated with BMD (P = 0.11-0.99) or with ▵%BMD (P = 0.29-0.96). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were associated with higher LS BMD (P = 0.011-0.009). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were protective against trochanter BMD loss (P = 0.009).Conclusions: In this population of older adults, higher intakes of milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese were associated with higher LS BMD, and a higher intake of milk + yogurt + cheese was protective against trochanter BMD loss among vitamin D supplement users but not among nonusers. These findings underscore that the benefits of dairy intake on the skeleton may be dependent on vitamin D intake.

  3. Lipid profiles of rats fed with diets supplemented with vitamins niacin and pyridoxine

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Supplements containing the vitamins niacin (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) can promote the reduction of total cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. In this study, the effects of diets supplemented with niacin (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) on the hepatic and serum lipid profiles of Wistar rats were assessed. The diets were prepared with combinations of three concentrations of niacin (3, 4 and 5 g/kg) ...

  4. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Tyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.

  5. EFFECTS OF VITAMIN C SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE CHRONIC PHASE OF CHAGAS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães MARIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to examine the effectiveness of vitamin C (ascorbic acid in combating the oxidative insult caused by Trypanosoma cruzi during the development of the chronic phase of Chagas disease, Swiss mice were infected intraperitoneally with 5.0 × 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi QM1strain. Methods: Mice were given supplements of two different doses of vitamin C for 180 days. Levels of lipid oxidation (as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total peroxide, vitamin C, and reduced glutathione were measured in the plasma, TBARS, total peroxide and vitamin C were measured in the myocardium and histopathologic analysis was undertaken in heart, colon and skeletal muscle. Results: Animals that received a dose equivalent to 500 mg of vitamin C daily showed increased production of ROS in plasma and myocardium and a greater degree of inflammation and necrosis in skeletal muscles than those that received a lower dose or no vitamin C whatsoever. Conclusion: Although some research has shown the antioxidant effect of vitamin C, the results showed that animals subject to a 500 mg dose of vitamin C showed greater tissue damage in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, probably due to the paradoxical actions of the substance, which in this pathology, will have acted as a pro-oxidant or pro-inflammatory.

  6. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  7. [Intake of pharmacologic supplements of vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Survey conducted in Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaim, Irena; Penar, Agnieszka; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Gałaś, Aleksander; Jedrychowski, Wiesław

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pharmacological supplements during pregnancy in the sample of 406 nonsmoking women, residents of Krakow. Multivitamins' supplements were taken by 79.1%, folic acid by 41.4%, magnesium by 23.9% and iron only by 14.5% of the study group. Our results confirm that vitamin and mineral supplements, ferrum, folic acid and magnesium in particular, are inadequate in comparison to recommended intakes. Women with lower education (secondary school or lower) failed to supplement diet with multivitamins (OR = 5.74; 95% CI: 1.41-23.5) and folic acid (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.22-3.66). Otherwise, health problems during the previous pregnancies and nulliparity have lowered pharmacological folic acid supplements (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21-0.97 and OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99, respectively). Results of our study show that diet assessed for pregnancy period does not meet nutritional requirements. Pharmacological supplementary intake of vitamins and minerals is also insufficient. It is advisable to popularize education concerning necessity and usefulness of vitamin and microelement supplementation during medical examinations in the childbearing age.

  8. Supplemental vitamin A prevents the acute radiation-induced defect in wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, S.M.; Gruber, C.A.; Rettura, G.; Gruber, D.K.; Demetriou, A.A.; Seifter, E.

    1984-10-01

    Acute radiation injury leads to thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal ulceration, and impaired wound healing. The authors hypothesized that supplemental vitamin A would mitigate these adverse effects in rats exposed to acute whole-body radiation. To test their hypothesis, dorsal skin incisions and subcutaneous implantation of polyvinyl alcohol sponges were performed in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats at varying times following sham radiation or varying doses of whole-body radiation (175-850 rad). In each experiment, the control diet (which contains about 18,000 IU vit. A/kg chow (3 X the NRC RDA for normal rats)) was supplemented with 150,000 IU vit. A/kg diet beginning at, before, or after sham radiation and wounding or radiation and wounding. The supplemental vitamin A prevented the impaired wound healing and lessened the weight loss, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, decrease in splenic weight, and gastric ulceration of the radiated (750-850 rad) wounded rats. This was true whether the supplemental vitamin A was begun before (2 or 4 days) or after (1-2 hours to 4 days) radiation and wounding; the supplemental vitamin A was more effective when started before or up to 2 days after radiation and wounding. The authors believe that prevention of the impaired wound healing following radiation by supplemental vitamin A is due to its enhancing the early inflammatory reaction to wounding, including increasing the number of monocytes and macrophages at the wound site; possible effect on modulating collagenase activity; effect on epithelial cell (and possible mesenchymal cell) differentiation; stimulation of immune responsiveness; and lessening of the adverse effects of radiation.

  9. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  10. Effect of vitamin C supplementation in the prevention of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Moludi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF after cardiac surgery has been emphasized. Vitamin C as an antioxidant important role in reducing the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. This study aimed to investigate, administration of vitamin C, as a way to reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass surgery. Methods: In this double-blind clinical study, 290 patients in Rajaee Heart Center, from March 2013 to December 2014 who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into intervention and control groups to receive vitamin C and placebo. The intervention group before the surgery in the operating room received 2 grams of vitamin C intravenously then one gram per day for four days prior to surgery. After the operation, the two groups were compared in terms of the following: Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after surgery, ICU stay and hospital stay and duration of intubation. Results: 113 cases and 177 controls (191 men and 99 women with a mean age of 55.40±14.40 years in both groups (vitamin C and placebo were enrolled. The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 55% in the placebo group to 35% in the vitamin C group decreased (P= 0.001. Duration of intubation in the intervention group 11.8 and the control group was 14.14 hours (P= 0.004. The amount of drainage was lower in vitamin C group (P= 0.003. Vitamin C had no effect on the rates of hospital and ICU stay (P= 0.075. There was no significant reduction in threatening arrhythmia (VT and VF in this period (P= 0.159. Conclusion: Vitamin C supplements may reduce atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery also can improve conditions such as reducing the duration of intubation. With regard to the safety, these supplements can be recommended for the prevention of atrial fibrillation before coronary artery bypass surgery.

  11. The effect of homocysteine reduction by B-vitamin supplementation on markers of endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Anita C T M; van der Molen, Els F; Blom, Henk J; den Heijer, Martin

    2004-11-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for arterial vascular disease and venous thrombosis. The pathophysiology of this relation is unclear, but several studies suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia impairs endothelial function. We examined the effect of homocysteine lowering by B-vitamin supplementation on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI) and von Willebrand factor (vWf)--markers of endothelial dysfunction--in hyperhomocysteinemic and normohomocysteinemic volunteers. A total of 123 healthy volunteers were randomized to placebo or B-vitamins (5 mg folic acid, 0.4 mg hydroxycobalamin and 50 mg pyridoxine) daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, blood samples were taken for measurements of homocysteine, tPA, PAI and vWf. There was no evident association between homocysteine concentration and concentrations of markers of endothelial dysfunction at baseline. The mean reduction of homocysteine concentration was 31% (95%CI 22.7 to 39.1) in the B-vitamin group compared to 3% reduction in the placebo group. Concentrations of tPA, PAI and vWf did not change after supplementation of B-vitamins. In conclusion, the results of our study show that homocysteine reduction by B-vitamin supplementation has no effect on markers of endothelial dysfunction in healthy volunteers.

  12. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on insulin sensitivity or secretion in vitamin D-deficient, overweight or obese adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Aya; Naderpoor, Negar; de Courten, Maximilian Pj; Teede, Helena; Kellow, Nicole; Walker, Karen; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes. Existing clinical trials have been limited by short duration, low doses of vitamin D, variability in participants' vitamin D-deficiency status, and the use of surrogate measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion.Objective: To address existing knowledge gaps, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation that is provided in a sufficient dose and duration to vitamin D-deficient individuals would improve insulin sensitivity or secretion as measured with the use of gold-standard methods. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation would improve insulin sensitivity and secretion compared with placebo.Design: Sixty-five overweight or obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration ≤50 nmol/L) adults were randomly assigned to receive either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/d or a matching placebo for 16 wk. Before and after the intervention, participants received gold-standard assessments of body composition (via dual X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), and insulin secretion [via intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests (IVGTTs)].Results: Fifty-four participants completed the study [35 men and 19 women; mean ± SD age: 31.9 ± 8.5 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30.9 ± 4.4]. 25(OH)D increased with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (57.0 ± 21.3 compared with 1.9 ± 15.1 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.02). Vitamin D and placebo groups did not differ in change in insulin sensitivity (0.02 ± 2.0 compared with -0.03 ± 2.8 mg · kg(-1) · min(-1), respectively; P = 0.9) or first-phase insulin secretion (-21 ± 212 compared with 24 ± 184 mU/L, respectively; P = 0.9). Results remained nonsignificant after adjustment for age, sex

  13. Long-Term Use of Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals Does Not Reduce the Risk of Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, James M.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Pocobelli, Gaia; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) has the highest lifetime treatment cost of any cancer making it an ideal target for preventative therapies. Previous work has suggested that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce the risk of UC. We sought to use the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine the association of all commonly taken vitamin and mineral supplements as well as 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements with incident UC in a United States population. Materials&Methods 77,050 eligible VITAL participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline on supplement use and cancer risk factors. . After 6 years of follow-up, 330 incident UC cases occurring in the cohort were identified via linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. We analyzed use of supplemental vitamins (multivitamins, beta-carotene, retinol, folic acid, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D and E), minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and anti-inflammatory supplements (glucosamine, chondroitin, saw-palmetto, ginko-biloba, fish oil and garlic). For each supplement, the hazard ratios (risk ratios) for UC comparing each category of users to nonusers, and 95% confidence intervals, were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression., adjusted for potential confounders. Results None of the vitamin, mineral or anti-inflammatory supplements was significantly associated with UC risk in either age-adjusted or multivariate models. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the use of commonly taken vitamin or mineral supplements or 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements for chemoprevention of UC. PMID:21334017

  14. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birthweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birthweight neonates. ... Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants « 2 500 g) are at increased risk of respiratory infection in ... After adjusting for risk factors this difference was no longer significant.

  15. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...

  16. Validation Protocol of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with HIV-Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güerri-Fernández, Roberto; Villar García, Judit; González Mena, Alicia; Guelar Grinberg, Ana; Montero, María Milagro; Sorli, Luisa; Calzado, Sonia; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel Freud, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D 65 pg/mL) were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg) weekly (if deficiency) or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels). Rates of normalization of 25(OH)D (levels above 20 ng/mL) and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL) were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL). Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF) and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27699068

  17. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 defiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Clarke, R.J.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B12 deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized, pa

  18. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.; Groot, L.C. de; Clarke, R.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a randomized

  19. Validation Protocol of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with HIV-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Lerma-Chippirraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OHD 65 pg/mL were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg weekly (if deficiency or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels. Rates of normalization of 25(OHD (levels above 20 ng/mL and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL. Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism.

  20. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.; Groot, L.C. de; Clarke, R.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a

  1. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 defiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Clarke, R.J.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B12 deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized,

  2. Vitamin D supplementation and antibacterial immune responses in adolescents and young adults with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Rene F.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Lee, T; Schall, Joan I.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Rutstein, Richard M.; Adams, John S.; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Hewison, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human monocytes activated by toll-like receptor 2/1 ligand (TLR2/1L) show enhanced expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). The resulting intracrine conversion of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) can stimulate expression of antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP). To determine whether this response is functional in HIV-infected subjects (HIV+), serum from HIV+ subjects pre- and post-vitamin D supplementation was utilized in monocyte cultures with or without TLR2/1L. Expression of CYP27B1 and VDR was enhanced following treatment with TLR2/1L, although this effect was lower in HIV+ vs HIV- serum (p<0.05). CAMP was also lower in TLR2/1L-treated monocytes cultured in HIV+ serum (p<0.01). In a dose study, supplementation of HIV+ subjects with 4,000IU or 7,000IU vitamin D/day increased serum 25OHD from 17.3±8.0 and 20.6±6.2 ng/ml (43 nM and 51 nM) at baseline to 41.1±12.0 and 51.9±23.1 ng/ml (103 nM and 130 nM) after 12 wks (both p<0.001). Greater percent change from baseline 25OHD was significantly associated with enhanced TLR2/1L-induced monocyte CAMP adjusted for baseline expression (p = 0.009). In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, 7,000IU vitamin D/day increased serum 25OHD from 18.0±8.6 to 32.7±13.8 ng/ml (45 nM and 82 nM) after 12 wks. Expression of CAMP increased significantly from baseline after 52 wks of vitamin D-supplementation. At this time point, TLR2/1L-induced CAMP was positively associated with percent change from baseline in 25OHD (p = 0.029 overall and 0.002 within vitamin D-supplemented only). These data indicate that vitamin D supplementation in HIV-infected subjects can promote improved antibacterial immunity, but also suggest that longer periods of supplementation are required to achieve this. PMID:25092518

  3. A vitamin B-12 supplement of 500 μg/d for eight weeks does not normalize urinary methylmalonic acid or other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marilyn H; Flatley, Janet E; Barker, Margo E; Garner, Clare M; Manning, Nigel J; Olpin, Simon E; Moat, Stuart J; Russell, Jean; Powers, Hilary J

    2013-02-01

    Plasma vitamin B-12 is the most commonly used biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the predictive value for low vitamin B-12 status is poor. The urinary methylmalonic acid (uMMA) concentration has potential as a functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the response to supplemental vitamin B-12 is uncertain. A study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness of uMMA to supplemental vitamin B-12 in comparison with other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status [plasma vitamin B-12, serum holotranscobalamin (holoTC), plasma MMA] in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 8-wk intervention study was carried out using vitamin B-12 supplements (500 μg/d, 100 μg/d, and 10 μg/d cyanocobalamin) in 100 elderly people with a combined plasma vitamin B-12 1.5. All biomarkers had a dose response to supplemental vitamin B-12. Improvements in plasma vitamin B-12 and serum holoTC were achieved at cobalamin supplements of 10 μg/d, but even 500 μg/d for 8 wk did not normalize plasma vitamin B-12 in 8% and serum holoTC in 12% of people. The response in uMMA was comparable with plasma MMA; 15-25% of people still showed evidence of metabolic deficiency after 500 μg/d cobalamin for 8 wk. There was a differential response in urinary and plasma MMA according to smoking behavior; the response was enhanced in ex-smokers compared with never-smokers. uMMA offers an alternative marker of metabolic vitamin-B12 status, obviating the need for blood sampling.

  4. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation during the Induction and Progression of Osteoarthritis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies correlate low levels of vitamin D with the osteoarthritis (OA progression. Cytokines and metalloproteases play a major role in OA promoting the inflammation and degradation of the cartilage and can be induced through the Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on the development of osteoarthritis (OA through examining the genetic regulation of TLRs, cytokines, and metalloproteases in chondrocytes as well as the wideness of cartilage in rats with OA. Our results demonstrate that the signaling through TLR-4 is a proinflammatory mechanism in osteoarthritis that drives the upregulation of MMP-3, IL-1β, and TNF-α gene expression, leading to cartilage degradation and inflammation. Vitamin D supplementation had a protective effect during the onset but not during the chronic stage of OA in the rat model.

  5. Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams James B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited. Method This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16 pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted. Results The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003, reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008, ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002, nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004, ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001, NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002, and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001. Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008, and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003, Tantrumming (p = 0.009, Overall (p = 0.02, and Receptive Language (p = 0.03. For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant. Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R2 = 0.61, p Conclusions Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in

  6. Effect of routine prenatal supplementation on vitamin concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sânzio Gurgel, Cristiane Santos; Alves de Araújo Pereira, Larisa; de Assis Costa, Aldiane; Adja da Silva Souza, Mayara; Araújo de Brito, Poliana; Miranda de Melo, Larisse Rayanne; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of multivitamin supplements and their different vitamin A sources on retinol concentrations in serum and colostrum milk of postpartum women. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study composed of healthy postpartum women attending two Brazilian private maternity wards (N = 100). According to the type of multivitamin taken during pregnancy, the women were assigned to one of four groups: control group (CG; n = 25), formulation 1 (F1; n = 25), formulation 2 (F2; n = 25), and formulation 3 (F3; n = 25). Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions and retinol was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary vitamin A was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Retinol concentrations vitamin A deficiency. Of women in the control group, 12% (n = 3) presented serum retinol levels below the cut-off value for adequacy; this was not observed in the supplemented groups. Evaluating the retinol content in breast milk, supplemented groups F1 and F3 presented 4% (n = 1) of inadequacy cases, whereas F2 presented 40% (n = 10). The concentrations found in the F2 and F3 groups were statistically different (P vitamin A during pregnancy prevents vitamin A deficiency regardless of the source administered. In breast milk, supplementation with β-carotene provided a lower concentration of vitamin A compared with retinol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifestyle modification, nutritional and vitamins supplements for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Helena P Y; Liu, David T L; Lam, Dennis S C

    2013-02-01

    To provide a systematic review of the published studies pertaining to the lifestyle modification, dietary, nutritional and vitamins supplements for preventing occurrence or halting deterioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The literature searches from 1990 to December 2010 with following keywords, 'age related macular degeneration', 'nutrition', 'antioxidant', 'diet' and 'vitamins supplements' using search engines Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Meta-analyses, population-based cohort studies and case-controlled trials were reviewed, whereas small cases series, case reports, commentaries, abstracts in proceedings or personal observations were excluded. Smoking and obesity are identified risk factors for AMD. High dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, and macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have been associated with a lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. Vitamin B and extracts from wolfberry, Gingko biloba and berry anthocyanins were also subjects of intense research interests, but there has been no concluding scientific evidence yet. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) is the only large-scale randomized controlled clinical trial to show beneficial effect of AREDS formulation of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper in reducing the risk progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with advanced AMD in one eye. Quit smoking is an important advice to patients to prevent or slow the progress of AMD. There is no recommendation for routine nutritional or vitamins supplementation for primary prevention. However, patients with documented intermediate risk of AMD or advanced AMD in one eye are recommended to take AREDS-type vitamin supplements. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P. O. Box ... supplementation services among mothers with children below five years attending. Mbagathi .... to control for confounders and effect modification.

  9. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on symptoms and C-reactive protein in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mottaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migarine is the most common headache around the world including Iran. In recent years, Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to a global health problem. A few studies have been determined inverse association between serum levels of Vitamin D with a headache. So, in this study, we investigated the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on symptoms and C-reactive protein (CRP among patients with migraine. Materials and Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, and controlled-placebo clinical trial. Sixty-five migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included for analysis. Vitamin D was administrated for 10 weeks with 50,000 IU dosage of Vitamin D per week. Multivariate analysis of covariate and univariate analysis of covariate were done to determine the effects of Vitamin D supplementation on symptoms, including severity, duration, frequency of headache, and the headache diary result (HDR. Results: Mean headache frequency and HDR had significant difference among two groups (5.9 ± 7.0 vs. 7.0 ± 6.0, P = 0.06 and 85.0 ± 134.2 vs. 132.1 ± 147.1, P = 0.04. But, a mean difference of headache frequency was marginally significant (P = 0.06. These values were lower among the intervention group compared to placebo group. The association was not observed between CRP with migraine disease. Conclusion: In this study, we shown Vitamin D supplementation may be useful in decreasing frequency of headache attacks and HDR among patients with migraine.

  10. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda J. Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years. Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OHD concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OHD concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001. However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types.

  11. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for

  12. Hypovitaminosis D and "small burden" uterine fibroids: Opportunity for a vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Serri, Matteo; Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Tozzi, Alessandra; Aggiusti, Alice; Clemente, Nicolò

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with hypovitaminosis D and "small burden" uterine fibroids.This study focused on 208 women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and concomitant hypovitaminosis D, from January to December 2014. One hundred eight women of the initial study population were diagnosed with "small burden" uterine fibroids. Among them, those who underwent a proper vitamin D supplementation constituted the "study group" (n = 53), while women who spontaneously refused the therapy or did not perform it properly, constituted the "control group" (n = 55). The characteristics of uterine fibroids, the fibroid-related symptoms, and the vitamin D serum levels were evaluated 12 months after the initial diagnosis.In women with uterine fibroids, a negative correlation emerged between the baseline 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) concentration and both the volume of the largest fibroid (r = -0.18, P = 0.01) and the total volume of fibroids (r = -0.19, P = 0.01). No correlation was found between the baseline 25-OH-D3 levels and the number of fibroids per patient (r = -0.10, P = 0.16). In women of the "study group," a significant increase in the 25-OH-D3 serum level was observed after 12 months of supplementation, and a lower rate of surgical or medical treatment due to the "progression to extensive disease" was reported (13.2% vs 30.9%, P = 0.05).Supplementation therapy with 25-OH-D3 restores normal vitamin D serum levels in women with "small burden" fibroids. In these women, vitamin D supplementation seems to reduce the progression to an extensive disease, and thus the need of conventional surgical or medical therapy.

  13. Lipid profiles of rats fed with diets supplemented with vitamins niacin and pyridoxine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna da Glória Lameiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Supplements containing the vitamins niacin (B3 and pyridoxine (B6 can promote the reduction of total cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. In this study, the effects of diets supplemented with niacin (B3 and pyridoxine (B6 on the hepatic and serum lipid profiles of Wistar rats were assessed. The diets were prepared with combinations of three concentrations of niacin (3, 4 and 5 g/kg and pyridoxine (6, 12 and 18 mg/kg and one with neither vitamin. The animals were divided into eleven experimental groups of six animals per group, and nine groups were fed on a standard diet with 7.5% fat and vitamin supplementation. Another group was fed with 7.5% fat without vitamin supplements. A control group received the standard diet (AIN-93M without modifications (4% fat. The weight gain, food intake, serum and hepatic total cholesterol, serum cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL, and VLDL, serum and hepatic triacylglycerols and hepatic and fecal lipid contents were measured after 30 days. The diet with the highest concentration of niacin and lowest concentration of pyridoxine had the lowest level of total hepatic cholesterol. Hepatic triacylglycerols were reduced by the highest concentration of niacin (5 g/kg, and this reduction was enhanced by increasing the pyridoxine concentration. The diets supplemented with niacin and pyridoxine reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triacylglycerols and hepatic lipids. These effects on the lipid profile varied with the concentrations of the two vitamins and the interactions between them.

  14. High-Dose versus Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation and Arterial Stiffness among Individuals with Prehypertension and Vitamin D Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Zaleski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the onset and progression of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-mediated increased risk of CVD remain unknown. We sought to examine the differential effect of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D supplementation on markers of arterial stiffness among ~40 vitamin D deficient adults with prehypertension. Methods. Participants were randomized to high-dose (4000 IU/d versus low-dose (400 IU/d oral vitamin D3 for 6 months. 24 hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and pulse wave analyses were obtained at baseline and after 6 months of vitamin D supplementation. Results. There were no changes in resting BP or pulse wave velocity over 6 mo regardless of vitamin D dose (all p>0.202. High-dose vitamin D decreased augmentation index and pressure by 12.3 ± 5.3% (p=0.047 and 4.0 ± 1.5 mmHg (p=0.02, respectively. However, these decreases in arterial stiffness were not associated with increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over 6 mo (p=0.425. Conclusion. High-dose vitamin D supplementation appears to lower surrogate measures of arterial stiffness but not indices of central pulse wave velocity. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (Unique Identifier: NCT01240512.

  15. "Vitamin D supplementation and bone health in adults with diabetic nephropathy: the protocol for a randomized controlled trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Diana R; Jackson, Stephanie T; Hoffmann, Michelle R; Jindal, Kailash; Senior, Peter A

    2014-08-12

    Suboptimal vitamin D status is highly prevalent in Northern communities, particularly in those patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes and chronic renal disease. Emerging literature suggests that adherence to daily vitamin D supplementation may be an important factor influencing vitamin D status and overall bone health, but compliance with therapies for bone health is a major challenge. It is unknown what level of vitamin D supplementation will ameliorate or improve suboptimal vitamin D status in patients with diabetic nephropathy or contribute to improved bone health, particularly for those living in northern climates. The study purpose was to examine two different strategies of vitamin D3 supplementation; daily dosing of 2000 IU per day verses monthly dosing of 40,000 IU per month on markers of vitamin D status, bone health and to examine whether adherence, quality of life and patient satisfaction with the supplementation strategy differs between the two vitamin D strategies in adults diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy. The need for RCTs assessing higher doses of vitamin D3 supplementation at varying frequencies of administration and its impact on bone health in adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01476501.

  16. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant...... and vitamin E source is synthetic all-rac-α-tocopheryl acteate. The objective of the present study was to compare potential vitamin E and immune stimulant sources with synthetic vitamin E regarding bioactivity associated with immunological parameters in order to identify alternatives to synthetic vitamin E...... for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546 g Ascophylum...

  17. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B

    2001-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d. These data suggest that supplementing 6 MIU of vitamin D3 will decrease DMI and improve beef tenderness through increased blood plasma Ca concentrations and WHC.

  18. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Mojibian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.

  19. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forli, Liv; Bollerslev, Jens; Simonsen, Svein; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Kvamsdal, Kari E; Godang, Kristin; Gadeholt, Gaut; Pripp, Are H; Bjortuft, Oystein

    2010-02-27

    Osteoporosis is a problem after transplantation. Studies since the last year indicate that vitamin K plays a role in optimal bone health. The aim of this randomized, double blind, prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (180 microg menakinon-7) on bone mass, the first year after lung and heart transplantation. After preoperative baseline investigation of bone mass and bone-related biochemistry, 35 lung and 59 heart recipients were postoperatively randomized to vitamin K2 or placebo and reinvestigated the following year. In all recipients, 1 year after solid organ transplantation, the difference between vitamin K2 and placebo for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.028 (SE 0.014) g/cm(2), P=0.055 and for L2 to L4 bone mineral content was 1.33 (SE 1.91) g/cm(2) (P=0.5). In lung recipients separately, the difference for bone mineral content was 3.39 g (SE 1.65), P=0.048 and in heart recipients 0.45 (SE 0.02) g, P=0.9 after controlling for baseline measures. In a forward stepwise linear regression analysis fitted to model differences in the L2 to L4 BMD, controlled for possible confounding variables (including use of bisphosphonate), and the only significant predictors were organ (B=-0.065 g/cm(2), Pvitamin K2 (B=0.034 g/cm(2), P=0.019). Insufficient vitamin D status was common, and the parathyroid hormone was highest in the K2 group indicating a higher need for vitamin D. One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

  20. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  1. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  2. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

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    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  3. Vitamin D Supplementation for Childhood Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Bruno D Riverin

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma but it is unclear whether supplementation during childhood may improve asthma outcomes.The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation as a treatment or adjunct treatment for asthma.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and CINAHL through July 2014.We included RCTs that evaluated vitamin D supplementation in children versus active control or placebo for asthma.One reviewer extracted data and one reviewer verified data accuracy. We qualitatively summarized the main results of efficacy and safety and meta-analyzed data on comparable outcomes across studies. We used GRADE for strength of evidence.Main planned outcomes measures were ED visits and hospitalizations. As secondary outcomes, we examined measures of asthma control, including frequency of asthma exacerbations, asthma symptom scores, measures of lung function, β2-agonist use and daily steroid use, adverse events and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.Eight RCTs (one parallel, one crossover design comprising 573 children aged 3 to 18 years were included. One study (moderate-quality, n = 100 reported significantly less ED visits for children treated with vitamin D. No other studies examined the primary outcome (ED visits and hospitalizations. There was a reduced risk of asthma exacerbations in children receiving vitamin D (low-quality; RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.63, 3 studies, n = 378. There was no significant effect for asthma symptom scores and lung function. The serum 25(OHD level was higher in the vitamin D group at the end of the intervention (low-quality; MD 19.66 nmol/L, 95% CI 5.96 nmol/L to 33.37 nmol/L, 5 studies, n = 167.We identified a high degree of clinical diversity (interventions and outcomes and methodological heterogeneity (sample size and risk of bias in included trials.Randomized controlled trials provide some low

  4. Effect of vitamins D2 and D3 supplement use on serum 25OHD concentration in elderly women in summer and winter.

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    Rapuri, P B; Gallagher, J C; Haynatzki, G

    2004-02-01

    Vitamin D2 and D3 are generally considered equipotent in humans. A few studies have reported that serum 25OHD levels are higher in vitamin D3- compared with vitamin D2-supplemented subjects. As both vitamin D2 and D3 supplements are commonly used by elderly in United States, in the present study we determined the effect of self-reported vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplement use on serum total 25OHD levels according to season in elderly women aged 65-77 years. Serum total 25OHD levels were determined in winter and summer in unsupplemented women ( N = 307) and in women who reported taking vitamin D2 ( N = 56) and vitamin D3 ( N = 55) supplements by competitive protein binding assay. In vitamin D2-supplemented women, the contribution of vitamin D2 and D3 to the mean serum total 25OHD level was assessed by HPLC. In summer, there were no significant differences in the mean total serum 25OHD levels (ng/ml) among the vitamin D2 (32 +/- 2.1), vitamin D3 (36.7 +/- 1.95), and unsupplemented (32.2 +/- 0.95) groups. In winter, the mean serum total 25OHD levels were higher in women on vitamin D2 (33.6 +/- 2.34, P vitamin D3 (29.7 +/- 1.76, NS) supplements compared with unsupplemented women (27.3 +/- 0.72). In vitamin D2-supplemented women, about 25% of the mean serum total 25OHD was 25OHD2, in both summer and winter. Twelve percent of unsupplemented women and 3.6% of vitamin D-supplemented women had a mean serum total 25OHD level below 15 ng/ml in winter. In elderly subjects, both vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 supplements may contribute equally to circulating 25OHD levels, with the role of vitamin D supplement use being more predominant during winter.

  5. Responses of dairy cattle to long-term and short-term supplementation with oral selenium and vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, H.D.; Thomas, J.W.; Johnson, T.; Marteniuk, J.V.; Morrow, D.A.; Ullrey, D.E. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1988-07-01

    In a two-lactation-gestation cycle experiment, 152 Holstein cows with low serum Se and vitamin E were fed total mixed rations and assigned at parturition to four groups (1, control; 2, 500 IU vitamin E/d; 3, 2 mg Se/d; 4, 500 IU vitamin E plus 2 mg Se/d). Supplements were not fed during dry periods. Serium Se and vitamin E were increased within 1 mo by oral supplements. Maximal mean serum Se in cycles 1 and 2 occurred in groups 3 and 4, respectively. Maximal mean serum vitamin E in cycle 1 and 2 occurred in groups 4 and 2, respectively. Selenium treatment of the dams increased Se in colostrum and in serum of presuckle calves. Vitamin E supplementation of dams did not affect vitamin E in serum of presuckled calves. Reproductive performance was not affected by supplement. In an 8-wk study, 24 lactating cows with low serum Se were assigned (6/group) to 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg supplemental Se/d. Maximal mean serum Se concentrations of 23, 56, 71, and 79 ng/ml were attained by wk 4 in the above respective groups. These data indicate that 2 to 2.5 mg supplemental Se/cow per d were inadequate for desirable serum Se concentrations and support recent changes in allowed Se supplementation for dairy cattle.

  6. Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency and Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic Complications in Obesity: a Review.

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    Wamberg, Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Rejnmark, Lars; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2015-12-01

    Obese subjects are often characterized by low plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. Many explanations for this association have been proposed. Low plasma 25OHD is associated with obesity-related comorbidities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and low-grade inflammation. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms for low 25OHD in obesity and explore the results of recent RCTs on vitamin D (VD) supplementation on obesity and its metabolic complications such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although the results from these clinical randomized controlled trials vary, the general picture is that VD treatment of obese individuals does not seem to be an effective treatment of obesity-related metabolic complications.

  7. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

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    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  8. Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients

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    Abbasali Keshtkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients. Methods:This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day and vitamin E (400mg/day supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and body mass index (BMI were measured at the beginning and the end of the study. Findings:Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively. Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001. Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively. Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001. Conclusion:Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage.

  9. Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta thalassemia major Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammadreza; Aboomardani, Maryam; Rafraf, Maryam; Arefhosseini, Seyed-Rafie; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Joshaghani, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Objective In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients. Methods This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day) and vitamin E (400mg/day) supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control) group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and the end of the study. Findings Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively). Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001). Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively). Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001). Conclusion Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage. PMID:23056757

  10. Women may respond different from men to vitamin D supplementation regarding cardiometabolic biomarkers

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    Sharifi, Nasrin; Hajiani, Eskandar; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has revealed that vitamin D status is associated with the cardiometabolic risk factors. Moreover, few gender-specific analyses have been performed in the clinical trials regarding vitamin D supplementation. As a result, assessing gender differences regarding the effects of vitamin D supplementation on some cardiometabolic biomarkers in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was the aim of present study. We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of a double blind placebo controlled study. Patients with NAFLD randomly allocated to receive one oral pearl consisting of 50,000 IU vitamin D3 (n = 27, 13 men and 14 women) or a placebo (n = 26, 13 men and 13 women) every 14 days for four months. Serum lipid profiles, aminotransferases, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin as well as insulin resistance and dietary intakes were assessed pre- and post-study. In both genders, serum 25(OH) D3 increased significantly (P < 0.001). This increase was accompanied by significant decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC) (% of change: −7% in vitamin D vs. + 0.4% in placebo, P = 0.04) and LDL-C (%of change: −9.6% in vitamin D vs. −4% in placebo, P = 0.006) in women. However, in men, vitamin D supplementation increased the levels of serum TC (% of change: +9.2% in vitamin D vs. −10% in placebo, P = 0.02) with no significant effects on LDL-C. Moreover, vitamin D significantly reduced serum hs-CRP in women. The median daily calcium intake in both genders was well below the dietary reference intake for adults. In conclusion, improved vitamin D status might decrease serum TC and LDL-C levels as well as hs-CRP in women with NAFLD. However, it might increase serum TC in men who have low daily calcium intake. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26811103

  11. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant...... for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546 g Ascophylum...... nodosum/kg), natural vitamin E (NatE: 562.5 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), synthetic vitamin E (SyntE: 1125 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), or no extra seaweed or vitamin E (control). The supplements were fed at an isoenergetic daily rate, on average 144 g DM/ewe for SW and 114 g DM...

  12. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and height loss: findings from the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Carolyn J; Aragaki, Aaron K; LeBoff, Meryl S; Li, Wenjun; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Cauley, Jane A; Margolis, Karen L; Manson, JoAnn E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between calcium + vitamin D supplementation (vs placebo) and height loss in 36,282 participants of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial. Post hoc analysis of data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of 1,000 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate with 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily (CaD) or placebo in postmenopausal women at 40 US clinical centers. Height was measured annually (mean follow-up 5.9 y) with a stadiometer. Average height loss was 1.28 mm/y among participants assigned to CaD versus 1.26 mm/y for women assigned to placebo (P = 0.35). Effect modification of the CaD intervention was not observed by age, race/ethnicity, or baseline intake of calcium or vitamin D. Randomization to the CaD group did not reduce the risk of clinical height loss (loss of ≥1.5 inches [3.8 cm]: hazard ratio (95% CI) = 1.00 (0.81, 1.23). A strong association (P < 0.001) was observed between age group and height loss. When we censored follow-up data in participants who became nonadherent to study pills, the results were similar to those of our primary analysis. Compared with placebo, the CaD supplement used in this trial did not prevent height loss in healthy postmenopausal women.

  13. Vitamin supplementation by gut symbionts ensures metabolic homeostasis in an insect host

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    Salem, Hassan; Bauer, Eugen; Strauss, Anja S.; Vogel, Heiko; Marz, Manja; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated functional importance of gut microbes, our understanding of how animals regulate their metabolism in response to nutritionally beneficial symbionts remains limited. Here, we elucidate the functional importance of the African cotton stainer's (Dysdercus fasciatus) association with two actinobacterial gut symbionts and subsequently examine the insect's transcriptional response following symbiont elimination. In line with bioassays demonstrating the symbionts' contribution towards host fitness through the supplementation of B vitamins, comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes involved in import and processing of B vitamins revealed an upregulation of gene expression in aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) compared with symbiotic individuals; an expression pattern that is indicative of B vitamin deficiency in animals. Normal expression levels of these genes, however, can be restored by either artificial supplementation of B vitamins into the insect's diet or reinfection with the actinobacterial symbionts. Furthermore, the functional characterization of the differentially expressed thiamine transporter 2 through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirms its role in cellular uptake of vitamin B1. These findings demonstrate that despite an extracellular localization, beneficial gut microbes can be integral to the host's metabolic homeostasis, reminiscent of bacteriome-localized intracellular mutualists. PMID:25339726

  14. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  15. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

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    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health

  16. Comparison Between Different Intramuscular Vitamin B12 Supplementation Regimes: a Retrospective Matched Cohort Study.

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    Smelt, H J M; Pouwels, S; Said, M; Berghuis, K A; Boer, A K; Smulders, J F

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency after bariatric surgery can range from 26 to 70 %. There is no consensus on optimal vitamin B12 supplementation in postbariatric patients. The objective of this study was to compare three different regimes. In this retrospective matched cohort study, we included 63 patients with methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels ≥300 nmol/L. Group A (n = 21) received 6 intramuscular (im) vitamin B12 injections including a loading dose, group B (n = 21) received 3 im vitamin B12 injections without loading dose and group C (n = 21) received no im vitamin B12 injections. The total post-bariatric patient population consisted of 14 males (22.2 %) and 49 women (77.8 %) with a mean current body mass index of 30.6 ± 8.0 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in vitamin B12 and MMA levels between 3 groups at baseline. There was a significant difference in follow-up vitamin B12 levels of group A compared to group B (p = 0.02) and group A compared to group C (p = 0.03). In the follow-up results, there is also a significant decrease in MMA levels of group A compared to group B (p = 0.02), group A compared to group C (p vitamin B12 deficiency. An injection regime with 6 injections recovered all vitamin B12 deficiencies biochemically. MMA levels cannot recover spontaneously over time without additional im injection regime.

  17. Effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal vitamin D and calcium concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Wang, Linlin; Li, Zhixia; Chen, Sen; Li, Nan; Ye, Rongwei

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to review the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and calcium concentrations. Randomized controlled trials that supplemented subjects with vitamin D2 or D3 during pregnancy and reported cord blood 25(OH)D or calcium concentrations were included. A random-effect model was used to pool the data. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for relevant publications. Among 1768 publications identified by our search strategy, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. Cord blood 25(OH)D concentration was significantly increased by maternal vitamin D supplementation (mean difference, 22.48 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval, 15.90-29.06 nmol/L) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 98.8%, P Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy can improve cord blood 25(OH)D concentration in women with low 25(OH)D concentration, but does not affect cord blood calcium concentration. Future researches are needed to evaluate the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation in women with a normal 25(OH)D concentration and explore the combined effects of vitamin D, calcium, and multivitamins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The incidence of vitamin, mineral, herbal, and other supplement use in facial cosmetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiebel, Samantha J; Lee, Michelle; Alleyne, Brendan; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-07-01

    Dietary supplement use is common in the United States. Some herbal supplements may cause coagulopathy, hypertension, or dry eyes. The goal of this study is to reveal the incidence of herbal supplement use in the cosmetic surgery population. A retrospective chart review of 200 patients undergoing facial cosmetic surgery performed by a single surgeon was performed. Variables studied included patient age, sex, surgical procedure, herbal medication use, and intraoperative variables. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 15 years, noncosmetic procedures such as trauma, and incomplete preoperative medication form. Patients were subdivided into the supplement user group (herbal) and the supplement nonuser group (nonherbal). Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square analysis. The incidence of supplement use was 49 percent in the 200 patients; 24.5 percent of patients used only vitamins or minerals, 2.5 percent of patients used only animal- and plant-based (nonvitamin/mineral) supplements, and 22 percent of patients used both types of supplements. In the herbal group, patients used an average of 2.8 supplements. The herbal and nonherbal groups differed significantly in sex (herbal, 89.8 percent female; nonherbal, 77.5 percent; p cosmetic surgery population, especially in the older female population. Considering the potential ill effects of these products on surgery and recovery, awareness and careful documentation and prohibiting the patients from the consumption of these products will increase the safety and reduce the recovery following cosmetic procedures.

  19. Influence of Vitamin C Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in Acute and Regular Exercise

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    Ljiljana M. Popovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induces a multitude of physiological and biochemical changes in blood affecting its redox status. Tissue damage resulting from exercise induces activation of inflammatory cells followed by the increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO in circulation. Vitamin C readily scavenges free radicals and may thereby prevent oxidative damage of important biological macromolecules. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response induced by acute and regular exercise. Experiment was conducted on acute exercise group (performing Bruce Treadmill Protocol (BTP and regular training group. Markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA, MPO activity, and vitamin C status were estimated at rest and after BTP (acute exercise group and before and after vitamin C supplementation in both groups. Our results showed increased postexercise Asc in serum independently of vitamin supplementation. They also showed that vitamin C can significantly decrease postexercise MDA level in both experimental groups. Increased postexercise MPO activity has been found in both groups and was not affected by vitamin C supplementation. We concluded that vitamin C supplementation can suppress lipid peroxidation process during exercise but cannot affect neutrophil inflammatory response in either exercise group.

  20. Vitamin B-6 status of breast-fed neonates: influence of pyridoxine supplementation on mothers and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yoon, S A; Kirksey, A; Giacoia, G; West, K

    1992-09-01

    Vitamin B-6 concentrations in human milk are known to respond rapidly to changes in maternal vitamin B-6 intake. In this study, mothers were supplemented during the first 28 d of lactation with 2 or 27 mg pyridoxine (PN)-HCl/d and a subgroup of breast-fed infants of the 2-mg/d-supplemented mothers were supplemented with 0.4 mg PN-HCl/d. Vitamin B-6 intakes of breast-fed infants reflected the amount of their mother's supplement; intakes were highest for the vitamin-supplemented infants. Vitamin B-6 intake of mothers was a strong indicator of infant vitamin B-6 status. Vitamin intake of infants correlated significantly with five measures of vitamin B-6 status. Plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations and birth weight were the strongest predictors of infant growth that were examined. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the mother's milk and infant plasma reflected pyridoxal-PLP ratios in these fluids, suggesting that the enzyme acts in regulating circulating vitamer concentrations.

  1. Vitamin E deficiency and enhanced platelet function: reversal following E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A M; Stuart, M J; Oski, F A

    1977-05-01

    Marked platelet hyperaggregability to adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and collagen was demonstrated in two children with vitamin E deficiency, with complete reversal following E supplementation. No clinical thrombotic tendency was observed during the E-deficient state. The action of vitamin E in the schema of platelet arachidonate peroxidation appears to be at the step of phosphilpase A activation, or the conversion of arachidonic acid into the cyclic endoperoxides, since the peroxidation product malonaldehyde was increased during the E-deficient state with normalization following E sufficiency.

  2. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antioxidant vitamin (vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are widely used for preventing major cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular events remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant literature. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported on the effects of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular outcomes as compared to placebo. Outcomes analyzed were major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac death, total death, and any possible adverse events. We used the I(2 statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for cardiovascular outcomes with random-effect meta-analysis. Independent extraction was performed by two reviewers and consensus was reached. Of 293 identified studies, we included 15 trials reporting data on 188209 participants. These studies reported 12749 major cardiovascular events, 6699 myocardial infarction, 3749 strokes, 14122 total death, and 5980 cardiac deaths. Overall, antioxidant vitamin supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.96-1.03, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.92-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.93-1.05, total death (RR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.98-1.07, cardiac death (RR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.97-1.07, revascularization (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.95-1.05, total CHD (RR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.87-1.05, angina (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.90-1.07, and congestive heart failure (RR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.96 to 1.19. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, total death, and cardiac death.

  3. Relationship Between Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation and Blood Concentrations in Adolescent and Adult Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwamogsatham, Oranan; Dong, Wei; Binongo, Jose N; Chowdhury, Ritam; Alvarez, Jessica A; Feinman, Shawna J; Enders, Jessica; Tangpricha, Vin

    2014-08-01

    Background: Pancreatic insufficiency is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and leads to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Multivitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, and K, are routinely prescribed to patients with CF to prevent vitamin deficiencies. Our objective was to examine the relationship between fat-soluble vitamin supplements and their impact on blood concentrations. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients with CF who were treated at Emory Clinic and Emory University Hospital during 2008-2012. The amount of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation, serum markers of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations, CF transmembrane conductance regulator genotype, and other demographic information were recorded from electronic medical records. Mixed-effects models were used to investigate the trends over time of fat-soluble vitamin supplements and serum vitamin concentrations. Results: In total, 177 charts were eligible. Mean (SD) age was 26.1 (10.2) years. Ninety-two percent of patients had pancreatic insufficiency and 52% had the homozygous ΔF508 mutation. Recorded fat-soluble vitamin supplementation increased in the past 5 years (P < .001 for all). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased slightly (3% increase; P < .01); however, there were no changes in the blood concentrations of vitamins A, E, and K (P = .26-.96). Conclusions: Despite a near doubling of recorded fat-soluble vitamin supplementation over the past 5 years, there was no parallel increase in blood concentrations of these vitamins. Potential reasons include suboptimal dosages, low adherence, or ongoing issues with malabsorption.

  4. Effect of vitamin A and Zn supplementation on indices of vitamin A status, haemoglobin level and defecation of children with persistent diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Quanbo; Zhan, Xue; Li, Zhongyue; Hu, Huajian; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A and Zn supplementation on vitamin A status, haemoglobin level and defecation of children with persistent diarrhea, a total of 160 paediatric patients were randomly assigned to one of four intervention groups: daily supplementation of 1,500 IU VA for 14 days; daily Zn supplementation for 14 days; daily supplementation with both VA and Zn for 14 days; no supplementation. One hundred twenty-seven children with persistent diarrhea finished intervention (33 were lost to follow-up). Among the 127 children, 41 (32.28%) had anaemia, 104 (81.89%) had a VA deficiency and 38 (29.92%) had an iron insufficiency. Supplementation with VA or VA + Zn enhanced the serum VA levels and ameliorated anaemia. Supplementation with Zn and VA + Zn for 5 days significantly improved defecation, where the VA + Zn treatment resulted in superior outcomes. After 14 days of intervention, the total effectiveness rates were 93.94%, 96.77% and 96.67% in the three groups, significantly greater than that of the non-supplementation group (72.73%). These results indicate that single VA or concurrent VA + Zn supplementation can improve vitamin A status, haemoglobin level and defecation. However, concurrent VA + Zn supplementation is the optimal option and can shorten the duration of persistent diarrhea and markedly improve nutritional status. (www.clinicaltrials.gov registration number: ChiCTR-IOR-14005498).

  5. Meta-analysis of long-term vitamin D supplementation on overall mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayuan Zheng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that vitamin D is effective to prevent mortality. However, there is no consistent conclusion that the effects of vitamin D supplementation on all-cause mortality are associated with duration of treatment. We conducted a meta-analysis regarding this issue in an effort to provide a more robust answer. METHODS: A comprehensive search in a number of databases, including MEDLINE, Embase and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, was conducted for collecting randomized controlled trials (RCTs on vitamin D supplementation preventing mortality. Two investigators independently screened the literature according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria and the relative data were extracted. Data analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0 software. RESULTS: Data from forty-two RCT s were included. Vitamin D therapy significantly decreased all-cause mortality with a duration of follow-up longer than 3 years with a RR (95% CI of 0.94 (0.90-0.98. No benefit was seen in a shorter follow-up periods with a RR (95% CI of 1.04 (0.97-1.12. Results remain robust after sensitivity analysis. The following subgroups of long-term follow-up had significantly fewer deaths: female only, participants with a mean age younger than 80, daily dose of 800 IU or less, participants with vitamin D insufficiency (baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 50 nmol/L and cholecalciferol therapy. In addition, the combination of vitamin D and calcium significantly reduced mortality and vitamin D alone also had a trend to decrease mortality in a longer time follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that supplementation of vitamin D is effective in preventing overall mortality in a long-term treatment, whereas it is not significantly effective in a treatment duration shorter than 3 years. Future studies are needed to identify the efficacy of vitamin D on specific mortality, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in a long

  6. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meheroz H Rabadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog, and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS.Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20, FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41, FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21 sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59, and discharge disposition (home/institution (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60 between the vitamin C and the control groups.Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients

  7. EFFECT OF VITAMIN C SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF DESI, FAYOUMI AND COMMERCIAL WHITE LEGHORN CHICKEN EXPOSED TO HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Khan and R. Sardar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sixty layers (50 weeks of age each of native Desi, Fayoumi and commercial White Leghorn (Nick Chick were kept in wire cages following completely randomized design for 8 weeks during summer season (June and July. The birds of each type were divided into two groups i.e. with and without supplementation of vitamin C with three replicates assigned to each layer group (10 birds in each replicate. The vitamin C (C-vit fort was added at the rate of 5 ml/5 liter in drinking water throughout the experimental period in respective layer group. The results indicated that the mean egg production, egg weight and egg shell thickness improved (P<0.05 with supplementation of vitamin C in all layers. The average feed consumption of three types of layers was also improved (P<0.05 with supplementation of vitamin C. The blood picture showed that the concentration of ascorbic acid was higher (P<0.05 in groups supplemented with vitamin C. However, the concentrations of blood enzymes (ALP, SGPT and SGOT were lowered (P<0.01 with vitamin C supplementation in all types of layers. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that vitamin C supplementation was effective in improving performance of layers under heat stress conditions.

  8. Vitamin D Daily short-term Supplementation does not Affect Glycemic Outcomes of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysostomou, Stavri

    2017-01-27

    There is currently insufficient evidence of a beneficial effect to recommend vitamin D supplementation for optimizing glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Taking into consideration the significant extra-skeletal effect of vitamin D on pancreatic β-cell function and insulin secretion and the large number of scientific evidence supporting the inverse association between vitamin D status and hyperglycemia, this review article aims to examine whether vitamin D supplementation therapies are beneficial to patients with T2DM considering specific factors through randomized controlled trials (RCTs). EBSCOhost and Medline databases were searched from the beginning of 2009 until the end of 2014 for RCTs in patients with T2DM. Parameters, such as baseline vitamin D levels, frequency/dosage of supplementation, length of the study and type of supplementation, were independently assessed, based on their effect on glycemic status. Although all different types of supplementation were safe and effective in the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency in a dose-dependent way, the impact on glycemic status was different. 14 RCTs were included with daily supplementations ranging from 400-11.200 IU/daily, 40.000-50.000 IU/weekly and 100.000-300.000 IU/intramuscularly or once given, for a period from 8 to 24 weeks. Daily supplementation of vitamin D (up to 11.200 IU) showed no effect, whereas combined supplementation, with calcium (≥300 mg), and with vitamin D doses similar to the RDA, showed positive effects. Additionally, high weekly doses of vitamin D (40.000-50.000 IU) were effective on glycemic outcomes but available data are limited.

  9. Vitamin D Status in Irish Children and Adolescents: Value of Fortification and Supplementation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Aoife

    2014-07-07

    Background. Vitamin D has important skeletal and extraskeletal roles but those living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal levels because of reduced sunlight exposure. Aim. To describe the vitamin D status of Irish children and identify factors predictive of vitamin D status. Methods. A prospective cross sectional study was undertaken over a 12 month period. Two hundred and fifty two healthy children attending for minor medical or surgical procedures were recruited. All had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone and bone profiles measured. Results. The mean (standard deviation) for 25OHD was 51(25) nmol\\/L (20.4 (10) ng\\/mL). Forty-five percent had levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). The following variables were significantly associated with 25OHD levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL): sample drawn in April-September, use of vitamin D supplements, consumption of formula milk, and non-African ethnicity. Conclusion. More than half of the children in this study had 25OHD levels less than 50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). Vitamin D status was significantly improved by augmented oral vitamin D intake.

  10. Introduction of oral vitamin D supplementation and the rise of the allergy pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wjst Matthias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The history of the allergy pandemic is well documented, enabling us to put the vitamin D hypothesis into its historical context. The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence of rickets, vitamin D supply, and allergy prevalence at 50-year intervals by means of a retrospective analysis of the literature since 1880. English cities in 1880 were characterized by an extremely high rickets prevalence, the beginning of commercial cod liver oil production, and the near absence of any allergic diseases. By 1930 hay fever prevalence had risen to about 3% in English-speaking countries where cod liver oil was preferentially used for the treatment of rickets. In 1980 vitamin D was used nation-wide in all industrialized countries as supplement to industrial baby food, thus eradicating nearly all cases of rickets. At the same time the allergy prevalence reached an all-time high, affecting about 30% of the population. Time trends are therefore compatible with the vitamin D hypothesis although direct conclusions cannot be drawn. It is interesting, however, to note that there are at least two earlier research papers linking synthesized vitamin D intake and allergy (Reed 1930 and Selye 1962 published prior to the modern vitamin D hypothesis first proposed in 1999.

  11. Vitamin supplementation as possible prophylactic treatment against migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munvar Miya; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

  12. Vitamin Supplementation as Possible Prophylactic Treatment against Migraine with Aura and Menstrual Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munvar Miya Shaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

  13. The effects of multi mineral-vitamin D and vitamins (C+E) supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia: An RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Milad; Azadi, Tayebe; Farhang, Sepidezahra; Rahmati, Shoobo; Pourtaghi, Khadijeh

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have reported the uncertain role of multi-minerals and vitamins in the prevention of preeclampsia. The present study aims to investigate the effect of multimineral-vitamin D supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D) and vitamins (C+ E) in the prevention of preeclampsia. In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were divided into three groups: group A received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + one tablet of Claci-care multimineral-vitamin D containing 800mg calcium, 200mg magnesium, 8mg zinc and 400 IU Vitamin D3 per day; group B received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + 250 mg vitamin C + 55 mg vitamin E; and the controls received only one Ferrous sulfate tablet daily. The incidence of preeclampsia in group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.03), while there was no significant difference between group B and controls (p=0.50), as well as groups A and B (p=0.063). The incidence of neonatal complications in the group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.01), while there was no significant difference between group B and control (p=0.48). According to the results, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplements have a significant effect on the prevention of preeclampsia. In addition, prescription of multimineral-vitamin D during pregnancy can be a low-cost and affordable way to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in women who are at high risk of preeclampsia.

  14. Vitamin Supplementation at the Time of Immunization with a Cold-Adapted Influenza Virus Vaccine Corrects Poor Mucosal Antibody Responses in Mice Deficient for Vitamins A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, S L; Penkert, R R; Jones, B G; Sealy, R E; Hurwitz, J L

    2016-01-06

    Vitamin A and D deficiencies and insufficiencies are prevalent worldwide in developed and developing countries. Vitamin metabolites are functionally intertwined in that they are high-affinity ligands for related receptors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The effects of vitamin A deficiencies (VAD) on antibody responses to respiratory virus vaccines have already been demonstrated. Of particular concern was the reduction in IgA, a first line of defense against pathogens in the respiratory tract. Here, we describe the individual and combined effects of vitamin A and D deficiencies in mice immunized with an attenuated influenza virus vaccine. Relative to VAD, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) had a limited effect, but double deficiencies for vitamins A and D (VAD+VDD) further reduced antibody responses in the respiratory tract. The administration of supplemental vitamins A and D to VAD+VDD mice at the time of vaccination restored responses in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest that vitamin supplementation programs may be beneficial in a clinical setting to promote healthy immune responses to respiratory virus vaccines in vitamin-deficient individuals.

  15. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, S. B.; Tjonneland, A.; Stripp, C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among...... postmenopausal women was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements. Methods: Data was sampled as case - control nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. Data on vitamin intakes were collected at entry into the cohort by means of self-administered questionnaires. Women...... eligible for the nested case - control study were postmenopausal at entry into the cohort. The analyses were based on 418 cases of incident breast cancer and 394 controls ( including two cases). Results: Breast cancer was not significantly related to the intakes of vitamin A or E, whereas a monotonic dose...

  16. Could vitamin D supplements be a new therapy for heart failure? Possible pathogenic mechanisms from data of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeni, Andrea; Delva, Pietro; Minuz, Pietro

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (HF), but whether giving patients supplements to raise vitamin D into the normal range improves their survival is not clear. It has been demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with HF, especially the elderly, in obese and in dark skinned people, and that low vitamin D levels are associated with adverse outcome. The epidemiological data have been confirmed by experimental data, which show that knockout mice for the vitamin D receptor developed myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction. Data from interventional studies are scarce and discordant, and more research is urgently needed to confirm whether add-on supplementation therapy with vitamin D has a role in the management of patients with chronic HF.

  17. Does the effect of vitamin A supplements depend on vaccination status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Aaby, Peter; Bale, Carlito

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) is estimated to reduce all-cause mortality by 24%. Previous studies indicate that the effect of VAS may vary with vaccination status. The authors evaluated the effect of VAS provided in campaigns on child survival overall and by sex and vaccination status...... 2008 for children between 6 and 35 months of age. Vaccination status was ascertained by inspection of vaccination cards. All children were followed prospectively. Outcome measures Mortality rates for supplemented and non-supplemented children were compared in Cox models providing mortality rate ratios......-supplemented group (adjusted MRR=0.78 (0.46; 1.34)). The effect was similar in boys and girls. Vaccination cards were seen for 86% in 2007 and 84% in 2008. The effect of VAS in children who had measles vaccine as their last vaccine (2814 children, adjusted MRR=0.34 (0.14; 0.85)) differed from the effect in children...

  18. Assessment of the effects of supplementation with vitamin E on health and production of feedlot cattle using meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Paul; McMeniman, Neil; Rabiee, Ahmad; Lean, Ian

    2009-04-01

    Delivery of supplemental antioxidant vitamins to cattle placed in feedlots might be expected to improve health and performance outcomes by reducing the effects of oxidative stress to which these cattle are presumably exposed. Meta-analytic procedures were used in this study to assess published experiments on the effects of vitamin E supplementation in feedlot cattle. The health outcome of morbidity, and the production outcomes of average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G:F), were analysed. The currently available data do not support the use of supplemental vitamin E administered as an injection (morbidity risk ratio=1.17; P=0.17). The authors conclude that supplemental dietary vitamin E should be fed within the [NRC, 1996. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 7th ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC] recommended range.

  19. Effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation to pasteurized whole milk diets on growth and health of preruminant Holstein bull calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...

  20. The persistence of maternal vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation irrespective of season and supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Caroline K; Ye, Chang; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and lactation comprise a critical window spanning all seasons during which maternal vitamin D status potentially may influence the long-term health of the newborn. Women typically receive calcium/vitamin D supplementation through antenatal vitamins, but there has been limited serial evaluation of maternal vitamin D status across this critical window. In this prospective observational cohort study, 467 women in Toronto, Canada, underwent measurement of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) at mean 29·7 ± 2·9 weeks' gestation, 3 months postpartum and 12 months postpartum, enabling serial assessment across 3 seasons. At each assessment, vitamin D status was classified as deficiency (25-OH-Dvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 31·5% and 35·1% in pregnancy, 33·4% and 35·3% at 3 months, and 35·6% and 33·8% at 12 months postpartum, respectively. These high rates remained stable over time (P = 0·49) despite declining usage of antenatal calcium/vitamin D supplementation from pregnancy to 3 months to 12 months postpartum (P vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnancy were independently associated with decrements in average 25-OH-D over time of 49·6 nmol/l and 26·4 nmol/l, respectively (both P vitamin D supplements were independently associated with changes in 25-OH-D in the range of 3-5 nmol/l (both P vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation, irrespective of season and supplementation, supports the emerging concept that current vitamin D supplementation in antenatal care is likely inadequate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Vitamin D nutritional status in preterm infants and response to supplementation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Roberta A

    2013-07-14

    Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol\\/l (20 ng\\/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol\\/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P< 0·001). At follow-up, after a median of 104 (IQR 78-127) d, 87 % achieved levels ≥ 50 nmol\\/l and 8 % had levels >125 nmol\\/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol\\/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.

  2. Supplemental vitamin D and physical performance in COPD: a pilot randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerk SM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonja M Bjerk,1 Bradley D Edgington,1 Thomas S Rector,1,2 Ken M Kunisaki1,21University of Minnesota, 2Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels, commonly observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, are associated with muscle weakness in elderly populations, and vitamin D supplementation appears to improve muscle strength and decrease falls in older individuals. We tested the effect of vitamin D supplementation on physical performance in patients with COPD.Methods: Patients were randomized to daily cholecalciferol (2000 IU or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the 6-week change in Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB score. Secondary outcomes included changes in the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ score, and serum 25(OHD.Results: Thirty-six participants (mean age 68 years, all Caucasian males, mean forced expiratory volume in one second 33% of predicted completed the study. Despite an increase in 25(OHD levels in the intervention arm to a mean of 32.6 ng/mL (versus 22.1 ng/mL in the placebo arm, there was no difference in improvements in either SPPB scores (0.3 point difference; 95% confidence interval -0.8 to 1.5; P = 0.56 or SGRQ scores (2.3 point difference; 95% confidence interval -2.3 to 6.9; P = 0.32.Conclusion: Among patients with severe COPD, 2000 IU of daily vitamin D for 6 weeks increased 25(OHD to a level widely considered as normal. However, compared with placebo, short-term vitamin D supplementation had no discernible effect on a simple measure of physical performance.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, randomized controlled trial, vitamin D, skeletal muscle strength

  3. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 mu g/day vitamin D-3 for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence...... at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Results: The S-25OHD concentration increased (p 11.0 +/- 10.3 nmol/l, baseline 41.9 +/- 17.6 nmol/l) or 10 mu g/day (13.3 +/- 11.8 nmol/l, baseline 44.4 +/- 16.6 nmol...

  4. Zinc plus ß-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to ß-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.; West, C.E.; Muhilal,

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc are prevalent in women and infants in developing countries. Supplementation during pregnancy can benefit mother and infant. Objective: We examined whether supplementation during pregnancy with iron and folic acid plus beta-carotene or zinc or bot

  5. Zinc plus ß-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to ß-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.; West, C.E.; Muhilal,

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc are prevalent in women and infants in developing countries. Supplementation during pregnancy can benefit mother and infant. Objective: We examined whether supplementation during pregnancy with iron and folic acid plus beta-carotene or zinc or

  6. Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Semen Quality in Dogs with Lowered Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Domosławska Anna; Zduńczyk Sławomir; Niżański Wojciech; Jurczak Andrzej; Janowski Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Thirty clinically healthy dogs with poor semen quality were used in the study. Fifteen dogs were supplemented daily with selenium (0.6 mg/kg organic selenium from yeast) and vitamin E (5 mg/kg) per os for 60 d. The control group (15 dogs) was not supplemented. Semen was collected from all dogs by manual manipulation on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. The sperm concentration and motility parameters were evaluated with a Hamilton Thorne sperm analyser, version IVOS 12.3. For the assessment of sperm mor...

  7. The effect of vitamin c and e supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress in female athletes: A clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: The need for energy in strenuous exercises necessitates an increase in oxygen consumption and production of reactive oxygen species. It seems that supplementation of vitamins C and E reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress in female athletes. Methods: The study was a four-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial, conducted on 64 trained female at...

  8. The Effect of Vitamin C and E Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: The need for energy in strenuous exercises necessitates an increase in oxygen consumption and production of reactive oxygen species. It seems that supplementation of vitamins C and E reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress in female athletes. Methods: The study was a four-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial, conducted on 64 trained female athle...

  9. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone J P M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Clarke, Robert; Schneede, Jörn; Ueland, Per M; Hoefnagels, Willibrord H L; van Staveren, Wija A

    2005-05-23

    Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. We conducted a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, dose-finding trial to determine the lowest oral dose of cyanocobalamin required to normalize biochemical markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency in older people with mild vitamin B(12) deficiency, defined as a serum vitamin B(12) level of 100 to 300 pmol/L (135-406 pg/mL) and a methylmalonic acid level of 0.26 mumol/L or greater. We assessed the effects of daily oral doses of 2.5, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mug of cyanocobalamin administered for 16 weeks on biochemical markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency in 120 people. The main outcome measure was the dose of oral cyanocobalamin that produced 80% to 90% of the estimated maximal reduction in the plasma methylmalonic acid concentration. Supplementation with cyanocobalamin in daily oral doses of 2.5, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mug was associated with mean reductions in plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations of 16%, 16%, 23%, 33%, and 33%, respectively. Daily doses of 647 to 1032 mug of cyanocobalamin were associated with 80% to 90% of the estimated maximum reduction in the plasma methylmalonic acid concentration. The lowest dose of oral cyanocobalamin required to normalize mild vitamin B(12) deficiency is more than 200 times greater than the recommended dietary allowance, which is approximately 3 mug daily.

  10. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imdad, Aamer; Herzer, Kurt; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries affecting 190 million children under 5. VAD can lead to many adverse health consequences, including death. Objectives To evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for preventing mor

  11. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...

  12. Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation and UVb exposure on the growth and plasma concentration of vitamin D3 metabolites in juvenile bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; Stevens, Y; van den Borne, J J G C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of dietary vitamin D3 and UVb exposure on plasma vitamin D metabolites in growing bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was studied. A total of 84 (40 males and 44 females) newly hatched bearded dragons were allocated to six levels of oral vitamin D3 supplementation (0 to 400%) or six UVb exposure times (2 to 12 h). At 3 and 6 months of age, blood samples were obtained from each animal and analysed for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3. At 3 months of age, plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 did not increase with increasing vitamin D3 supplementation unlike the 1,25(OH)2D3. At 6 months of age, plasma concentrations of both 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)2D3 increased with increasing vitamin D(3) supplementation. Plasma concentrations in UVb-exposed animals were 18 times higher for 25(OH)D3 (178.4+/-9.0 vs. 9.9+/-1.3 nmol/L) and 5.3 times higher for 1,25(OH)2D3 (1.205+/-0.100 vs. 0.229+/-0.025 nmol/L) than in vitamin D(3) supplemented animals at 6 months of age. This study shows that 2h of UVb exposure enables adequate physiological concentrations of plasma vitamin D metabolites to be maintained in growing bearded dragons. Oral supplementation of vitamin D(3) is ineffective in raising plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 to concentrations observed in UVb-exposed animals. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SUPPLEMENTATION OF VITAMIN E IMPROVES COGNITIVE STATUS AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vijayakumar PR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been suggested as a major contributing factor for initiation and progression of cognitive impairment along with various other complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was, therefore, designed to assess the effect of vitamin E supplemention along with oral hypoglycaemic agents on cognitive functions and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 74 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled in this randomized open label controlled study from out-patient department of secondary care Government headquarters hospital, Ooty, India. Patients were randomised into two groups viz., control (n=36 and intervention (n=38. Control group received OHA’s i.e, Glibanclamide and/or Metformin. Patients in intervention group received OHA’s along with vitamin E supplementation (600mg/day for a period of three months. Cognition functions were assessed for control and intervention group by using Mini Mental State Examination. Blood samples were analysed for the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and HbA1C by using specific assay methods at the baseline and by end of three months. Intervention group patients showed significant improvement in the orientation (9.22±0.27, p≤0.001 and in total MMSE score (28.00±0.43, p≤0.001 after three months of vitamin E supplementation. There was a significant decreased in lipid peroxidation and HbA1C level. Significant increase in enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant levels was observed in intervention group when compared to control group. Vitamin E supplementation is found to be effective in improving orientation, total MMSE score and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. The protective efficacy of vitamins (C and E), selenium and silymarin supplements against alcohol toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Shalan, M.G; Abd Ali, W. Dh; Shalan, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of vitamins (C and E), selenium and silymarin (an antioxidant complex from Silybum marianum) supplementation in reducing toxic effects of ethanol on liver weight and some blood parameters. Sixty male rabbits, individually housed in steel cages, were randomly divided into three groups. The first was a control group, the second received balanced diet and daily 20% (v/ v) ethyl alcohol in their drinking water, the third received the same diet and 20...

  15. Determinants of the Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Response to Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus; D'Angelo, Stefania; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Schoenmakers, Inez; Prentice, Ann; Arden, Nigel K; Bishop, Nicholas J; Carr, Andrew; Dennison, Elaine M; Eastell, Richard; Fraser, Robert; Gandhi, Saurabh V; Godfrey, Keith M; Kennedy, Stephen; Mughal, M Zulf; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Reid, David M; Robinson, Sian M; Javaid, M Kassim

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches to antenatal vitamin D supplementation do not account for interindividual differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) response. We assessed which maternal and environmental characteristics were associated with 25(OH)D after supplementation with cholecalciferol. Within-randomization-group analysis of participants in the Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. Hospital antenatal clinics. A total of 829 pregnant women (422 placebo, 407 cholecalciferol). At 14 and 34 weeks of gestation, maternal anthropometry, health, and lifestyle were assessed and 25(OH)D measured. Compliance was determined using pill counts at 19 and 34 weeks. 1000 IU/d of cholecalciferol or matched placebo from 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. 25(OH)D at 34 weeks, measured in a single batch (Diasorin Liaison). 25(OH)D at 34 weeks of gestation was higher in the women randomized to vitamin D (mean [SD], 67.7 [21.3] nmol/L) compared with placebo (43.1 [22.5] nmol/L; P pregnancy weight gain from 14 to 34 weeks of gestation (kg) (β = -0.81 [95% confidence interval -1.39, -0.22]), lower compliance with study medication (%) (β = -0.28 [-0.072, -0.48]), lower early pregnancy 25(OH)D (nmol/L) (β = 0.28 [0.16, 0.40]), and delivery in the winter vs the summer (β = -10.5 [-6.4, -14.6]) were independently associated with lower 25(OH)D at 34 weeks of gestation. Women who gained more weight during pregnancy had lower 25(OH)D in early pregnancy and delivered in winter achieved a lower 25(OH)D in late pregnancy when supplemented with 1000 IU/d cholecalciferol. Future studies should aim to determine appropriate doses to enable consistent repletion of 25(OH)D during pregnancy.

  16. Trends in vitamin, mineral and dietary supplement use in Switzerland. The CoLaus study

    OpenAIRE

    Marques-Vidal, P; Vollenweider, P.; Waeber, G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin/mineral (VMS) and dietary supplements (DS) use is common in Switzerland, but nothing is known regarding the factors associated with their initiation, discontinuation or continuation of intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Prospective study conducted between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 in Lausanne, Switzerland among 4676 participants (2525 women, age range 35-75 years). VMS were defined as single or multivitamin/multimineral preparations; DS were defined as any dietary suppl...

  17. Child Immunization and Vitamin A Supplementation in the District of Bankura, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Mandal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: District Health Authority of Bankura in the state of West Bengal desired to estimate the coverage of childhood vaccination and vitamin A prophylaxis by an independent body. To address these issues the present study was undertaken. Objectives: To estimate immunization coverage and vitamin A supplementation in 12-23 months children. Methods: A Cross sectional observational study was conducted in the district of Bankura, West Bengal among children aged between 12-23 months with sample size 320. Study variables were sex, residence, antigen-wise immunization coverage, proportion of fully immunized children, immunization drop-out rate, Vitamin-A (first dose supplementation etc. Coverage was estimated by proportions and Chi-square (c2 was applied as a test of significance. Results: 99.0%, 94.8% and 91.4% of studied children received BCG, DPT-3/OPV-3 and Measles vaccination respectively. 80.3% of children (80.9% male and 79.7% of female were fully immunized. The drop out rate for highest covered antigen dose (DPT1/OPV1 to lowest covered antigen dose (measles was 8.1%. Fully immunized children were found more in rural area (81.7% than the urban area (62.5 of the district. Difference was statistically significant. Almost 92% children received first dose of Vitamin-A. Conclusion: Immunization coverage of Bankura district was higher than that of the state and national figures. Rural coverage is better than urban.

  18. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Anthropometric Parameters in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Najarzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Methods:We utilized randomized controlled double – blind intervention, administering 300,000 IU vitamin D in divided doses of 6 50,000 IU pearls per day to the treatment group and 6 pearls of placebo to control group in the first week of intervention. Participants were 88 men and women aged 30 to 65 which had metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATP III definition and had referred to diabetes clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. 25(OHD3 levels and anthropometric parameters including weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio were measured at the beginning and 3 months later. Results: There was a significant increase in serum 25(OHD3 levels from 20 ng/ml to 33 ng/ml at the end of the study in vitamin D supplemented group (P-value < 0.001. There was a significant decrease in waist circumference in the vitamin D supplemented group at the end of the study (P-value = 0.005. There was no significant difference in weight, BMI and waist to hip ratio in the groups at the end of the study. Conclusion: Improving vitamin D status decreases waist circumference but does not affect other anthropometric parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  19. Supplementation of vitamin C as anti heat-stress agen of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Kusnadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available High environmental temperatures may cause heat stress in poultry. This may increase water consumption, decrease feed consumption and in turn, decrease production level. This experiment was conducted to study the supplementation of vitamin C as anti heat-stress agent of broilers. In this research, were used 72 broilers 21 days old. The treatment are two kinds. The first, two poultry house temperatures (32 and 240C as warm temperature and cool temperature respectively and second, four levels suplementation of vitamin C (0, 250, 500 and 750 ppm of ration as C0, C250, C500 and C750 respectively. Variables measured are feed consumption, body weigh gain, content of abdominal lipid and feed convertion. The data collected were analized with a split plot design in completelly random design and continued with the contrast-orthogonal test when significantly different The result indicated that vitamin C significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption and body weigh gain. The warm temperature significantly (P<0.05 decreased feed consumption and body weigh gain. Feed convertion of C250, C500 and C750 in warm temperature were significantly (P<0.05 lower than C0. The supplementation of 250 ppm vitamin C (C250 was most efective as anti heat-stress agent in broilers kept at warm temperature.

  20. Randomized Control Trial Assessing Impact of Increased Sunlight Exposure versus Vitamin D Supplementation on Lipid Profile in Indian Vitamin D Deficient Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vivek G; Mughal, Zulf M; Padidela, Raja; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Khadilkar, Anuradha V

    2017-01-01

    Despite abundance of sunshine in India, Vitamin D deficiency is common and therefore there is an increasing trend toward taking Vitamin D supplements either as prescription medicine or as a nutritional supplement. Studies have suggested that duration of sun exposure may influence serum lipid profile. To study the effect of increased sunlight exposure versus Vitamin D supplementation on Vitamin D status and lipid profile in individuals with Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25OHD] 50 nmol/L, n = 50) and intervention (sunlight exposure group" (n = 50, received at least 20 min sunlight exposure to forearms and face between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. over and above their current exposure) or "cholecalciferol supplement group" (n = 50, received oral cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day). Significant increase in 25OHD concentrations was seen in both intervention groups (P sunlight exposure (P sunlight exposure significantly reduced TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations, and cholecalciferol supplementation increased TC and HDL-C concentrations.

  1. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on arsenic induced oxidative stress in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T K; Mani, V; Kaur, H; Kewalramani, N; De, S; Hossain, A; Banerjee, D; Datta, B K

    2012-07-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether supplementation of different levels of vitamin E to long-term arsenic exposed goats affords protection against the oxidative stress caused by the metalloid. Twenty-four crossbred lactating goats were distributed randomly into four groups (control, T(1), T(2) and T(3)) of six in each. The animals in T(1), T(2) and T(3) were given 50 mg/kg DM arsenic daily, while in T(2) and T(3), vitamin E @100 IU and 150 IU/kg DM, respectively, was also supplemented additionally for the period of 12 months. Compared to control, significant (p 63 %), plasma total Ig (22 %) and total antioxidant activity (24 %) was observed in only arsenic treated groups and vitamin E supplementation in both doses produced partial mitigation effect against SOD (23 %, 20 %) and CAT (39 %, 48 %) while complete mitigation against total Ig (16 %, 7 %) and antioxidant activity (10 %, 8 %) was found. Average lymphocyte stimulation index at the end of experiment was (p arsenic exposed groups (1.003 ± 0.01) and significant (p arsenic induced oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats.

  2. Effects of limited food intake and vitamin C supplementation on pancreatic glucagon and insulin in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kaplan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of limited food intake (LFI (24, 48 and 120 h and a single i.p. dose of vitamin C supplementation (500 mg/kg on serum glucose and C-peptide levels, and pancreatic insulin and glucagon levels in guinea pigs. The highest serum glucose levels were found after vitamin C supplementation plus LFI for 48 h (LFI 48. Serum C-peptide levels were not significantly affected by food limitation (LFI 24, LFI 48, or LFI 120 as compared with controls, but when vitamin C was supplemented, the C-peptide levels were moderately enhanced. Immunohistochemical findings on pancreatic islets showed increased staining intensity for both insulin and glucagon when vitamin C was supplemented. In addition, the alpha and beta cells were stimulated, particularly by vitamin C supplementation plus LFI 120. Based on these findings, vitamin C supplementation may have a beneficial effect on the alpha and beta cells.

  3. Neutralization of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate for Vitamin Supplement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelem Iribarrem Benites

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD, a byproduct of the soybean oil refining process, is a complex mixture of compounds, such as free fatty acids (FFA, hydrocarbons, and sterols, such as tocopherols, a class of major natural antioxidants with vitamin E activity. As the utilization of SODD for tocopherol extraction is shown to be not economically viable, SODD in the semirefined form (neutral is an interesting alternative to animal and possibly human diet enrichment. This study aimed to evaluate the SODD neutralization process varying the alkali (Na2CO3 concentration, temperature, and homogenization time. The optimal conditions for the neutralizing process, in order to obtain the greatest reduction in FFA content, the lowest leaching of tocopherols, and the greatest yield, were the following: Na2CO2 concentration of 4.34 N, temperature of 45.8°C, and homogenization time of 3 min 20 s. The FFA content was reduced from 53.4% to 6.1% after the initial neutralization, thus requiring a second neutralization step. The final FFA content was of 1.8% and total tocopherol (TT accounted for about 11% of SODD.

  4. Does Vitamin C and E Supplementation Impair the Favorable Adaptations of Regular Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis G. Nikolaidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body’s ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.

  5. Influence of supplemental vitamin D on intensity of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A longitudinal clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Mahboobeh; Lotfi, Yones; Mousavi, Abdollah; Heidari, Behzad; Monadi, Mohsen; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is linked to vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial aimed to determine the influence of vitamin D supplementation on intensity of BPPV. Methods: The study population was selected consecutively and the diagnosis of BPPV was made by history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Intensity of BPVV was assessed based on VAS score (0-10). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and levels BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period. Conclusion: This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV. PMID:27386060

  6. Self-reported Vitamin Supplementation in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy. PMID:19372214

  7. Decreasing Free Radicals Level on High Risk Person After Vitamin C and E Supplement Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, M. S.; Anggraini, D. R.; Hidayat

    2017-03-01

    Has become a global issue that the increase in global warming mainly caused by high air pollution levels which are donated by motor vehicle emissions. As a rapidly developing country, Indonesia becomes vulnerable to health problems related to air pollution. Excessive free radicals that is produced by air pollution can initiate stress oxidative. Already known that, stress oxidative trigger many health problems. Vitamin C and E is a non enzymatic antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals. This study aims to investigate the decreasing free radicals level by administering vitamin C and E. This research using pre and post experimental design study. There are 24 operators gasoline station Pertamina as samples, with an average age of 26 years. The samples were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 (control), group 2, were given vitamin C doses of 500mg / day, group 3 was given vitamin E doses of 250 IU / day and the group 4 was given a combination of vitamins C and E. The treatment was given for 30 days. Free radicals level is obtained from malonaldehyde (MDA) level by spectrophotometer. Before treatment the average of MDA level is 5.540 µm. After the treatment, MDA is significantly decreased become 3.992 µm (T-test, sigsafety aid and supplement.

  8. Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs T2 - Klinische betekenis van extra vitaminen uit supplementen en verrijkte voedingsmiddelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g. diabe

  9. Effect of vitamin E supplementation of sheep and goats fed diets supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in Se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Staub, T; Wichert, B; Wanner, M; Kreuzer, M

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) and selenium (Se) are an essential part of the antioxidative functions of metabolism. There are situations of low supply of both micronutrients. As VitE is involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their protection against oxidation in metabolism, diets supplemented with PUFA may challenge VitE to an extent making recommended supplies insufficient. Twelve goats and sheep each were fed a diet supplemented with PUFA and characterised by low Se and limited VitE contents during the last 2 months of gestation and the first 2 months of lactation. The basal diet consisted of hay and concentrate. Six goats and sheep received extra VitE, while the control groups received no extra VitE. Blood and milk samples were taken. In addition, liver, heart muscle and spleen samples were obtained from the offspring after slaughtering at an age of 8 weeks. No significant changes were observed in serum Se and VitE. A significant increase in serum VitE concentrations between 2 and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) was evident in the supplemented kids. In 4, 6 and 8 weeks pp, the serum concentrations of VitE in the supplemented kids were significantly higher compared to the unsupplemented group. In the kids, VitE was higher in liver of the supplemented groups. There were no significant differences in response to extra VitE between sheep and goat. The kids responded to serum VitE different from that of lambs, as a significant difference was observed between supplemented and unsupplemented animals in the goat kids, but not the lambs. In conclusion, goats and sheep have to be viewed differently and may not be considered alike relating to VitE/Se metabolism and requirements, especially in young animals.

  10. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D 5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  11. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with Beta-carotene, vitamin a, and vitamin e singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias.......Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias....

  12. Hypovitaminosis D and “small burden” uterine fibroids: Opportunity for a vitamin D supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Serri, Matteo; Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Tozzi, Alessandra; Aggiusti, Alice; Clemente, Nicolò

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with hypovitaminosis D and “small burden” uterine fibroids. This study focused on 208 women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and concomitant hypovitaminosis D, from January to December 2014. One hundred eight women of the initial study population were diagnosed with “small burden” uterine fibroids. Among them, those who underwent a proper vitamin D supplementation constituted the “study group” (n = 53), while women who spontaneously refused the therapy or did not perform it properly, constituted the “control group” (n = 55). The characteristics of uterine fibroids, the fibroid-related symptoms, and the vitamin D serum levels were evaluated 12 months after the initial diagnosis. In women with uterine fibroids, a negative correlation emerged between the baseline 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) concentration and both the volume of the largest fibroid (r = −0.18, P = 0.01) and the total volume of fibroids (r = −0.19, P = 0.01). No correlation was found between the baseline 25-OH-D3 levels and the number of fibroids per patient (r = −0.10, P = 0.16). In women of the “study group,” a significant increase in the 25-OH-D3 serum level was observed after 12 months of supplementation, and a lower rate of surgical or medical treatment due to the “progression to extensive disease” was reported (13.2% vs 30.9%, P = 0.05). Supplementation therapy with 25-OH-D3 restores normal vitamin D serum levels in women with “small burden” fibroids. In these women, vitamin D supplementation seems to reduce the progression to an extensive disease, and thus the need of conventional surgical or medical therapy. PMID:28033263

  13. Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Semen Quality in Dogs with Lowered Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domosławska Anna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty clinically healthy dogs with poor semen quality were used in the study. Fifteen dogs were supplemented daily with selenium (0.6 mg/kg organic selenium from yeast and vitamin E (5 mg/kg per os for 60 d. The control group (15 dogs was not supplemented. Semen was collected from all dogs by manual manipulation on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. The sperm concentration and motility parameters were evaluated with a Hamilton Thorne sperm analyser, version IVOS 12.3. For the assessment of sperm morphology, Diff-Quik stain was used. The percentage of live and dead spermatozoa was estimated on dried smears stained with eosin-nigrosin. The concentration of spermatozoa, most motility parameters determined (PMOT, VSL, VCL, ALH, BCF, RAPID, MEDIUM, SLOW, and STATIC, and the percentage of spermatozoa morphologically normal and live increased significantly (P < 0.05 after 60 d of supplementation. In the control group, there were no changes in motility parameters while the concentration and total sperm count decreased over the duration of the study. In conclusion, supplementation with selenium and vitamin E for 60 d can improve the quality of semen in dogs with lowered fertility.

  14. Antioxidant and haematological biomarkers in different groups of horses supplemented with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélo, S K M; Diniz, A I A; de Lira, V L; de Oliveira Muniz, S K; da Silva, G R; Manso, H E C da C C; Manso Filho, H C

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been correlated with pathologies that impair the performance of athlete horses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with a mixture of polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E on the antioxidant and haematological biomarkers of horses. Horses under maintenance care (n = 6) and horses in training (n = 10) received 100 and 300 ml of the oil mixture respectively. Supplementation was provided for a period of 8 weeks, together with isocaloric inclusion. Blood samples were collected at three time periods (pretest, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks) to analyse the following: the red blood cell count (RBCc); haemoglobin (Hb); haematocrit (HT); leucocytes; lymphocytes; platelets; the mean corpuscular volume (MCV); the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); the standard deviation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD); the coefficient of variation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-CV); glutathione peroxidase (GPx); superoxide dismutase (SOD); uric acid (UrAc); total plasma proteins (TPP); and creatine kinase (CK). After the 8 weeks of supplementation, animals under maintenance care exhibited significant increases in SOD, UrAc, the white blood cell count (WBCc), the RDW-SD and the RDW-CV (p supplementation with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E increases blood antioxidants among animals under maintenance and in training, with different trends, while contributing to the fight against oxidative stress in each group analysed.

  15. Childhood vitamin A capsule supplementation coverage in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis of geographic and socioeconomic inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Olatunde; Lawoko, Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a huge public health burden among preschool-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa, and is associated with a high level of susceptibility to infectious diseases and pediatric blindness. We examined the Nigerian national vitamin A capsule (VAC) supplementation program, a short-term cost-effective intervention for prevention of VAD-associated morbidity for equity in terms of socioeconomic and geographic coverage. Using the most current, nationally representative data from the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, we applied multilevel regression analysis on 19,555 children nested within 888 communities across the six regions of Nigeria. The results indicate that there was variability in uptake of VAC supplement among the children, which could be attributed to several characteristics at individual, household, and community levels. Individual-level characteristics, such as maternal occupation, were shown to be associated with receipt of VAC supplement. The results also reveal that household wealth status is the only household-level characteristic that is significantly associated with receipt of VAC, while neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and geographic location were the community-level characteristics that determined receipt of VAC. The findings from this study have shown that both individual and contextual socioeconomic status, together with geographic location, is important for uptake of VAC. These findings underscore the need to accord the VAC supplementation program the much needed priority with focus on characteristics of neighborhoods (communities), in addition to individual-level characteristics.

  16. Childhood Vitamin A Capsule Supplementation Coverage in Nigeria: A Multilevel Analysis of Geographic and Socioeconomic Inequities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Aremu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is a huge public health burden among preschool-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa, and is associated with a high level of susceptibility to infectious diseases and pediatric blindness. We examined the Nigerian national vitamin A capsule (VAC supplementation program, a short-term cost-effective intervention for prevention of VAD-associated morbidity for equity in terms of socioeconomic and geographic coverage. Using the most current, nationally representative data from the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, we applied multilevel regression analysis on 19,555 children nested within 888 communities across the six regions of Nigeria. The results indicate that there was variability in uptake of VAC supplement among the children, which could be attributed to several characteristics at individual, household, and community levels. Individual-level characteristics, such as maternal occupation, were shown to be associated with receipt of VAC supplement. The results also reveal that household wealth status is the only household-level characteristic that is significantly associated with receipt of VAC, while neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and geographic location were the community-level characteristics that determined receipt of VAC. The findings from this study have shown that both individual and contextual socioeconomic status, together with geographic location, is important for uptake of VAC. These findings underscore the need to accord the VAC supplementation program the much needed priority with focus on characteristics of neighborhoods (communities, in addition to individual-level characteristics.

  17. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

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    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  18. Making birth defects 'preventable': pre-conceptional vitamin supplements and the politics of risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2014-09-01

    Since the mid-1990s, governments and health organizations around the world have adopted policies designed to increase women's intake of the B-vitamin 'folic acid' before and during the first weeks of pregnancy. Building on initial clinical research in the United Kingdom, folic acid supplementation has been shown to lower the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Recent debate has focused principally on the need for mandatory fortification of grain products with this vitamin. This article takes a longer view, tracing the transformation of folic acid from a routine prenatal supplement to reduce the risk of anaemia to a routine 'pre-conceptional' supplement to 'prevent' birth defects. Understood in the 1950s in relation to social problems of poverty and malnutrition, NTDs were by the end of the century more likely to be attributed to individual failings. This transition was closely associated with a second. Folic acid supplements were initially prescribed to 'high-risk' women who had previously borne a child with a NTD. By the mid-1990s, they were recommended for all women of childbearing age. The acceptance of folic acid as a 'risk-reducing drug' both relied upon and helped to advance the development of preventive and clinical practices concerned with women's health before pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3–6 (6–7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34–37%). Except for women aged 60–64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1–4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium. PMID:28800115

  20. Determination of vitamin B12 in fortified bovine milk-based infant formula powder, fortified soya-based infant formula powder, vitamin premix, and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Pathik; O'Kane, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on an inhibition-based protein-binding assay using the Biacore Q biosensor instrument and the Biacore Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI. The samples studied included infant formula, cereals, premixes, vitamin tablets, dietary supplements, and baby food. The collaborative study, which involved 11 laboratories, demonstrated that the assay showed an RSDr of 1.59-27.8 and HorRat values for reproducibility of 0.34-1.89 in samples with levels ranging from ppm to ppb. The assay studied is a label-free protein binding-based assay that uses the principle of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to measure the interaction between vitamin B12 and a specific binding protein. A Biacore Q biosensor uses this principle to detect binding directly at the surface of a sensor chip with a hydrophilic gold-dextran surface. The instrument passes a mixture of prepared sample extract and binding protein solution across a covalently immobilized vitamin B12 chip surface, and the response is given as free-binding protein as the mixture binds to the immobilized surface. This technique uses the specificity and robustness of the protein-ligand interaction to allow minimal sample preparation and a wide range of matrixes to be analyzed rapidly. The reagents and accessories needed to perform this assay are provided as the ready-to-use format "Qflex Kit Vitamin B12 PI." The method is intended for routine use in the quantitative determination of vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin) in a wide range of food products, dietary vitamin supplements, and multivitamin premixes.

  1. Acute kidney injury due to excessive and prolonged intramuscular injection of veterinary supplements containing vitamins A, D and E: A series of 16 cases

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    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Excessive use of veterinary vitamin supplements containing high doses of vitamin A, D and E was associated with AKI. Hypercalcaemia, which was a common finding, appears to be a contributing factor to the development of this type of AKI.

  2. Effects of silage species and supplemental vitamin E on the oxidative stability of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mabruk, R M; Beck, N F G; Dewhurst, R J

    2004-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of feeding legume silages and providing supplemental vitamin E in concentrates on the oxidative stability of milk. In experiment 1, six multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were offered 1 of 6 silage treatments in a cyclical changeover-design experiment, with four 4-wk periods. The silages were grass, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, grass and red clover mixture (50:50 on a DM basis), and grass and white clover mixture (50:50 on a DM basis). In experiment 2, 8 cows were used in a changeover-design experiment with three 4-wk periods. The 4 treatments were a factorial combination of forages (grass silage or red clover silage) and supplemental vitamin E in the form of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (29 or 290 IU/kg of DM in the concentrate). All forages were offered ad libitum and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/d) was fed in both experiments. Red clover silage led to significantly higher forage intakes, milk yields, and milk protein percentage in experiment 2, which was in agreement with results from experiment 1. There was no effect of vitamin E on feed intake, milk production, or milk fat and protein percentage. Red clover silage also led to significant changes in milk fatty acid profiles, particularly increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Milk samples were stored at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C and analyzed for alpha-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at intervals to determine oxidative stability. Diets based on red clover and alfalfa silages were associated with more rapid loss of alpha-tocopherol and increased production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during the storage of milk in comparison with diets based on grass silage. The increased oxidative deterioration of milk produced from cows fed red clover silage was avoided by vitamin E supplementation.

  3. Impact of pill organizers and blister packs on adherence to pill taking in two vitamin supplementation trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H Y; Maguire, M G; Miller, E R; Appel, L J

    2000-10-15

    The impact of pill organizers on pill taking was determined in the Trial of Antioxidant Vitamins C and E (TRACE) Study, a factorial trial of vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation in 184 individuals. Participants were recruited in 1996-1997 and randomized to one of two groups (pill organizer or no organizer) and to one of four supplement groups for 2 months. The pill count (observed/expected X 100%) distribution was similar in the organizer and no organizer group for both vitamins. Mean differences in changes in serum vitamin levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by pill organizer use. The impact of pill organizers and blister packs was compared in another trial, the Vitamins, Teachers, and Longevity (VITAL) Study, in 297 individuals randomized in 1993-1994 to receive study pills either in blister packs or in pill organizers and to take one of two supplements. Among those with lower adherence, the pill count distribution in the blister-pack group exceeded that in the organizer group. Mean differences in serum vitamin E levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by types of pill packaging. In summary, use of blister packs, but not pill organizers, improved adherence as measured by pill counts among those with lower adherence. Neither pill delivery system improved adherence as measured by serum vitamin levels.

  4. Effect of Food and Vitamin D Supplements on the Serum 25(OHD3 Concentration in Children during Winter Months

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    Ellen van der Gaag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the contribution of food and vitamin D supplements on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentration between October and April in a northern country (almost absent vitamin D synthesis by sunlight. Methods: Children aged 1–18 years were selected who visited the general pediatrician with a complaint whereby serum 25(OHD3 concentration was determined. The intake of vitamin D was calculated based on a dietary questionnaire. Results: 51.1% of the 174 children had a serum 25(OHD3 concentration below 50 nmol/L, 9.2% had a serum 25(OHD3 concentration below 30 nmol/L. Adolescents showed lower concentrations compared to younger children. There was a positive correlation between the total amount of vitamin D obtained from food and the serum 25(OHD3 concentration (r = 0.218, p = 0.004. The intake of milk contributed more to the serum 25(OHD3 concentration compared to the intake of artificial supplementation, butter or fish. Conclusions: In the absence of vitamin D synthesis by sunlight, vitamin D obtained from food has a significant influence on the serum 25(OHD3 concentration in children. Vitamin D supplements can be described as trivial. This means we should pay more attention to food as a natural source of vitamin D.

  5. Supplementation with orange and blackcurrant juice, but not vitamin E, improves inflammatory markers in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Nielsen, Flemming Steen; Morrow, Jason D

    2009-01-01

    -inflammatory properties. We performed a randomised 2 x 2 factorial, crossover trial to determine the effect of orange and blackcurrant juice (500 ml/d) and vitamin E (15 mg RRR-alpha-tocopherol/d) supplementation on markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in forty-eight patients with peripheral arterial...... disease. Patients were randomly allocated to two dietary supplements from the four possible combinations of juice and vitamin E: juice+vitamin E; juice+placebo; reference beverage (sugar drink)+vitamin E; and reference beverage+placebo. The supplementations were given for 28 d, separated by a 4-week wash......-out period. Analysis of main effects showed that juice decreased C-reactive protein (CRP) by 11% and fibrinogen by 3% while the reference drink increased CRP by 13% and fibrinogen by 2% (P...

  6. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: an updated meta analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation has been widely recommended to prevent osteoporosis and subsequent fractures; however, considerable controversy exists regarding the association of such supplementation and fracture risk. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized contr...

  7. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received......BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... A recipients, subsequent DTP vaccines affected vitamin A status negatively. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00168597....

  8. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received......BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... A recipients, subsequent DTP vaccines affected vitamin A status negatively. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00168597. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  9. A prospective study of vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers.

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    Sonja P Dawsey

    Full Text Available We examined the association of use of multivitamins or single vitamin/mineral supplements with risk of four upper gastrointestinal cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort with 11 years of follow-up. After exclusions, 490,593 persons were included in our analytic cohort and 1780 upper gastrointestinal cancers were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using Cox models with adjustment for potential confounders. We observed no significant associations between multivitamin use and risk for the four cancer outcomes in crude or adjusted models. Among individual vitamin or mineral supplements, use of iron supplements was associated with significantly lower risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.94 and a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.24 to 2.05. For gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, we saw associations with zinc use (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.62 and vitamin C use (HR = 0.79 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.96. Calcium use, some of which was reported as antacids and used to treat reflux disease, was associated with higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.52 and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.56 cancers. We saw no evidence that multivitamin use was associated with reduced risk of four highly fatal upper gastrointestinal cancers, but there were some differences in risk with reported use of individual supplements.

  10. Does vitamin A supplementation protect schoolchildren from acquiring soil-transmitted helminthiasis? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Moktar, Norhayati; Surin, Johari

    2014-08-15

    Despite the intensive global efforts to control intestinal parasitic infections, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is still very high in many developing countries particularly among children in rural areas. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on STH reinfection. The effect of the supplement was assessed at 3 and 6 months after receiving interventions; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/daily of albendazole tablets. Almost all children (98.6%) were infected with at least one STH species. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection was 67.8%, 95.5% and 13.4%, respectively. Reinfection rates of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm were high; at 6 months, assessment reached 80% of the prevalence reported before treatment. There were no significant differences in the reinfection rates and intensities of STH between vitamin A supplemented-children and those who received placebo at 3 and 6 months (p > 0.05). Vitamin A supplementation showed no protective effect against STH reinfection and this could be due to the high endemicity of STH in this community. Long-term interventions to reduce poverty will help significantly in reducing this continuing problem and there is no doubt that reducing intestinal parasitic infection would have a positive impact on the health, nutrition and education of these children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00936091.

  11. Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves vitamin B12 and folate concentrations of HIV infected children in Uganda: a randomized controlled trial

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    Bolann Bjørn J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B12 and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. Methods Of 847 children who participated in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial, 214 were assessed for vitamin B12 and folate concentrations pre and post supplementation. One hundred and four children were randomised to two times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA of a 14 multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS and 114 to a 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins (MV. Serum vitamin B12 was measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and folate by a competitive protein-binding assay using Modular E (Roche automatic analyzer. Vitamin B12 concentrations were considered low if less than 221picomoles per litre (pmol/L and folate if Results Vitamin B12 was low in 60/214 (28% and folate in 62/214 (29.0% children. In the MMS group, the median concentration (IQR of vitamin B12 at 6 months was 401.5 (264.3 - 518.8 pmol/L compared to the baseline of 285.5 (216.5 - 371.8 pmol/L, p 12 at 6 months was 288.5 (198.8 - 391.0 pmol/L compared to the baseline of 280.0 (211.5 - 386.3 pmol/L while the median (IQR folate concentrations at 6 months were 16.5 (11.7 - 22.1 nmol/L compared to 15.7 (11.9 - 22.1 nmol/L at baseline. There was a significant difference in the MMS group in both vitamin B12 and folate concentrations but no difference in the MV group. Conclusions Almost a third of the HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years had low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate. Multiple micronutrient supplementation compared to the 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins improved the vitamin B12 and folate status of HIV infected children in Uganda

  12. Dietary supplements of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene reduce oxidative stress in cats with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Paetau-Robinson, I

    2006-05-01

    Oxidative stress may contribute to the progression of chronic renal failure. In this study, cats with spontaneous renal insufficiency were fed a dry cat food supplemented with the antioxidants vitamins E and C, and beta-carotene for 4 weeks. When compared with healthy cats, cats with renal insufficiency had a tendency to oxidative stress. The antioxidant supplements significantly reduced DNA damage in cats with renal insufficiency as evidenced by reduced serum 8-OHdG and comet assay parameters. Therefore, supplements of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene as antioxidants may be beneficial to cats with renal disease.

  13. Deletion of supplemental minerals and vitamins during the late finishing period does not affect pig weight gain and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, J J

    2000-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of eliminating the supplemental vitamin and minerals during the last 30 d of finishing on pig performance. The first study was conducted in a controlled university environment and the second under field conditions. Deletion of vitamin and mineral supplements for the last 30 d of finishing had no effects on pig performance or general health of pigs in either the university or the field trial. Besides lowering feed costs, deletion of dietary supplements may reduce the environmental impact of late finishing diets.

  14. Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins C and E Supplementation on its Plasma Levels and on Lipid Profile in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients26

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    M. Madhavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Patients with active pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB are malnourished as indicated by reductions in lean mass, anthropometric indices and micronutrient status. Supplementation with vitamins may prove to be beneficial. Limited information is available on the supplementation of vitamin C and E in pulmonary TB patients. Hence, the present study was undertaken to address the question whether any benefit could be demonstrated with supplementation of antioxidant vitamins C and E and in combination in pulmonary TB patients. Approach: A five arm study was carried out for a period of 6 months in which the normal healthy volunteers served as control group and the sputum positive category I pulmonary TB patients served as the treatment group. Three out of the four patient groups received the antioxidant vitamin supplementation of either vitamin C, vitamin E or in combination along with ATT, whereas fourth group received ATT alone. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and E were analyzed pre, during and post Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy (ATT to establish the role of oral supplementation of these vitamins. Sputum culture was also done at all the three times points for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To study the possible interaction and influence of the supplemented vitamins on LDL-C and HDL-C and other lipid parameters a lipid profile was carried out. Results: (1 All the patients in the treatment groups turned sputum at the end of 2 months of treatment. (2 There was a significant improvement in the body weights of the patients upon supplementation with antioxidant vitamins. (3 There was a significant increase in the of plasma ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol levels after 6 months of treatment in the vitamin C and vitamin E supplemented groups. (4 The HDL-C levels increased significantly in the antioxidant vitamin supplemented groups. (5 Lower levels of LDL-C were observed in the antioxidant vitamin supplemented groups when compared to the un-supplemented

  15. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgels, Theo G M F; Waarsing, Jan H; Herfs, Marjolein; Versteeg, Daniëlle; Schoensiegel, Frank; Sato, Toshiro; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Ivandic, Boris; Vermeer, Cees; Schurgers, Leon J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2011-11-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that it secretes an as-yet elusive factor into the circulation which prevents ectopic calcification. Utilizing our Abcc6 (-/-) mouse model for PXE, we tested the hypothesis that this factor is vitamin K (precursor) (Borst et al. 2008, Cell Cycle). For 3 months, Abcc6 (-/-) and wild-type mice were put on diets containing either the minimum dose of vitamin K required for normal blood coagulation or a dose that was 100 times higher. Vitamin K was supplied as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Ectopic calcification was monitored in vivo by monthly micro-CT scans of the snout, as the PXE mouse model develops a characteristic connective tissue mineralization at the base of the whiskers. In addition, calcification of kidney arteries was measured by histology. Results show that supplemental MK-7 had no effect on ectopic calcification in Abcc6 ( -/- ) mice. MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K levels (in skin, heart and brain) in wild-type and in Abcc6 (-/-) mice. Vitamin K tissue levels did not depend on Abcc6 genotype. In conclusion, dietary MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K tissue levels in the PXE mouse model but failed to counteract ectopic calcification. Hence, we obtained no support for the hypothesis that Abcc6 transports vitamin K and that PXE can be cured by increasing tissue levels of vitamin K.

  16. Effects of Supplementation with the Fat-Soluble Vitamins E and D on Fasting Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Peter J. Joris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplements on fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD of the brachial artery, a validated marker to assess CVD risk. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs were identified by a systematic search till July 2014. Seven RCTs studying the effects of vitamin E supplements (range: 300 to 1800 IU per day and nine RCTs examining the effects of vitamin D supplements, that involved, respectively, 303 and 658 adults, were included. No studies with carotenoid or vitamin K supplements were found. Vitamin E supplementation increased FMD vs. control by 2.42% (95% CI: 0.46% to 4.37%; p = 0.015. No effects of vitamin D supplementation were found (0.15%; 95% CI: −0.21% to 0.51%; p = 0.41. These effects did not depend on subject characteristics, treatment characteristics or technical aspects of the FMD measurement. However, no dose-response relationship was evident for vitamin E, statistical significance depended on one study, while the levels of supplement were far above recommended intakes. The current meta-analysis, therefore, does not provide unambiguous evidence to support the use of fat-soluble vitamin supplements to improve fasting FMD in adults.

  17. Vitamin and mineral supplements have a nutritionally significant impact on micronutrient intakes of older adults attending senior centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Allisha; Remig, Valentina; Holcomb, Carol Ann; Herald, Thomas J; Baybutt, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, although the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate micronutrient intakes of older adults with emphasis on identifying nutrients most improved by VM supplements, nutrients most likely to remain inadequate, and nutrients most likely consumed in excess. Community-based volunteers were recruited from senior centers and completed a questionnaire querying demographic data, current health status, and VM supplement use. Participants (n = 263) were then contacted by telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls and confirm VM supplement use. Dietary adequacy was determined by comparing the ratio of mean dietary intake to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Dietary consumption was lowest for vitamins D and E, calcium, and magnesium. VM supplementation most improved intakes of vitamins E, D, B(6), folic acid, and calcium. Participants were most likely to exceed the Tolerable Upper Limit with supplementation of niacin, folic acid, and vitamin A.

  18. Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Islam, M Munirul; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-04-01

    Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations.Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations.Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample.Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake

  19. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on loin (Longissimus dorsi quality in Brahman x Thai native cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkawattana, P.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study effects of vitamin E supplementation on physical, chemical and eating quality of longissimus dorsi muscle of Brahman x Thai native cattle. Four groups of three Brahman x Thai native steers, weighing 150-160 kg, were fed with concentrate supplemented with vitamin E at 0, 100, 200, 400 ppm before and after grazing in the pasture. The experiment lasted 120 days. At the end of the feeding trial all cattle were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi muscles were collected to determine various meat quality aspects. The results showed that the lowest shear force value of meat in the 400-ppm group indicated a more tender in comparison to the others. All supplementation levels had no effect on pH of the meat. Water holding capacity of the meat (after chilled for 24 hours from the 100-ppm group, was significantly different (P0.05 either triobarbituric acid (TBA value or eating quality (tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall acceptability.

  20. Elements in sera of elite taekwondo athletes: effects of vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlar, Suleyman; Boyali, Ekrem; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Gunay, Mehmet

    2011-02-01

    Many researchers have emphasized the relation between nutrition and development and sustaining performance. Two methods are commonly employed to identify the interaction between physical activity and nutrition. The first consists of administering food with a variety of contents to people engaged in physical activity and observing their performance responses, and the other is concerned with determining the effects of physical activity on nutrition. Therefore, it can be said that there has been a growing interest in the explorations into the relation between exercise and vitamins, minerals, and elements. The present study reports the effects of 6 weeks administration of 300 mg/day vitamin E on the distribution of serum elements in elite taekwondo athletes. Seven male athletes, mean ages 22.1 ± 0.5 years weighing on average 66.4 ± 2.4 kg were included in the study. The athletes had been practicing taekwondo for 10-12 years. Resting blood samples were collected in duplicate before and after supplementation for determination of serum levels of cobalt, boron, cadmium, chromium, nickel, manganese, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Supplementation resulted in significant increases of all elements relative to values before supplementation (p athletes.

  1. Effect of vitamin e supplementation on biochemical parameters in pesticides sprayers of grape gardens of Western maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jyotsna A; Patil, Arun J; Sontakke, Ajit V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to see the biochemical effects of pesticides on sprayers of grape gardens before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementations in Western Maharashtra (India), who were occupationally exposed to various pesticides over a long period of time (about 5 to 15 years). Blood samples were collected from all study group subjects for biochemical parameters assays before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens were given 400 mg of vitamin E tablet/day for 15 days. After 15 days of vitamin E supplementation to sprayers of grape gardens, we observed significantly decreased aspartate transaminase (10.88 %, P gardens, who received vitamin E supplementation, showed significantly decreased serum lipid peroxide (LP) (18.75 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.63) and significantly increased RBC-superoxide dismutase (SOD) (12.88 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.85), RBC-Catalase (CAT) (24.49 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.70), plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) (4.6 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.80), serum zinc (4.57 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.83) and serum copper (4.37 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.79) as compared to values before vitamin E supplementation. These results showed that vitamin E supplementation has ameliorating effects on these transaminase enzymes, suggesting that it may have a protective effect on liver, from pesticides induced damage. In this study vitamin E supplementation might have decreased LP levels by breaking chain reaction of lipid peroxidation. Present results indicate that vitamin E plays a crucial role in restoring the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and CP, in population exposed to pesticides. This helps to enhance its antioxidant ability. Therefore, it is suggested that farmers, pesticide applicators, workers in the pesticide industry and other pesticide users, who come in regular contact with pesticides, may be benefited by supplementation with vitamin E.

  2. A comparison of oral and topical vitamin A supplementation in African foam-nesting frogs (Chiromantis xerampelina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Valdes, Eduardo V; Fleming, Gregory J; Terrell, Scott P

    2010-09-01

    Vitamin A is essential for a variety of functions, including cellular differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, vision, immune response, and reproduction. A captive population of African foam-nesting frogs (Chiromantis xerampelina) with a known history of vitamin A deficiency had higher than expected incidence of sudden death, bacterial osteomyelitis, and stunted growth. Due to the high prevalence and untreatable nature of the diseases in the population, euthanasia of the population was recommended. Before euthanasia, the population was entered into a study to compare oral dietary supplementation of vitamin A to topical treatment with water-miscible vitamin A palmitate (AQUASOL A Parenteral, Mayne Pharma Inc., Paramus, New Jersey 07652, U.S.A.). Eighty-four frogs, weighing 2-7 g, were divided into a control and three treatment groups of 21 frogs per group, with normalized weight distribution. The control group received standard daily nutrition of crickets dusted with a supplement containing 342,000 international units (IU) vitamin A/kg. The treatment groups consisted of oral supplementation with crickets dusted with a fortified supplement containing 822,510 IU vitamin A/kg; topical vitamin A palmitate 50 IU every other day; and topical vitamin A palmitate 50 IU once a week. After 30 days, all frogs were euthanized, and 12 frogs from each group were analyzed for whole-body vitamin A levels. The control and treatment groups 1, 2, and 3 had average whole-body vitamin A levels of 1371.4 IU/kg (SE 284.4), 908.7 IU/kg (SE 186.5), 6385.9 IU/kg (SE 675.9), and 3521.8 IU/kg (SE 575.1), respectively. These results suggest that oral supplementation using a product high in vitamin A may be ineffective at raising whole-body vitamin A levels above those achieved with standard nutrition. Topical administration of vitamin A on an every other day and once a week dosing schedule achieved levels 4.5- and 2.5-fold higher than standard nutrition, respectively.

  3. The impact of essential fatty acid, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and zinc supplementation on stress levels in women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Delia; Lisy, Karolina; Lockwood, Craig; Colbeck, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Women juggling multiple roles in our complex society are increasingly experiencing psychological stress. Dietary supplementation to manage stress is widespread despite limited supporting evidence. A systematic review of the available literature was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific dietary supplements in managing female stress and anxiety. To identify the impact of essential fatty acids (EFAs), B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and/or zinc, consumed as dietary supplements to the daily diet, on female stress and anxiety levels. Women aged 18 years and over, who had participated in a study where stress and/or anxiety were assessed. Dietary supplementation with EFAs, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and/or zinc. Supplements, either alone or combined, were compared with either no intervention or placebo. Randomized controlled and pseudo-randomized trials were included. Stress and anxiety were assessed using self-report or physiological outcome measures. Published and unpublished studies were sought via MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MedNar, National Institute of Mental Health and the International Association for Women's Mental Health. Methodological quality was evaluated using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using the standardized data extraction instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Due to heterogeneity of the included studies, narrative synthesis was performed. Fourteen studies were included in this review. Essential fatty acids were effective in reducing perceived stress and salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy and anxiety in premenstrual women, and anxiety during menopause in the absence of depression, but were ineffective when depression was disregarded. Disregarding the hormonal phase, EFAs were ineffective in reducing stress or anxiety in four groups of women. Combined magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation reduced premenstrual

  4. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  5. Routine supplementation does not warrant the nutritional status of vitamin D adequate after gastric bypass Roux-en-Y

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    Cintia Leticia da Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery can lead to nutritional deficiencies, including those related to bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D and PTH in obese adults before and six months after gastric bypass surgery in Roux-en-Y (RYGB and evaluate the doses of calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study of adult patients of both sexes undergoing RYGB. We obtained data on weight, height, BMI and serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium and PTH. Following surgery, patients received dietary supplementation daily 500 mg calcium carbonate and 400 IU vitamin D. Results: We studied 56 women and 27 men. Preoperative serum concentrations of vitamin D were inadequate in 45% of women and 37% of men, while in the postoperative period 91% of women and 85% of men had deficiency of this vitamin. No change in serum calcium was found before and after surgery. Serum PTH preoperatively remained adequate in 89% of individuals of both sexes. After surgery serum concentrations remained adequate and 89% women and 83% men evaluated. Conclusion: Obesity appears to be a risk factor for the development of vitamin D. The results show that supplementation routine postoperative was unable to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency in obese adults undergoing RYGB.

  6. The Effect of Vitamin C and E Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghiyar, Maryam; Darvishi, Leila; Askari, Gholamrez; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The need for energy in strenuous exercises necessitates an increase in oxygen consumption and production of reactive oxygen species. It seems that supplementation of vitamins C and E reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress in female athletes. Methods: The study was a four-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial, conducted on 64 trained female athletes recruited in the Isfahan sports club. They were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: (a) vitamin C (250 mg/day), (b) vitamin E (400 IU), (c) vitamin C + vitamin E, and the control (placebo). Aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for assessing muscle damage, and malondialdehyde, were measured before and after the intervention. Results: In the between-groups comparison, only creatine kinase significantly changed at the end of the period (P = 0.03). However, in the intergroup comparison creatine kinase was significantly decreased in group 1 (P = 0.002). As for Aspartate aminotransferase, no significant difference was spotted in any of the comparisons. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly decreased in group 2 (P = 0.02). Finally, this study revealed a significant decrease in oxidative stress markers in groups 1, 3, and 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It is induced from the results that vitamin C and E supplementation plays a role in reducing muscle damage markers of aerobic exercises. PMID:23717764

  7. Vitamin D intake of Dutch infants from the combination of (fortified) foods, infant formula, and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-03-01

    Due to changes in the Dutch fortification policy for vitamin D and the vitamin D supplementation advice for infants (10-μg/d for 0-4 year olds), a partially virtual scenario study was conducted to evaluate the risk of excessive vitamin D intake assigning all infants to a 100 % adherence to the supplementation advice and considering the current fortification practice. Food consumption data from the Nutrition Intake Study (2002; N = 941, 7-19 months) were combined with Dutch food composition data from 2011 to estimate vitamin D intake from (fortified) foods. For infants 0-6 months of age, the consumption volume infant formula was estimated from energy requirement and body weight. All subjects were assigned to take a daily 10 µg vitamin D supplement, according the Dutch supplementation advice for infants. Habitual vitamin D intake was estimated using the Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure and compared with the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) set by the European Food Safety Authority. The median habitual total vitamin D intake was 16-22 µg/day for infants aged 0-6 months (increasing with age) and 13-21 µg/day for infants aged 7-19 months (decreasing with age). About 4-12 % of infants aged 7-11 months exceeded the UL. At the 99th percentile, the intake was 2-4 µg above the UL, depending on age. Infants aged 0-6 and 12-19 months did not exceed the UL. In case of combined intake from infant formula, (fortified) foods, and supplements, vitamin D intakes above the UL are possible among some infants during a limited time period.

  8. The effects of multi mineral-vitamin D and vitamins (C+E supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Azami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have reported the uncertain role of multi-minerals and vitamins in the prevention of preeclampsia. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the effect of multimineral-vitamin D supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D and vitamins (C+ E in the prevention of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were divided into three groups: group A received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day + one tablet of Claci-care multimineral-vitamin D containing 800mg calcium, 200mg magnesium, 8mg zinc and 400 IU Vitamin D3 per day; group B received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day + 250 mg vitamin C + 55 mg vitamin E; and the controls received only one Ferrous sulfate tablet daily. Results: The incidence of preeclampsia in group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.03, while there was no significant difference between group B and controls (p=0.50, as well as groups A and B (p=0.063. The incidence of neonatal complications in the group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.01, while there was no significant difference between group B and control (p=0.48. Conclusion: According to the results, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplements have a significant effect on the prevention of preeclampsia. In addition, prescription of multimineral-vitamin D during pregnancy can be a low-cost and affordable way to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in women who are at high risk of preeclampsia.

  9. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels of oxidants and antioxidants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Daga; Rashmi Chhabra; Bhavneesh Sharma; T K Mishra

    2003-02-01

    Oxidative stress has been recognized as a central feature of smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes is also an established fact in these patients. But studies in regard to stable COPD patients and effect of vitamin E supplementation are lacking. Thirty patients with COPD were included in the study. Their baseline clinical examination, spirometry, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), alpha-tocopherol and red blood cell superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Twenty healthy non-smokers who were matched for age and sex served as controls. All the above parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin E daily. The mean malondialdehyde levels in the patients at baseline were higher than controls (5.91 ± 1.23 nmol/ml vs 4.55 ± 1.51 nmol/ml, = 0.001), so also was plasma alpha-tocopherol levels ( < 0.001), while SOD levels were lower in the patients compared to controls (1692 ± 259 units g/Hb vs 2451 ± 131 units g/Hb, < 0.001). Exogenous vitamin E (400 IU per day) supplementation did not bring about any significant change in plasma alpha-tocopherol and SOD levels. The Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation between the levels of MDA, vitamin E, SOD; and spirometric measurements were not significant either on day 1 or after 12 weeks of vitamin E supplementation. The present study shows that initially the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA) levels are high and antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and SOD) are low in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin E does not have any significant effect on the spirometric measurements though it brings down the levels of MDA showing attenuation of further damage. However, inclusion of larger number of patients and supplementation with vitamin E for longer periods may throw more light on free radical injury and protective effects of antioxidants.

  10. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading ... What's in this article? Vitamins Hang Out in Water and Fat Vitamins Feed Your Needs Vitamin A ...

  11. In vitro effects of vitamin supplements on platelet-activating factor and its metabolism in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Marilita M; Chatziralli, Irini P; Stamatakis, George; Papakonstantinou, Vasiliki D; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate for the first time a series of vitamin supplements used for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as potential inhibitors of platelet-activating factor (PAF). Various vitamin supplements were tested in washed rabbit platelets (WRPs), in order to investigate the interaction between vitamin supplements (InShape, Nutrof, Ocuvite, Vitalux) and inhibition of PAF-induced platelet aggregation. Additionally, we examined their ability to affect PAF-metabolism, through their in vitro effect on PAF basic metabolic enzymes (PAF-CPT, lyso PAF-AT, and PAF-AH). Nutrof exhibited the strongest anti-PAF activity, while Vitalux was the most potent anti-inflammatory factor. This is the first study to bring in surface potent anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities of some vitamin supplements used against AMD, through their in vitro anti-PAF effects in WRPs and the rabbit plasma and leukocyte PAF metabolism, suggesting a promising role of vitamin supplements and especially resveratrol, concerning its potent anti-angiogenic activity in AMD.

  12. Effects of vitamin-mineral supplementation on cardiac marker and radical scavenging enzymes, and MDA levels in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

    2004-04-01

    The relationship among the enzyme activities of cardiac markers, the antioxidant defense system, and erythrocyte membrane malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels related to vitamin-mineral supplementation in swim exercise was investigated. Swimmers aged 11 - 13 years were divided into 2 separate groups as control and vitamin-mineral supplemented. Swimmers participated in a monthly swimming program (4 times/wk) and swam approximately 2- 2.5 km/d. Cardiac markers such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK - MB), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT (AST)], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in post-training samples were found to be significantly (p<.05) higher than in pre-training samples. Except for GOT (AST), the activity increases in CK, CK-MB, and LDH in female and male supplemented groups were significantly (p<.05) lower than those of control groups during the 1-month period of swim training. Antioxidant enzyme activity increases in the male vitamin-mineral group were significantly (p <.05) higher when compared with the other groups. Post-training MDA levels were significantly (p <.001) higher than pre-training MDA levels in the control groups, whereas no significant (p<.05) differences were found between the vitamin-mineral supplemented groups. Vitamin-mineral supplementation was found to attenuate cardiac and muscle damage markers while also enhancing antioxidant levels and reducing membrane LPO levels in response to 1 month of swim training.

  13. Antibacterial responses by peritoneal macrophages are enhanced following vitamin D supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Bacchetta

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, who usually display low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D, are at high risk of infection, notably those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD. We hypothesized that peritoneal macrophages from PD patients are an important target for vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity. Dialysate effluent fluid was obtained from 27 non-infected PD patients. Flow cytometry indicated that PD cells were mainly monocytic (37.9±17.7% cells CD14+/CD45+. Ex vivo analyses showed that PD cells treated with 25D (100 nM, 6 hrs or 1,25D (5 nM, 6 hrs induced mRNA for antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP but conversely suppressed mRNA for hepcidin (HAMP. PD cells from patients with peritonitis (n = 3 showed higher baseline expression of CAMP (18-fold±9, p<0.05 and HAMP (64-fold±7 relative to cells from non-infected patients. In 12 non-infected PD patients, oral supplementation with a single dose of vitamin D2 (100,000 IU increased serum levels of 25D from 18±8 to 41±15 ng/ml (p = 0.002. This had no significant effect on PD cell CD14/CD45 expression, but mRNA for HAMP was suppressed significantly (0.5-fold, p = 0.04. Adjustment for PD cell CD14/CD45 expression using a mixed linear statistical model also revealed increased expression of CAMP (mRNA in PD cells and protein in effluent in vitamin D-supplemented patients. These data show for the first time that vitamin D supplementation in vitro and in vivo promotes innate immune responses that may enhance macrophage antibacterial responses in patients undergoing PD. This highlights a potentially important function for vitamin D in preventing infection-related complications in CKD.

  14. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone and vitamin D status among Pakistani immigrants in Denmark: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Mølgaard, Christian; Skovgaard, Lene T.

    2008-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim immigrants. The dose necessary to correct the deficiency and its consequence for bone health are not known for immigrants. The aim was to assess the effect of relatively low dosages of supplemental vitamin D on vitamin D and bone status...... in Pakistani immigrants. This 1-year-long randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention with vitamin D-3 (10 and 20 mu g/d) included girls (10.1 - 14.7 years), women (18.1 - 52.7 years) and men (17.9-63.5 years) of Pakistani origin living in Denmark. The main endpoints were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin...... D (S-25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone turnover markers and bone mass. The study showed that supplementation with 10 and 20 mu g vitamin D-3 per d increased S-25OHD concentrations similarly in vitamin D-deficient Pakistani women (4-fold), and that 10 mu g increased S-25OHD concentrations 2-fold...

  15. Vitamin D-3 and vitamin K-1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities : effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Storm, H; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; Van der Veer, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60-y-old postmenopausal Dutch women. Design: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n = 96) and low (T-score less than or equal to-1; n = 45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with

  16. Vitamin D-3 and vitamin K-1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities : effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Storm, H; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; Van der Veer, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60-y-old postmenopausal Dutch women. Design: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n = 96) and low (T-score less than or equal to-1; n = 45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with

  17. Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical Parameters during Long Term Exposure of Arsenic in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tapan Kumar; Mani, Veena; Kaur, Harjit; Kewalramani, Neelam; Agarwal, Anjali

    2012-09-01

    The present investigation was designed to determine whether supplementation of different level of vitamin E for 12 months to arsenic exposed goats (50 ppm as sodium arsenite) affords protection against the blood hemato-biochemical parameters caused by the metalloid. A total of 24 crossbred (Alpine×Beetal) lactating goats were assigned randomly into 4 equal groups (control, T1, T2 and T3) of 6 in each, on the basis of average body weight (36.10±0.11 kg) and milk yield (1.61±0.04 kg/d). The animals in T1, T2 and T3 were given 50 ppm arsenic, while in T2 and T3, additionally; vitamin E at the rate of 100 IU and 150 IU/kg dry matter (DM) respectively was additionally supplemented for the period of 12 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte (TLC) and blood lymphocyte % were decreased (parsenic fed groups and vitamin E supplementation in the experimental group showed a protective potential. Significant increases (parsenic supplemented groups were recorded, however vitamin E supplementation at higher doses showed a protective effect (p0.05) but creatinine level was periodically increased in all As supplemented groups and vitamin E supplementation did not produce any protective effect. It can be concluded that arsenic exposure resulted in varying degree of changes in hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats but concomitant treatment with Vitamin E is partially helpful in reducing the burden of arsenic induced effect.

  18. Vitamin D supplementation improves sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C(genotype 1)-naive patientsaa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saif Abu-Mouch; Zvi Fireman; Jacob Jarchovsky; Abdel-Rauf Zeina; Nimer Assy

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether adding vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, improves the hepatitis C virus (HCV) response to antiviral therapy. METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 were randomized into two groups: the treatment group (n = 36, 50% male, mean age 47 ± 11 years) received Peg-α-2b interferon (1.5 μg/kg per week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/d) together with vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d, target serum level > 32 ng/mL), and the control group (n = 36, 60% male, mean age 49 ± 7 years) received identical therapy without vitamin D. HCV-RNA was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (sensitivity, 10 IU/mL). The sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as undetectable HCV-RNA at 24 wk post-treatment. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. The treatment group had a higher mean body mass index (27 ± 4 kg/m2 vs 24 ± 3 kg/m2, P F2: 42% vs 19%, P < 0.001) than the controls. At week 4, 16 (44%) treated patients and 6 (17%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). At week 12, 34 (94%) treated patients and 17 (48%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). At 24 wk post-treatment (SVR), 31 (86%) treated patients and 15 (42%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). Viral load, advanced fibrosis and vitamin D supplementation were strongly and independently associated with SVR (multivariate analysis). Adverse events were mild and typical of Peg-α-2b/ribavirin. CONCLUSION: Adding vitamin D to conventional Peg-α-2b/ribavirin therapy for treatment-naive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection significantly improves the viral response.

  19. Effects of cobalt supplementation and vitamin B12 injections on lactation performance and metabolism of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance and metabolism of primiparous and multiparous dairy cows fed different levels and sources (inorganic and organic) of Co or given weekly vitamin B(12) injections. Forty-five primi- and multiparous cows at 60 d prepartum were blocked by expected calving date, and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design with treatments starting at 60 d prepartum. The 5 treatments were (1) no supplemental dietary Co (control, CON), (2) 25mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co carbonate (CoCarb), (3) 25mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co glucoheptonate (LCoGH), (4) 75 mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co glucoheptonate (HCoGH), and (5) CON diet plus weekly 10mg i.m. of vitamin B(12) injections (IB12). Cows remained on their respective treatment until 150 d after calving. Cobalt concentrations (mg/kg of dry matter) in the lactating diets were 1.0, 1.9, 2.3, and 5.1 for CON/IB12, CoCarb, LCoGH, and HCoGH, respectively. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by treatment. The LCoGH treatment tended to have greater milk yield than CoCarb, and CON had similar milk yields to the mean of LCoGH and HCoGH. Cobalt supplementation or the use of vitamin B(12) injections did not influence plasma or liver measures of energy metabolism. Injections of vitamin B(12) increased plasma, liver, and milk vitamin B(12) contents. Dietary Co addition did not affect plasma vitamin B(12) concentrations; however, it did increase milk vitamin B(12) concentrations throughout lactation and liver vitamin B(12) at calving with no effect of source or level of Co. Folate status of cows in the study was low and possibly limited the effect of improved vitamin B(12) status on lactation performance. Overall, Co supplementation (inorganic and organic) or vitamin B(12) injections improved measures of vitamin B(12) status, but not lactation performance compared with CON possibly due

  20. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase and interleukin-2 in arsenic exposed goat leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T K; Mani, V; De, S; Banerjee, D; Mukherjee, A; Polley, S; Kewalramani, N; Kaur, H

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the expression level of genes involved in antioxidant defenses during inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in the blood of goats and to evaluate the regulative activity on these genes of antioxidant vitamin E in the diet. Twenty-four crossbred lactating goats (Alpine × Beetal) were distributed randomly into four equal groups (Control, T(1), T(2) and T(3)) of six in each, on the basis of average body weight (36.10 ± 0.11 kg) and milk yield (1.61 ± 0.004 kg/day). The animals in T(1), T(2) and T(3) were given 50 mg/kg dry matter arsenic daily, while in T(2) and T(3), vitamin E @100 IU and 150 IU/kg dry matter, respectively, was also supplemented additionally for the period of 12 months. Blood was sampled at 0 day then at 3 months interval and analyzed for the expression level of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) using real-time PCR technique. Initially there was no difference (p > 0.05) in relative expression of the two genes. But, at 3 months, relative expression of Cu/Zn SOD increased (p < 0.05) in T(1) groups then, at 6 and 9 months expression was decreased (p < 0.05) in all the iAs treated groups whereas at 12 months, vitamin E supplementation increased (p < 0.05) the expression which is comparable to control groups. IL-2 mRNA expression was decreased (p < 0.05) at 6 months in all iAs treated groups, at 9 months there was decline trend but not significantly different whereas at 12 months decline trend was less (p < 0.05) in vitamin E supplemented groups. The result suggests that vitamin E may have a controlling effect on oxidative stress through modulation of SOD and IL-2 expression.

  1. Effects of vitamin D binding protein phenotypes and vitamin D supplementation on serum total 25(OH)D and directly measured free 25(OH)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Stina T; Hutchinson, Moira Y S; Berg, Vivian; Fuskevåg, Ole M; Figenschau, Yngve; Thorsby, Per M; Jorde, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    To determine the relationship between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), directly measured free 25(OH)D and calculated free 25(OH)D with regard to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) phenotypes, sex, BMI, age and season, and their interrelationship to vitamin D supplementation. A randomized controlled trial with 20 000 IU of vitamin D3 per week or placebo for 12 months was designed. A total of 472 subjects, 236 in each of the intervention groups, were included in the analyses. Baseline serum concentrations and increases in serum total 25(OH)D, directly measured free 25(OH)D, calculated free 25(OH)D and DBP. Serum total 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with the phenotype Gc2/Gc2 compared to phenotypes with the Gc1S allele, and lower in males compared to females. When using directly measured free 25(OH)D, the differences related to DBP phenotypes and sexes were clearly diminished. All calculated free 25(OH)D concentrations were overestimated compared to the directly measured free 25(OH)D. Serum parathyroid hormone showed an inverse correlation with all vitamin D parameters analyzed. The increases after 12 months of vitamin D supplementation were not significantly different for any of the vitamin D parameters regardless of DBP phenotype, sex or age. Supplementation with vitamin D did not affect serum DBP. Direct measurements of free 25(OH)D reduce the differences seen in total 25(OH)D between DBP phenotype groups and sexes, probably caused by differences in DBP concentrations. With conditions affecting serum DBP concentrations, direct measurements of free 25(OH)D should be considered. © 2016 The authors.

  2. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation reduces arterial stiffness in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashor, Ammar W; Siervo, Mario; Lara, Jose; Oggioni, Clio; Mathers, John C

    2014-10-01

    Several studies tested the effects of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins on arterial stiffness, but the results were contradictory. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the effect of antioxidant vitamins on arterial stiffness and to determine whether the effects on arterial stiffness vary according to dose, duration of intervention, and health or nutritional status of the included participants. We searched 3 databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) for articles that potentially met the following eligibility criteria: 1) randomized controlled trials comparing antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C, E, and A and β-carotene) to either placebo or no active control in 2) adult participants aged ≥18 y; 3) antioxidant vitamins administered alone or in combination, irrespective of dose, duration, and route of administration; and 4) changes in arterial stiffness or arterial compliance. Data were pooled as standardized mean differences (SMDs) and analyzed using fixed- and random-effects models. Data synthesis showed that antioxidant vitamins reduced arterial stiffness significantly (SMD: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.08; P Vitamin supplementation improved arterial stiffness irrespective of age group and duration of intervention. Antioxidant vitamins were more effective in participants with low baseline plasma concentrations of vitamins C (SMD: -0.35; 95% CI: -0.62, -0.07; P vitamins has a small, protective effect on arterial stiffness. The effect may be augmented in those with lower baseline plasma vitamin E and C concentrations. This trial was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42014007260. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  4. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy on Risk of Persistent Wheeze in the Offspring A Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Stokholm, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Observational studies have suggested that increased dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against wheezing in the offspring, but the preventive effect of vitamin D supplementation to pregnant women is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation of vitamin D3...... during the third trimester of pregnancy reduces the risk of persistent wheeze in the offspring. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A double-blind, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted within the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort. Enrollment began March 2009...... supplementation was not associated with the risk of persistent wheeze, but the number of episodes of troublesome lung symptoms was reduced, and the airway immune profile was up-regulated (principal component analysis, P=.04). There was no effect on additional end points. Intrauterine death was observed in 1 fetus...

  5. Effect of phylloquinone supplementation on biochemical markers of vitamin K status and bone turnover in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, Susanne; Sorensen, A. Dorthe; Hels, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    While current intakes of phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) in many populations are believed to be sufficient to maintain normal blood coagulation, these may be insufficient to cover the requirements for optimal bone metabolism. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect...... of increasing phylloquinone intakes above the usual dietary intake for 6 weeks on biochemical markers of vitamin K status and bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Thirty-one postmenopausal women completed this 3 X 6-week randomised cross-over study, in which volunteers were supplemented with 0 (placebo), 200......, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline) and urinary gamma-carboxyglutarnate were unaffected by phylloquinone supplementation. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 200 and 500 mu g phylloquinone/d for 6 weeks increased vitamin K status in postmenopausal women, it had no effect on bone turnover....

  6. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  7. Modulation of inflammation by vitamin E and C supplementation prior to anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tyler; Leonard, Scott W; Trawick, Roy H; Martins, Thomas B; Kjeldsberg, Carl R; Hill, Harry R; Traber, Maret G

    2009-03-01

    Muscle atrophy commonly follows anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and surgery. Proinflammatory cytokines can induce and exacerbate oxidative stress, potentiating muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of prior antioxidant (AO) supplementation on circulating cytokines following ACL surgery. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in men undergoing ACL surgery, who were randomly assigned to either: (1) AO (200 IU of vitamin E (50% d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and 50% d-alpha-tocopherol) and 500 mg ascorbic acid), or (2) matching placebos (PL). Subjects took supplements twice daily for 2 weeks prior to and up to 12 weeks after surgery. Each subject provided five blood samples: (1) baseline (Bsl, prior to supplementation and approximately 2 weeks prior to surgery), (2) presurgery (Pre), (3) 90 min, (4) 72 h, and (5) 7 days postsurgery. Following surgery, inflammation and muscle damage increased in both groups, as assessed by increased circulating IL-6, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase. During AO supplementation, plasma alpha-T and AA increased while gamma-T concentrations decreased significantly (PACL surgery.

  8. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients.

  9. The effect of 14 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation on antimicrobial peptides and proteins in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Fraser, William D; Tang, Jonathan; Brown, Kirsty; Renwick, Stephen; Rudland-Thomas, Jay; Teah, James; Tanqueray, Ellie; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heavy training is associated with increased respiratory infection risk and antimicrobial proteins are important in defence against oral and respiratory tract infections. We examined the effect of 14 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation (5000 IU/day) on the resting plasma cathelicidin concentration and the salivary secretion rates of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cathelicidin, lactoferrin and lysozyme in athletes during a winter training period. Blood and saliva were obtained at the start of the study from 39 healthy men who were randomly allocated to vitamin D3 supplement or placebo. Blood samples were also collected at the end of the study; saliva samples were collected after 7 and 14 weeks. Plasma total 25(OH)D concentration increased by 130% in the vitamin D3 group and decreased by 43% in the placebo group (both P = 0.001). The percentage change of plasma cathelicidin concentration in the vitamin D3 group was higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.025). Only in the vitamin D3 group, the saliva SIgA and cathelicidin secretion rates increased over time (both P = 0.03). A daily 5000 IU vitamin D3 supplement has a beneficial effect in up-regulating the expression of SIgA and cathelicidin in athletes during a winter training period, which could improve resistance to respiratory infections.

  10. The Impact of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Mechanisms of Cell Calcium Signaling in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Lajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular calcium concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is significantly increased, and the regulatory mechanisms maintaining cellular calcium homeostasis are impaired. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on predominant regulatory mechanisms of cell calcium homeostasis. The study involved 16 CKD stages 2-3 patients with vitamin D deficiency treated with cholecalciferol 7000–14000 IU/week for 6 months. The regulatory mechanisms of calcium signaling were studied in PBMCs and red blood cells. After vitamin D3 supplementation, serum concentration of 25(OHD3 increased (P<0.001 and [Ca2+]i decreased (P<0.001. The differences in [Ca2+]i were inversely related to differences in 25(OHD3 concentration (P<0.01. Vitamin D3 supplementation decreased the calcium entry through calcium release activated calcium (CRAC channels and purinergic P2X7 channels. The function of P2X7 receptors was changed in comparison with their baseline status, and the expression of these receptors was reduced. There was no effect of vitamin D3 on P2X7 pores and activity of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases. Vitamin D3 supplementation had a beneficial effect on [Ca2+]i decreasing calcium entry via CRAC and P2X7 channels and reducing P2X7 receptors expression.

  11. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2017-07-31

    It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the retina by reacting with free radicals that are produced in the process of light absorption. Higher dietary levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may reduce the risk of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation on the progression of AMD in people with AMD. We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to March 2017), AMED (1985 to March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 29 March 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation (alone or in combination) to placebo or no intervention, in people with AMD. Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5; the other author checked the data entry. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included 19 studies conducted in USA, Europe, China, and Australia. We judged the trials that contributed data to the review to be at low or unclear risk of bias.Nine studies compared multivitamins with placebo (7 studies) or no treatment (2 studies) in people with early and moderate AMD. The duration of supplementation and follow-up ranged from nine months to six years; one trial followed up beyond two years. Most evidence came from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) in the USA. People taking antioxidant vitamins were less likely to progress to late AMD (odds ratio

  12. Bone mineral density reduction in adolescents with systemic erythematosus lupus: association with lack of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, M; Terreri, M T; Ortiz, T; Pinheiro, M; Souza, F; Sarni, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate body composition and the bone mineral density in female adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. Body composition (BC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in an observational cohort study with 35 postmenarcheal adolescent females. The variables studied were as follows: current and cumulative corticosteroid dose, intake of supplements containing calcium and vitamin D, 24-h proteinuria, body mass index (BMI), and height for age (Z-score). BC was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at two time points (median interval of 1.2 years). The fat mass index (FMI = fat mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) and lean mass index (LMI = lean mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) were calculated based on the DXA results. BMD was classified according to the International Society of Clinical Densitometry (low BMD for chronological age vitamin D. There was no significant difference between the two time points with respect to FMI, LMI, or body mass index Z-score (ZBMI); however, BMD has decreased significantly (p = 0.011). There was an association between not taking a vitamin D supplement and decreased BMD (p = 0.027). Almost half of the patients had altered nutritional status. The BMD decrease in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) was associated with the lack of vitamin D supplementation, highlighting the importance of well-defined vitamin D supplementation protocols.

  13. Vitamin D supplementation therapy – comparison of efficacy of three different protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinarayan CV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation therapy with three different protocols. Methods: In protocols 1 (intensive and 3 (standard oral cholecalciferol was given 60,000 IU/week/8 weeks followed bimonthly for 12 weeks. In protocol 2 parenteral-bolus cholecalciferol was given as 600,000 IU loading dose, 8 weeks later followed by cholecalciferol 60,000IU bimonthly for 12 weeks. Elemental calcium (1 g/day was administered for full duration of study in all three protocols. Serum albumin, calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD and parathyroid hormone were tested at baseline, at 2nd, and 5th months. Statistical analysis was performed using random measures analysis of variance. As patients receiving protocol 3 were significantly older compared to the other two groups, age-adjusted analysis was carried out. Results: Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis showed that patients receiving protocol 2 had achieved 25OHD sufficiency levels at 8 weeks suggesting that protocol 2 appeared to perform best among the three protocols. However, these differences were not sustained at 5 months suggesting the need for continuing supervision. Conclusions: Despite varied responses of different biochemical markers, all three protocols were effective in bringing up 25OHD levels. However, protocol 2 performed the best among the three protocols. Our observation also highlight the importance of need for ongoing supplementation and continuing supervision of the same.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and selenium on rat hepatic stellate cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Hua Shen; Wu-Feng Cheng; Xuan-Hai Li; Jian-Qin Sun; Feng Li; Ling Ma; Liang-Min Xie

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and selenium on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in acute liver injury induced by CCl4, and to explore their role in the recovery from hepatic fibrosis phase.METHODS: An acute liver damage model of rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) twice a week,then the rats were killed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after the first and third injection, respectively. A liver fibrosis model was established by the same injection for 8 wk. Then three rats were killed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after the last injection,respectively. The rats from the intervention group were fed with chow supplemented with vitamin E (250 mg/kg)and selenium (0.2 mg/kg), and the rats in the normal control group and pathological group were given standard chow.Livers were harvested and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Sirius red. Activated HSCs were determined by α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry staining.Apoptotic HSCs were determined by dual staining with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were also analyzed.RESULTS: In the acute liver damage model, the degree of liver injury was more serious in the pathological group than in the intervention group. At each time point, the number of activated HSCs was less in the intervention group than in the pathological group, while the number of apoptotic HSCs was more in the intervention group than in the pathological group. In the liver fibrosis model,the degree of liver fibrosis was more serious in the pathological group than in the intervention group. At each time point, the number of activated HSCs was less in the intervention group than in the pathological group, and the number of apoptotic HSCs was more in the intervention group than in the

  15. Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud ZAM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Zulfitri A Mat Daud,1 Boniface Tubie,2 Marina Sheyman,2 Robert Osia,2 Judy Adams,2 Sharon Tubie,2 Pramod Khosla1 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Great Lake Dialysis Clinic, LLC, Detroit, MI, USA Purpose: Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. Patients and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols. Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6, oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde, lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. Results: TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test. However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032 and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072 after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly

  16. Selenium–vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and pregnancy rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K Moslemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad K Moslemi1,2, Samaneh Tavanbakhsh31Highly Specialized Jihad Daneshgahi Infertility Center, Qom Branch (ACECR, Qom, Iran; 2Department of Urology, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranObjectives: Infertility is an important medical and social problem that has an impact on well-being. A significant development in the last 10 years in the study of human infertility has been the discovery that oxidative sperm DNA damage has a critical role in the etiology of poor semen quality and male infertility. Selenium (Se is an essential element for normal testicular development, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa motility and function. The predominant biochemical action of Se in both humans and animals is to serve as an antioxidant via the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase and thus protect cellular membranes and organelles from peroxidative damage. We explored the efficacy of Se in combination with vitamin E for improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates in infertile men.Materials and methods: The study included 690 infertile men with idiopathic asthenoteratospermia who received supplemental daily Se (200 µg in combination with vitamin E (400 units for at least 100 days. The mean age of cases was 28.5 years (range 20–45, and the median age was 30 years. These cases had presented with male factor infertility (primary or secondary for at least 1 year. The longest and shortest duration of infertility was 10 years and 1 year, respectively. The median time of diagnosis of infertility was 1 year with a mean of 2.5 years.Results: We observed 52.6% (362 cases total improvement in sperm motility, morphology, or both, and 10.8% (75 cases spontaneous pregnancy in comparison with no treatment (95% confidence interval: 3.08 to 5.52. No response to treatment occurred in 253 cases (36.6% after 14 weeks of combination therapy. Mean difference between semen analyses of cases before and after treatment was 4.3% with a standard

  17. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Responses to Vitamin D Supplementation in Overweight/Obese Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Ashley; Teramoto, Masaru; Cheung, May; Becker, Kendra; Sukumar, Deeptha

    2017-03-06

    Obesity is often associated with vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vitamin D supplementation typically leads to the reductions in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, as shown in normal weight individuals. Meanwhile, the dose of vitamin D supplementation for the suppression of PTH may differ in overweight and obese adults. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the dose of vitamin D supplementation required to suppress PTH levels in overweight/obese individuals. We identified 18 studies that examined overweight or obese healthy adults who were supplemented with varying doses of vitamin D3. The primary outcomes examined were changes in PTH and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels from baseline to post-treatment. The results of the meta-analysis showed that there was a significant treatment effect of vitamin D supplementation on PTH, total standardized mean difference (SMD) (random effects) = -0.38 (95% CI = -0.56 to -0.20), t = -4.08, p D supplementation was also found on 25OHD, total SMD (random effects) = 2.27 (95% CI = 1.48 to 3.06) t = 5.62, p D3 ranging from 400 IU to 5714 IU, showed that 1000 IU of vitamin D supplementation best suppressed serum PTH levels, total SMD = -0.58, while vitamin D supplementation with 4000 IU showed the greatest increase in serum 25OH levels. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation of 700 IU and 500 mg, respectively, also showed a significant treatment effect on the suppression of PTH with a total SMD = -5.30 (95% CI = -9.72 to -0.88). In conclusion, the meta analysis of available clinical trials indicates that 1000 IU vitamin D supplementation can suppress serum PTH levels, while 4000 IU of vitamin D was associated with the largest increase in serum 25OHD levels in the overweight and obese population.

  18. Vitamin C supplementation does not protect L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase-deficient mice from Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and gastric premalignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In human studies, low vitamin C intake has been associated with more severe Helicobacter pylori gastritis and a higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, vitamin C supplementation has not been definitively shown to protect against gastric cancer. Using vitamin C-deficient B6.129P2-Gulo tm1Umc/mmc...

  19. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  20. Self-reported use of vitamins and other nutritional supplements in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Is daily practice in concordance with recommendations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Dopheide, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In cystic fibrosis (CF), prophylactic supplementation of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K is recommended. Limited data is available describing vitamin prescription adherence by adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the use of prescribed vitamins and other nutritional

  1. Impact of oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in oncology

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    Braun Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is the major circulating form of vitamin D and a standard indicator of vitamin D status. Emerging evidence in the literature suggests a high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D (as defined by serum 25(OHD levels of Methods This is a retrospective observational study of 2198 cancer patients who had a baseline test prior to initiation of cancer therapy at our hospital to evaluate serum 25(OHD levels between Jan 08 and Dec 09 as part of their initial nutritional evaluation. Patients with baseline levels of Results Of 2198 patients, 814 were males and 1384 females. 1051 were newly diagnosed and treated at our hospital while 1147 were diagnosed and treated elsewhere. The mean age at presentation was 55.4 years. The most common cancer types were breast (500, 22.7%, lung (328, 14.9%, pancreas (214, 9.7%, colorectal (204, 9.3% and prostate (185, 8.4%. The mean time duration between baseline and first follow-up assessment was 14.7 weeks (median 10.9 weeks and range 4 weeks to 97.1 weeks. The mean serum 25(OHD levels were 19.1 ng/ml (SD = 7.5 and 36.2 ng/ml (SD = 17.1 at baseline and first follow-up respectively; p 32 ng/ml compared to patients with baseline levels Conclusions The response to supplementation from suboptimal to optimal levels was greatest in patients with prostate and lung cancer as well as those with baseline levels between 20-32 ng/ml. Characteristics of non-responders as well as those who take longer to respond to supplementation need to be further studied and defined. Additionally, the impact of improved serum 25(OHD levels on patient survival and quality of life needs to be investigated.

  2. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on and the association of body condition score with changes in peroxidative biomarkers and antioxidants around calving in dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Jorritsma, R.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative status in blood, liver, milk, and ovarian follicular fluid in periparturient heifers. Vitamin E supplementation started 8 wk before calving and continued until 8 wk postpartum. Grass silage was the ma

  3. EFFECT OF SODIUM SELENITE AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH AND SERUM MINERALS PROFILE OF PIGS (SUS DOMESTICUS

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    D. Biswal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of sodium selenite and vitamin E supplementation on growth and serum minerals, twenty male large white Yorkshire pigs of similar age (2-3 months and body weight (14.96 ± 0.68 kg average were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group I served as control (without any supplementation, whereas animals in groups II and III were supplemented with 0.3 mg selenium kg-1 DM as sodium selenite, 100 mg of vitamin E as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, respectively. Piglets in group IV were supplemented with both 0.3 ppm Se as sodium selenite and 100 mg of vitamin E as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate. This experimental feeding lasted for 120 days, during which fortnightly bodyweight changes were recorded. Blood samples were collected at day 0 and day 120. There was significant (P0.05 among the four groups. The results suggest that supplementation of 0.3 ppm Se as sodium selenite and 100 mg of vitamin E may enhance the serum Se concentration without affecting body weight gain and other serum minerals of pigs.

  4. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

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    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts mastitis. PMID:20739447

  5. Changes in the vitamin D endocrine system and bone turnover after oral vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: results of a randomised trial

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    Holvik Kristin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is uncertainty as to which intake of vitamin D is needed to suppress PTH and maintain normal bone metabolism throughout winter at northern latitudes. We aimed to investigate whether four weeks’ daily supplementation with 10 μg vitamin D3 from fish oil produced a greater change in serum vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover in healthy adults compared with solid multivitamin tablets. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, gender, ethnic background, body mass index, or serum concentrations at baseline predicted the magnitude of change in these parameters. Methods Healthy adults aged 19–48 years living in Oslo, Norway (59°N were randomised to receive a daily dose of 10 μg vitamin D3 given as fish oil capsules or multivitamin tablets during four weeks in late winter. Serum samples from baseline and after 28 days were analysed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH2D, intact parathyroid hormone (s-iPTH, and osteoclast-specific tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (s-TRACP. Fifty-five eligible participants completed the intervention (74% of those randomised. Results S-25(OHD increased by mean 34.1 (SD 13.1 nmol/l, p 2D increased by mean 13 (SD 48 pmol/l, p = 0.057; and s-TRACP increased by mean 0.38 (SD 0.33 U/l, p  Conclusions Four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 μg vitamin D3 decreased mean s-iPTH and increased s-TRACP concentration, and this did not differ by mode of administration. Our results suggest an increased bone resorption following vitamin D supplementation in young individuals, despite a decrease in parathyroid hormone levels. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01482689

  6. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Pvitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.

  7. Efficacy of daily 800 IU vitamin D supplementation in reaching vitamin D sufficiency in nursing home residents: cross-sectional patient file study

    OpenAIRE

    Veleva, Bistra I; Chel, Victor G; Wilco P. Achterberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The Dutch Health Council advises a standard daily vitamin D supplementation of 800 IU (20 mcg) for persons aged ≥ 70 years, with a target 25(OH)D serum concentration of ≥ 50 nmol/l. This recommendation is in line with advice from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2011) and the Expert Working Group on vitamin D (2012). A target 25(OH)D serum concentration of ≥ 75 nmol/l is also recommended in the literature. It is unknown whether this advice, initially designed for healthy adults/eld...

  8. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  9. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation is more effective than vitamin D2 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status over the winter months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Victoria F; Gray, Andrew R; Peddie, Meredith C; Harper, Michelle J; Houghton, Lisa A

    2013-03-28

    Public health recommendations do not distinguish between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3, yet disagreement exists on whether these two forms should be considered equivalent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a daily physiological dose of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status over the winter months in healthy adults living in Dunedin, New Zealand (latitude 46°S). Participants aged 18-50 years were randomly assigned to 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D3 (n 32), 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D2 (n 31) or placebo (n 32) daily for 25 weeks beginning at the end of summer. A per-protocol approach, which included ≥ 90 % supplement compliance, was used for all analyses. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, 13 and 25 weeks. Geometric mean total serum 25(OH)D concentrations (sum of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3) at baseline was 80 nmol/l. After 25 weeks, participants randomised to D2 and placebo had a significant reduction in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations over the winter months compared with vitamin D3-supplemented participants (both Pvitamin D2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 but produced a 9 (95 % CI 1, 17) nmol/l greater decline in the 25(OH)D3 metabolite compared with placebo (Pvitamin D2 compared with those receiving D3 (Pvitamin D3 was more effective than D2; however, the functional consequence of the differing metabolic response warrants further investigation.

  10. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

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    Mohammad Shafi Kuchay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69 or no Vitamin D (n = 68. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4% in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%. Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7 and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16 were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25 at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels.

  11. Effect of B-vitamins and n-3 PUFA supplementation for 5 years on blood pressure in patients with CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Blacher, Jacques; Galan, Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Certain epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids and folate can reduce blood pressure (BP). We investigated the effect of a daily supplementation with dietary doses of B-vitamins or n-3 fatty acids for 5 years on BP in patients with a history of CVD who participated in the Supplémentation en Folates et Omega-3 trial. The patients (n 2501; 1987 men and 514 women) were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of four groups: B-vitamins (5-methyl-THF (560 μg); vitamin B₆ (3 mg) and vitamin B₁₂ (20 μg)) and a placebo capsule for n-3 fatty acids; n-3 fatty acids (600 mg of EPA and DHA at a ratio of 2:1) and a placebo capsule for B-vitamins; both B-vitamins and n-3 fatty acids; or placebo capsules for both treatments. The patients took two capsules daily in a double-blind manner for a median duration of 4·7 years. At baseline and annual examination for 5 years, the patients underwent a clinical examination where BP and clinical and biological parameters were assessed. No effect of supplementation with either n-3 PUFA or B-vitamins on BP was observed in crude and adjusted multivariate models. Change in BP was not associated with change in homocysteine. In conclusion, the present results do not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing B-vitamins, or of n-3 fatty acids, to reduce BP in people with prior CVD.

  12. Does vitamin D supplementation alter plasma adipokines concentrations? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Madalina; Serban, Maria-Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Blüher, Matthias; Gurban, Camelia; Penson, Peter; Michos, Erin D; Hernandez, Adrian V; Jones, Steven R; Banach, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin D supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). The search included PUBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar through July 1st, 2015. Finally we identified 9 RCTs and 484 participants. Meta-analysis of data from 7 studies did not find a significant change in plasma adiponectin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation (mean difference [MD]: 4.45%, 95%CI: -3.04, 11.93, p=0.244; Q=2.18, I(2)=0%). In meta-regression, changes in plasma adiponectin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation were found to be independent of treatment duration (slope: 0.25; 95%CI: -0.69, 1.19; p=0.603) and changes in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels (slope: -0.02; 95%CI: -0.15, 0.12; p=0.780). Meta-analysis of data from 6 studies did not find a significant change in plasma leptin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation (MD: -4.51%, 95%CI: -25.13, 16.11, p=0.668; Q=6.41, I(2)=21.97%). Sensitivity analysis showed that this effect size is sensitive to one of the studies; removing it resulted in a significant reduction in plasma leptin levels (MD: -12.81%, 95%CI: -24.33, -1.30, p=0.029). In meta-regression, changes in plasma leptin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation were found to be independent of treatment duration (slope: -1.93; 95%CI: -4.08, 0.23; p=0.080). However, changes in serum 25(OH)D were found to be significantly associated with changes in plasma leptin levels following vitamin D supplementation (slope: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.08, 2.02; p=0.033). In conclusion, current data did not indicate a significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on adiponectin and leptin levels.

  13. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

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    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  14. Pilot study on the bioactivity of vitamin d in the skin after oral supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Tang, Jean Y; Einspahr, Janine G; Bermudez, Yira; Hsu, Chiu Hsieh; Rezaee, Melika; Lee, Alex H; Tangrea, Joseph; Parnes, Howard L; Alberts, David S; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D (VD) supplementation inhibits skin carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies report mixed findings in the association between circulating VD levels and skin cancer risk. We conducted a clinical study to determine whether oral cholecalciferol supplementation would exert direct bioactivity in human skin through modulation of the VD receptor (VDR). We enrolled 25 individuals with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels skin photodamage to take 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol biweekly for 8 to 9 weeks. Then, we obtained baseline and end-of-study skin biopsies from photodamaged (PD) and photoprotected (PP) skin, and from benign nevi (BN) and tested for mRNA expression of VDR and cytochrome P450-24 (CYP24), and markers of keratinocytic differentiation. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation significantly elevated circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (P skin showed minimum changes after supplementation. CYP24 expression in PD- and PP-skin was increased after supplementation by 186%, P = 0.08, and 134%, P = 0.07, respectively. In BNs from 11 participants, a trend for higher VDR and CYP24 expression was observed (average of 20%, P = 0.08, and 544%, P = 0.09, respectively). Caspase-14 expression at the basal layer in PD skin samples was the only epidermal differentiation marker that was significantly increased (49%, P skin. Our findings of significant variability in the range of VDR and CYP24 expression across study samples represent an important consideration in studies evaluating the role of VD as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Bioavailability of calcium supplements and the effect of Vitamin D: comparisons between milk, calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate plus vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, L; Charles, P

    1996-03-01

    Our aim was to examine a regimen for calcium supplementation because various factors seem to be important for its bioavailability, and to examine the effect of adding vitamin D to the supplement. The participants were 20 healthy women aged 28-59 y (chi: 38 y). During the 3-d periods and 1 d before, the participants were consuming a calcium and energy-balanced diet as similar to their usual daily diet as possible. The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, partly blinded crossover study divided into four periods of 3 d each: 1) three tablets containing 1000 mg CaCO3/d, 2) three tablets containing 1000 mg CaCO3 plus 5 micrograms (200 IU) vitamin D/d, 3)1 L more milk than in the usual daily diet, and 4) three placebo tablets daily. Bioavailability of the different calcium-supplement regimens were evaluated by changes in 24-h urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium. A significant increase in urinary calcium excretion was found during all periods of supplementation compared with the placebo period (Pcalcium in the calcium carbonate period was not significantly higher that that in the milk period, but calcium carbonate plus vitamin D resulted in significantly higher calcium excretion compared with that in the milk period. We conclude that the examined calcium carbonate regimen is at least as good a calcium supplement as milk, and that addition of 600 IU vitamin D/d promptly resulted in an increase in urinary calcium excretion after an increase in calcium absorption, even in healthy women.

  16. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on weight gain, immune competence, and disease incidence in barley-fed beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, B; Hakkarainen, J; Törnquist, M; Edfors, K; Fossum, C

    1991-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether vitamin E supplements in larger amounts than recommended could reduce incidence of disease, improve immune competence, and increase rate of weight gain of conventionally barley-fed beef cattle. Mean daily intake of vitamin E by individual calves in the experimental group was 200 mg during the first 2 mo, 400 mg during the next 2 mo, and 600 mg during the rest of the period. Corresponding daily intakes of vitamin E for the control group were 50, 100, and 150 mg. Mean plasma vitamin E of the experimental group increased from .49 mg/L at the start of the trial to 2.03 mg/L at the end, but that of the control group was lower at the end (.36 mg/L) than at the beginning (.53 mg/L). No significant differences were observed between the groups concerning incidence of disease or magnitude of lymphocyte stimulation. The results indicated that there was a surprisingly poor biological availability of the dietary vitamin. Therefore, a comparison in reality was made between calves with inadequate and normal vitamin E status. The differences in daily BW gain and time to reach slaughter weight thus probably were effects of the low vitamin E status rather than positive effects of additional vitamin in the diet.

  17. Effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 on metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulet, B; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Doepel, L; Palin, M-F; Girard, C L

    2007-07-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 given from 3 wk before to 8 wk after calving on lactational performance and metabolism of 24 multiparous Holstein cows assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Supplementary folic acid at 0 or 2.6 g/d and vitamin B12 at 0 or 0.5 g/d were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Supplementary folic acid increased milk production from 38.0 +/- 0.9 to 41.4 +/- 1.0 kg/d and milk crude protein yield from 1.17 +/- 0.02 to 1.25 +/- 0.03 kg/d. It also increased plasma Gly, Ser, Thr, and total sulfur AA, decreased Asp, and tended to increase plasma Met. Supplementary B12 decreased milk urea N, plasma Ile, and Leu and tended to decrease Val but increased homocysteine, Cys, and total sulfur AA. Liver concentration of phospholipids was higher in cows fed supplementary B12. Plasma and liver concentrations of folates and B12 were increased by their respective supplements, but the increase in plasma folates and plasma and liver B12 was smaller for cows fed the 2 vitamins together. In cows fed folic acid supplements, supplementary B12 increased plasma glucose and alanine, tended to decrease plasma biotin, and decreased Km of the methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in hepatic tissues following addition of deoxyadenosylcobalamin, whereas it had no effect when cows were not fed folic acid supplements. There was no treatment effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acids as well as specific activity and gene expression of Met synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in the liver. Ingestion of folic acid supplements by cows fed no supplementary B12 increased total lipid and triacylglycerols in liver, whereas these supplements had no effect in cows supplemented with B12. The increases in milk and milk protein yields due to folic acid supplements did not seem to be dependent on the vitamin B12 supply. However, when vitamin B12 was given in

  18. Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats with vitamin E supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husvéth, F; Manilla, H A; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P; Balogh, N; Wágner, L; Lóth, I; Németh, K

    2000-01-01

    The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver alpha-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.

  19. Vitamin D supplementation enhances the fixation of titanium implants in chronic kidney disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqing; Zhang, Shiwen; Zhao, Dan; Zou, Huawei; Sun, Ningyuan; Liang, Xing; Dard, Michel; Lanske, Beate; Yuan, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency is a common condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients that negatively affects bone regeneration and fracture healing. Previous study has shown that timely healing of titanium implants is impaired in CKD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Vit D supplementation on implant osseointegration in CKD mice. Uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in C57BL mice. Eight weeks after the second renal surgery, animals were given 1,25(OH)2D3 three times a week intraperitoneally for four weeks. Experimental titanium implants were inserted into the distal end of femurs two weeks later. Serum measurements confirmed decreased 1,25(OH)2D levels in CKD mice, which could be successfully corrected by Vit D injections. Moreover, the hyperparathyroidism observed in CKD mice was also corrected. X-ray examination and histological sections showed successful osseointegration in these mice. Histomorphometrical analysis revealed that the bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio and bone volume (BV/TV) around the implant were significantly increased in the Vit D-supplementation group. In addition, resistance of the implant, as measured by a push-in method, was significantly improved compared to that in the vehicle group. These results demonstrate that Vit D supplementation is an effective approach to improve the fixation of titanium implants in CKD.

  20. Vitamin D supplementation enhances the fixation of titanium implants in chronic kidney disease mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Liu

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (Vit D deficiency is a common condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients that negatively affects bone regeneration and fracture healing. Previous study has shown that timely healing of titanium implants is impaired in CKD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Vit D supplementation on implant osseointegration in CKD mice. Uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in C57BL mice. Eight weeks after the second renal surgery, animals were given 1,25(OH2D3 three times a week intraperitoneally for four weeks. Experimental titanium implants were inserted into the distal end of femurs two weeks later. Serum measurements confirmed decreased 1,25(OH2D levels in CKD mice, which could be successfully corrected by Vit D injections. Moreover, the hyperparathyroidism observed in CKD mice was also corrected. X-ray examination and histological sections showed successful osseointegration in these mice. Histomorphometrical analysis revealed that the bone-implant contact (BIC ratio and bone volume (BV/TV around the implant were significantly increased in the Vit D-supplementation group. In addition, resistance of the implant, as measured by a push-in method, was significantly improved compared to that in the vehicle group. These results demonstrate that Vit D supplementation is an effective approach to improve the fixation of titanium implants in CKD.

  1. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk and interactions between body mass index, menopausal hormone therapy use, and vitamin D supplementation: Evidence from the E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-15

    Experimental studies suggest protective effects of vitamin D on breast carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence is not conclusive. Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to modulate the effect of supplementation on the vitamin D status, but its potential influence on the relationship with breast cancer risk has been little studied. We investigated a potential interaction between BMI and vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer risk while considering an already reported interaction between vitamin D supplementation and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use. Vitamin D supplementation was prospectively investigated in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the French E3N cohort including 2,482 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2008. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) for primary invasive breast cancer and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox models. Among MHT ever users, vitamin D supplementation was associated with decreased breast cancer risk, similarly across BMI strata (Phomogeneity  = 0.83). Among MHT never users, ever vitamin D supplementation was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with baseline BMI breast cancer risk in MHT users, but draw attention on a potential risk in postmenopausal women not exposed to high exogenous or endogenous hormones, i.e. non-overweight MHT-non users, especially in the present context of increasing vitamin D supplement use and decreasing MHT use.

  2. Vitamin D should be supplemented more actively in elderly patients with coronary heart disease combined with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ling Zhang,1 Qiao-ying Yuan2 1Department of Out-patient Clinic, 2Department of Nutriology, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Objective: It is not clear whether vitamin D should be actively supplemented in elderly patients suffering from an acute attack of COPD (AECOPD and coronary heart disease (CHD. Patients and methods: The patients were divided into three groups according to specific criteria: patients with AECOPD (group A, patients with COPD combined with CHD (group B, and patients with CHD (group C. We measured the levels of vitamin D and analyzed the correlation between vitamin D and important electrolytes, including prealbumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, cystatin C, blood fat, blood calcium, and blood magnesium, and the nutrition state of the whole body. The serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP was measured using an ELISA kit. Results: The vitamin D level in group B was the lowest, followed by group A. When compared with group C, they all had statistical significance (P<0.05, but there was no statistical difference between groups A and B. There was no difference among the three groups when prealbumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, cystatin C, blood fat, blood calcium, and blood magnesium were compared. The level of BNP in the three groups increased, but it had no obvious correlation with the level of vitamin D (P>0.05. Conclusion: When elderly patients have coronary artery disease with AECOPD, vitamin D levels were obviously lower and were negatively correlated with the BNP. Low vitamin D levels, as well as poor nutrition, affect cardiopulmonary function and quality of living of elderly patients, especially female patients. Therefore, vitamin D should be supplemented more actively in the female patients suffering from AECOPD and CHD. Keywords: COPD, CHD, cardiac function, vitamin D, nutrition

  3. Effect of supplemental vitamins and trace minerals on performance and carcass quality in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M S; Arentson, B E

    2001-01-01

    Two trials with finishing pigs (PIC line 355 x Camborough 22) were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) supplement deletions on performance, carcass quality, and tissue nutrient levels. Trial 1, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM supplement regimens and two stress regimens, was conducted for 12 wk with 252 pigs (mixed sex). Average initial weight of pigs was 54 kg. The VTM regimens consisted of control (adequate level of VTM throughout trial), VTM deleted for the final 6 wk, and VTM deleted for entire 12 wk of the trial. The stress regimens consisted of leaving half the treatments in their original location or moving the other half of the treatments to a new pen location every 3 wk. There were three replications (pens) per treatment with 14 pigs per pen (0.80 m2). Diets were medicated with bacitracin methylene disalicylate. Overall, there were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) for ADG, ADFI, gain:feed ratio, longissimus muscle area, or last-rib backfat. However, there was a greater than 75% decrease (P < 0.001) in vitamin E content of longissimus muscle from deleting VTM for 6 or 12 wk. Trial 2, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM regimens and two genders, was conducted for 12 wk with 306 pigs. Average initial weight of pigs was 58 kg. The VTM regimens were identical to those used in Trial 1. Each treatment consisted of three gender replications of 17 pigs per pen (0.66 m2), and all diets were unmedicated. Overall, pigs fed diets without VTM for 12 wk had lower (P < 0.06) ADG than those fed the control diets. Vitamin E content of the ham muscle was reduced by greater than 50% (P < 0.001) when pigs were fed diets without VTM for 6 or 12 wk compared with those fed the control diet. Concentrations of copper in ham muscle were reduced (P < 0.05) in pigs fed diets without VTM. These data suggest that deleting VTM during the finishing stage markedly lowers the vitamin E content of

  4. Effects of a Regional Chinese Diet and Its Vitamin Supplementation on Proliferation of Human Esophageal Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JIANG; HuI-ZHANG DU; WEN-YI ZHU; HUI-JUAN XIAO; CHENG-YU HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of a local diet popular in Yanting region (YT diet) on the proliferation of two human cell lines (Eta-109 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma line and HL7702 normal liver epithelial cell line) in rats by a ero-physiological approach. Methods Male SD rats were divided into six groups and fed respectively with a conventional diet and the YT diet (one of the five experimental diets) supplemented with two vitamin mixtures (Mix.1: vitamins A, E, and folio acid; Mix.2: mix.l plus riboflavin and vitamin C) at two different doses. On the 30th day, sera were collected from the rats and added into a medium for cell culture, with 10% FBS used as a serum control. The effects were assessed by MTI" assay, DNA synthesis and flow cytometry assays. Results Compared with the control, the sera from rats fed with the YT diet significantly promoted the proliferation of Eca-109 cells, which was, however, reversed by the supplementation with two vitamin mixtures at high doses. Surprisingly, the same treatment produced contrary effects on HL7702 cells as compared with Eca-109 cells. Conclusion The sera from rats fed with the YT diet could promote the proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109, whereas the sera from those fed with the YT diet supplemented with vitamin mixtures might have inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Eca-109 cells.

  5. Levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation prevents oxidative stress and cognitive deficit in experimental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianrong; Zhong, Mingkui; Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhu, Defa

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism has a variety of adverse effects on cognitive function. The treatment of levothyroxine alone cannot restore cognitive defects of hypothyroid patients. Antioxidant vitamin E supplementation could be useful in disturbances which are associated with oxidative stress and could effectively slow the progression of Alzheimer disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress status of the serum and hippocampus in hypothyroidism and to examine the effects of levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation on cognitive deficit. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, PTU group, PTU + Vit E group, PTU + L-T4 group, and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group. Serum and hippocampus malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances method. Serum and hippocampus superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined by measuring its ability to inhibit the photoreduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. In the present study, we found that the rats of PTU + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 than the PTU group. Moreover, the rats of PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 4 and 5 than the PTU + L-T4 group. The time spent in the target quadrants was measured in the probe test and no difference was observed in all groups. Oxidative damage has been observed in the serum and hippocampus of hypothyroidism rat. SOD levels of serum and hippocampus tissue were significantly increased and MDA levels were significantly decreased in the PTU + Vit E and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E groups than the PTU and PTU + L-T4 groups. Therefore, these findings indicate that levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation may ameliorate cognitive deficit in PTU-induced hypothyroidism through the decrease of oxidative stress status.

  6. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on hepatic dysfunction, vitamin D status, and glycemic control in children and adolescents with vitamin D deficiency and either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Udoka Nwosu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of vitamin D supplementation on mild hepatic dysfunction and glycemic control are unclear in children and adolescents with either type 1 (T1D or type 2 diabetes (T2D. HYPOTHESIS: Vitamin D supplementation will improve hepatic dysfunction and glycemic control. AIM: To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on alanine transaminase (ALT, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 131 subjects with either T1D (n = 88 ∶ 46 females, 42 males, or T2D (n = 43 ∶ 26 females, 17 males of ages 3-18 years between 2007-2013. All subjects had (1 a diagnosis of diabetes for > 12 mo, (2 received vitamin D supplementation for the management of vitamin D deficiency (3 had baseline and subsequent simultaneous measurements of HbA1c, ALT, and 25(OHD. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OHD concentration of < 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL. RESULTS: At baseline, vitamin D deficiency occurred in 72.1% of patients with T2D and in 37.5% of T1D patients (p < 0.001. Patients with T2D had significantly higher values for BMI SDS (p < 0.001, alanine transaminase (ALT (p = 0.001, but lower 25(OHD p < 0.001, and no difference in HbA1c (p = 0.94, and total daily dose (TDD of insulin per kg body weight (p = 0.48 as compared to T1D patients. After 3 months of vitamin D supplementation, there was a significant increase in 25(OHD in both T2D (p = 0.015, and T1D patients (p < 0.001; significant reduction in BMI SDS (p = 0.015 and ALT (p = 0.012 in T2D, but not in T1D. There was a clinically-significant decrease in HbA1c in T2D from 8.5 ± 2.9% at baseline to 7.7 ± 2.5 at 3 mo, but not in T1D, 8.5 ± 1.2 to 8.53 ± 1.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation in subjects with T2D was associated with statistically significant decreases in BMI SDS, ALT, and a clinically-significant decrease in HbA1c.

  7. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health problems, including heart disease, cancer, and poor bone health ( osteoporosis ). Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucus membranes, and skin. Vitamin B6 ...

  8. Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Spiegelman, Donna; Hunter, David J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Bergkvist, Leif; Buring, Julie E.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Harnack, Lisa; Kato, Ikuko; Krogh, Vittorio; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Limburg, Paul J.; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Shore, Roy; Sieri, Sabina; Stampfer, Meir J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weijenberg, Matty; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Zhang, Shumin M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and risk of colon cancer. Methods Using the primary data from 13 cohort studies, we estimated study- and sex-specific relative risks (RR) with Cox proportional hazards models and subsequently pooled RRs using a random effects model. Results Among 676,141 men and women, 5,454 colon cancer cases were identified (7–20 years of follow-up across studies). Vitamin A, C, and E intakes from food only were not associated with colon cancer risk. For intakes from food and supplements (total), the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) were 0.88 (0.76–1.02, >4,000 vs. ≤1,000 μg/day) for vitamin A, 0.81 (0.71–0.92, >600 vs. ≤100 mg/day) for vitamin C, and 0.78 (0.66–0.92, >200 vs. ≤6 mg/day) for vitamin E. Adjustment for total folate intake attenuated these associations, but the inverse associations with vitamins C and E remained significant. Multivitamin use was significantly inversely associated with colon cancer risk (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81–0.96). Conclusions Modest inverse associations with vitamin C and E intakes may be due to high correlations with folate intake, which had a similar inverse association with colon cancer. An inverse association with multivitamin use, a major source of folate and other vitamins, deserves further study. PMID:20820901

  9. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  10. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...

  11. Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical Parameters during Long Term Exposure of Arsenic in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was designed to determine whether supplementation of different level of vitamin E for 12 months to arsenic exposed goats (50 ppm as sodium arsenite affords protection against the blood hemato-biochemical parameters caused by the metalloid. A total of 24 crossbred (Alpine×Beetal lactating goats were assigned randomly into 4 equal groups (control, T1, T2 and T3 of 6 in each, on the basis of average body weight (36.10±0.11 kg and milk yield (1.61±0.04 kg/d. The animals in T1, T2 and T3 were given 50 ppm arsenic, while in T2 and T3, additionally; vitamin E at the rate of 100 IU and 150 IU/kg dry matter (DM respectively was additionally supplemented for the period of 12 months. Hemoglobin (Hb, total leukocyte (TLC and blood lymphocyte % were decreased (p0.05 but creatinine level was periodically increased in all As supplemented groups and vitamin E supplementation did not produce any protective effect. It can be concluded that arsenic exposure resulted in varying degree of changes in hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats but concomitant treatment with Vitamin E is partially helpful in reducing the burden of arsenic induced effect.

  12. High maternal vitamin E intake by diet or supplements is associated with congenital heart defects in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, H. P. M.; de Vries, J. H.; Rakhshandehroo, M.; Wildhagen, M. F.; Verkleij-Hagoort, A. C.; Steegers, E. A.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    To study associations between maternal dietary and supplement intake of antioxidants vitamin E, retinol and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Case-control study. Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were 276 case mothers of a child with CHD and 324 control mo

  13. High maternal vitamin E intake by diet or supplements is associated with congenital heart defects in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, H.P.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Rakhshandehroo, M.; Wildhagen, M.F.; Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study associations between maternal dietary and supplement intake of antioxidants vitamin E, retinol and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Design Case–control study. Setting Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Population Participants were 276 case mothers of

  14. The effect of at-birth vitamin A supplementation on differential leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias J; Fisker, Ane B; Sartono, Erliyani

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth was not associated with improved survival in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. However, a negative sex-differential effect, which became evident after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination, was noted; among girls who had...

  15. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen and vitamin C and E supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bader, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Koch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of normobaric and hyperbaric O2 (HBO) on plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress in plasma and urine and to investigate the effect of a 4-week vitamin C plus E supplementation on HBO-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen...

  16. Mental and psychomotor development in Indonesian infants of mothers supplemented with vitamin A in addition to iron during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, J.W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five vill

  17. Effect of the dietary supplementation with vitamin E on colour stability and lipid oxidation in packaged, minced pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Eikelenboom, G.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementation of vitamin E (200 IU kg-1 feed) in the diet of pigs on colour stability and lipid oxidation in minced pork was studied. Control and enriched diets were provided for the last 12 weeks before slaughter. Half of the samples of minced shoulder meat from control and suppleme

  18. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  19. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...

  20. Long-Term Vitamin D Supplementation Affects Metabolic Status in Vitamin D-Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhian, Alireza; Raygan, Fariba; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Talari, Hamid Reza; Esfandiari, Reza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-03-01

    Background: Vitamin D might be beneficial in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) through its favorable effects on metabolic profiles and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.Objective: This study was performed to examine the effects of 6 mo of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic status in diabetic patients with CAD.Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 60 vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CAD aged 40-85 y. Subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups to take either 50,000-IU vitamin D supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) every 2 wk for 6 mo. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 6-mo intervention to quantify glycemic indicators, lipid concentrations, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.Results: Compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation resulted in significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14.9 ± 7.1 compared with +19.3 ± 7.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), serum insulin (-2.7 ± 1.1 compared with +1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/mL; P = 0.006), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.7 ± 0.3 compared with +0.5 ± 0.3; P = 0.01), and β cell function (-9.1 ± 4.2 compared with +5.7 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and a significant increase in serum vitamin D (+6.8 ± 0.9 compared with +0.1 ± 0.9 ng/mL; P D supplementation among vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CAD had beneficial effects on glycemic control and serum hs-CRP, NO, GSH, and malondialdehyde concentrations. This trial was registered on the Iranian website (www.irct.ir) for registration of clinical trials as IRCT201510315623N56.

  1. Effects of dietary vitamin C and E supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage among young Kelantan weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawash M. Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage induced by weightlifting training could be decreased by supplementing subjects with dietary vitamin C and E. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin C and E supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage markers among male and female weight- lifters in Kelantan State, Malaysia. For this purpose, thirty two trained weightlifters were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups. The supplement group (n=16, 16.5± 2.2 years of age, 162.2 ± 10.4 cm of height, 65.7 ± 26.1 kg of body weight was given 500 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E per day, while the placebo group (n=16, 15 ± 1.7, 162.2 ± 10.4 cm, 61.5 ± 13.9 kg accordingly was given maltodextrine, zero calorie per day for 6 weeks. The following parameters were measured before and after intervention to detect the effects of supplementation: muscle circumference of mid-upper arm and calf, serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Data was expressed as median and interquartile at p 0.05 of dietary vitamin c and e supple- mentation on the muscle damage markers, CK and LDH, as well as on oxidative stress markers through urinary TBARS analysis, when the two study groups were compared. These results indicated that vitamin c and e were not effective in ameliorating markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress induced by weightlifting training. It might be possible that these weightlifters already have acquired protection, both structurally and biochemically, resulting from chronic exposure to weightlifting training.

  2. Vitamin E supplementation alleviates the oxidative stress induced by dexamethasone treatment and improves meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Lin, H; Wang, X J; Song, Z G; Jiao, H C

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, the effects of long-term exogenous glucocorticoids administration and dietary supplementation of alpha-tocopheryl acetate on the induction of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle were investigated. Male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 diet treatments: the basal diet supplemented with 20 (low level of vitamin E) or 200 (high level of vitamin E) mg of vitamin E (as DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate)/kg of diet. At 35 d of age, the chickens in each dietary treatment were randomly divided into 3 groups of 30 chickens and subjected to the following treatments: daily s.c. injection of dexamethasone (DEX, 2 mg/kg of BW) for 6 d, sham injection of saline (control), or the sham-treated pair-fed control that maintained the same feed intake as DEX treatment (pair-control). The results showed that the growth of chickens was suppressed by DEX, whereas it was improved by the high level of vitamin E treatment. The DEX treatment resulted in augmented plasma concentrations of TBA reacting substances. Muscle TBA reacting substances levels were higher in DEX chickens at both 24- and 48-h time points postslaughter. Vitamin E supplementation suppressed the formation of lipid peroxidation in both plasma and skeletal muscle tissues. Muscle activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by DEX treatment in both musculus pectoralis major and musculus biceps femoris and maintained as such during the initial 48 h postmortem. The result of the present study indicated that DEX treatment increased the saturation level of skeletal muscle fatty acids. These results suggest that vitamin E supplementation was favorable for the performance of broiler chickens by alleviating the oxidative stress induced by DEX treatment.

  3. The Effect of Two Different Modes of Exercise Swimming and Vitamin C Supplementation on Anemia Indices in Male Wistar Rat

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    Fatemeh Lashkari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that long term swimming exercise leads to anemia. Therefore the aim of the present study was the effect of vitamin C supplement and maximal and submaximal swimming exercise on anemia in without iron deficiency rats.Methods: For this purpose, 60 male wistar rats (6-8 week age and 170 -190 g weight were divided into 6 groups: 1: Control rats (Con, n=10 2: Vitamin C supplementation (Con+C, n=10 3: Submaximal swimming (S, n=10 4: Submaximal swimming + Vitamin C (S+C, n=10 5: Maximal swimming (M, n=10 and 6: Maximal swimming and Vitamin C (M+C, n=10. Swimming training lasted for 10 weeks (5 day per week for 60 min day−1. Rats in the vitamin C-treated groups drank water containing 0.1% Vitamin C. Submaximal and maximal exercise training carried out for 1and 3 hours per session. 5 cc blood sample was take from vena cava vein for the determine serum levels of anemia indices (serum iron, Ferritin, TIBC،Hct, Hb, reticulocytes, RBC, MCV، MCH، MCHC.Results: Statistical analysis showed that the serum iron, ferritin, TIBC and MCV were not significantly different between groups. Reticulocytes in Con+C and S+C groups decreased significantly. Also, RBC and Hct decreased significantly in S and S+C groups, but Hb increased in S group in compared with the other groups. In this regard, MCH and MCHC significantly increased in S and S+C groups.Conclusion: 10 week submaximal swimming exercise increased Hb, MCH and MCHC but have no effect on serum iron, Ferritin and TIBC in without iron deficiency rats. On the other hand, high intensity swimming training had no effect on anemia indices. 0.1 % Vitamin C supplement and swimming training despite an insignificant increased in ferritin has not effected on iron status in without iron deficiency rats.

  4. α-Tocopherol incorporation in mitochondria and microsomes upon supranutritional vitamin E supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a major lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant in humans and mammals and plays an important role in normal development and physiology. The localization of α-tocopherol within the highly unsaturated phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes provides a means of controlling...... lipid oxidation at the initiation site. Mitochondria are the site for major oxidative processes and are important in fat oxidation and energy production, but a side effect is leakage of reactive oxygen species. Thus, incorporation of α-tocopherol and other antioxidants into mitochondria and other......, whereas relatively sparse information is available regarding the eventual beneficial effects of antioxidant-enriched mitochondria in terms of health and function. This may be due to the fact that only little scientific information is available concerning the effect of supranutritional supplementation...

  5. Vitamin E supplementation modifies adaptive responses to training in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, P; Napolitano, G; Barone, D; Di Meo, S

    2014-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to test, by vitamin E treatment, the hypothesis that muscle adaptive responses to training are mediated by free radicals produced during the single exercise sessions. Therefore, we determined aerobic capacity of tissue homogenates and mitochondrial fractions, tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and expression of factors (PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2) involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, we determined the oxidative damage extent, antioxidant enzyme activities, and glutathione content in both tissue preparations, mitochondrial ROS production rate. Finally we tested mitochondrial ROS production rate and muscle susceptibility to oxidative stress. The metabolic adaptations to training, consisting in increased muscle oxidative capacity coupled with the proliferation of a mitochondrial population with decreased oxidative capacity, were generally prevented by antioxidant supplementation. Accordingly, the expression of the factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, which were increased by training, was restored to the control level by the antioxidant treatment. Even the training-induced increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione level and tissue capacity to oppose to an oxidative attach were prevented by vitamin E treatment. Our results support the idea that the stimulus for training-induced adaptive responses derives from the increased production, during the training sessions, of reactive oxygen species that stimulates the expression of PGC-1, which is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzymes expression. On the other hand, the observation that changes induced by training in some parameters are only attenuated by vitamin E treatment suggests that other signaling pathways, which are activated during exercise and impinge on PGC-1, can modify the response to the antioxidant integration.

  6. The effect of folate and vitamin B12 supplementation on homocysteine concentrations: a study in hemodialysis patients

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    Azadibakhsh N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is higher in hemodialysis (HD patients than the general population. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of high-dose folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B12 on lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in HD patients. Methods: Thirty-six HD patients at Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who had been given folic acid supplements (5 mg/d for at least 3 months before, were enrolled in this clinical trial. Subjects were also checked for other inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided randomly into four groups and underwent two months of supplementation as follows: 5 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group one, 5 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group two, 15 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group three and 15 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group four. Concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intake of patients was also determined during the supplementation period.Results: Of the folic acid supplemented patients, 27.8% had normal levels of tHcy at baseline and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After the supplementation period, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group one and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups two, three and four respectively. Changes in plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 were only significant in group four; however, no significant changes were seen for serum folic acid. The percentage of subjects reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group four than in the reference group. Conclusions: Supplementation with 15 mg/d folic acid together with 1 mg/d oral vitamin B12 is more effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients.

  7. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M.; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T.; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A.; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01). Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities. PMID:24384995

  8. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  9. NASH Therapy: omega 3 supplementation, vitamin E, insulin sensitizers and statin drugs

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    Stephen Caldwell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is the more aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. NASH can progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and primary liver cancer. Therapy is evolving with a substantial number of trials of promising new agents now in progress. In this article however, we will examine data for several older forms of therapy which have been fairly extensively studied over the years: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA supplements, vitamin E, insulin sensitizing agents with a focus on pioglitazone and statin agents. Early interest in PUFA derived from their potential benefit in cardio-metabolic disease and the close association of NAFLD/NASH with Metabolic Syndrome. Results have been variable although most studies show reduction of liver fat without other major effects and their effects are influenced by concomitant weight loss and underlying genetic factors. Vitamin E has had some efficacy in pediatric NASH but questionable efficacy in even mild NASH among adults. Pioglitazone has shown significant histological benefit in a number of trials but concern over side-effects (especially weight gain have dampened enthusiasm. A newer insulin sensitizer, liraglutide, has also shown promise in a small randomized, controlled trial. Very limited data exists regarding the histological effects of the statins in NASH and these agents appear to be fairly neutral with neither clear cut benefit nor detriment. Their use is best guided by cardiovascular risks rather than liver histology.

  10. The effects of selenium, zinc and vitamin E supplementation on performance of Broiler Breeder Males

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    L. Zezza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the literature and practical experiences suggests that nutritional factors are perhaps the most crucial for their direct effects on the reproductive phenomenon. Several studies and reviews (Barnes et al., 1996; Brake and Garlich, 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Donoghue et al., 1995; Donoghue et al., 1997; Froman et al., 1997; Hocking and Bernard, 1997; Holm, 1998 describe the effects of quantitative feed and energy on reproductive performance of farm animals but only recently there was an increasing attention for the effects of micronutrients intake. The aim of the present work was to verify and compare the effects of a supplementation of selenium, zinc and vitamin E on quality of poultry semen, with a particular attention to the selenium, because its beneficial effects on reproduction (Surai, 2002 needs further elucidation. These micronutrients were chosen because play a fundamental role in semen quality, in fact it was known that chicken semen contains the natural antioxidant vitamin E (Surai, 1997; Surai, 2000 together with antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD...

  11. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation for three years in postmenopausal osteoporosis significantly alters bone mineral and organic matrix quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, E P; Gamsjaeger, S; Hassler, N; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Dobnig, H; Stepan, J J; Pavo, I; Eriksen, E F; Klaushofer, K

    2017-02-01

    Prospective, controlled clinical trials in postmenopausal osteoporosis typically compare effects of an active drug with placebo in addition to vitamin D and calcium supplementation in both treatment arms. While clinical benefits are documented, the effect of this supplementation in the placebo arm and in clinical practice on bone material composition properties is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate these bone quality indices (specifically mineral/matrix, nanoporosity, glycosaminoglycan content, mineral maturity/crystallinity, and pyridinoline content) in patients that either received long-term vitamin D (400-1200IU) and calcium (1.0-1.5g) supplementation, or did not. We have analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy the bone forming trabecular surfaces of iliac crest in pre-treatment samples of a teriparatide study and the endpoint biopsies of the control arm obtained from the HORIZON trial. In general, the mineral/matrix ratio and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content was higher while nanoporosity, (a surrogate for tissue water content), the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC) and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content was lower in patients without long-term supplementation. Moreover, all indices were significantly dependent on tissue age. In conclusion, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is associated with altered mineral and organic matrix properties.

  12. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in term neonates in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Batool A; Sharma, Renee; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-02-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries. Vitamin A supplementation in children six months of age and older has been found to be beneficial, but no effect of supplementation has been noted for children between one and five months of age. Supplementation during the neonatal period has been suggested to have an impact by increasing body stores in early infancy. To evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation for term neonates in low and middle income countries with respect to prevention of mortality and morbidity. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 13 March 2016), Embase (1980 to 13 March 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 13 March 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Also trials with a factorial design. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted study data. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 12 trials (168,460 neonates) in this review, with only a few trials reporting disaggregated data for term infants. Therefore, we analysed data and presented estimates for term infants (when specified) and for all infants.Data for term neonates from three studies did not show a statistically significant effect on the risk of infant mortality at six months in the vitamin A group compared with the control group (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 1.18; I(2) = 63%). Analysis of data for all infants from 11 studies revealed no evidence of a significant reduction in the risk of

  13. Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Holden, Geir; Hallén, Jostein; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Sveen, Ole; Skaug, Arne; Paur, Ingvild; Bastani, Nasser E; Østgaard, Hege Nymo; Buer, Charlotte; Midttun, Magnus; Freuchen, Fredrik; Wiig, Havard; Ulseth, Elisabeth Tallaksen; Garthe, Ina; Blomhoff, Rune; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2014-04-15

    In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endurance training adaptations in humans. Fifty-four young men and women were randomly allocated to receive either 1000 mg of vitamin C and 235 mg of vitamin E or a placebo daily for 11 weeks. During supplementation, the participants completed an endurance training programme consisting of three to four sessions per week (primarily of running), divided into high-intensity interval sessions [4-6 × 4-6 min; >90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] and steady state continuous sessions (30-60 min; 70-90% of HRmax). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), submaximal running and a 20 m shuttle run test were assessed and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected, before and after the intervention. Participants in the vitamin C and E group increased their VO2 max (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5%) and performance in the 20 m shuttle test (10 ± 11%) to the same degree as those in the placebo group (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5% and 14 ± 17%, respectively). However, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) increased in the m. vastus lateralis in the placebo group by 59 ± 97% and 19 ± 51%, respectively, but not in the vitamin C and E group (COX4: -13 ± 54%; PGC-1α: -13 ± 29%; P ≤ 0.03, between groups). Furthermore, mRNA levels of CDC42 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) in the trained muscle were lower in the vitamin C and E group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Daily vitamin C and E supplementation attenuated increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance training. However, no clear interactions were detected for improvements in VO2 max and running performance. Consequently, vitamin C and E supplementation hampered cellular adaptations in the exercised muscles, and although this did not translate to the performance tests

  14. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, David A; Hooper, Richard L; Greenberg, Lauren; Aloia, John F; Bergman, Peter; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Esposito, Susanna; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Ginde, Adit A; Goodall, Emma C; Grant, Cameron C; Griffiths, Christopher J; Janssens, Wim; Laaksi, Ilkka; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Mauger, David; Murdoch, David R; Neale, Rachel; Rees, Judy R; Simpson, Steve; Stelmach, Iwona; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Results 25 eligible randomised controlled trials (total 11 321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years) were identified. IPD were obtained for 10 933 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96; P for heterogeneity vitamin D without additional bolus doses (adjusted odds ratio 0.81, 0.72 to 0.91) but not in those receiving one or more bolus doses (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 0.86 to 1.10; P for interaction=0.05). Among those receiving daily or weekly vitamin D, protective effects were stronger in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (adjusted odds ratio 0.98, 0.80 to 1.20, P=0.83). The body of evidence contributing to these analyses was assessed as being of high quality. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not

  15. Characterisation of vitamin and mineral supplement users differentiated according to their motives for using supplements: results of the German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anne; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Heuer, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    To characterise German vitamin and mineral supplement users differentiated by their motives for supplement use. Data were obtained from the German National Nutrition Monitoring (2010/11) via two 24 h dietary recalls and a telephone interview. Motive-based subgroups of supplement users were identified by factor and cluster analysis. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, health and dietary characteristics and supplement use were examined. Differences were analysed using χ 2 tests, logistic and linear regression models. Germany, nationwide. Individuals (n 1589) aged 18-80 years. Three motive-based subgroups were identified: a 'Prevention' subgroup (n 324), characterised by the motive to prevent nutrient deficiencies; a 'Prevention and additional benefits' subgroup (n 166), characterised by motives to prevent health problems and improve well-being and performance; and a 'Treatment' subgroup (n 136), characterised by motives to treat nutrient deficiencies or diseases. Members of the two prevention subgroups had a higher Healthy Eating Index score and tended to be more physically active than non-users. Those in the 'Prevention and additional benefits' subgroup supplemented with a greater number of micronutrients. Members of the 'Treatment' subgroup tended to be older and have a lower self-reported health status than non-users, and supplemented with a smaller number of micronutrients. The majority of supplement users take supplements for preventive purposes and they are more health conscious than non-users of supplements due to their concerns about developing health problems. Those supplementing for treatment purposes may have underlying health indications and may be more likely to benefit from supplementation than those supplementing for preventive purposes.

  16. Effect of pre-partum supplementation of vitamin E to Murrah buffaloes on immune functions and viability of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Pandita, S; Pampoori, Z A; Huozha, R; Ashutosh, M

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken in buffalo neonates born to vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate)-supplemented and non-supplemented Murrah buffaloes. Calves from vitamin E-supplemented buffaloes (n = 10; vitamin E -supplemented calves [VeC]) and non-supplemented buffaloes (n = 10; control calves [CC]) constituted the treatment and control groups respectively. Two colostrum samples were taken at the first post-partum milking and again after 12 h from dams for IgG estimation. Sampling of blood was performed on days 0 (before colostrum feeding), 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 and 126 post-birth and analysed for apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG and various immune parameters. Colostral IgG level was significantly higher (p calves in both groups were born hypogammaglobulinemic with IgG level feeding resulted in significantly elevated IgG levels (>10 g/l) in calves of both groups at 24 h, which remained high afterwards. Apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG at 24 h was significantly higher (p calves of either group at birth, which declined significantly (p feeding to dams had no added effect on NO levels in experimental calves. Total leucocyte counts did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts changed significantly between groups (p calves were immunologically immature at birth. Ante-partum supplementation of vitamin E did not influence plasma NO or IgG but had a significant effect on colostral IgG (p < 0.05). It also improved the apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG at 24 h in VeC as compared to CC.

  17. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy on Risk of Persistent Wheeze in the Offspring: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo L; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Stokholm, Jakob; Vissing, Nadja H; Bjarnadóttir, Elín; Schoos, Ann-Marie M; Wolsk, Helene M; Pedersen, Tine Marie; Vinding, Rebecca K; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Arianto, Lambang; Hallas, Henrik W; Heickendorff, Lene; Brix, Susanne; Rasmussen, Morten A; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-26

    Observational studies have suggested that increased dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against wheezing in the offspring, but the preventive effect of vitamin D supplementation to pregnant women is unknown. To determine whether supplementation of vitamin D3 during the third trimester of pregnancy reduces the risk of persistent wheeze in the offspring. A double-blind, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted within the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort. Enrollment began March 2009 with a goal of 708 participants, but due to delayed ethical approval, only 623 women were recruited at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Follow-up of the children (N = 581) was completed when the youngest child reached age 3 years in March 2014. Vitamin D3 (2400 IU/d; n = 315) or matching placebo tablets (n = 308) from pregnancy week 24 to 1 week postpartum. All women received 400 IU/d of vitamin D3 as part of usual pregnancy care. Age at onset of persistent wheeze in the first 3 years of life. Secondary outcomes included number of episodes of troublesome lung symptoms, asthma, respiratory tract infections, and neonatal airway immunology. Adverse events were assessed. Of the 581 children, persistent wheeze was diagnosed during the first 3 years of life in 47 children (16%) in the vitamin D3 group and 57 children (20%) in the control group. Vitamin D3 supplementation was not associated with the risk of persistent wheeze, but the number of episodes of troublesome lung symptoms was reduced, and the airway immune profile was up-regulated (principal component analysis, P = .04). There was no effect on additional end points. Intrauterine death was observed in 1 fetus (vitamin D3 group vs 3 fetuses (1%) in the control group and congenital malformations in 17 neonates (5%) in the vitamin D3 group vs 23 neonates (8%) in the control group. [table: see text]. The use of 2800 IU/d of vitamin D3 during the third trimester of pregnancy

  18. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muslimatun, S.; Schmidt, M.K.; Schultink, W.; West, C.E.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Gross, R.; Muhilal,

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether weekly iron supplementation was as effective as the national daily iron supplementation program in Indonesia in improving iron status at near term in pregnancy. In addition, we examined whether weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation was more efficacious than weekly

  19. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muslimatun, S.; Schmidt, M.K.; Schultink, W.; West, C.E.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Gross, R.; Muhilal,

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether weekly iron supplementation was as effective as the national daily iron supplementation program in Indonesia in improving iron status at near term in pregnancy. In addition, we examined whether weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation was more efficacious than weekly supplem

  20. Are Systematic Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency and Vitamin D Supplementation Currently Feasible for Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Essouma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism for healthy bone mineralization, there is increasing awareness for vitamin D contribution in modulation of immune reactions. Given that ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease involving excess immune/inflammatory activity and posing great therapeutic challenges, it is conceivable to claim that vitamin D treatment may be a safe and effective treatment to influence or modify the primary disease and its related comorbidities. Nevertheless, consistent body of research supporting this hypothesis is still lacking. In this paper, we examine whether systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency are feasible at present. We will review the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D and its contribution in initiation and progression of AS, as well as how they would determine the occurrence of comorbid conditions. Our conclusion is that despite the overwhelmed interest about vitamin D treatment in AS patients, systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency of all AS patients are not feasible as yet. This stresses the need for further extensive well-designed research to prove vitamin D efficacy in AS beyond bone protection. And if utility is proven, personalized treatment regimes, duration of treatment, and threshold values for vitamin D should be provided.

  1. Prevention of exacerbations in patients with COPD and vitamin D deficiency through vitamin D supplementation (PRECOVID): a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiq, R.; Aleva, F.E.; Schrumpf, J.A.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Taube, C.; Daniels, J.M.; Lips, P.; Bet, P.M.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Heijer, M. den; Jongh, R.T. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation, but is increasingly studied for its potential immunomodulatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in patients with COPD. Previous studies have not demonstrated a beneficial effect o

  2. VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION - IS IT ESSENTIAL FOR LACTATING MOTHERS AND BREAST-FED INFANTS??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vit D deficiency is an upcoming health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is an essential nutrient required for bone metabolism and growth. Need for vitamin D and calcium is higher in embryonic period, infancy, early childhood, puberty, pregnancy, lactation and old age. Vit D supplementation is not included in the present antenatal care and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI programmes in India. AIM This study was done to evaluate the Vit D status of lactating mothers and their exclusively breast fed infants. The study also aims to find the correlation of Vit D with the blood biochemical markers like ALP, PTH, calcium, phosphorus and find the risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D in infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty two lactating mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants up to 4 months age were selected and their blood was analysed for Vit D, calcium, phosphorus, ALP and PTH. RESULTS An 86% of mothers and 87% of infants showed hypovitaminosis D. There is significant positive correlation between maternal and infant Vit D levels. Vit D of infants showed significant inverse correlation with BMI of mothers and PTH of infants. CONCLUSION Vit D status of exclusively breast fed infants depend on maternal Vit D levels. Infant’s bone mineral status is affected by hypovitaminosis D. Therefore, both mothers and infants should be supplemented with Vit D to prevent complications in future

  3. Vitamin D2 supplementation amplifies eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in NASCAR pit crew athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-12-20

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n=13) and placebo (n=15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (peccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p=0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, peccentric exercise.

  4. The effect of Vitamin D supplementation in disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with Vitamin D deficiency: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Hadi; Shirzadi, Mohammad; Karimifar, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of Vitamin D supplementation on the disease activity of Vitamin D-deficient systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 45 Vitamin D-deficient SLE patients were studied in two groups, namely interventional and placebo groups. The interventional group patients were treated with Vitamin D (50,000 unit/weekly Vitamin D for 12 weeks and then 50,000 unit/monthly for 3 months) and placebo group patients were only administered the placebo. The level of Vitamin D and the level of disease activity using SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) were measured before and after intervention period in each group, and for intra- and between-groups comparison, we used t-test and repeated measure ANOVA. Results: A total of 90 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean of Vitamin D was increased significantly after therapy in interventional group (17.36 ± 4.26 ng/ml vs. 37.69 ± 5.92 ng/ml, P < 0.001). The mean of Vitamin D had no significant difference before and after intervention in placebo group (16.78 ± 4.39 ng/ml vs. 16.62 ± 4.61 ng/ml, P = 0.53). The mean of disease activity (SLEDAI) was not different significantly before and after Vitamin D administration in interventional group (3.09 vs. 1.62 ± 1.25, P = 0.39). The mean of disease activity (SLEDAI) was not different significantly before and after intervention in placebo group (3.09 vs. 1.98 ± 2.47, P = 0.42). Conclusion: According to our study, it is suggested that using Vitamin D in patients with SLE could not have better outcomes in this regard. However, there are many unknown environmental or biological factors which are associated with the disease activity of SLE and have not been identified yet.

  5. Effect of dietary vicine and vitamin E supplementation on the productive performance of growing and laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduuli, D S; Marquardt, R R; Guenter, W

    1982-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary vicine (2, 6-diamino-4, 5 dihydroxy pyrimidine-5 (beta-D-glucopyranoside)) and supplemental vitamin E on the performance of laying hens and growing chicks, haemolysis of erythrocytes than birds fed on a control diet. 3. Vicine when fed to laying hens had a very dramatic effect. It depressed food consumption, egg weight, fertility and hatchability of eggs. Packed cell volume and erythrocyte haemoglobin levels and led to increased liver weights, liver glutathione levels, liver and plasma lipid levels, plasma lipid peroxide levels and erythrocyte haemolysis in vitro. Liver protein and plasma vitamin E:lipid levels were not altered. Vitamin E supplementation slightly increased egg weights, markedly improved fertility and hatchability of eggs and lowered liver weights and lipid levels but did not affect the other factors examined. 4. It is concluded that vicine which was isolated from faba beans (Vicia faba L.) has a marked influence on the metabolism of the laying hen and only a slight effect on growing chick. Vicine or its metabolites or both cause peroxidation of cellular components which result in abnormal lipid transport of synthesis or both, increased fragility of erythrocytes, and reduced fertility. These effects are overcome to varying extents by supplemental vitamin E.

  6. The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on resistance exercise induced lipid peroxidation in trained and untrained participants

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    LaVoie Norm

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theoretical benefits of using antioxidant vitamin supplements to quench oxygen free radicals appear large. High intensity aerobic-type exercise produces oxygen free radicals that can cause damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation that may lead to many problems such as the inactivation of cell membrane enzymes, the progression of degenerative diseases (cardiovascular disease and cancer and lessening of the effectiveness of the immune system. The major function of vitamin E is to work as a chain-breaking antioxidant in a fat soluble environment. Little research has examined lipid peroxidation associated with high intensity resistance exercise or possible protective effects of antioxidant supplementation or the effects of training state. Results There were no significant group (trained vs untrained or treatment (vitamin E vs placebo effects found between the 4 groups assessed. There was only one significant difference found and that was in the main effect for time (F = 22.41, p Conclusions The Resistance Exercise Test caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde in all 4 groups at 6 hours post exercise. There was no evidence that vitamin E supplementation was effective in reducing oxidative damage in comparison to the placebo group. As well, there was no difference between the trained and untrained groups with respect to their impact on lipid peroxidation measures.

  7. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on plasma membrane permeabilization and fluidization induced by chlorpromazine in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Nobuyuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Omata, Naoto; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Wada, Yuji

    2008-03-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors play a key role in most research on antipsychotic drugs, but little is known about the effects of these drugs on the plasma membrane in the central nervous system. Therefore, we investigated whether chlorpromazine (CPZ), a typical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug, affects the plasma membrane integrity in the rat brain, and if so, whether these membrane alterations can be prevented by dietary supplementation with vitamin E, which has been shown to be an antioxidant and also a membrane-stabilizer. Leakage of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG)-6-phosphate from rat striatal slices and decrease in 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy were used as indexes for plasma membrane permeabilization and fluidization, respectively. CPZ induced leakage of [(18)F]FDG-6-phosphate from striatal slices, and the leakage was delayed in the vitamin E-supplemented group compared to that in the normal diet group. The decrease in plasma membrane anisotropy induced by CPZ was significantly attenuated by vitamin E supplementation. Chronic treatment with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a free radical scavenger, had no effect on CPZ-induced plasma membrane permeabilization, and the treatment with CPZ did not induce lipid peroxidation. CPZ can reduce plasma membrane integrity in the brain, and this reduction can be prevented by vitamin E via its membrane-stabilizing properties, not via its antioxidant activity.

  8. Supplementation with Natural Forms of Vitamin E Augments Antigen-Specific TH1-Type Immune Response to Tetanus Toxoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Mahalingam, Dashayini; Selvaduray, Kanga Rani; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the ability of three forms of vitamin E [tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol (α-T), and delta-tocotrienol (δ-T3)] to enhance immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation in a mouse model. Twenty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice were fed with the different forms of vitamin E (1 mg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before they were given the TT vaccine [4 Lf] intramuscularly (i.m.). Booster vaccinations were given on days 28 and 42. Serum was collected (days 0, 28, and 56) to quantify anti-TT levels. At autopsy, splenocytes harvested were cultured with TT or mitogens. The production of anti-TT antibodies was augmented (P < 0.05) in mice that were fed with δ-T3 or TRF compared to controls. The production of IFN-γ and IL-4 by splenocytes from the vitamin E treated mice was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from controls. The IFN-γ production was the highest in animals supplemented with δ-T3 followed by TRF and finally α-T. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in the vitamin E treated group compared to vehicle-supplemented controls. Supplementation with δ-T3 or TRF can enhance immune response to TT immunisation and production of cytokines that promote cell-mediated (TH1) immune response. PMID:23936847

  9. Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on antioxidant defense system in cardiovascular disease patients in Zahedan, southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajibani, Mansour; Hashemi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggest that antioxidant vitamins might reduce the risk of disease outcomes by their ability to scavenge free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the supplementation of vitamins E and C on oxidant and antioxidant status in CVD patients. We conducted a case-control study with vitamin E (400 IU/d) and vitamin C (500 mg/d) supplementation in 40 CVD patients for 2 mo. Antioxidant (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) and oxidant status were analyzed pre and post supplementation. In the initial stage the activity of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were lower, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was elevated (pvitamin E (83.7%), C (145.3%), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (62.8%) and a significant decrease in MDA (40%) value were observed (pvitamins E and C reduced lipid peroxidation and strengthened the antioxidant defense system. Hence, there will be beneficial effects on the heart by reducing oxidative stress in CVD patients.

  10. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Young-Sool; Chung, Hye Jin; Sontakke, Sneha B; Chung, In-Young; Ju, Sunmi; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2017-07-11

    To measure ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor of patients with cataract after oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with senile cataract who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients (n = 14 each) were administered oral vitamin C (2 g), intravenous vitamin C (20 g) or no treatment (control group) on the day before surgery. Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 cm(3)) were obtained by anterior chamber aspiration at the beginning of surgery and stored at -80 °C. Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean age at surgery was 62.5 years, with no difference among the three groups. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor in the control and oral and intravenous vitamin C groups were 1347 ± 331 μmol/L, 1859 ± 408 μmol/L and 2387 ± 445 μmol/L, respectively. Ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in the control than in the oral (P humor is increased by systemic vitamin C supplementation, with intravenous administration being more effective than oral administration.

  11. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.

  12. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (pdairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (pdairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (pdairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (pdairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (pdairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (pdairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS.

  13. Effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on bone density in youth with osteogenesis imperfecta: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Laura; Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Glorieux, Francis H; Weiler, Hope; Rauch, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable condition characterized by fragile bones. Our previous studies indicated that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were positively associated with lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (LS-aBMD) in children and adolescents with OI. Here we assessed whether one year of high-dose vitamin D supplementation results in higher LS-aBMD z-scores in youth with OI. A one-year double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted at a pediatric orthopedic hospital in Montreal, Canada. Sixty patients (age: 6.0 to 18.9years; 35 female) were randomized in equal numbers to receive either 400 or 2000international units (IU) of vitamin D, stratified according to baseline bisphosphonate treatment status and pubertal stage. At baseline, the average serum 25OHD concentration was 65.6nmol/L (SD 20.4) with no difference between treatment groups (p=0.77); 21% of patients had results <50nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with higher serum 25OHD concentrations in 90% of participants. The increase in mean 25OHD was significantly higher (p=0.02) in the group receiving 2000IU of vitamin D (mean [95% CI]=30.5nmol/L [21.3; 39.6]) than in the group receiving 400IU (15.2nmol/L [6.4; 24.1]). No significant differences in LS-aBMD z-score changes were detected between treatment groups. Thus, supplementation with vitamin D at 2000IU increased serum 25OHD concentrations in children with OI more than supplementation with 400IU. However, in this study where about 80% of participants had baseline serum 25OHD concentrations ≥50nmol/L, this difference had no detectable effect on LS-aBMD z-scores.

  14. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  15. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; Naber, Ton H J; van Breemen, Richard B; Zhu, Dongwei; Dicke, Heleen; Siebelink, Els; Hulshof, Paul J M; Russel, Frans G M; Schaafsma, Gertjan; West, Clive E

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study. Each subject followed both diets for 2 weeks: a diet containing vegetables low in beta-carotene content with supplemental beta-carotene in salad dressing oil ('oil diet'; mean beta-carotene intake 3.1 mg/d) and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in beta-carotene content ('mixed diet'; mean beta-carotene intake 7.6 mg/d). Daily each subject consumed a mean of 190 microg [13C10]beta-carotene and 195 microg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum. Apparent absorption of beta-carotene was determined with oral-faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]beta-carotene in oil of 3.6:1 (95 % CI 2.8, 4.6) regardless of dietary matrices differences. The apparent absorption of (labelled and dietary) beta-carotene from the 'oil diet' (30 %) was 1.9-fold higher than from the 'mixed diet' (16 %). This extrinsic labelling technique can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in oil capsules, but it does not represent the effect of different dietary matrices.

  16. Vitamin E Supplementation to Sows and Effects on Fertility Rate and Subsequent Body Development of their Weanling Piglets

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    D. O. Umesiobi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E to sows on sow fertility and serum α-tocopherol, growth and physiological state of their weanling pigs. A total of 60 Large White gilts were randomly allotted to three groups (20 gilts per group from coitus to lactation phases over a two-parity period to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E on fecundity rates and litter size of sows. Each of the three dietary vitamin E treatment combinations involved 0, 40 or 70 IU/kg of dl- α-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, and parity 1 and 2. Sow serum α-tocopherol and Selenium (Se were collected at 30 day post coitum, 99 day of gestation and 21 day lactation. Serum α-tocopherol and Se were collected from piglets at 1 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning age. Data relating to sow fecundity and litter size were also recorded. Results indicate that body weights and body weight gains of sows and their litters increased significantly (P < 0.01 by parity, increasing more from parities 1 to 2, mostly when dietary vitamin E was increased from 40 to 70 IU/kg diet. The highest number of total piglets and number of piglets born alive (12 ± 8.9 vs. 11 ± 0.1 were obtained at parity 2 when dietary vitamin E was increased to 70 IU/kg diet. There was an increase in weights of the piglets when dietary vitamin E was increased in sow’s diet. There was a dramatic increase in serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations following 40 and 70 IU/kg of vitamin E supplementation during the 30 and 99 day gestation and 21 day lactation periods as parity increased. Se concentrations were about 3 fold higher in the 70 IU/kg vitamin E supplemented group in parity 2 compared to the other groups. In both parities, female piglets had higher serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations at both 2 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning compared to the male piglets. Results from this study suggest that supplementing 70 IU/kg α-tocopheryl acetate in

  17. A breast-fed newborn with megaloblastic anemia-treated with the vitamin B12 supplementation of the mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeve, Omer; Arsan, Saadet; Atasay, Begum; Ileri, Talia; Uysal, Zumrut

    2009-10-01

    Pregnant women with low B12 levels are unable to provide the necessary amount of this vitamin to their fetuses. The mothers are usually not anemic, and failure to thrive and neurologic deficits are more common in their infants than in megaloblastic anemia. We report the case of a newborn that was born to a vegetarian mother and presented with the symptoms of megaloblastic anemia at birth; we also discuss vitamin B12 metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. An interesting feature of the present case is that it is the only reported case of a newborn that was treated by supplementation of the mother.

  18. Cobalt supplementation, alone or in combination with vitamin B and selenium: Effects on lamb performance and mineral status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P; Fagan, S P

    2017-01-01

    The effects of supplementing lambs with Co, either alone or in combination with vitamin B and Se, were evaluated over the period from weaning to selection for slaughter. Two hundred and five recently weaned (at 14 wk [SD 0.44] of age), spring-born lambs of various crossbred genotypes were stratified, within genotype, by BW and gender and allocated to 3 groups, which were then allocated at random to one of the following treatments: no supplement (Control), a supplement containing Co only (Co-only), or a supplement containing Co, vitamin B, and Se (VitMin). The concentration of Co in the Co-only supplement was 2.1 mg/mL (as cobalt sulfate); the VitMin supplement contained Co (10 mg/mL, as cobalt acetate), vitamin B (200 μg/mL), and Se (0.25 mg/mL, as sodium selenite). Lambs on the Co-only and VitMin treatments received, every 14 d, 10 and 2.1 mL, respectively, of oral drench. Lambs were managed in a rotational-grazing system from 12 July (swards predominantly ) and selected for slaughter, on the basis of BW, after 45, 73, or 115 d; all remaining lambs were slaughtered on d 157. Supplementation, with Co-only or VitMin, increased BW at slaughter ( 0.05) between the Co-only and the VitMin treatments for ADG, carcass weight, fat score, or dressing percentage. Supplementation with Co increased liver Co concentration ( < 0.001), and lambs supplemented with VitMin had greater liver Co concentration than lambs supplemented with Co-only ( < 0.05); the concentrations were 0.18, 0.85, and 1.18 μmol/L for the Control, Co-only, and VitMin treatments, respectively. Treatment had no effect ( = 0.65) on the concentration of Se in kidney tissue. It is concluded that supplementation with Co increased lamb performance after weaning, that response to supplementation increased as the grazing season progressed, and that no extra benefit in performance resulted from augmenting supplementary Co with B and Se.

  19. Vitamin D supplementation and breast cancer prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

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    Francesca Sperati

    Full Text Available In recent years, the scientific evidence linking vitamin D status or supplementation to breast cancer has grown notably. To investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer incidence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing vitamin D with placebo or no treatment. We used OVID to search MEDLINE (R, EMBASE and CENTRAL until April 2012. We screened the reference lists of included studies and used the "Related Article" feature in PubMed to identify additional articles. No language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently extracted data on methodological quality, participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes. Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals for breast cancer were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2 test. In sensitivity analysis, we assessed the impact of vitamin D dosage and mode of administration on treatment effects. Only two randomized controlled trials fulfilled the pre-set inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis included 5372 postmenopausal women. Overall, Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals were 1.11 and 0.74-1.68. We found no evidence of heterogeneity. Neither vitamin D dosage nor mode of administration significantly affected breast cancer risk. However, treatment efficacy was somewhat greater when vitamin D was administered at the highest dosage and in combination with calcium (Risk Ratio 0.58, 95% Confident Interval 0.23-1.47 and Risk Ratio 0.93, 95% Confident Interval 0.54-1.60, respectively. In conclusions, vitamin D use seems not to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. However, the available evidence is still limited and inadequate to draw firm conclusions. Study protocol code: FARM8L2B5L.

  20. Do symbiotic and Vitamin E supplementation have favorite effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhlasi, Golnaz; Kolahdouz Mohammadi, Roya; Agah, Shahram; Zarrati, Mitra; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Arabshahi, Seyed Soroush Soltani; Shidfar, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Oral administration of symbiotic and Vitamin E has been proposed as an effect