... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...
Penny, M.; Lanata, C.; Butron, B.; Haskell, M.; Brown, K.
The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author)
... to vitamin and mineral success is eating a balanced diet. Before taking vitamin and mineral supplements, talk to ... healthy diet. There’s just no substitute for a balanced, nutritious diet that limits excess calories, saturated fat, trans fat, ...
Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen
of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....
prevent or reverse oxidative stress, c) to collect pilot data on the effect of vitamin E supplementation on lung function and impaired wound healing. We...by vitamin E supplementation, b) to prevent or reverse oxidative stress, c) to collect pilot data on the effect of vitamin E supplementation on lung...We anticipate that vitamin E supplements will prevent vitamin E depletion, reduce oxidative stress, attenuate the development of lung dysfunction
Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A
Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence
Background: HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative ...
Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem throughout the developing world, affecting an estimated 124 million young children and accounting for more than 1 million child deaths each year.' A meta-analysis of eight controlled trials estimated that community-based vitamin A supplementation resulted in a 23% ...
Boullata, Joseph I
Vitamin D supplementation is expected to increase as clinicians try to optimize their patients' vitamin D status. This review integrates newer information into a perspective on vitamin D disposition and effect. Vitamin D is being considered for indications beyond bone health. The limited dose-response data vary by indication, but generally target a goal serum 25(OH)D concentration of 80-120 nmol/l. Although oral vitamin D is adequately absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and utilized before being excreted, these factors may vary with baseline vitamin D status, genetic polymorphism, and the form of vitamin D being administered. Additionally, the responses to vitamin D can be tissue-specific and are not always well described. There is still a need to better characterize the disposition and effect of vitamin D supplementation. Data will need to be more specific to the therapeutic indication and demonstrate health outcomes. Long-term effects of high-dose supplementation at the tissue level will be especially important to describe.
Full Text Available Preeclampsia may affect between 2–8% of all pregnancies. It seriously affects maternal health after pregnancy. This meta-analysis was performed to define the efficacy of vitamins supplementation on the risk of preeclampsia. Potential articles were systematically searched on the databases of Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science up to May 2016. Relative risk (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were used to analyze the relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia. Cochran Q test was used to test inter-study heterogeneity. Begg's funnel plot was adopted to assess the potential publication bias. 28 eligible studies were selected. Pooled results indicated that vitamins supplementation could reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.64–0.86. The studies with non-randomized controlled trial (RCT analysis also suggested the significant relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.42–0.85. However, negative results were observed in studies with RCT analysis. Subgroup analysis by vitamin type was performed among the studies with RCT analysis. The results indicated that vitamin D supplementation could significantly reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.22–0.78. Similar results were observed in the studies with multivitamins supplementation (RR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.51–0.93. Vitamins supplementation could reduce the onset of preeclampsia.
De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo
Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials
Oliveira-Menegozzo, Julicristie M; Bergamaschi, Denise P; Middleton, Philippa; East, Christine E
In vitamin A deficient populations, the amount of vitamin A may be insufficient for maintenance of maternal health and levels in breast milk may be insufficient for breastfeeding infants' needs. To assess the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation on maternal and infant health. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2010), LILACS (1982 to July 2010), Web of Science (1945 to July 2010) and Biological Abstracts (1998 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation. Two review authors assessed the studies independently. We included 12 trials at moderate risk of bias, enrolling 25,465 mother-baby pairs and comparing several postpartum doses (200,000-400,000 IU) of vitamin A or 7.8 mg daily beta-carotene, with placebo, iron or no supplement; or higher (400,000 IU) versus lower dose (200,000 IU). The majority of infants in all studies were at least partially breastfed for six months.Maternal: we observed no impact of vitamin A on maternal mortality (two trials of 9,126 women), morbidity (one trial of 50 women) or adverse effects (subset of 786 women in one trial). Vitamin A enhanced serum and breast milk retinol at three months in five trials, but these improvements were generally not sustained.Infant: we observed no significant differences for infant mortality RR 1.14 95% CI 0.84 to 1.57 (five trials (6,170 infants) or morbidity (three trials) except for fewer episodes of fever with vitamin A in one small trial. No significant differences in infant vitamin A status were seen with maternal vitamin A supplementation (five trials).No beneficial effects for maternal or infant health were associated with higher compared to lower doses of vitamin A in two trials. The lack of effect on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, with exception of some improved infant morbidity in one small study, and the improvement in maternal vitamin A status
Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin
Francisco R. Spivacow
Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of serum vitamin D sufficient levels to prevent multiple chronic diseases. However, vitamin D supplementation and its effects on urine calcium excretion remain controversial. The objective of this prospective and interventional study was to evaluate urine calcium excretion in women with normal calciuria or hypercalciuria, once serum vitamin D sufficiency was achieved. We studied 63 women with idiopathic hypercalciuria, (9 with renal lithiasis and 50 normocalciuric women. Both groups had serum vitamin D levels low (deficiency or insufficiency. Baseline urine calcium excretion was measured before being supplemented with vitamin D2 or D3 weekly or vitamin D3 100.000 IU monthly. Once serum vitamin D levels were corrected achieving at least 30 ng/ml, a second urine calcium excretion was obtained. Although in the whole sample we did not observe significant changes in urine calcium excretion according to the way of supplementation, some of those with weekly supplementation had significant higher urine calcium excretion, 19% (n = 12 of hypercalciuric women and 12% (n = 6 of the normocalciuric group. Monthly doses, also showed higher urine calcium excretion in 40% of hypercalciuric women (n = 4/10 and in 44% (n = 4/9 of the renal lithiasis hypercalciuric patients. In conclusion, different ways of vitamin D supplementation and adequate serum levels are safe in most patients, although it should be taken into account a subgroup, mainly with monthly loading doses, that could increase the calciuria significantly eventually rising renal lithiasis risk or bone mass loss, if genetically predisposed.
Luz Maria De-Regil
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015 and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015. Selection criteria: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials with randomization at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently i assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii extracted data from included studies, and iii assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements
Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity. ... J. Haidar, D. Tsegaye, D.H. Mariam, H.N. Tibeb, N.M. Muroki ... Results: Vitamin A capsule coverage of 87% in all the villages of the Weredas and a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the prevalence of Bitot's spot (from 1.5 to 0.5), fever (from 29.8 to 14.2), diarrhoea ...
Abstract. Background: HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplemen- tation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on ...
Background: Vitamin A plays vital role in the physiology of vision and immunity. Globally quarters of a billion children are Vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A supplementation of children and mothers during postpartum period is a key strategy to avert the deficiency. However the effect of Vitamin A supplementation on incidence of ...
Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from the antecubital ...
Kiraly, Nicholas; Balde, Aliu; Lisse, Ida Marie
The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood....
Ferguson, Janet H; Chang, Anne B
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder with multiorgan effects. In a subgroup with pancreatic insufficiency malabsorption of the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur. Vitamin D is involved in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation and may have extraskeletal effects. This review examines the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in cystic fibrosis. To assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory outcomes and vitamin D toxicity in the cystic fibrosis population. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 08 July 2013. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies of vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo in the cystic fibrosis population regardless of exocrine pancreatic function. Both authors independently assessed the risk of bias of each included study and extracted outcome data (from published study information) for assessment of bone mineralization, growth and nutritional status, frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory status, quality of life and adverse events. Six studies (239 participants) are included, although only three studies provided data from 69 adults and children with cystic fibrosis for analysis. One study compared a single high dose of vitamin D (250,000 IU) to placebo at the time of hospital admission with a respiratory exacerbation in 30 pancreatic insufficient adults with cystic fibrosis. The second study compared supplemental 800 international units (IU) vitamin D and placebo for 12 months in 30 osteopenic pancreatic insufficient adults; both groups continued 900 IU vitamin D daily. The third study compared supplemental 1 g calcium alone, 1600 IU vitamin D alone, 1600 IU vitamin D and 1 g calcium and placebo in a double
Choi, Jayoung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung
Although vitamin C supplements were consumed for health maintenance and fatigue recovery, the effects of high doses of vitamin C supplement remains controversial. Our study performed the effects of 100 mg and 2,000 mg vitamin C supplements on plasma and urinary vitamin C concentration in Korean women. Twenty-four women completed the 4 weeks intervention. Anthropometric data, plasma and urinary vitamin C concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA...
Soe, Htoo Htoo Kyaw; Abas, Adinegara Bl; Than, Nan Nitra; Ni, Han; Singh, Jaspal; Said, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa
Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis). With increased catabolism and deficits in energy and nutrient intake, individuals with sickle cell disease suffer multiple macro- and micro-nutritional deficiencies, including vitamin D deficiency. Since vitamin D maintains calcium homeostasis and is essential for bone mineralisation, its deficiency may worsen musculoskeletal health problems encountered in sickle cell disease. Therefore, there is a need to review the effects and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in sickle cell disease. To investigate the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in children and adults with sickle cell disease.To determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on general health such as growth status and health-related quality of life; on musculoskeletal health including bone mineral density, pain crises, bone fracture and muscle health; on respiratory health which includes lung function tests, acute chest syndrome, acute exacerbation of asthma and respiratory infections; and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in children and adults with sickle cell disease. We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched database such as PubMed, clinical trial registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 15 December 2016. Randomised controlled studies and quasi
The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the libido and reproductive capacity of Large White boars. ... The 70 IU supplementation of dietary vitamin E per kg diet to pigs resulted in the highest number of mounts, combats, head-kicks and anogenital sniffs with the shortest RT in comparison to the 40 and 0 IU vitamin E ...
Phenytoin is known to have some toxicological implications. Vitamin B12 supplementation during phenytoin administration was investigated to assess the benefits and risks of single vitamin supplementation. This study evaluated the biochemical and haematological effects of vitamin B12 on phenytoin toxicity. Twenty-four ...
Background: Vitamin A supplementation is one of the best-proven and most costeffective interventions to improve vitamin A status and save children's lives. Objective: To assess factors affecting practices and utilisation of Vitamin A supplementation services among mothers with children below five years attending Mbagathi ...
Bilinski, Kellie; Talbot, Peter
High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000–2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety o...
Background: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the leading micro-nutrient deficiencies of public health importance in Kenya. Provision of vitamin A supplements every six months is an inexpensive, safe, quick and effective way to improve vitamin A status and save children's lives. Objectives: To determine vitamin A ...
Eight mature gilts, randomly selected, individually housed and placed into two groups – vitamin E supplemented and non-supplemented were compared for serum ovarian levels of progesterone and estradiol. This was to access the influence of vitamin E supplementation on the concentrations of progesterone and estradiol ...
Studies have indicated that vitamin A (VA) and β-carotene (BC) supplementation have some effects on udder health and milk yield in dairy cows whose intake is below 110 IU/kg BW/day. If low quality forage is fed, supplementation of VA should be considered. Supplementation of B-vitamin has important effects on milk ...
Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka
from substantial dropout of participants. Combined vitamin D₃ and calcium supplements increased nephrolithiasis, whereas it remains unclear from the included trials whether vitamin D₃, calcium, or both were responsible for this effect. We need more trials on vitamin D supplementation, assessing......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register...... included randomised trials that compared vitamin D at any dose, duration, and route of administration versus placebo or no intervention in adults who were healthy or were recruited among the general population, or diagnosed with a specific disease. Vitamin D could have been administered as supplemental...
Chen, L H
Weanling rats were maintained on purified diets with graded levels of vitamin E at 50, 60, 100, 200, or 500 IU/kg diet; each group was further divided into two subgroups, each with six rats and received vitamin C at 0 or 1.5 g/kg diet. After 1 or 2 months, the determination of antioxidant status showed that the high supplementation of vitamin C at the marginally adequate vitamin E level significantly increased in vitro erythrocyte hemolysis and liver lipid peroxidation, and significantly lowered erythrocyte level of reduced glutathione and plasma level of vitamin E; thus lowering the overall antioxidant potential of the animals. A small increase in vitamin E level counteracted the hemolytic and peroxidative effect of the high supplementation of vitamin C. A greater increase in vitamin E level counteracted the effect of high supplementation of vitamin C in decreasing glutathione level and plasma vitamin E level. These results indicate that the adverse effect of the high supplementation of vitamin C on tissue antioxidant potential may be overcome by increasing the supplementation level of vitamin E, and suggest that vitamin E requirement may be increased with increased vitamin C supplementation.
Knez, Wade L; Peake, Jonathan M
Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins.
Background. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Zimbabwe. Addressing vitamin A deficiency has the potential to enhance resistance to disease and reduce mortality, especially in children aged <5 years. Objective. To describe a vitamin A supplementation outreach strategy implemented in one of the remote ...
Backx, E.M.P.; Tieland, M.; Maase, K.; Kies, A.K.; Mensink, M.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de L.C.P.G.M.
Background/Objectives:To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch athletes and to define the required dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency over the course of a year.Subjects/Methods:Blood samples were collected from 128 highly trained
Takanami, Y; Iwane, H; Kawai, Y; Shimomitsu, T
It has been widely noted that vitamin E shows numerous beneficial effects through and beyond its antioxidative properties; consequently, vitamin E is expected to prevent degenerative diseases. In the field of sports medicine, many studies dealing with vitamin E have been conducted originally from the point of view of its effects on physical performance. Although some earlier studies indicated that vitamin E supplementation could improve physical performance, defects in the study design or statistical analysis were pointed out at a later time. The majority of subsequent well controlled studies have reported no significant effect on physical performance from vitamin E supplementation. Recent studies suggest that endurance exercise may promote free radical generation in the body, and vitamin E may play an important role in preventing the free radical damage associated with endurance exercise. Although there is evidence of free radical involvement in exercise-induced muscle injury, vitamin E supplementation might not be expected to prevent muscle damage caused by exercise in humans without a vitamin E deficiency. Since it is still unclear whether exercise induces lipid peroxidation in the human body, the beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation has not yet been established. However, it is proposed that as a result of exercise vitamin E may be mobilised from store tissues and redistributed in the body to prevent oxidative damage. Therefore, we are convinced that vitamin E contributes to preventing exercise-induced lipid peroxidation. It has also been indicated that strenuous endurance exercise may enhance the production of oxidised low density lipoprotein (LDL), which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. It is also suggested that this enhanced production of oxidised LDL could be reduced if a higher vitamin E status is maintained. Supplementation with 100 to 200mg of vitamin E daily can be
The article discusses vitamin C from the point of view of its supplementation with food and in the form of oral supplements. The dual action of vitamin C is connected with the presence of oxygen, which may reduce the amount of the vitamin in food products, influence thermal resistance, cause degradation and show an antioxidation effect. Vitamin C stimulates the immune cells and collagen synthesis. It may protect the LDL fraction against oxidation, and therefore it is interesting for cosmetology, rheumatology, immunology and dietetics. The latest research with respect to vitamin C proved that it has the ability to dissolve neurotoxic senile plaques. Equally effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is the oxidised form of vitamin C, i.e. dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C may be used in a combined vitamin E supplementation to avoid the pro-oxidative effect and reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications. In the review there is a description of the types of vitamin C degradation depending on a specific factor such as pH, temperature, oxygen, enzyme and the impact of diet on the quantity of the supplied vitamin. The literature data confirmed the positive influence of vitamin C as an addition to food. The last part of the article presents the methods of vitamin C protection used in food processing technology and of determining its content in food products. Additionally, the article describes the problems related to vitamin C oxidation processes during food processing and storage. The presented research results indicate that an adequate diet contains a sufficient amount of vitamin C for healthy people. In the case of chronic patients it is better to use supplementation.
Full Text Available The article discusses vitamin C from the point of view of its supplementation with food and in the form of oral supplements. The dual action of vitamin C is connected with the presence of oxygen, which may reduce the amount of the vitamin in food products, influence thermal resistance, cause degradation and show an antioxidation effect. Vitamin C stimulates the immune cells and collagen synthesis. It may protect the LDL fraction against oxidation, and therefore it is interesting for cosmetology, rheumatology, immunology and dietetics. The latest research with respect to vitamin C proved that it has the ability to dissolve neurotoxic senile plaques. Equally effective in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is the oxidised form of vitamin C, i.e. dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C may be used in a combined vitamin E supplementation to avoid the pro-oxidative effect and reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications. In the review there is a description of the types of vitamin C degradation depending on a specific factor such as pH, temperature, oxygen, enzyme and the impact of diet on the quantity of the supplied vitamin. The literature data confirmed the positive influence of vitamin C as an addition to food. The last part of the article presents the methods of vitamin C protection used in food processing technology and of determining its content in food products. Additionally, the article describes the problems related to vitamin C oxidation processes during food processing and storage. The presented research results indicate that an adequate diet contains a sufficient amount of vitamin C for healthy people. In the case of chronic patients it is better to use supplementation.
Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; West, C.E.; Thurnham, D.I.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.
Background: Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. Objective: This study
Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; West, C.E.; Thurnham, D.I.; Muhilal, .; Meer, J.W.M. van der
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. OBJECTIVE: This study
Moore, Carolyn E; Sherman, Vadim
Few prospective studies have compared changes of nutrient intake while assessing effectiveness of thiamin, vitamin B12, and folate supplementation to prevent B vitamin deficiencies immediately following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Therefore, we determined the response to 3 months supplementation on maintaining blood B vitamin concentrations. Women undergoing RYGB (n = 11) and SG (n = 11) consumed bariatric vitamin supplements (12 mg thiamin, 350 μg vitamin B12, 800 μg folic acid) daily for 3 months. Height, weight, body mass index, and blood vitamin concentrations were measured preoperatively and at 3 months. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses compared body weight parameters, laboratory indices, and nutrient intake at baseline and 3 months. Supplementation for 3 months maintained blood thiamin, increased serum folate from 13.1 ± 5.4 to 16.3 ± 6.0 nmol/L (P = 0.049), and increased serum vitamin B12 concentrations from 498 ± 150 to 736 ± 340 pg/mL (P = 0.005). Dietary intake of thiamin and folate decreased in the combined surgical groups, while dietary intake of B12 was maintained. Bariatric B vitamin supplements provided multiple intakes of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (1090% thiamin, 14,583% vitamin B12, 200% folate). Although energy intake decreased 64%, B vitamin supplementation for 3 months resulted in a 48% increase of serum vitamin B12, a modest increase of serum folate, and no reduction of blood thiamin concentrations. Long-term effects of the rapid rise of serum B12 levels attributed to the high content of supplements warrant further investigation.
The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it
Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.
Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.
Okebukola, Peter O; Kansra, Sonal; Barrett, Joanne
People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended in cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and also searched international trial registers for any ongoing clinical trials that were not identified during our register search.Date of last search of the Register: 10 October 2016. Date of last search of international trial registers: 15 February 2017. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any preparation of vitamin E supplementation to placebo or no supplement, regardless of dosage or duration. Two authors extracted outcome data from each study (published information) and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Four studies with a total of 141 participants were included in the review, two of these were in children (aged six months to 14.5 years), and the other two did not specify participants' age. All studies used different formulations and doses of vitamin E for various durations of treatment (10 days to six months). Two studies compared the supplementation of fat-soluble as well as water-soluble formulations to no supplementation in different arms of the same study. A third study compared a water-soluble formulation to a placebo; and in the fourth study a fat-soluble formulation of vitamin E was assessed against placebo.At one month, three months and six months, water-soluble vitamin E significantly improved serum vitamin E levels compared with control: at one month, two studies, mean difference 17.66 (95% confidence
Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...
Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell
The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to
Darnton-Hill, I; Sriskandarajah, N; Stewart, P M; Craig, G; Truswell, A S
Homeless men and women are both physically and socially disadvantaged. Their nutritional status is also often compromised. In this sample of 107 homeless men in Sydney, about half reported taking vitamin supplements (with varying duration and regularity), usually a regimen consisting of thiamin, vitamin C, folic acid and a multivitamin-B-complex capsule. In this cross-sectional study, little effect could be seen on clinical health between those reporting taking vitamin supplementation and those not doing so. However, biochemical measurements showed significant differences. The numbers of men classified as deficient were higher by about 20 per cent for those reporting not taking vitamins. The mean biochemical levels were significantly better for the supplemented group for thiamin, as assessed by TPP per cent effect (P = 0.04), vitamin B6, as assessed by P5'P per cent effect (P = 0.002), vitamin C (P status, the supplemented group were better off and it is reasonable to presume that in the long term this would be reflected in improved clinical status.
Full Text Available Introduction. Deficiency of vitamin D in pregnancy leads to higher incidences of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis, and also affects the health of the infants. According to Polish recommendations published in 2009, vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women should be provided from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy in daily dose of 800–1000 IU. The aim of the presented study is: 1 to estimate how many pregnant women comply with those recommendations and 2 to determine the 25(OHD levels in pregnant women. Patients and methods. The study included 88 pregnant women, aged 20–40 years, between 12–35 week of gestation. Vitamin D concentrations [25(OHD] were measured by a direct electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys, Roche. Results. 31 of 88 pregnant women (35.2% did not use any supplementation. Mean level of 25(OHD was 28.8±14.8 ng/mL (range from 4.0 – 77.5 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as 25(OHD concentration below 20 ng/mL, was found in 31.8% of the women (28/88. Insufficiency of vitamin D [25(OHD concentration between 20–30 ng/mL] was present in 26.1% of the women (23/88. Optimal level of 25(OHD (over 30 ng/mL was present in 37/88 (42.0% women. Hence, in 46.2% of women taking vitamin D supplementation, the levels of 25(OHD were still below 30 ng/mL. Conclusions. Supplementation of vitamin D in the investigated group was inadequate. More than 35% of pregnant women did not take any supplements, while half of the subjects who had declared taking vitamin D, failed to achieve optimal serum 25(OHD concentration.
Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity. ... J. Haidar, D. Tsegaye, D.H. Mariam, H.N. Tibeb, N.M. Muroki ... Results: Vitamin A capsule coverage of 87% in all the villages of the Weredas and a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the prevalence of Bitot's spot (from 1.5 to 0.5), fever (from 29.8 to 14.2), diarrhoea ...
synthesized from glucose) essential to human body and available from diet. Despite its broad availability in fruits and vegetables, in many developing countries the incidence of clinical symptoms due to the vitamin deficiency is still very high. Also ...
Kodentsova, V M; Pogozheva, A V; Gromova, O A; Shikh, E V
The diet of population consisting of natural products is quite adequate and even excessive of energy consumption, but is not able to meet fully the need of organism in a number of micronutrients. Due to lack of sun exposure and long presence indoors endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by ultraviolet radiation does not provide the body’s need for this vitamin. Intake of vitaminmineral supplements (VMS) is appropriate because combined deficiency of vitamins and minerals takes place in population. Prophylactic doses (equal to physiological needs) provide a diet completeness and reduce the risk of vitamin deficiency and its consequences. The high incidence of combined deficiency of vitamins among population and the existence of vitamin interactions are the basis for the application of the multivitamins. The simultaneous intake of vitamins is more physiological, their combination is more effective than a separate or isolated destination of each of them. Efficacy of the VMS has been shown in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. The main requirements for the VMS are full list of vitamins and minerals, the lack of which is detected most frequently, in doses covering the needs of organism. For the health of the pregnant woman and her unborn child preference should be given for complexes, containing DHA and/or probiotics along with vitamins. The principles of the selection of the composition and vitamin doses in the VMS for using patients suffering from various pathologies should be based on data on the patient’s sufficiency with vitamins, the understanding of the role of vitamin deficiency in the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as on the composition of the diet and its modifications.
Wicherts, I.S.; Boeke, A.J.P.; van der Meer, I.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Knol, D.L.; Lips, P.T.A.M.
Summary: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in non-western immigrants. In this randomized clinical trial, vitamin D 800 IU/day or 100,000 IU/3 months were compared with advised sunlight exposure. Vitamin D supplementation was more effective than advised sunlight exposure in improving vitamin D
... Spotlight on Research Spotlight on Research Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis By Colleen Labbe, M.S. | June 1, 2013 Vitamin D supplements likely do not improve symptoms of knee ...
Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E.; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose
Martinez-Bello,Vladimir E., Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Daniel Martinez-Bello, Gloria Olaso-Gonzalez, Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, and Jose Viña. Vitamin C Supplementation Does Not Improve Hypoxia-Induced Erythropoiesis. High Alt Med Biol 13:269–274, 2012.—Hypoxia induces reactive oxygen species production. Supplements with antioxidant mixtures can compensate for the decline in red cell membrane stability following intermittent hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing protein and lipid oxidation. We aimed to ...
Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements categorized on the basis of Ca with vitamin D, vitamin C and phosphate formulations. The supplements were found to contain low levels of Co, Cr and Cu with elevated amounts of Fe, K and Na. Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective Dietary Reference Intakes. - Highlights: • INAA and AAS were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements. • The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective DRIs. • Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. • All supplements can be considered safe for human intake with respect to trace nutrients
Oct 5, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. The effect of vitamin C and cobalt supplementation on antioxidant status in healthy and diabetic rats. Özlem Yildirim. Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey. E -mail: email@example.com Tel: +90-312-212-6720 ...
South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Supplements (Part1): Vitamins. R Jobson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.
This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se) on total white blood cells, mononucleated cells, polymorphonucleated cells and packed cell volume of Trypanosoma congolense-infected rats (Rattus rattus). Ninety adult R. rattus of pure breed of ...
Chickens were fed with diets containing 25 (control), 100, 200 or 300 mg vitamin E/kg of food for 20 days before slaughtering. Peroxide value (PV) and oxidation products specific extinctions (K232 and K270), chosen as markers for oxidative deterioration of lipids, were lower in chicken meat from animals supplemented with ...
SUMMARY. The effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on feed intake and serum lipid peroxidation formation were examined in 200 light breed cockerels infected with infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus. The birds were reared from day-old in deep litter, and were divided into 8 groups of 25 birds each by day 21.
Aage, S; Kiraly, N; Da Costa, K
BACKGROUND: Neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) is currently being considered as policy in countries at risk of deficiency. A previous study suggested that NVAS may be associated with increased atopy. We examined the effect of NVAS on atopy by conducting long-term follow-up of a previous...
East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 4 April 2012. FACTORS INFLUENCING VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION AMONG MOTHERS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE. YEARS OLD AT MBAGATHI DISTRICT HOSPITAL, KENYA. M. W. Kamau, BSc (Nurs), MSc (Public Health), Lecturer Presbyterian Universityof East Africa, ...
The effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on feed intake and serum lipid peroxidation formation were examined in 200 light breed cockerels infected with infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus. The birds were reared from day-old in deep litter, and were divided into 8 groups of 25 birds each by day 21. Half of each ...
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on some haematological parameters and red blood cell osmotic fragility in Wistar rats subjected to water immersion restraint stress (WRS) (n= 35). Male Wistar rats, weighing 200-220 g were divided in to five groups of ...
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... to study the effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on the fertility and the characteristics of the oviductal and uterine flushing's of gilts because in our thermally harsh environment pigs tend to consume less feeds than needed and so expose themselves to some nutritional stress.
Dichlorvos (DDVP) is a widely used pesticide that is toxic to animals and humans but study of its effect on the microanatomy of the brain is scanty. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of vitamin supplementation on DDVP-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. 25 male Wistar rats ...
Jan 1, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. 1 January 2003. VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION ON CHILD MORBIDITY. J. Haidar, MD, MSc, D. Tsegaye, MSc, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, D.H. Mariam, MD, PhD, Department of Community. Health, Addis Ababa ...
Methods. Based on an extensive review of the literature, the main components of a primary health care facility vitamin A supplementation programme were identified. The annual, recurrent cost of each of the programme component wer estimated for the nine provinces in South Africa. Immunisation coverage rates were used ...
Oxidative stress has been recognized as a central feature of smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes is also an established fact in these patients. But studies in regard to stable COPD patients and effect of vitamin E supplementation are lacking.
Effects of vitamin C supplement on vascular responses induced by warmth or cold stimulation in normal Nigerians. SI Jaja, SI Aisuodionwe, S Gbenebitse, MO Kehinde. Abstract. No abstract. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol. 13(1-2): 61-64. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...
Oxidative stress has been recognized as a central feature of smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes is also an established fact in these patients. But studies in regard to stable COPD patients and effect of vitamin E supplementation are lacking.
The effect of chronic low-dose supplementation with vitamin C (300mg/day for 6 weeks in adults or 100mg/day for 6 weeks in children) or vitamin E (100 IU/day for 6 weeks in adults) or L-Arginine (1g/day for 6 weeks in adults) in ameliorating the pathophysiology and combating the deleterious effects of sickle cell disease in ...
Hadithi, M. al; Mulder, C.J.J.; Stam, F.; Azizi, J.; Crusius, J.B.A.; Pena, A.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Smulders, Y.M.
0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not (P = 0.001) or healthy controls (P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly
Obeid, Rima; Awwad, Hussain M; Kirsch, Susanne H; Waldura, Christiane; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Graeber, Stefan; Geisel, Juergen
We compared the effect of supplementation with vitamin D + B or vitamin D on plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and choline metabolites. This is a randomized single-blinded nonplacebo-controlled study. Twenty-seven participants received 1200 IU vitamin D3 and 800 mg calcium, and 25 participants received additionally 0.5 mg folic acid, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 for 1 year. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), TMAO, and choline metabolites were measured at baseline and 12 months later. TMAO declined in the vitamin D arm by 0.5 versus 2.8 μmol/L in the D + B arm (p = 0.005). Hcy decreased and betaine increased in the D + B compared to the D arm. Within-subject levels of plasma choline and dimethylglycine and urine betaine increased in both arms and changes did not differ between the arms. TMAO reduction was predicted by higher baseline TMAO and lowering Hcy in stepwise regression analysis. The test-retest variations of TMAO were greater in the D + B arm compared to vitamin D arm. B vitamins plus vitamin D lowered plasma fasting TMAO compared to vitamin D. Vitamin D caused alterations in choline metabolism, which may reflect the metabolic flexibility of C1-metabolism. The molecular mechanisms and health implications of these changes are currently unknown. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Schreiner, Matthias; Razzazi, Ebrahim; Luf, Wolfgang
A method for the determination of six water-soluble vitamins based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) operated in micellar mode was developed. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), nicotinamide (vitamin B3), and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) could be separated in a single run. All CE parameters such as buffer composition and operation temperature were optimized in order to achieve better separation. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the described method ranged from 1.08 to 3.68% (intra-day precision) and 1.26 to 3.35% (inter-day precision). The method was then used for measuring various soft drinks and vitamin supplements directly without any step of sample cleanup. The determination of niacin was successful for all samples tested, reaching recoveries near 100%. Riboflavin and pyridoxine were quantified successfully in some but not all samples. Therefore, an evaluation on a case-by-case basis is mandatory. When applicable, this method provides a fast, accurate, simple, and inexpensive way to quantify selected vitamins, and is therefore well suited for routine analysis in soft drink industry.
Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality......: the MRR of vitamin A supplementation compared with placebo, controlled for randomisation to "early BCG" versus "no early BCG" was 1.08 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.47). Stratification by sex revealed a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (P=0.046), the MRR of vitamin A supplementation...
Vitamin D deficiency in infancy and childhood impairs normal bone development and growth: defective bone mineralization leads to rickets. For many decades in Finland, vitamin D supplementation in infants has been successful in preventing rickets. However, along with increasing knowledge of non-skeletal vitamin D actions, optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration, has been under debate. The optimal vitamin D status and the dose of supplemental vitamin D in different populations m...
Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.
Leahy, Laura G
As many patients turn to vitamins and supplements to enhance energy, relieve fatigue, or generally feel better, it is important to understand the connection between the B vitamins and psychiatric symptomatology. Vitamins B6, B8, and B12 have been shown not only to reduce psychiatric symptoms but also shorten the duration of illness. Vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid, has also been associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, when patients lack a specific genetic enzyme, which converts folate/folic acid to its most usable form, L-methylfolate, the neuroprotective and neuropsychiatric benefits are lost. L-methylfolate allows for the synthesis of the three major neurochemicals-serotonin, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine-across the blood-brain barrier. Exploring the conversion of folate/folic acid into L-methylfolate and the various polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and examining the B vitamins associated with the treatment of psychiatric symptoms will further allow nurses to comprehensively treat their patients with the appropriate B vitamins. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(7), 7-11.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Edionei Maico Fries
Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.
Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
Many Indonesian infants have an inadequate nutritional status, which may be due in part to inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy. This study was designed to investigate whether infant nutritional status could be improved by maternal vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation. Mothers
Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette
stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined.......Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...
Pasing, Yvonne; Fenton, Christopher Graham; Jorde, Rolf; Paulssen, Ruth Hracky
Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver and kidneys to its active form, which can bind to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR is present in a wide variety of different cells types and tissues and acts as a transcription factor. Although activation of the VDR is estimated to regulate expression of up to 5% of the human genome, our study is the first analysing gene expression after supplementation in more than 10 subjects. Subjects of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) received either vitamin D 3 (n=47) in a weekly dose of 20,000 IU or placebo (n=47) for a period of three to five years. For this study, blood samples for preparation of RNA were drawn from the subjects and mRNA gene expression in blood was determined using microarray analysis. The two study groups were similar regarding gender, age, BMI and duration of supplementation, whereas the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level as expected was significantly higher in the vitamin D group (119 versus 63nmol/L). When analysing all subjects, nearly no significant differences in gene expression between the two groups were found. However, when analysing men and women separately, significant effects on gene expression were observed for women. Furthermore, when only including subjects with the highest and lowest serum 25(OH)D levels, additional vitamin D regulated genes were disclosed. Thus, a total of 99 genes (p≤0.05, log2 fold change ≥|0.2|) were found to be regulated, of which 72 have not been published before as influenced by vitamin D. These genes were particularly involved in the interleukin signaling pathway, oxidative stress response, apoptosis signaling pathway and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor pathway. Thus, our results open the possibility for many future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patricia H. C. Rondó
Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.
Michelazzo, Fernanda B; Oliveira, Julicristie M; Stefanello, Juliana; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C
Vitamin A (VA) and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.
Full Text Available We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants’ dietary data were obtained from APrON’s dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants’ median 25(OHD was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR 77.6–116.2, and 25% had 25(OHD < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants’ 25(OHD increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OHD, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.002, 0.13. These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding.
Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A
For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 microg/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150-999 microg/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 microg/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6-21 y. In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) micro g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required.
Fabian, E; Bogner, M; Kickinger, A; Wagner, K H; Elmadfa, I
This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population. An observational study. State of Burgenland, Austria. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels. These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.
Full Text Available Aim of the study: Vitamin D receptor (VDR expression and serum vitamin D scores in oral premalignant lesions and oral cancer have not been widely analyzed. The role of vitamin D supplementation in advanced oral cancer for improving quality of life (QOL is also a matter of research. Material and methods: Vitamin D receptor expression and vitamin D scores were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 95, leukoplakia (n = 23 and oral cancer (n = 87. 45 patients with advanced oral cancer subjected to chemoradiation were evaluated for the effect of vitamin D supplementation on most observable QOL parameters such as oral mucositis, swallowing performance and overall QOL. Results: Vitamin D receptor expression was increased in oral neoplastic lesions. Vitamin D scores were significantly lower in cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.002. Vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the therapy-related toxicities in advanced cancer, thus reducing morbidity and improving QOL. Conclusions : Vitamin D receptor expression is increased in premalignant lesions and oral cancer. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are prevalent in patients with oral neoplastic lesions. Vitamin D supplementation has a role in reducing treatment-related toxicities, especially in advanced cancer.
To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.
Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita
OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between...... supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80% of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (> 60%). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g., 71% v. 44% at 6 months...... of age). Less than 2% of infants in the U.S.A. and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the infants received vitamin D...
Munshi, Upender K; Graziano, Pauline D; Meunier, Kara; Ludke, Jennifer; Rios, Angel
Vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants has been recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) however its efficacy and safety has not been well studied. To study 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels as a marker of vitamin D status of very low birth weight infants while on vitamin D supplementation during NICU hospitalization. Retrospective study of preterm infants with birth weight supplementation. Serum 25OHD level were checked at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age or before discharge and the levels were stratified as deficient 100 ng/ml. 301 infants were enrolled, 186 very low birth weight VLBW (1000 -1499 g) infants and 115 extremely low birth weight ELBW (supplementation VLBW infants increased their 25OHD levels significantly by 8 and 12 weeks of age while ELBW infants lagged behind at 8 weeks and increased their 25OHD levels by 12 weeks of age. Eighty percent of ELBW and VLBW infants have either deficient or insufficient vitamin D status at 4 weeks of age. Vitamin D supplementation helps in improving the vitamin D levels, VLBW infants significantly more than ELBW infants. AAP recommendation appears to be safe, however if using higher supplement dosing, 25OHD level should be monitored to avoid high and very high vitamin D levels.
Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph
Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the...
Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.
Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770
Full Text Available Fifty lactating buffaloes were divided into five groups viz. four treated and one control group. The treated groups received Ashwagandha, Vitamin E, Selenium, Copper and Zinc in different combinations. Animals of group IV (provided with 50 gm of Ashwagandha and 500 IU Vitamin E, 800 mg zinc methionine, 250 mg copper sulphate and 5 mg of selenium showed highest recovery (80.00% with an average post treatment CMT score point 1.53 + 0.75, as compared to rest of the treated groups. Supplementation of trace minerals is only required at low levels to improve immune functions such as decreasing the incidence of mastitis. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 103-104
Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Cipriani, Cristiana; Minisola, Salvatore
The growing attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases over the last decade induced an increased demand for vitamin D determination as well as a dramatic rise of sales of vitamin D supplement. However, several critical points in this field remain to be clarified. We lack a clear consensus about the definition of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. The identification of different thresholds defining vitamin D status has relevant implications in clinical practice. In fact, the worldwide prevalence of low vitamin D status is highly varying according to the level of 25(OH)D utilized to define sufficiency. Therefore, the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have a critical role, but a number of different technical problems associated with its determination may interfere in interpreting the results. The hydrophobic nature of vitamin D and the tight binding to its carrier (vitamin D binding protein), the different forms circulating in blood, and the issue of standardization are among the most important factors influencing the measurement of this metabolite. Another controversial point relies on the conflicting guidance on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency endorsed by different medical and scientific communities. In particular, uncertainty exists about how to replete vitamin D stores, how to maintain normal 25(OH)D levels after repletion, which form of vitamin D is preferable for supplementation, and which route of administration and dosing regimens are advisable. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding vitamin D toxicity and its adverse effects.
Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.
Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... no effect on the response to vitamin D supplementation....
Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data...
Suibhne, Treasa Nic
Vitamin D deficiency impacts on bone health and has potential new roles in inflammation. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and to explore vitamin D supplement usage in patients with Crohn\\'s disease (CD) in an outpatient setting, compared with controls.
Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying
Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.
Consumers' interest of indigenous chicken meat is increasing. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on meat quality of indigenous male naked neck chickens. Different supplementation levels of 0, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 IU of vitamin D3 per kg DM of feed were used.
Fisker, Ane Bærent; Bale, Carlito; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul
WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated.......WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated....
Bhan, Ishir; Dobens, Dorothy; Tamez, Hector; Deferio, Joseph J; Li, Yan Chun; Warren, H Shaw; Ankers, Elizabeth; Wenger, Julia; Tucker, J Kevin; Trottier, Caitlin; Pathan, Fridosh; Kalim, Sahir; Nigwekar, Sagar U; Thadhani, Ravi
Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25[OH]D) deficiency is common in patients initiating long-term hemodialysis, but the safety and efficacy of nutritional vitamin D supplementation in this population remain uncertain. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial compared two doses of ergocalciferol with placebo between October 2009 and March 2013. Hemodialysis patients (n=105) with 25(OH)D levels ≤32 ng/ml from 32 centers in the Northeast United States were randomly assigned to oral ergocalciferol, 50,000 IU weekly (n=36) or monthly (n=33), or placebo (n=36) for a 12-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency (25[OH]D >32 ng/ml) at the end of the 12-week treatment period. Survival was assessed through 1 year. Baseline characteristics were similar across all arms, with overall mean±SD 25(OH)D levels of 21.9±6.9 ng/ml. At 12 weeks, vitamin D sufficiency (25[OH]D >32 ng/ml) was achieved in 91% (weekly), 66% (monthly), and 35% (placebo) (Pvitamin D treatment did not differ between groups. All-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations and adverse events were similar between groups during the intervention period. Lower all-cause mortality among ergocalciferol-treated participants was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 1.19). Oral ergocalciferol can increase 25(OH)D levels in incident hemodialysis patients without significant alterations in blood calcium, phosphate, or parathyroid hormone during a 12-week period. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Nolasco, Rodrigo; Moreira, Linda D F; Bocalini, Danilo S; Fronza, Fernanda C A O; Marin, Rosangela Villa; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise
This study sought to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation and aquatic exercise on pulmonary function in postmenopausal women. This prospective and controlled study included 104 women (62 ± 6.5 years) divided into three groups: a control group lacking vitamin D and calcium supplementation which remained sedentary (CG; n = 17); a control group receiving vitamin D and calcium supplementation which remained sedentary (CDG, n = 33); and a group that completed aquatic exercises three times a week and received vitamin D and calcium supplementation (DTG, n = 54). Data before and after 6 months of the study were analyzed, including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and calcium concentrations, peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), and cirtometry. We observed significant increases in 25(OH)D concentrations in CDG (52.9 ± 2.4 to 69.1 ± 2.2; nmol/L; p vitamin D supplementation improves pulmonary function parameters in postmenopausal women.
Nissen, Stine B; Tjønneland, Anne; Stripp, Connie
The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among postmenopausal women...... was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements....
Kim, Mi-Jung; Na, Bomi; No, So-Jung; Han, Heon-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Wonkuk; Han, Younghee; Hyeun, Taisun
We investigated the vitamin D status and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants. The healthy term newborns were divided into 3 groups; A, formula-fed; B, breast-fed only; S, breast-fed with vitamin D supplementation. We measured serum concentrations of vitamin D (25OHD3), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 6 and 12 months of age. Using questionnaires, average duration of sun-light exposure and dietary intake of vitamin D, Ca and P were obtained. At 6 and 12 months of age, 25OHD3 was significantly higher in group S than in group B (PS>B), but total intake of Ca and P were higher in group A than in group B and S (P<0.001). In conclusion, breast-fed infants show lower vitamin D status and bone mineralization than formula-fed infants. Vitamin D supplementation (200 IU/day) in breast-fed infants increases serum 25-OH vitamin D(3), but not bone mineral density.
Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J
both groups was seen concerning the SF-36 domain role limitations due to physical problems in disadvantage of the vitamin D group. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of vitamin D supplementation did not improve HRQOL in non-vitamin D-deficient people with type 2 DM managed on oral antidiabetic therapy.......OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of depressive symptoms, fatigue or pain (all dimensions of reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL)) are common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Earlier studies have reported associations between low vitamin D status and fatigue and depressive symptoms....... The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on dimensions of HRQOL in people with type 2 DM. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: The effect of monthly cholecalciferol 50,000 IU vs placebo on HRQOL was assessed in 275 adults...
Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C
Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...
Wu, Zhenqiang; Malihi, Zarintaj; Stewart, Alistair W; Lawes, Carlene Mm; Scragg, Robert
There is conflicting evidence from previous qualitative reviews on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain. To determine with quantitative methods if vitamin D supplementation lowers pain levels. Quantitative meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This meta-analysis examined all studies involving the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain score. Electronic sources (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinical trials website, and Google scholar) were systematically searched for RCTs of vitamin D supplementation and pain from inception of each database to October 2015. Nineteen RCTs with 3,436 participants (1,780 on vitamin D supplementation and 1,656 on placebo) were included in the meta-analysis. For the primary outcome (mean change in pain score from baseline to final follow-up), 8 trials with 1,222 participants on vitamin D and 1,235 on placebo reported a significantly greater mean decrease in pain score for the vitamin D group compared to placebo (mean difference -0.57, 95% CI: -1.00 to -0.15, P = 0.007). The effect from vitamin D was greater in patients recruited with pre-existing pain (P-value for interaction = 0.03). Fourteen studies (1,548 on vitamin D, 1,430 on placebo) reported the mean pain score at final follow-up outcome, and no statistical difference was observed (mean difference -0.06, 95%CI: -0.44 to 0.33, P = 0.78). In 4 studies which reported pain improvement (209 on vitamin D, 146 on placebo), the effect size although not significant, shows participants in the vitamin D supplementation group were more likely to report pain improvement compared with the placebo group (relative risk 1.38, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.05, P = 0.11). Only a few studies reported the mean score change from baseline to final follow-up, and we do not have enough data to determine any modifying effect of baseline vitamin D status and different doses of vitamin D supplementation on pain. A significantly greater mean
Al-Khudairy, Lena; Flowers, Nadine; Wheelhouse, Rebecca; Ghannam, Obadah; Hartley, Louise; Stranges, Saverio; Rees, Karen
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient and powerful antioxidant. Observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C intake and major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from clinical trials are less consistent. To determine the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation as a single supplement for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases on 11 May 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase Classic and Embase (Ovid); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database in the Cochrane Library. We searched trial registers on 13 April 2016 and reference lists of reviews for further studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials of vitamin C supplementation as a single nutrient supplement lasting at least three months and involving healthy adults or adults at moderate and high risk of CVD were included. The comparison group was no intervention or placebo. The outcomes of interest were CVD clinical events and CVD risk factors. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, abstracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. We included eight trials with 15,445 participants randomised. The largest trial with 14,641 participants provided data on our primary outcomes. Seven trials reported on CVD risk factors. Three of the eight trials were regarded at high risk of bias for either reporting or attrition bias, most of the 'Risk of bias' domains for the remaining trials were judged as unclear, with the exception of the largest trial where most domains were judged to be at low risk of bias.The composite endpoint, major CVD events was not different between the vitamin C and placebo group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval
Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A
BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese
Kara Elitok, Gizem; Bulbul, Lida; Zubarioglu, Umut; Kıray Bas, Evrim; Acar, Duygu; Uslu, Sinan; Bulbul, Ali
We aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of Turkish pediatricians concerning vitamin D supplement. The study was planned cross-sectional to be carried out between April-May 2015 in Turkey. A questionnaire form that determined the participants' opinions and practices concerning vitamin D supplement was completed via face-to-face interview. A total of 107 pediatricians (49.3%) and 110 pediatric residents (50.7%) participated in the study. Of the physicians, 85.2% recommended vitamin D supplement for all infants and children regardless of diet, 13.4% recommended for the infants which are solely breastfed. Vitamin D supplement is recommended at a dose of 400 IU/day by 88.8% of pediatricians and by 90% of pediatric residents. Of the pediatricians and pediatric residents, 72% and 68.2%, respectively commence vitamin D supplement when the newborn is 15 days old. The rates of recommending vitamin D supplement until the age of one and two years were higher among pediatricians (48.6% and 41.1%, respectively) than pediatric residents (40.9% and 32.7%, respectively). The rate of starting vitamin D supplement for fontanelle closure was significantly higher among pediatric residents (15.5%) than pediatricians (3.7%) (p = 0.002). It was determined that the rate of prescribing vitamin D supplement until fontanelle closure was higher among pediatric residents (18.2%) than pediatricians (0.9%). The present study suggest that the knowledge of pediatricians about recommendation of vitamin D needs to be enhanced by education programs in addition to free vitamin D supplement provided by the Ministry of Health.
Ireland is at 53°N, and its population risk of vitamin D deficiency is high. Previous Irish studies suggested a significant seasonality of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and a beneficial effect of supplementation in raising 25(OH)D levels. However, in Irish older people, little is known about the magnitude of the supplementation effect and whether supplementation affects 25(OH)D seasonality.
Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter
BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized pla...
Peppone, Luke J.; Huston, Alissa J.; Reid, Mary E.; Rosier, Randy N.; Zakharia, Yousef; Trump, Donald L.; Mustian, Karen M.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Purnell, Jason Q.; Morrow, Gary R.
Purpose Vitamin D deficiency in patients treated for breast cancer is associated with numerous adverse effects (bone loss, arthralgia, and falls). The first aim of this study was to assess vitamin D status, determined by 25-OH vitamin D levels, among women diagnosed with breast cancer according to demographic/clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily low-dose and weekly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on 25-OH vitamin D levels. Methods This retrospective study included 224 women diagnosed with Stage 0-III breast cancer who received treatment at the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Total 25-OH vitamin D levels (D2 + D3) were determined at baseline for all participants. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25-OH vitamin D level < 20 ng/mL, insufficiency as 20-31 ng/mL, and sufficiency as ≥ 32 ng/mL. BMD was assessed during the period between 3 months prior to and 6 months following the baseline vitamin D assessment. Based on the participants’ baseline levels, they received either no supplementation, low-dose supplementation (1,000 IU/day), or high-dose supplementation (≥ 50,000 IU/week), and 25-OH vitamin D was reassessed in the following 8-16 weeks. Results Approx 66.5% had deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Deficiency/insufficiency was more common among non-Caucasians, women with later-stage disease, and those who had previously received radiation therapy (p<0.05). Breast cancer patients with deficient/insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels had significantly lower lumbar BMD (p=0.03). Compared to the no supplementation group, weekly high-dose supplementation significantly increased 25-OH vitamin D levels, while daily low-dose supplementation did not significantly increase levels. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among women with breast cancer and associated with reduced BMD in the spine
Huston, Alissa J.; Reid, Mary E.; Rosier, Randy N.; Zakharia, Yousef; Trump, Donald L.; Mustian, Karen M.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Purnell, Jason Q.; Morrow, Gary R.
Vitamin D deficiency in the patients treated for breast cancer is associated with numerous adverse effects (bone loss, arthralgia, and falls). The first aim of this study was to assess vitamin D status, determined by 25-OH vitamin D levels, among women diagnosed with breast cancer according to demographic/clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily low-dose and weekly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on 25-OH vitamin D levels. This retrospective study included 224 women diagnosed with stage 0–III breast cancer who received treatment at the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Total 25-OH vitamin D levels (D2 + D3) were determined at baseline for all participants. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25-OH vitamin D level < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency as 20–31 ng/ml, and sufficiency as ≥32 ng/ml. BMD was assessed during the period between 3 months before and 6 months following the baseline vitamin D assessment. Based on the participants’ baseline levels, they received either no supplementation, low-dose supplementation (1,000 IU/day), or high-dose supplementation (≥50,000 IU/week), and 25-OH vitamin D was reassessed in the following 8–16 weeks. Approximately 66.5% had deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Deficiency/insufficiency was more common among non-Caucasians, women with later-stage disease, and those who had previously received radiation therapy (P < 0.05). Breast cancer patients with deficient/insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels had significantly lower lumbar BMD (P = 0.03). Compared to the no-supplementation group, weekly high-dose supplementation significantly increased 25-OH vitamin D levels, while daily low-dose supplementation did not significantly increase levels. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among women with breast cancer and associated with reduced BMD in the spine. Clinicians should
Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L; Howard, Cynthia R; Ebeling, Myla; Shary, Judy R; Smith, Pamela G; Taylor, Sarah N; Morella, Kristen; Lawrence, Ruth A; Hulsey, Thomas C
Compare effectiveness of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation with 6400 IU per day alone to maternal and infant supplementation with 400 IU per day. Exclusively lactating women living in Charleston, SC, or Rochester, NY, at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum were randomized to either 400, 2400, or 6400 IU vitamin D3/day for 6 months. Breastfeeding infants in 400 IU group received oral 400 IU vitamin D3/day; infants in 2400 and 6400 IU groups received 0 IU/day (placebo). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) L. 2400 IU group ended in 2009 as greater infant deficiency occurred. Maternal serum vitamin D, 25(OH)D, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were measured at baseline then monthly, and infant blood parameters were measured at baseline and months 4 and 7. Of the 334 mother-infant pairs in 400 IU and 6400 IU groups at enrollment, 216 (64.7%) were still breastfeeding at visit 1; 148 (44.3%) continued full breastfeeding to 4 months and 95 (28.4%) to 7 months. Vitamin D deficiency in breastfeeding infants was greatly affected by race. Compared with 400 IU vitamin D3 per day, 6400 IU/day safely and significantly increased maternal vitamin D and 25(OH)D from baseline (P breastfeeding infant 25(OH)D in the 400 IU group receiving supplement, infants in the 6400 IU group whose mothers only received supplement did not differ. Maternal vitamin D supplementation with 6400 IU/day safely supplies breast milk with adequate vitamin D to satisfy her nursing infant's requirement and offers an alternate strategy to direct infant supplementation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N
Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zittermann, Armin; Ernst, Jana B; Gummert, Jan F; Börgermann, Jochen
There is considerable variation in incremental circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on vitamin D supplements, even when similar age groups and identical vitamin D doses are compared. We therefore aimed to investigate the importance of body weight for the dose-response relation in circulating 25OHD. We performed a systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled vitamin D supplementation trials in all age groups ≥10 years to clarify the influence of body weight and other parameters on incremental circulating 25OHD levels (difference between baseline and in-study values) in vitamin D-deficient and non-deficient individuals. We included 144 cohorts from 94 independent studies, published from 1990 to November 2012, in our systematic review. There was a logarithmic association between vitamin D dose per kg body weight per day and increment in circulating 25OHD. In multivariable regression analysis, vitamin D dose per kg body weight per day could explain 34.5% of variation in circulating 25OHD. Additional significant predictors were type of supplement (vitamin D2 or vitamin D3), age, concomitant intake of calcium supplements and baseline 25OHD, explaining 9.8, 3.7, 2.4 and 1.9%, respectively, of the variation in circulating 25OHD. This systematic review demonstrates that body weight is an important predictor of variation in circulating 25OHD in cohorts on vitamin D supplements. Our model provides an estimate of the daily vitamin D dose that is necessary for achieving adequate circulating 25OHD levels in vitamin D-insufficient or vitamin D-deficient individuals/cohorts with different body weights and ages.
Full Text Available Symptomatic vitamin D deficiency is associated with slowed growth in children. It is unknown whether vitamin D repletion in children with asymptomatic serum vitamin D deficiency can restore normal growth.We tested the impact of vitamin D-supplementation on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and short-term growth in Mongol children, with very low serum vitamin D levels in winter.We conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in urban school age children without clinical signs of rickets. The Supplementation Study was a 6-month intervention with an 800 IU vitamin D3 supplement daily, compared with placebo, in 113 children aged 12-15 years. A second study, the Fortification Study, was a 7-week intervention with 710 ml of whole milk fortified with 300 IU vitamin D3 daily, compared with unfortified milk, in 235 children aged 9-11 years.At winter baseline, children had low vitamin D levels, with a mean (±SD serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration of 7.3 (±3.9 ng/ml in the Supplementation Study and 7.5 (±3.8 ng/ml in the Fortification Study. The serum levels increased in both vitamin D groups-by 19.8 (±5.1 ng/ml in the Supplementation Study, and 19.7 (±6.1 ng/ml in the Fortification Study. Multivariable analysis showed a 0.9 (±0.3 SE cm greater increase in height in the vitamin-D treated children, compared to placebo treated children, in the 6-month Supplementation Study (p = 0.003. Although the children in the 7-week Fortification Study intervention arm grew 0.2 (±0.1 cm more, on average, than placebo children this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2. There were no significant effects of vitamin D supplements on differences in changes in weight or body mass index in either trial. For the Fortification Study, girls gained more weight than boys while taking vitamin D 3 (p-value for interaction = 0.03, but sex was not an effect modifier of the relationship between vitamin D3 and
Haines, Stuart T; Park, Sharon K
The use of vitamin D supplements to prevent and treat a wide range of illnesses has increased substantially over the last decade. Epidemiologic evidence links vitamin D deficiency to autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, dementia, infectious diseases, musculoskeletal decline, and more. The Institute of Medicine published an exhaustive report in 2010 that concluded that vitamin D supplementation for indications other than musculoskeletal health was not adequately supported by evidence and that most North Americans receive sufficient vitamin D from their diet and sun exposure. These conclusions are at odds with some clinical practice guidelines; thus, we sought to summarize the best available evidence regarding the benefits of vitamin D supplementation, to examine the potential risks, and to provide practical dosing advice. The adequacy of vitamin D stores is determined by measuring the 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations. The demarcations between deficiency (Vitamin D in doses of 800-5000 IU/day improve musculoskeletal health (e.g., reduces the rate of fractures and falls in older adults (aged ≥ 65 yrs). In patients with documented vitamin D deficiency, a cumulative dose of at least 600,000 IU administered over several weeks appears to be necessary to replenish vitamin D stores. Single large doses of 300,000-500,000 IU should be avoided. Vitamin D supplementation should not be offered routinely to other patient populations. Although results from some prospective clinical trials are promising, most have not been robustly designed and executed. The decision by young, otherwise healthy adults to take vitamin D in doses of 2000 IU/day or lower is unlikely to cause harm. For patients who are not at risk for developing vitamin D deficiency, sensible sun exposure is an inexpensive and enjoyable way to maintain vitamin D stores. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Background: Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, though the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. Despite possible improvements in dietary intake, concern remains over potential excessive nutrient consumption from VM supplement us...
Spiołek, Katarzyna; Kościołek, Aneta; Kania, Justyna; Hartman, Magdalena; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna
Correctly composed diet covers the demands of a healthy adult for nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Nowadays constant increase of vitamin and mineral supplements of diet intake is observed. Customers have a great choice of diet supplements on Polish market. They are diversified under the quality and quantitative accounts. The main aim of this study was to evaluate main factors of Silesian University students' choice while they are purchasing particular diet supplements. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 208 students at the age of 19 to 24. 99.5% of them admitted that they have supplemented their diets with vitamin and mineral preparations until the moment of the experiment. The results indicate that main factors that influence the students' decisions on purchasing these preparations are: composition of the supplement, price and convenient dosing regimen. Respondents indicate the internet as a main source of information on the supplements being discussed in the following study.
Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars
We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...
Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars
. Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated......We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...
Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik E
of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....
Full Text Available Background: Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell membrane by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and thereby protects cells from oxidative stress- induced lysis in G6PD deficiency, which can be reflected by changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH & MCHC. Objective: To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on fragility of RBC in order to evaluate role of this antioxidant vitamin in reducing chronic hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. Methods: For this, a total number of 102 subjects with age ranged from 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (study group and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group. The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children < 12 years (in a divided dose i,e. 4 times daily. Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD of Hematology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of July 2005 to June 2006 and all the healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 (one of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Results: Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV, MCH, MCHC were
Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V.
Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12–supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12–supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12–supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885
Bito, Tomohiro; Bito, Mariko; Asai, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tago, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Masato; Mizoguchi, Toru; Watanabe, Fumio
Vitamin B 12 was determined and characterized in 19 dried Chlorella health supplements. Vitamin contents of dried Chlorella cells varied from Chlorella tablets, respectively. In four Chlorella tablet types with high and moderate vitamin B 12 contents, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B 12 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (approximately 32%) and methylcobalamin (approximately 8%) were considerably present, whereas the unnaturally occurring corrinoid cyanocobalamin was present at the lowest concentrations. The species Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly Chlorella pyrenoidosa) is commonly used in dietary supplements and did not show an absolute requirement of vitamin B 12 for growth despite vitamin B 12 uptake from the medium being observed. In further experiments, vitamin B 12 -dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase activities were detected in cell homogenates. In particular, methionine synthase activity was significantly increased following the addition of vitamin B 12 to the medium. These results suggest that vitamin B 12 contents of Chlorella tablets reflect the presence of vitamin B 12 -generating organic ingredients in the medium or the concomitant growth of vitamin B 12 -synthesizing bacteria under open culture conditions.
O'Grady, M N; Monahan, F J; Fallon, R J; Allen, P
The effects of supplementation of beef cattle diets with organic Se (0.3 mg/kg) and vitamin E (300 I.U. alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed), for 55 d preceding slaughter, on the antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle was examined. Dietary vitamin E supplementation led to an increase (P plasma, and longissimus muscle alpha-tocopherol levels. In minced longissimus muscle stored in 80% 02:20% CO2, lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation were lower (P vitamin E-supplemented animals compared with unsupplemented animals. Dietary Se supplementation did not significantly affect muscle Se levels, glutathione peroxidase activity, or susceptibility to lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation in the presence or absence of vitamin E. Covariance analysis indicated that, in addition to muscle alpha-tocopherol, differences in muscle glutathione peroxidase activity, and pH could account for variation in the susceptibility of muscle to lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation.
Kiraly, N; Benn, Christine Stabell; Biering-Sørensen, S
Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood....
Herrmann, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Susanne H; Kruse, Vera; Eckert, Rudolf; Gräber, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Obeid, Rima
Vitamin D and vitamin B deficiency are common in elderly subjects and are important risk factors for osteoporosis and age-related diseases. Supplementation with these vitamins is a promising preventative strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamins D3 and B supplementation on bone turnover and metabolism in elderly people. Healthy subjects (n=93; >54 years) were randomly assigned to receive either daily vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (0.5 mg), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) (group A) or only vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate (group B) in a double blind trial. We measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of supplementation vitamins, metabolites, and bone turnover markers. At baseline mean plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was low (40 or 30 nmol/L) and parathormone was high (63.7 or 77.9 pg/mL). 25(OH)D and parathormone correlated inversely. S-Adenosyl homocysteine and S-adenosyl methionine correlated with bone alkaline phosphatase, sclerostin, and parathormone. One year vitamin D3 or D3 and B supplementation increased plasma 25(OH)D by median 87.6% (group A) and 133.3% (group B). Parathormone was lowered by median 28.3% (A) and 41.2% (B), bone alkaline phosphatase decreased by 2.8% (A) and 16.2% (B), osteocalin by 37.5% (A) and 49.4% (B), and tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase 5b by 6.1% (A) and 36.0% (B). Median total homocysteine (tHcy) was high at baseline (group A: 12.6, group B: 12.3 µmol/L) and decreased by B vitamins (group A) to 8.9 µmol/L (29.4%). tHcy lowering had no additional effect on bone turnover. One year vitamin D3 supplementation with or without B vitamins decreased the bone turnover significantly. Vitamin D3 lowered parathormone. The additional application of B vitamins did not further improve bone turnover. The marked tHcy lowering by B vitamins may modulate the osteoporotic risk.
Vaziri, Farideh; Nasiri, Samira; Tavana, Zohreh; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Jafari, Peyman
Background Mood disorders in pregnancy and post-partum period are common and considered as a public health issue. Researchers have studied the relationship between low serum vitamin D concentration and perinatal depression, although no clinical trial has been conducted on vitamin D?s effects on depression related to childbirth. This study evaluated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on perinatal depression scores. Methods This randomized clinical trial was done in pregnant women who wer...
Clemente, Heleni A; Ramalho, Heryka M M; Lima, Mayara S R; Grilo, Evellyn C; Dimenstein, Roberto
Newborns are considered a high-risk group for vitamin E deficiency. Breast milk is a source of alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), a form of vitamin E that prevents deficiency. The present study aimed to assess whether supplementation with a natural or synthetic form of α-TOH, in addition to maternal sources of vitamin E, would increase the concentration of α-TOH in colostrum. A total of 109 healthy lactating women were recruited from a Brazilian public maternity clinic and randomized into 3 groups: control without supplementation (n = 36), natural α-TOH supplementation (n = 40), and synthetic α-TOH supplementation (n = 33). Blood and colostrum samples were collected before and after supplementation to check the nutritional status of these women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for independent samples, and Tukey test was used for 2-way analysis of the averages of the groups. The baseline nutritional status of vitamin E of all of the lactating women enrolled in the trial was considered adequate. Women who received supplementation had higher concentrations of α-TOH in colostrum than the control group, with 57% and 39% increases in women supplemented with the natural and synthetic forms of α-TOH, respectively. Supplementation with both forms of α-TOH increased vitamin E concentrations in colostrum; however, the natural form was more efficient in increasing the levels.
van der Velde, R.Y.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Geusens, P.P.; Lems, W.F.; van den Bergh, J.P.W.
Background: Calcium and vitamin D play an essential role in bone metabolism but deficiency and/or inadequate intake are common. Objectives: To describe a practical approach based on the literature regarding clinically important aspects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods: A systematic
There was no evidence of improvement in neonatal or post-neonatal respiratory problems associated with vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A and placebo groups did not differ in the occurrence or duration of respiratory distress or the need for head-box oxygen. There were also no significant differences in the cumulativ.e ...
Amsterdam, van J.; Horst-Graat, van der J.; Bischoff, E.; Steerenberg, P.; Opperhuizen, A.; Schouten, E.G.
Contradictory results have been published on the immune-stimulating effects of vitamin E. Using a randomized placebo-controlled design, the effect of 15 month¿s daily supplementation with 200 mg vitamin E on two biomarkers of immunocompetence, i.e. serum DHEA sulfate ester (DHEA-S) and neopterin,
Rolf, Linda; Muris, Anne-Hilde; Bol, Yvonne; Damoiseaux, Jan; Smolders, Joost; Hupperts, Raymond
Depressive symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and both depression and MS have been associated with a poor vitamin D status. As cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathogenesis of both disorders, we hypothesized that vitamin D 3 supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in MS via its immunomodulatory properties. In this randomized pilot study relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients received either vitamin D 3 supplementation (n=20; 14.000IU/day) or placebo (n=20) during 48weeks. Pre- and post-supplementation depression scores, measured using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) depression subscale (HADS-D), showed a significant decrease within the vitamin D 3 group (median HADS-D 4.0 to 3.0, p=0.02), a trend towards a decrease within the placebo group (median HADS-D 3.0 to 2.0, p=0.06), but no significantly different reductions between groups (p=0.78). Furthermore, no reductions in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balances, secreted by stimulated leukocytes and CD8 + T cells, were found in the vitamin D 3 compared to the placebo arm. Therefore, we found no evidence for a reduction of depressive symptoms or related biomarkers upon vitamin D 3 supplementation in RRMS patients in this exploratory study. Whether vitamin D 3 supplementation is of benefit in manifest depression in MS needs to be assessed by additional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is no clear evidence that vitamin D effectively improves physical capacity in high-level athletes. The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their aerobic capacity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one that was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20, and the placebo group (PG, n = 16, not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT. The data of the vitamin D level, PWC170, lactate threshold (LT were collected just before and after the intervention. A significant increase in vitamin D concentration (119% was observed in the supplemented group, while the non-supplemented group showed a decrease of 8.4%. The studied subjects improved VO2max results by 20% in the SG, and by 13% in the PG. The improvement in velocity at the LT was similar in both groups. Results of this study show that vitamin D can have a positive, though moderate, effect on aerobic performance in players subjected to high-intensity training in the form of small-sided games for 8 weeks.
Ali, Mennatallah A; Eid, Rania M H M; Hanafi, Mervat Y
Vitamin C and vitamin E supplementations and their beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been subjected to countless controversial data. Hence, our aim is to investigate the hepatic molecular mechanisms of any diabetic predisposing risk of the chronic administration of different doses of vitamin E or vitamin C in rats. The rats were supplemented with different doses of vitamin C or vitamin E for eight months. Vitamin C and vitamin E increased fasting blood glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA). Vitamin C disrupted glucose tolerance by attenuating upstream hepatic insulin action through impairing the phosphorylation and activation of insulin receptor and its subsequent substrates; however, vitamin E showed its effect downstream insulin receptor in the insulin signaling pathway, reducing hepatic glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and phosphorylated protein kinase (p-Akt). Moreover, both vitamins showed their antioxidant capabilities [nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), total and reduced glutathione] and their negative effect on Wnt pathway [phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β)], by altering the previously mentioned parameters, inevitably leading to severe reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) below the physiological levels. In conclusion, a detrimental effect of chronic antioxidant vitamins supplementation was detected; leading to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance obviously through different mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that the conventional view that vitamins promote health benefits and delay chronic illnesses and aging should be modified or applied with caution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tiffany M. Bohon
Full Text Available Vitamin D is pivotal to the absorption of calcium and maximizing bone health. Women suffer great morbidity and mortality related to osteoporosis and fractures, which may be decreased by interventions such as vitamin D. In addition, extraskeletal benefits of vitamin D have been postulated including positive effects on cancer. Both the classical and nonclassical functions of vitamin D will be discussed here, with a focus on women.
Williams Melvin H
Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.
Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka
Available evidence on the effects of vitamin D on mortality has been inconclusive. In a recent systematic review, we found evidence that vitamin D3 may decrease mortality in mostly elderly women. The present systematic review updates and reassesses the benefits and harms of vitamin D...
Juraschek, Stephen P; Guallar, Eliseo; Appel, Lawrence J; Miller, Edgar R
Background: In observational studies, increased vitamin C intake, vitamin C supplementation, and higher blood concentrations of vitamin C are associated with lower blood pressure (BP). However, evidence for blood pressure–lowering effects of vitamin C in clinical trials is inconsistent.
Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.
-Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g.
Sultana, N.; Begum, S.; Begum, N.; Ali, T.
Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell member by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus protects cells from oxidative stress-induced lysis in G6PD deficiency. Changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH and MCHC may occur in haemolytic anaemic patients with G6PD deficiency. To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on these changes in order to evaluate the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in reducing chronic haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. A total number of 102 subjects with age ranged of 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (experimental group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children ?12 years (in a divided dose, i.e., 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Haematology, Banglabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2005 to June 2006 and all healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV. MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and vitamin D deficiency are both too common during menopause. Since the effect of different doses of vitamin D supplements on blood sugar, insulin concentration and insulin resistance are unknown, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of the vitamin D supplements on visceral fat, blood sugar, insulin concentration, and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: In this randomized experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: three groups . that received vitamin D supplements (high, moderate, and low dose and one control group. After 8 weeks of different doses of vitamin D supplementation plasma concentration of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were measured in the three groups. The obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of dependent t-test and ANOVA . at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: After a period of eight-week intervention, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat, insulin, blood glucose and HOMA-IR at high, moderate, and low doses of vitamin D supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. High dose of vitamin D compared with moderate and low doses significantly caused reduction in insulin, blood glucose, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 for all three variables. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed that a high dose of vitamin D causes significant improvements in FPG, insulin, and insulin resistance evaluated by HOMA-IR. It was also found that adding vitamin D supplements can improve glucose control in menopause model of rats.
Khalid S Aljabri; Somoa A Bokhari; Murtadha J. Khan
A prospective, nonblinded and nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who have vitamin D deficiency. Patients and 0 Eighty patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 50 nmol/L were assigned to receive 4000 IU of vitamin D3. Calcium supplements were provided to ensure a total calcium intake of 1200 mg/d. Glycosylated hemoglobin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks.There was a significant difference in mean (SD) glycosylated hemoglobin level (%) between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.02). There was a significant difference in glycosylated hemoglobin change from baseline between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.04). There was a significant difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level between the groups that achieved glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 9.9 at 12 weeks (P=.001). Patients were more likely to achieve lower glycosylated hemoglobin levels at 12 weeks if they had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at 12 weeks (r=-0.4, P=.001).There was an observed effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in vitamin D-replete, type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Further studies are needed to determine if these findings are applicable (Author).
Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit
We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.
Seibert, Eric; Lehmann, Ulrike; Riedel, Annett; Ulrich, Christof; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Dierkes, Jutta; Girndt, Matthias; Stangl, Gabriele I
The Nutrition Societies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland recommend a daily intake of 20 µg vitamin D 3 for adults when endogenous synthesis is absent. The current study aimed to elucidate whether this vitamin D 3 dose impacts cardiovascular risk markers of adults during the winter months. The study was conducted in Halle (Saale), Germany (51 o northern latitude) as a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial (from January to April). A total of 105 apparently healthy subjects (male and female, 20-71 years old) were included. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received a daily 20-µg vitamin D 3 dose (n = 54), and the other group received a placebo (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of renin, aldosterone, serum lipids and vascular calcification markers, and haematologic variables such as pro-inflammatory monocytes. Blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk markers remained unchanged by vitamin D 3 supplementation, although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 increased from 38 ± 14 to 73 ± 16 nmol/L at week 12. The placebo and vitamin D groups did not differ in their final cardiovascular risk profile. Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D 3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.
Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...
Thiele, Doria K; Senti, Jeanine L; Anderson, Cindy M
Maternal vitamin D insufficiency during lactation, related to lack of sun exposure and minimal intake of vitamin D from the diet, contributes to low breast milk vitamin D content and, therefore, infant vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this review was to examine the literature regarding evidence for achieving maternal vitamin D status that promotes sufficient vitamin D transfer from mother to infant exclusively from breast milk. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms lactation or breastfeeding or milk, human and vitamin D. The resulting articles were further limited to those written in English, published within the last 10 years, and involving clinical or randomized controlled trials of humans. The search yielded 13 studies, 3 of which provide evidence for maternal intake of vitamin D and the correlation with exclusively breastfed infants' serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. A strong positive correlation exists between maternal vitamin D intake during exclusive breastfeeding and infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. There is support to conclude that when maternal vitamin D intake is sufficient, vitamin D transfer via breast milk is adequate to meet infant needs. In the reviewed studies, doses up to 10 times the current recommended daily intake of vitamin D were needed to produce sufficient transfer from mother to breastfed infant. Further research is needed to refine the dose and gestational timing of maternal vitamin D supplementation. Due to the high rates of vitamin D deficiency during lactation and the correlations between vitamin D deficiency and multiple diseases, providers should consider monitoring lactating mothers' vitamin D status.
Full Text Available Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke.A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.
Full Text Available We tested to see if the additional intake of vitamin E in the form of α-tocopheryl-succinate would improve liver antioxidative protection. Thus, we studied the tissue oxidative status in rats supplemented by two doses of the antioxidant over a four week period of time. Our results confirmed that the additional intake of vitamin E decreased the liver lipid peroxidation level and SOD activity level and preserved its vitamin C content. However, the hydrogen peroxide content and catalase activity remained unchanged, probably due to the mechanism of vitamin E liver metabolism. .
Hooman Mosannen Mozaffari
Full Text Available Introduction: It is long known that vitamin D deficiency was common in patients with liver disease, but little is known on the therapeutic effects of vitamin D, especially in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literatures and study the evidences in which the effects of vitamin D supplementation had been investigated on the severity of chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed by using the following key terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “chronic liver disease” in the PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar to find relevant articles. After collecting the eligible documents, data were extracted and described based on the purpose of this review.Result: Of total 196 articles found, only 7 relevant documents with 518 studied patients were included. The results of this study showed that the levels of 25(OH D were considerably lower in patients with chronic liver disease. Findings showed that vitamin D supplementation can rise up the mean serum level of 25(OH D in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency, especially patients with liver cirrhosis.Conclusion:The results of this review showed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of liver disease and may have prognostic value in the assessment of liver disease. Also, it was shown that vitamin D supplementation may be helpful for the treatment of liver disease at least in certain groups of patients.
Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.
and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured......Introduction: A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might...... be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 mu g/day vitamin D-3 for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence...
Yfanti, Christina; Fischer, Christian P.; Nielsen, Søren
Vitamin C and E supplementation has been shown to attenuate the acute exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration. Here, we studied the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the regulation of IL-6 expression in muscle and the circulation in response to acute exercise before...... and after high-intensity endurance exercise training. Twenty-one young healthy men were allocated into either a vitamin (VT; vitamin C and E, n = 11) or a placebo (PL, n = 10) group. A 1-h acute bicycling exercise trial at 65% of maximal power output was performed before and after 12 wk of progressive...... indicate that, although vitamin C and E supplementation may attenuate exercise-induced increases in plasma IL-6 there is no clear additive effect when combined with endurance training....
Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation precipitating hypercalcemic crisis is often the first manifestation in patients with granulomatous disorders. Methods: We report our experience on patients presenting with hypercalcemic crisis due to granulomatous disorder and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the precipitation of hypercalcemic crisis in them. Results: The study included five patients with granulomatous disorders who presented with hypercalcemic crisis. All patients initially presented with nonspecific constitutional symptoms to other health-care centers to receive high-dose Vitamin D supplementation (60,000 U/week or 600,000 U intramuscular single dose. All of these patients presented with hypercalcemic crisis (serum calcium: 16.04 ± 0.3 mg/dl to our centers after a period of 32.8 ± 9.62 days. Three patients were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis, and two were diagnosed to have tuberculosis. All five patients had parathyroid hormone-independent hypercalcemia with elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level was elevated in all the three patients with sarcoidosis. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed in two patients with sarcoidosis which demonstrated diffusely increased tracer uptake in liver. In these two patients, liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions: High-dose Vitamin D supplementation is most often the underlying cause of hypercalcemic crisis in patients with granulomatous disorders. Hence, high-dose Vitamin D supplementation should be used judiciously.
Kato, I; Nomura, A M; Stemmermann, G N; Chyou, P H
Use of vitamin supplements and the association with personal characteristics were investigated among 4,654 American men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. A total of 58 percent of the subjects who were ages 68 to 90 took vitamin supplements. Among supplement users, multivitamins were most commonly used (77 percent), followed by vitamin C (53 percent), E (43 percent), and A (10 percent). Ninety-two percent of users took at least seven pills per week when all types of pills were combined. Vitamin supplement users were more educated, more physically active, more likely to be married, and less obese than nonusers. They also slept less, smoked less, and drank less alcohol and caffeine. They took more analgesics and stomach medication and had fewer days of hospitalization in the previous 10 years compared with nonusers. Except for physical activity, use of stomach medicines, and hospitalization, the other characteristics were also positively correlated with the amount of vitamin pill intake. These findings indicate that vitamin supplement users have different health patterns compared with nonusers.
Sousa, Joyce Ramalho; Rosa, Érica Patrícia Cunha; Nunes, Ivone Freires de Oliveira Costa; Carvalho, Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de
The objective of this systematic review was to analyze clinical trials carried out for the investigation of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on systemic lupus erythematosus. The research was performed from August to September 2016, without limits regarding year of publication, restriction of gender, age, and ethnicity. For the guiding question, the PICO strategy was employed. To evaluate the quality of the publications the PRISMA protocol and Jadad scale were used. The risk of bias analysis of the clinical trials was performed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. After the process of article selection and removal of duplicates, four articles were identified as eligible. The results of three studies showed a positive effect of supplementation on disease activity reduction and significant improvement in levels of inflammatory markers, fatigue, and endothelial function. Only one study showed no improvement in disease activity after supplementation. Moreover, all studies showed an increase in serum vitamin D levels. The data from this review provide evidence on the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in patients with lupus and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. However, it is still necessary to elucidate whether vitamin D acts in the protection against this metabolic disorder, as well as the standardization of the type, dose and time of vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: B vitamins have been extensively used to reduce homocysteine levels; however, it remains uncertain whether B vitamins are associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of B vitamins on stroke. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify studies for our analysis. Relative risk (RR was used to measure the effect of B-vitamin supplementation on the risk of stroke. The analysis was further stratified based on factors that could affect the treatment effects. Of the 13,124 identified articles, we included 18 trials reporting data on 57,143 individuals and 2,555 stroke events. B-vitamin supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction in the risk of stroke (RR, 0.91, 95%CI: 0.82-1.01, P = 0.075; RD, -0.003, 95%CI: -0.007-0.001, P = 0.134. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation might reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg. Furthermore, in a cumulative meta-analysis for stroke, the originally proposed nonsignificant B-vitamin effect was refuted by the evidence accumulated up to 2006. There is a small effect with borderline statistical significance based on data gathered since 2007. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that B-vitamin supplementation is not associated with a lower risk of stroke based on relative and absolute measures of association. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg.
Brandenburg, Vincent M; Schurgers, Leon J; Kaesler, Nadine; Püsche, Katrin; van Gorp, Rick H; Leftheriotis, Georges; Reinartz, Sebastian; Koos, Ralf; Krüger, Thilo
With the discovery that vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is a strong and modifiable factor in the prevention of arterial calcification, vitamin K was put forward as novel treatment option in cardiovascular disease. The vasculoprotective properties of vitamin K are in part based on the ability to improve gamma-glutamylcarboxylation of MGP, which is a prerequisite for MGP as a calcification inhibitor. Data from experimental animal models reveal that high intake of vitamin K can prevent and even reverse vascular calcifications. In addition, clinical data demonstrate that prescription of vitamin K antagonists for long-term oral anticoagulant therapy accelerates vascular calcification. However, controlled data from randomized prospective vitamin K interventional trials are lacking, thereby weakening a general recommendation for supplementation. The present article summarizes our current knowledge on the association between vitamin K and cardiovascular health. Additionally, we focus on an outlook on important ongoing prospective vitamin K intervention studies. These studies address the issues whether vitamin K substitution helps modifying relevant cardiovascular surrogates such as vascular calcification and whether non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants provide an alternative to support cardiovascular health benefits. So research about cardiovascular protection by vitamin K is an evolving field in which we expect a boost of novel and relevant evidence shortly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polivka, D; von Arnim, C A F
Despite an excellent food supply in Germany, a large percentage of older persons living at home or institutionalized older persons suffer from or are at risk for malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between nutrient deficiencies and age-related diseases and give rational recommendations for substitution. Both malnutrition and low levels of specific nutrients are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, dementia, and depression in older persons. Most prevalent are deficiencies in vitamin B1, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Serum levels are often misleading and show false negative results in vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies; therefore, determination of erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect for vitamin B1 and of methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamine for vitamin B12 is recommended. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamins is not supported by prospective trials; however, positive data from observational studies support a Mediterranean diet combined with intake of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids. Older persons should be regularly screened for malnutrition and the threshold for determination of vitamin B1, B12, and vitamin D should be low. Vitamin substitution should be reserved for proven deficits. There is now data regarding cognition from prospective trials on effects of a healthy diet combined with other life-style factors like physical and cognitive activity.
Nogueira, Carla R; Borges, Fernanda; Lameu, Edson; Franca, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa
Critical patients present systemic inflammatory process that can be followed by decrease in plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins. [corrected] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of antioxidant vitamins in critical patients and their relation with lipid peroxidation. 23 patients went on a standard diet (G1) and 11 went on a diet with daily supplementation of 10,000 IU of vitamin A, 400 mg of vitamin E and 600 mg of vitamin C (G2). The APACHE II score was made. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, vitamins C and E, malondialdehyde (MDA) and C-reactive protein was measured before (T0) and on the 8th day after the beginning of the nutritional therapy (T1). The groups had been monitored on T0, T1 and T2, (at discharges or death) on the following parameters: mechanical ventilation; hospitalization days; mortality; infection incidence. Serum concentrations of MDA and vitamin E were significantly lower in G2 after intervention and strong tendency to increase vitamin C. There were not significant differences between the groups regarding the clinical parameters. The doses of vitamin A, C and E that were indicated were effective for the current lipid peroxidation reduction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette
To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.
Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Sishun; Jia, Jianbin; Jia, Fengmei; Liu, Changqing; Liu, Aidong; Ping, Bo; Zhai, Fengying
In order to investigate the effect of vitamins-minerals supplementation on the nutritional status of Chinese women, 252 villagers aged 20-50 years old were selected as the participants in the study in Longli County, Guizhou Province. Within Twenty two weeks, half of the participants received the supplements and half had placebo. The results showed that in comparison with the control, the women with supplementation represented a higher urine excretion of vitamin B1 and B2 after a loading dosage and, a higher concentration of serum iron and zinc and a lower prevalence of anemia. They kept their facial moisture and grease better than those of the controls. They also felt better in sleeping, having appetite, and doing physical activities. The results indicated that the supplementation of vitamins-minerals might improve the nutritional status of rural Chinese women.
Bouwstra, R J; Goselink, R M A; Dobbelaar, P; Nielen, M; Newbold, J R; van Werven, T
This study investigated the relationship between oxidative damage and the effect of vitamin E supplementation in blood, milk, and liver tissue in 16 periparturient heifers. The question is whether measurements of oxidative and vitamin E status in blood of a periparturient cow are representative of the total body, given that blood concentrations of both vitamin E and oxidative stress products change around this period. The daily vitamin E intake of the vitamin E-supplemented Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 8) was 3,000 international units and was started 2 mo before calving; the control heifers (n = 8) were not supplemented. Oxidative damage was determined on the basis of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Blood was sampled 9 times before calving, on calving day, and twice after calving. Liver biopsies were taken at wk -5, -1, and 2 relative to calving day. Milk was obtained from all heifers immediately after calving, the first 2 milkings and on d 3, 7, and 14 at 0600 h. Serum and liver tissue were analyzed for vitamin E, cholesterol, and MDA; and milk samples were analyzed for vitamin E, MDA, fat, protein, and somatic cell count. The results showed that vitamin E supplements increased both absolute vitamin E concentrations and the ratio of vitamin E to cholesterol in blood and liver tissue. Absolute vitamin E concentration in milk tended to be greater in supplemented cows. Based on the increased MDA blood concentrations at calving, it seems that dairy heifers experience oxidative stress. The effect of vitamin E on MDA differs between the blood, liver, and mammary gland. Vitamin E supplementation could not prevent the increase in blood MDA at calving, but the significantly lower MDA blood concentrations of supplemented cows in the 2 wk after calving suggest that vitamin E has a role in recovery from parturition-related oxidative stress. Vitamin E supplementation reduced oxidative damage in liver, whereas no obvious effect was found on milk MDA concentrations. A
Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.
Bello, Segun; Meremikwu, Martin M; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I
BACKGROUND: Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization...... (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to December week 3, 2015), Embase...... (1974 to December 2015) and LILACS (1985 to December 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. DATA COLLECTION...
Mark J Bolland
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are now very common, and discordant results often occur. To explore why discordant results arise, we examined a common topic for overlapping meta-analyses- vitamin D supplements and fracture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 24 meta-analyses of vitamin D (with or without calcium and fracture in a PubMed search in October 2013, and analysed a sample of 7 meta-analyses in the highest ranking general medicine journals. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the quality of the meta-analyses, and compared their methodologies, analytic techniques and results. Applying the AMSTAR tool suggested the meta-analyses were generally of high quality. Despite this, there were important differences in trial selection, data extraction, and analytical methods that were only apparent after detailed assessment. 25 trials were included in at least one meta-analysis. Four meta-analyses included all eligible trials according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria, but the other 3 meta-analyses "missed" between 3 and 8 trials, and 2 meta-analyses included apparently ineligible trials. The relative risks used for individual trials differed between meta-analyses for total fracture in 10 of 15 trials, and for hip fracture in 6 of 12 trials, because of different outcome definitions and analytic approaches. The majority of differences (11/16 led to more favourable estimates of vitamin D efficacy compared to estimates derived from unadjusted intention-to-treat analyses using all randomised participants. The conclusions of the meta-analyses were discordant, ranging from strong statements that vitamin D prevents fractures to equally strong statements that vitamin D without calcium does not prevent fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in trial selection, outcome definition and analytic methods between overlapping meta-analyses led to discordant estimates of the efficacy of vitamin D for fracture prevention
García Uribe, Noelia; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María
The early twentieth century was a crucial period for the identification and biological-chemical-physical characterisation of vitamins. From then until now, many studies have attempted to clarify into detail the biological role of the vitamins in humans and their direct connection with certain diseases, either in a negative way (appearance of deficiency diseases due to vitamin deficiency) or a positive way (use of vitamins to treat diseases and/or to improve human health). The aim of this work...
Rigueira García, Ana Isabel
Calcium supplements and vitamin D are involved in current debates of health, as cardiovascular safety of calcium, and correction of vitamin levels. The aim is to review the possibilities of making better use of supplements marketed in Spain, depending on their availability, information and related epidemiology. Analysis of comercial offer and available information about pharmacological aspects of Spanish medicinal supplements in data-sheets (39), guides and reports current institutional and professional, with additional search of this information and epidemiological data related Spanish in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ®, PubMed ® (tool "Clinical Queries"), Dialnet database and hand search of Spanish journals directly related. There is no uniformity in terms of indication, expression of content, dosages, precautions and safety in data sheets or technical reports. The literature search found more recent publications volume for vitamin D than calcium, No evidence was found to establish appropriate dosing regimens indisputable or universal, or cholecalciferol bioavailability tests with aqueous vehiculización. In Spain nutritional situation is found generally suitable for the calcium but a status mostly unsuitable for vitamin D with several references for insufficiency and vitamin deficiency in adults. Corrective treatments primarily affect calcium supplements. There is an ample supply of calcium and vitamin D in Spain, whose drug design should rethink because don't respond to the needs identified or correction possibilities currently recommended. It should also improve and update their information, with particular interest in health status related to hypovitaminosis D.
Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis meat is not widely used in the diet, but it is recently reconsidered due to its valuable nutritional qualities. New strategies aiming to improve the quality of buffalo meat have to be applied particularly to face the problem of lipid peroxidation, one of the most important causes of meat food deterioration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid oxidation of buffalo meat (muscles Caput longum tricipitis brachii, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus, coming from animals fed with two different amount of vitamin E (600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die for 102 -123 days considering, as markers for lipid oxidation, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA by HPLC-UV and TBA test. Moreover it was evaluated, by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E concentration in the meat samples. Muscles coming from animals with vitamin E supplementation were in mean 2 times more enriched of vitamin E than control (p < 0.05. Meat from buffalo fed with 600 IU/die vitamin E had significant lower MDA concentration in comparison with control (in mean -53%, n= 4. Both for MDA and vitamin E concentrations not significant differences were found between the supplementation of 600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with Vitamin E is a promising strategy to prevent lipid oxidation of buffalo meat and to prolong its shelf-life.
Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.
Swaney, Paul; Thorp, John; Allen, Ian
To assess the evidence available on the use of vitamin C supplementation greater than recommended dietary intake to reduce preterm birth rates. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials using vitamin C alone or with one other supplement other than iron. Trials must report preterm birth rates but can have other primary outcomes. Preterm birth is defined as birth at less than 37 weeks' gestational age for this review. Review focused on studies with populations representative of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Inadequate level of evidence on the use of vitamin C alone to prevent preterm birth rates in low-risk populations based on one study. Three studies provided convincing evidence of no benefit in low-risk groups of use of vitamins C and E combined. Three studies provided adequate evidence of no benefit in high-risk groups of use of vitamins C and E combined. The available evidence supports no benefit gained from using vitamin C to prevent preterm birth. Evidence does not support limiting use of vitamin C supplementation for other indications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Full Text Available Observational studies have revealed that higher serum vitamin E concentrations and increased vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplementation are associated with beneficial effects on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, whether vitamin E supplementation exerts a definitive effect on glycaemic control remains unclear. This article involves a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vitamin E to better characterise its impact on HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were electronically searched from the earliest possible date through April 2013 for all relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD was calculated for net changes using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Standard methods for assessing statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were used. Fourteen randomised controlled trials involving individual data on 714 subjects were collected in this meta-analysis. Increased vitamin E supplementation did not result in significant benefits in glycaemic control as measured by reductions in HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.58%, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.34 and fasting insulin (-9.0 pmol/l, 95% CI -15.90 to -2.10 compared with controls in patients with low baseline vitamin E status. Subgroup analyses also demonstrated that the outcomes may have been influenced by the vitamin E dosage, study duration, ethnic group, serum HbA1c concentration, and fasting glucose control status. In conclusion, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on improvements of HbA1c and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in subjects with T2DM.
Xu, Renfan; Zhang, Shasha; Tao, Anyu; Chen, Guangzhi; Zhang, Muxun
Observational studies have revealed that higher serum vitamin E concentrations and increased vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplementation are associated with beneficial effects on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, whether vitamin E supplementation exerts a definitive effect on glycaemic control remains unclear. This article involves a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vitamin E to better characterise its impact on HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were electronically searched from the earliest possible date through April 2013 for all relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated for net changes using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Standard methods for assessing statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were used. Fourteen randomised controlled trials involving individual data on 714 subjects were collected in this meta-analysis. Increased vitamin E supplementation did not result in significant benefits in glycaemic control as measured by reductions in HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.58%, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.34) and fasting insulin (-9.0 pmol/l, 95% CI -15.90 to -2.10) compared with controls in patients with low baseline vitamin E status. Subgroup analyses also demonstrated that the outcomes may have been influenced by the vitamin E dosage, study duration, ethnic group, serum HbA1c concentration, and fasting glucose control status. In conclusion, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on improvements of HbA1c and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in subjects with T2DM.
Objective: Vitamin A deficiency is a major nutritional concern in poor societies, especially in lower income countries like Nigeria. Africa and South East Asia bear the highest burden of pre-school age children and pregnant women with biochemical vitamin A deficiency and night blindness. The aim of this study is to ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease condition characterised by hyperglycemia; free radical and abnormal haematological indices. Vitamin C can reduce free radical generation and ameliorate adverse conditions of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of vitamin C on platelet aggregation ...
S. Jalal Taherabadi
Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.
Full Text Available Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented.
Larisse Rayanne Miranda de Melo
Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum and its supply to the newborn. Method: This randomized clinical trial enrolled 99 healthy adult pregnant women; of these, 39 were assigned to the control group and 60 to the supplemented group. After an overnight fast, 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected. After the first sampling (0 h milk, the supplemented group received 400 IU of supplementary vitamin E. Another 2 mL milk aliquot was collected in both groups 24 h after supplementation (24 h milk. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol content provided by colostrum was calculated by considering a daily intake of 396 mL of milk and comparing the resulting value to the recommended daily intake for infants aged 0-6 months (4 mg/day. Results: The initial mean concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum was 1509.3 ± 793.7 µg/dL in the control group and 1452.9 ± 808.6 µg/dL in the supplemented group. After 24 h, the mean α-tocopherol concentration was 1650.6 ± 968.7 µg/dL in the control group (p > 0.05 and 2346.9 ± 1203.2 µg/dL in the supplemented group (p < 0.001, increasing the vitamin E supply to the newborn to 9.3 mg/day. Initially, 18 women in the supplemented group provided colostrum α-tocopherol contents below 4 mg/day; after supplementation only six continued to provide less than the recommended amount. Conclusion: Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the supply of the vitamin to the infant by providing more than twice the Recommended Daily Intake.
Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze
Ten strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for their viability in soymilk. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTDC 8833, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633 and L. gasseri FTDC 8131 displayed higher viability in soymilk and were thus selected to be evaluated for viability and growth characteristics in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins. Pour plate analyses showed that the supplementation of all B-vitamins studied promoted the growth of lactobacilli to a viable count exceeding 7 log CFU/ml. alpha-Galactosidase specific activity of lactobacilli as determined spectrophotometrically showed an increase upon supplementation of B-vitamins. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that this led to increased hydrolysis of soy oligosaccharides and subsequently higher utilization of simple sugars. Production of organic acids as determined via high-performance liquid chromatography also showed an increase, accompanied by a decrease in pH of soymilk. Additionally, the supplementation of B-vitamins also promoted the synthesis of riboflavin and folic acid by lactobacilli in soymilk. Our results indicated that B-vitamin-supplemented soymilk is a good proliferation medium for strains of lactobacilli.
Andon, M B; Howard, M P; Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D
Pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 administered to lactating women have been reported to suppress plasma prolactin. As a result, some physicians have recommended restriction of vitamin B6 intake for lactating women. In the present investigation, 20 lactating women were given supplemental doses of vitamin B6, 0.5 to 4.0 mg/d, beginning 24 hours after delivery. Plasma prolactin, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations were determined during the first 9 months postpartum. Women receiving the supplement of 4.0 mg compared with 0.5 mg of vitamin B6 per day had significantly higher plasma pyridoxal phosphate (P less than .01) and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations (P less than .05) beginning at 1 month postpartum and continuing through the duration of the study. Plasma prolactin concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. The percentage of all women, regardless of treatment, in whom lactation persisted at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months were 100%, 100%, 100%, 90%, 80%, and 65%, respectively. All women who ceased to lactate during the study reported doing so by choice. Nutritionally relevant doses of vitamin B6 elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations of lactating women without reducing plasma prolactin concentration or halting lactation.
Morioka, Travis Y; Bolin, Jeremy T; Attipoe, Selasi; Jones, Donnamaria R; Stephens, Mark B; Deuster, Patricia A
Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of dietary supplement use among various populations, data on single vitamins prescribed by health care providers are limited. This study examined trends in single-vitamin supplement (A, C, D, E, K) prescriptions by providers from military treatment facilities from 2007 to 2011. We examined prescription data from the Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine trends in the aforementioned single-vitamin supplement prescriptions. Prescription rates per 1,000 active duty personnel were estimated using population data retrieved from the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (i.e., [number of prescriptions/population size] × 1,000). Across the 5-year period, the number of vitamin D prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel increased 454%. In contrast, the number of vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin K prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel decreased by 32%, 53%, and 29% respectively. Vitamin C prescriptions remained relatively constant. Across all age groups, total single-vitamin supplement prescriptions increased by 180%. Together, prescriptions examined in this study increased steadily from 2007 to 2011, primarily because of the increase in vitamin D prescriptions. The exhibited trend reflects the current general-population pattern of dietary supplement use, with large increases in vitamin D and declines in vitamin E. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Long, Kurt Z; Santos, José Ignacio; Rosado, Jorge L; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa; Haas, Meredith; Al Mamun, Abdullah; DuPont, Herbert L; Nanthakumar, Nanda N
Background: The efficacy of vitamin A supplementation on diarrheal disease morbidity may reflect the divergent effects that supplementation has on pathogen-specific immune responses and pathogen-specific outcomes.
Yang, Jimin; Tamura, Roy N.; Uusitalo, Ulla M.; Aronsson, Carin A.; Silvis, Katherine; Riikonen, Anne; Frank, Nicole; Joslowski, Gesa; Winkler, Christiane; Norris, Jill M.; Virtanen, Suvi M.
Objective Vitamin D and probiotics are nutrients of interest in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with vitamin D and probiotic supplementations among young children with genetic risk of T1D. Subjects/Methods Use of supplements during the first two years of life was collected prospectively from 8 674 children in the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Results Single and/or multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements were reported by 81% of the children. The majority of participants in Finland, Germany, and Sweden (97-99%) and 50% in the US received vitamin D supplements that were mostly MVMs. Probiotics use varied from 6% in the US to 60% in Finland and was primarily from probiotics-only preparations. More than 80% of the vitamin D and probiotics supplementation was initiated during infancy, and more than half of the uses lasted longer than a year. Being the first child, longer duration of breastfeeding, born in a later year, older maternal age, and higher maternal education level were associated with both vitamin D and probiotics use. Shorter gestational age and mother not smoking during pregnancy were associated with a higher likelihood of probiotics supplementation only. Conclusion Vitamin D and probiotics supplementations are popular in children 0–2 years old and are associated with common factors. Data documented here will allow evaluation of the relationship between early childhood dietary intake and the development of islet autoimmunity and progression to T1D. PMID:28901336
Rucklidge, Julia J; Harris, Amy L; Shaw, Ian C
To investigate whether micronutrient supplements shown through research to have perceived benefits in the treatment of psychological/psychiatric symptoms in children have similar vitamin ingredients and doses to over-the-counter dietary supplements. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that used micronutrients for the treatment of psychological/psychiatric symptoms in children with documented benefits; 13 different supplements were identified that included vitamin ingredients. They were compared with the vitamin composition of 22 over-the-counter child-targeted supplements available in New Zealand. The vitamin ingredients were comparable across the research and commercially available supplements. However, the median vitamin daily doses in research supplements were found to be greater than those of over-the-counter supplements, with most mean differences being significant, including vitamins B1, B3, B6, B7, B12, C and D (pB5 and B9 (pvitamins A or B2. Micronutrient supplements found to show potential benefit in research with a focus on improving psychological/psychiatric symptoms in children have a significantly greater vitamin dose than over-the-counter supplements. Therefore, the results found in micronutrient research studies cannot be extrapolated to over-the-counter supplements. Comparing the myriad ingredients and dosages in micronutrient supplements is, however, a complex process and further investigation is required to understand fully the importance of our findings.
Herndon, David N.; Chen, Tai C.; Kulp, Gabriela; Holick, Michael F.
Children suffering severe burns develop progressive vitamin D deficiency because of inability of burned skin to produce normal quantities of vitamin D3 and lack of vitamin D supplementation on discharge. Our study was designed to determine whether a daily supplement of a standard multivitamin tablet containing vitamin D2 400 IU (10 μg) for 6 months would raise serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to normal. We recruited eight burned children, ages 5–18, whose families were deemed reliable by the research staff. These children were given a daily multivitamin tablet in the hospital for 3 months in the presence of a member of the research staff and then given the remainder at home. At 6 months, the subjects returned for measurements of serum levels of 25(OH)D,1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), Ca, P, albumin, and total protein as well as bone mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum 25(OH)D levels were compared to a group of seven age-matched burned children studied at an earlier date without the vitamin supplement but with the same method of determination of 25(OH)D at 6 months post-burn. In addition, the chewable vitamins were analyzed for vitamin D2 content by high performance liquid chromatography. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 21 ± 11(SD) ng/ml (sufficient range 30–100) with only one of the eight children having a value in the sufficient range. In comparison, the unsupplemented burn patients had mean serum 25(OH)D level of 16 ± 7, P = 0.33 versus supplemented. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D, iPTH, Ca, P, albumin, and total protein were all normal in the supplemented group. Vitamin D2 content of the chewable tablets after being saponified and extracted was 460 ± 20 IU. Bone mineral content of the total body and lumbar spine, as well as lumbar spine bone density, failed to increase as expected in the supplemented group. No correlations were found between serum 25(OH)D levels and age, length of stay
Navarro Valverde, Cristina; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel
proper supplementation of milk with vitamin D is an attractive chance and a challenge for Public Health of Spain and the European Union. It has provided excellent results in the US, Canada, Northern Europe Countries, etc. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Greenlee, Heather; Hershman, Dawn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Ergas, Isaac J; Strizich, Garrett; Roh, Janise M; Wilson, Allegra T; Lee, Marion; Sherman, Karen J; Ambrosone, Christine B
Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described. We prospectively examined changes in use of 17 vitamin/mineral supplements in the first six months following breast cancer diagnosis among 2,596 members (28% non-white) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine demographic, clinical, and lifestyle predictors of initiation and discontinuation. Most women used vitamin/mineral supplements before (84%) and after (82%) diagnosis, with average doses far in excess of Institute of Medicine reference intakes. Over half (60.2%) reported initiating a vitamin/mineral following diagnosis, 46.3% discontinuing a vitamin/mineral, 65.6% using a vitamin/mineral continuously, and only 7.2% not using any vitamin/mineral supplement before or after diagnosis. The most commonly initiated supplements were calcium (38.2%), vitamin D (32.01%), vitamin B6 (12.3%) and magnesium (11.31%); the most commonly discontinued supplements were multivitamins (17.14%), vitamin C (15.97%) and vitamin E (45.62%). Higher education, higher intake of fruits/vegetables, and receipt of chemotherapy were associated with initiation (p-values <0.05). Younger age and breast-conserving surgery were associated with discontinuation (p-values <0.05). In this large cohort of ethnically diverse breast cancer patients, high numbers of women used vitamin/mineral supplements in the 6 months following breast cancer diagnosis, often at high doses and in combination with other supplements. The immediate period after diagnosis is a critical time for clinicians to counsel women on supplement use
La Fata, G; van Vliet, N; Barnhoorn, S; Brandt, R M C; Etheve, S; Chenal, E; Grunenwald, C; Seifert, N; Weber, P; Hoeijmakers, J H J; Mohajeri, M H; Vermeij, W P
Aging is a highly complex biological process driven by multiple factors. Its progression can partially be influenced by nutritional interventions. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant that is investigated as nutritional supplement for its ability to prevent or delay the onset of specific aging pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed here to investigate the effect of vitamin E during aging progression in a well characterized mouse model for premature aging. Xpg-/- animals received diets with low (~2.5 mg/kg feed), medium (75 mg/kg feed) or high (375 mg/kg feed) vitamin E concentration and their phenotype was monitored during aging progression. Vitamin E content was analyzed in the feed, for stability reasons, and in mouse plasma, brain, and liver, for effectiveness of the treatment. Subsequent age-related changes were monitored for improvement by increased vitamin E or worsening by depletion in both liver and nervous system, organs sensitive to oxidative stress. Mice supplemented with high levels of vitamin E showed a delayed onset of age-related body weight decline and appearance of tremors when compared to mice with a low dietary vitamin E intake. DNA damage resulting in liver abnormalities such as changes in polyploidy, was considerably prevented by elevated amounts of vitamin E. Additionally, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that high intake of vitamin E, when compared with low and medium levels of vitamin E in the diet, reduces the number of p53-positive cells throughout the brain, indicative of a lower number of cells dying due to DNA damage accumulated over time. Our data underline a neuroprotective role of vitamin E in the premature aging animal model used in this study, likely via a reduction of oxidative stress, and implies the importance of improved nutrition to sustain health.
Wolsk, Helene M; Chawes, Bo L; Litonjua, Augusto A
BACKGROUND: We recently published two independent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, both indicating a >20% reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring by 3 years of age. However, neither reached statistical significance. OBJECTIVE: To perform......) or placebo. All women also received a prenatal vitamin containing 400 IU/d vitamin D3. The primary outcome was asthma/recurrent wheeze from 0-3yrs. Secondary end-points were specific IgE, total IgE, eczema and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We conducted random effects combined analyses......-points. CONCLUSIONS: This combined analysis shows that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy results in a significant reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring, especially among women with 25(OH)D level ≥ 30 ng/ml at randomization, where the risk was almost halved. Future studies should examine...
Evans, Christy E; Getchell, Katerine E; Ivy, Delaney R
Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been used for decades to prevent thromboembolic events, but can be burdensome to patients based on numerous factors impacting anticoagulation control. Low-dose vitamin K supplementation has been theorized to improve anticoagulation control in patients on VKAs that may be vitamin K deficient. The objective of this literature review is to propose criteria for implementing low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. The CHEST 2012 antithrombotic guidelines recommended against routine use of vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. An observational study and three randomized controlled trials pertaining to this recommendation were evaluated. A literature review was also performed on other studies looking at the impact of low-dose vitamin K supplementation on anticoagulation control through a search in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. One retrospective and two prospective studies were reviewed. Six of the seven studies demonstrated a non-statistically significant trend in data supporting improvement in anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation. While many of the studies did not achieve significant results, the majority demonstrated a trend in support of the improvement of anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs.
Benn, Christine Stabell
the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). This is no longer a tenable assumption. The justification for using VAS is to reduce child mortality, but there is now doubt that VAS has any effect on overall child mortality......It is usually acknowledged that high‐dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about....... What we need now are not surveys of VAD, but proper randomized trials to evaluate whether VAS has beneficial effects on overall child survival....
Christine Stabell Benn
Full Text Available It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD. This is no longer a tenable assumption. The justification for using VAS is to reduce child mortality, but there is now doubt that VAS has any effect on overall child mortality. What we need now are not surveys of VAD, but proper randomized trials to evaluate whether VAS has beneficial effects on overall child survival.
Goldring, Stephen T; Griffiths, Chris J; Martineau, Adrian R; Robinson, Stephen; Yu, Christina; Poulton, Sheree; Kirkby, Jane C; Stocks, Janet; Hooper, Richard; Shaheen, Seif O; Warner, John O; Boyle, Robert J
Observational studies suggest high prenatal vitamin D intake may be associated with reduced childhood wheezing. We examined the effect of prenatal vitamin D on childhood wheezing in an interventional study. We randomised 180 pregnant women at 27 weeks gestation to either no vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery or single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol, in an ethnically stratified, randomised controlled trial. Supplementation improved but did not optimise vitamin D status. Researchers blind to allocation assessed offspring at 3 years. Primary outcome was any history of wheeze assessed by validated questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included atopy, respiratory infection, impulse oscillometry and exhaled nitric oxide. Primary analyses used logistic and linear regression. We evaluated 158 of 180 (88%) offspring at age 3 years for the primary outcome. Atopy was assessed by skin test for 95 children (53%), serum IgE for 86 (48%), exhaled nitric oxide for 62 (34%) and impulse oscillometry of acceptable quality for 51 (28%). We found no difference between supplemented and control groups in risk of wheeze [no vitamin D: 14/50 (28%); any vitamin D: 26/108 (24%) (risk ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.49, 1.50; P = 0.69)]. There was no significant difference in atopy, eczema risk, lung function or exhaled nitric oxide between supplemented groups and controls. Prenatal vitamin D supplementation in late pregnancy that had a modest effect on cord blood vitamin D level, was not associated with decreased wheezing in offspring at age three years. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68645785.
Wallace, Sarah K
Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.
Tal, Sari; Stern, Felicia; Polyak, Zeev; Ichelzon, Ina; Dror, Yosef
The dependent elderly are widely considered to be at higher risk of nutritional problems. Suboptimal micronutrient intake might put the elderly, especially those living in nursing homes, at high risk of morbidity. So far, no public authority, except for the Israel Ministry of Health, has issued particular recommendations for micronutrient supplementation for the elderly. We hypothesized that moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation could improve the vitamin status of the dependent elderly. The study took place in two nursing homes and included 144 dependent elderly (males/females, 35/109). Demographic and clinical data as well as routine blood tests were retrieved from the patient electronic medical records. After a two-year daily 'multivitamin' supplementation, containing 120μg of folic acid, there was a small and non-significant increase of 12% in serum folate; the same 'multivitamin' preparatory, containing 2.4μg of vitamin B12, significantly increased serum vitamin B12 by 8%. Three models of evaluation clearly showed the effect of a two- year vitamin supplementation: 1. The number of subjects with the lowest baseline concentration range, decreased, with moderate concentration, increased, with no difference at the higher concentrations; 2. Above each vitamin concentration, the number of subjects was higher than at baseline; 3. The two vitamins at the two lower concentration tertiles increased, and at the highest tertile, folate was not affected, whereas vitamin B12 decreased. Therefore, very moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation, as practiced in our study, has a high probability of improving vulnerable old population health status without causing any adverse effects to others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad
Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.
Ya Ting Zheng
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment in older adults have not been documented. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment on falls, fractures, and mortality among older adults. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs on high dose, intermittent vitamin D supplementation among older adults. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to specified inclusive and exclusive criteria to extract the data. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.1.0 software. RESULTS: Nine trials were included in this meta-analysis. High dose, intermittent vitamin D therapy did not decrease all-cause mortality among older adults. The risk ratio (95% CI was 1.04 (0.91-1.17. No benefit was seen in fracture or fall prevention. The risk ratio for hip fractures (95% CI was 1.17 (0.97-1.41 while for non-vertebral fractures (95% CI it was 1.06 (0.91-1.22, and the risk ratio for falls (95% CI was 1.02 (0.96-1.08. Results remained robust after sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of intermittent, high dose vitamin D may not be effective in preventing overall mortality, fractures, or falls among older adults. The route of administration of vitamin D supplements may well change the physiological effects.
Caroline Espejo Stanquevis
Full Text Available The experiment was carried outto determine the levels of vitamin K for meat quails (Coturnixcoturnixsp from 1 to 14 days of age. Atotal of 2200 birds were used, complete by random experimental design, with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions and 55 meat quails per experimental unit. The levels of vitamin K supplementation were 0; 0.7; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 1.9; 2.2; 2.5 mg/kg diets. The performance was measured through weighing weekly from the birds and feed, and at the end of the experiment was carried out collects blood and bones for the assessment of bone quality parameters. The levels of vitamin K supplementation had no influence on performance orbone quality, except thatthe bone density and calcium concentration of the femur and the bone density of the tibia showeda quadratic effect, with estimates of 0.98; 0.92 and 1.18 respectively. The length of the tibia showed a linear increase according to the levels of vitamin K. There was no effect in the concentration of serum calcium, but there was a quadratic effect in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase. The vitamin K supplementation did not affect the performance of the meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age, showing that the amount of vitamin K present in ground corn and soybean meal-based diets is sufficient to meet the needs of the birds’ performance.
Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Mehta, Pooja
Spirulina platensis is a microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. We investigated the mechanism of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity and whether this natural antioxidant provided protection against cisplatin hepatotoxicity. The study was carried out in a mice model where the animals were segregated into different groups according to their treatments, e.g. control group with no treatment, cisplatin treated, cisplatin + Spirulina treated, cisplatin + vitamin C treated and cisplatin + Spirulina + vitamin C treated. The liver marker enzymes were found to be elevated following cisplatin treatment, signifying hepatotoxicity. The supplementation of Spirulina and vitamin C could effectively bring down the levels of these enzymes. Light microscopy also showed that cisplatin treatment induced liver injury and that histopathological abnormalities were prevented by Spirulina and vitamin C supplementation. This protective effect was further substantiated by the estimation of antioxidant levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in the Spirulina, vitamin C and Spirulina + vitamin C supplemented groups as compared to cisplatin alone.
Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for almost 80 years, we are far from a complete understanding of all the aspects related to bioavailability and its effects on health and milk quality in dairy cows. Vitamin E is a generic descriptor for two families of lipid-soluble compounds, the tocopherols and the tocotrienols, of which α-tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Commercially available α-tocopherol supplements for dairy cows contain either the natural RRR form or the synthetic (all-rac) form, which contains all the eight possible stereoisomers (four possessing the 2R and four possessing the 2S configuration) in equimolar amounts. Recent data clearly suggest that an almost complete discrimination against the 2S isomers occurs in dairy cows. Thus, 1 g of the all-rac form is essentially equivalent to 0.5 g of the RRR form. With respect to the effect of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows on health and milk quality, the majority of published studies suggests that vitamin E supplementation at the level 1000 to 4000 IU/cow per day during the dry period reduces both the frequency of intramammary infection and that of clinical mastitis and improves milk quality, as shown by a reduction in the levels of somatic cell count (SCC)/ml in milk, decreased plasmin activity and increased oxidative stability of milk. However, a recent study from the Netherlands suggested that vitamin E supplementation at the 3000 IU/cow per day level during the dry period when combined with high levels of plasma vitamin E at dry-off (>14.5 μmol/l) increases the incidence of mastitis. Data from previously unpublished survey studies and those from published vitamin E feeding trials, in which high levels of blood vitamin E were observed, were reanalyzed. All farms selected for the analysis implemented oral administration of vitamin E at the 3000 IU/cow per day level throughout or during the late dry period (4 weeks before the expected day of parturition). Dairy
Full Text Available ObjectiveDifferent studies have demonstrated that regular exercise can induce changes in the lipid profile, but results remain inconclusive. Available data suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency can improve the lipid profile. In this study, we have hypothesized that Nordic Walking training will improve lipid profile in elderly women supplemented with vitamin D.MethodsA total of 109 elderly women (68 ± 5.12 years old took part in the study. First group [experimental group (EG: 35 women] underwent 12 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW training combined with vitamin D supplementation (4,000 IU/day, second group [supplementation group (SG: 48 women] was only supplemented with vitamin D (4,000 IU/day, and third group [control group (CG: 31 women] was not subject to any interventions. Blood analysis of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and 25-OH-D3 was performed at baseline and after the 12 weeks of NW training. Additionally, a battery of field tests specifically developed for older adults was used to assess the components of functional fitness. The same blood analysis was repeated for the EG 6 months after the main experiment.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of NW training and vitamin D supplementation, in the EG a decrease in TC, LDL-C, and TG was observed. In the SG, no changes in the lipid profile were observed, whereas in the CG an increase in the HDL-C level was noticed. Positive physical fitness changes were only observed in the EG.ConclusionOur obtained data confirmed baseline assumption that regular exercise induces positive alternations in lipid profile in elderly women supported by supplementation of vitamin D.
Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R; Zahedirad, Maliheh; Mohammadi, Mehrdad; Hosseini, S Hedayat; Abdollahi, Zahra; Salehi, Foroozan; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Kalayi, Ali; Lotfollahi, Neda; Maleki, Mohammad-Reza
Bread can potentially be a suitable vehicle for fortification with vitamin D. This study was undertaken to evaluate the following: 1) the bioavailability of vitamin D from the fortified Iranian bread and 2) the possible effects of daily consumption of the fortified bread on certain health aspects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted over 8 weeks in 90 healthy subjects aged 20-60 years. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: 1) fortified bread (FP; 50 g bread fortified with 25 μg vitamin D3 plus placebo daily; n = 30); 2) supplement (SP; 50 g plain bread plus 25 μg vitamin D supplement daily; n = 30); and 3) control (CP; 50 g plain bread plus placebo daily; n = 30). Initial and final anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed. The within-group changes of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 39.0 ± 22.6 (P bread could be potentially effective in raising circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of the population to nearly adequate levels.
Talikoti, Prashanth; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives. Sixty prehypertensives were recruited and randomized into 2 groups of 30 each. One group received water-soluble vitamins and the other placebo for 4 months. Further increase in blood pressure was not observed in the vitamin group which increased significantly in the placebo group at the end of 4 months. Malonedialdehyde and protein carbonylation were reduced during the course of treatment with vitamins whereas in the placebo group there was an increase in the level of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, supplementation of water-soluble vitamins in prehypertension reduces oxidative stress and its progression to hypertension.
Abrahamsen, Bo; Harvey, Nicholas C
the function of the immune, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Vitamin D deficiency, due to insufficient sunlight exposure, dietary uptake and/or abnormalities in its metabolism, has been associated with rheumatic diseases, and both the classical and nonclassical effects of vitamin D might be of relevance...... to patients with rheumatic disease. However, conclusive data from intervention trials demonstrating the relationship between vitamin D levels and pathogenetic processes separate from classical effects of this molecule are lacking. Furthermore, the majority of studies linking vitamin D to health outcomes...... in the treatment of the many rheumatic conditions in which deficiency of this compound has been implicated. Herein, we review the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in the management of patients with rheumatic diseases....
Cinar, Miyase; Yildirim, Ebru; Yigit, A Arzu; Yalcinkaya, Ilkay; Duru, Ozkan; Kisa, Uçler; Atmaca, Nurgul
This study investigated effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E on performance, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress induced by copper toxicity in broilers. A total of 240, 1-day-old, broilers were assigned to eight groups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. The groups were fed on the following diets: control (basal diet), vitamin C (250 mg/kg diet), vitamin E (250 mg/kg diet), vitamin C + vitamin E (250 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg diet), and copper (300 mg/kg diet) alone or in combination with the corresponding vitamins. At the 6th week, the body weights of broilers were decreased in copper, copper + vitamin E, and copper + vitamin C + vitamin E groups compared to control. The feed conversion ratio was poor in copper group. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, iron, copper concentrations, and erythrocyte malondialdehyde were increased; plasma vitamin A and C concentrations and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were decreased in copper group compared to control. Glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, and iron levels were increased; aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and copper levels were decreased in copper + vitamin C group, while superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and vitamin E concentrations were increased; aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased in copper with vitamin E group compared to copper group. The vitamin C concentrations were increased; copper, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and malondialdehyde were decreased in copper + vitamin C + vitamin E group compared to copper group. To conclude, copper caused oxidative stress in broilers. The combination of vitamin C and vitamin E addition might alleviate the harmful effects of copper as demonstrated by decreased lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes.
Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik E
In contrast to the promised 'antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials.
Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Kumar, Vinod; Singhal, Manphool; Billot, Laurent; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Banerjee, Debasish; Jha, Vivekanand
Vitamin D deficiency associates with mortality in patients with CKD, and vitamin D supplementation might mitigate cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in 120 patients of either sex, aged 18-70 years, with nondiabetic CKD stage 3-4 and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤20 ng/ml). We randomized patients using a 1:1 ratio to receive either two directly observed oral doses of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) or matching placebo at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome was change in endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in pulse wave velocity and circulating biomarkers. Cholecalciferol supplementation significantly increased endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks, whereas placebo did not (between-group difference in mean change: 5.49%; 95% confidence interval, 4.34% to 6.64%; P vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation may improve vascular function. This study is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (no.: CTRI/2013/05/003648). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; S?daba, Luis M.
Abstract Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery. We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vi...
Wolsk, Helene M; Chawes, Bo L; Litonjua, Augusto A
BACKGROUND: We recently published two independent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, both indicating a >20% reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring by 3 years of age. However, neither reached statistical significance. OBJECTIVE: To perform......) or placebo. All women also received a prenatal vitamin containing 400 IU/d vitamin D3. The primary outcome was asthma/recurrent wheeze from 0-3yrs. Secondary end-points were specific IgE, total IgE, eczema and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We conducted random effects combined analyses...
Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Pulmonary rehabilitation is an important treatment for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, who are often vitamin D deficient. As vitamin D status is linked to skeletal muscle function, we aimed to explore if high dose vitamin D supplementation can improve the outcomes of rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Material and methods This study is a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a larger randomized trial comparing a monthly dose of 100.000 IU of vitamin D with placebo to reduce exacerbations. 50 Subjects who followed a rehabilitation program during the trial are included in this analysis. We report changes from baseline in muscle strength and exercise performance between both study arms after 3 months of rehabilitation. Results Vitamin D intervention resulted in significantly higher median vitamin D levels compared to placebo (51 [44-62] ng/ml vs 15 [13-30] ng/ml; p 0.050. Conclusion High dose vitamin D supplementation during rehabilitation may have mild additional benefits to training.
Susanto, L.; Siregar, Y.; Kusumawati, L.
The failure of first-line tuberculosis treatment greatly affects multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. In vitro study of vitamin C induces the death of M. tuberculosis bacteria and accelerates healing of tuberculosis, so the multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis can be avoided. This research aimed to identify the effect of vitamin C as a supportive treatment on the sputum conversion rate. The randomizedand double group with a parallel design by matching pair method was used to collect samples. The first group was treated with standard tuberculosis treatment, and the other was given vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C plasma level analyzation was performed before and after two months of treatment. Sputum conversion was evaluated every week for eight weeks. The comparison of vitamin C plasma level in pre and post-treatment group was significant (p=0.03) but not in the other group. There was no significant difference in vitamin C plasma level between two groups (p=0.21). The proportion of sputum conversion rate in both group in the first week was 0% vs. 9.6% (p=0.83) and the last week of study was 83.9% vs. 100% (p=0.02). In conclusion, vitamin C supplementation has effects in improving the healing process of tuberculosis patients as indicated by higher in sputum conversion rate.
Melo, Larisse Rayanne Miranda de; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Dantas, Raquel Costa Silva; Ramalho, Héryka Myrna Maia; Dimenstein, Roberto
To evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum and its supply to the newborn. This randomized clinical trial enrolled 99 healthy adult pregnant women; of these, 39 were assigned to the control group and 60 to the supplemented group. After an overnight fast, 5mL of blood and 2mL of colostrum were collected. After the first sampling (0h milk), the supplemented group received 400IU of supplementary vitamin E. Another 2mL milk aliquot was collected in both groups 24h after supplementation (24h milk). The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol content provided by colostrum was calculated by considering a daily intake of 396mL of milk and comparing the resulting value to the recommended daily intake for infants aged 0-6 months (4mg/day). The initial mean concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum was 1509.3±793.7μg/dL in the control group and 1452.9±808.6μg/dL in the supplemented group. After 24h, the mean α-tocopherol concentration was 1650.6±968.7μg/dL in the control group (p>0.05) and 2346.9±1203.2μg/dL in the supplemented group (pvitamin E supply to the newborn to 9.3mg/day. Initially, 18 women in the supplemented group provided colostrum α-tocopherol contents below 4mg/day; after supplementation only six continued to provide less than the recommended amount. Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the supply of the vitamin to the infant by providing more than twice the Recommended Daily Intake. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana
Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a
Masanja, Honorati; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mshinda, Hassan M; Shekar, Meera; Mugyabuso, Joseph K L; Ndossi, Godwin D; de Savigny, Don
Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+) approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1) during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999); and (2) three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002). A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1-2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10-18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72-81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70%) (p = 0.04). Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a need to monitor the effect of such campaigns on the routine health
Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.
Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tao, Rui-Xue; Meng, Deng-Hon; Li, Jing-Jing; Tong, Shi-Lu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Peng
Maternal vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with fetal growth restriction. However, the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on fetal growth has not been confirmed. To assess the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) during pregnancy on the neonatal vitamin D status and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). As part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort study, maternal sociodemographic characteristics, food intake, lifestyle, information on vitamin D supplementation, and birth outcomes were prospectively collected. For participants, 600 IU/d of vitamin D3 was routinely advised to take during pregnancy. Cord blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, and phosphorus were measured in 1491 neonates who were divided into three groups based on the duration of maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. Mean cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were 3.5 nmol/L higher [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8, 6.2] in neonates (median, 37.9 nmol/L) whose mother took vitamin D supplementation for >2 months during pregnancy compared with those (median, 34.3 nmol/L) whose mother did not take any supplement. These significant differences on cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D occurred regardless of the season of birth. The adjusted risk of SGA in pregnant women with vitamin D supplementation for >2 months was significantly decreased than that in women without any vitamin D supplementation (11.8% vs 6.9%; adjusted odds ratio = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32, 0.87). The findings from China suggest that maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the IOM results in a slight but significantly higher fetal level of 25(OH)D and improves fetal growth.
Full Text Available The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C, supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E, supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se. At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05 in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.
Hyppönen, Elina; Sovio, Ulla; Wjst, Matthias; Patel, Swatee; Pekkanen, Juha; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Järvelinb, Marjo-Riitta
Allergen-induced secretion of Th2-type cytokines and IgE production have recently been reported to be increased in mice treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D, the active form of vitamin D. Our objective was to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation in infancy is associated with the risk of atopy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort consists of all individuals in the two most northern provinces of Finland who were due to be born in 1966. Data on vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life was obtained in 1967. Current asthma and allergic rhinitis were reported at age 31 years (n = 7,648), and atopy determined by skin-prick test in a sub-sample still living in northern Finland or the Helsinki area (n = 5,007). The prevalence of atopy and allergic rhinitis at age 31 years was higher in participants who had received vitamin D supplementation regularly during the first year compared to others (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.4-2.0, and OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.1-1.6, respectively). A similar association was observed for asthma (OR 1.35, 95%CI 0.99-1.8). These associations persisted after adjustment for a wide range of behavioral and social factors (adjusted: OR 1.33 for all, P = 0.01 for atopy, P = 0.001 for allergic rhinitis, and P = 0.08 for asthma). We observed an association between vitamin D supplementation in infancy and an increased risk of atopy and allergic rhinitis later in life. Further study is required to determine whether these observations reflect long-term effects on immune regulation or differences in unmeasured determinants of vitamin D supplementation.
Full Text Available In spite that chemoreception is important in sexual selection for many animals, such as reptiles, the mechanisms that confer reliability to chemical signals are relatively unknown. European green lizards (Lacerta viridis have substantial amounts of α-tocopherol ( = vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Because vitamin E is metabolically important and can only be attained from the diet, its secretion is assumed to be costly. However, its role in intraspecific communication is unknown.Here, we experimentally show that male European green lizards that received a dietary supplement of vitamin E increased proportions of vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that females preferred to use areas scent marked by males with experimentally increased vitamin E levels in their secretions. Finally, female preferences were stronger when vitamin E differences between a pair of males' secretions were larger.Our results demonstrate that female green lizards are able to discriminate between males based on the vitamin E content of the males' femoral secretions. We suggest that the possible cost of allocating vitamin E to secretions, which might be dependent on male quality, may be a mechanism that confers reliability to scent marks of green lizards and allows their evolution as sexual signals.
Kopena, Renáta; Martín, José; López, Pilar; Herczeg, Gábor
In spite that chemoreception is important in sexual selection for many animals, such as reptiles, the mechanisms that confer reliability to chemical signals are relatively unknown. European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) have substantial amounts of α-tocopherol ( = vitamin E) in their femoral secretions. Because vitamin E is metabolically important and can only be attained from the diet, its secretion is assumed to be costly. However, its role in intraspecific communication is unknown. Here, we experimentally show that male European green lizards that received a dietary supplement of vitamin E increased proportions of vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that females preferred to use areas scent marked by males with experimentally increased vitamin E levels in their secretions. Finally, female preferences were stronger when vitamin E differences between a pair of males' secretions were larger. Our results demonstrate that female green lizards are able to discriminate between males based on the vitamin E content of the males' femoral secretions. We suggest that the possible cost of allocating vitamin E to secretions, which might be dependent on male quality, may be a mechanism that confers reliability to scent marks of green lizards and allows their evolution as sexual signals.
Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.
Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programmes and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence. Methods: European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Bone and Growth Plate Working Group members and other specialists completed a questionnaire on country-specific vitamin D supplementation policy and child health care programmes, socioeconomic factors, policy implementation strategies and adherence. Factors influencing adherence were assessed using Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient. Results: Responses were received from 29 of 30 European countries (97%. Ninety-six per cent had national policies for infant vitamin D supplementation. Supplements are commenced on day 1–5 in 48% (14/29 of countries, day 6–21 in 48% (14/29; only the UK (1/29 starts supplements at 6 months. Duration of supplementation varied widely (6 months to lifelong in at-risk populations. Good (≥80% of infants, moderate (50–79% and low adherence (<50% to supplements was reported by 59% (17/29, 31% (9/29 and 10% (3/29 of countries, respectively. UK reported lowest adherence (5–20%. Factors significantly associated with good adherence were universal supplementation independent of feeding mode (P = 0.007, providing information at neonatal unit (NNU discharge (P = 0.02, financial family support (P = 0.005; monitoring adherence at surveillance visits (P = 0.001 and the total number of factors adopted (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Good adherence to supplementation is a multi-task operation that works best when parents are informed at birth, all babies are supplemented, and adherence monitoring is incorporated into child health surveillance visits. Implementation strategies matter for delivering efficient prevention policies.
Full Text Available Background: Recently, the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF after cardiac surgery has been emphasized. Vitamin C as an antioxidant important role in reducing the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. This study aimed to investigate, administration of vitamin C, as a way to reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass surgery. Methods: In this double-blind clinical study, 290 patients in Rajaee Heart Center, from March 2013 to December 2014 who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into intervention and control groups to receive vitamin C and placebo. The intervention group before the surgery in the operating room received 2 grams of vitamin C intravenously then one gram per day for four days prior to surgery. After the operation, the two groups were compared in terms of the following: Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after surgery, ICU stay and hospital stay and duration of intubation. Results: 113 cases and 177 controls (191 men and 99 women with a mean age of 55.40±14.40 years in both groups (vitamin C and placebo were enrolled. The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 55% in the placebo group to 35% in the vitamin C group decreased (P= 0.001. Duration of intubation in the intervention group 11.8 and the control group was 14.14 hours (P= 0.004. The amount of drainage was lower in vitamin C group (P= 0.003. Vitamin C had no effect on the rates of hospital and ICU stay (P= 0.075. There was no significant reduction in threatening arrhythmia (VT and VF in this period (P= 0.159. Conclusion: Vitamin C supplements may reduce atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery also can improve conditions such as reducing the duration of intubation. With regard to the safety, these supplements can be recommended for the prevention of atrial fibrillation before coronary artery bypass surgery.
Mousa, Aya; Naderpoor, Negar; de Courten, Maximilian Pj; Teede, Helena; Kellow, Nicole; Walker, Karen; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora
Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes. Existing clinical trials have been limited by short duration, low doses of vitamin D, variability in participants' vitamin D-deficiency status, and the use of surrogate measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Objective: To address existing knowledge gaps, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation that is provided in a sufficient dose and duration to vitamin D-deficient individuals would improve insulin sensitivity or secretion as measured with the use of gold-standard methods. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation would improve insulin sensitivity and secretion compared with placebo. Design: Sixty-five overweight or obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration ≤50 nmol/L) adults were randomly assigned to receive either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/d or a matching placebo for 16 wk. Before and after the intervention, participants received gold-standard assessments of body composition (via dual X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), and insulin secretion [via intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests (IVGTTs)]. Results: Fifty-four participants completed the study [35 men and 19 women; mean ± SD age: 31.9 ± 8.5 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 30.9 ± 4.4]. 25(OH)D increased with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (57.0 ± 21.3 compared with 1.9 ± 15.1 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.02). Vitamin D and placebo groups did not differ in change in insulin sensitivity (0.02 ± 2.0 compared with -0.03 ± 2.8 mg · kg -1 · min -1 , respectively; P = 0.9) or first-phase insulin secretion (-21 ± 212 compared with 24 ± 184 mU/L, respectively; P = 0.9). Results remained nonsignificant after adjustment for age, sex
Agbalalah, Tari; Hughes, Stephen F; Freeborn, Ellen J; Mushtaq, Sohail
This systematic review aims to evaluate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in adults. An electronic search of published randomised controlled trials, using Cochrane, Pubmed and Medline databases was conducted, with the search terms related to vitamin D and endothelial function. Inclusion criteria were RCTs in adult humans with a measure of vitamin D status using serum/plasma 25(OH)D and studies which administered the intervention through the oral route. Among the 1107 studies retrieved, 29 studies met the full inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Overall, 8 studies reported significant improvements in the endothelial/inflammatory biomarkers/parameters measured. However, in 2 out of the 8 studies, improvements were reported at interim time points, but improvements were absent post-intervention. The remaining 21 trial studies did not show significant improvements in the markers of interest measured. Evidence from the studies included in this systematic review did not demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation in adults, results in an improvement in circulating inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers/parameters. This systematic review does not therefore support the use of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic or preventative measure for CVD in this respect. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan; Jirapradittha, Junya; Panthongviriyakul, M Charnchai; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonsiri, Patcharee
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one ofthe most significant complications among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of BPD in VLBWinfants. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in VLBW premature Thai infants. Randomized control trial. Eighty premature infants weighing supplementation at 24 hours ofage-admitted to Neonatal units ofSrinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand-were assigned to receive either intramuscular vitaminA 5, 000 IU3 times/week (treatment group) or sham procedure (control group) for four weeks. Serum vitamin A levels were measured before and after administration of the vitamin A. The baseline of mean serum vitamin A levels were similar in both groups. The mean serum level of vitamin A was significantly higher in the vitamin A supplemented infants than in the control infants on day 7 (1.41 +/- 0.48 vs. 0.92+0.38 pmol/ L, psupplementation. None of the infants in the vitamin A supplemented group, compared to 5% of the infants in the control group, had vitamin A level supplemented group required oxygen supplementation at 36 weeks postmenstrual age than in the control group albeit not statistically significant (22.5 vs. 35% relative risk 0.71; 95% CI 0.40 +/- 1.26; p = 0.21). Supplementation with vitamin A was also associated with a significant reduction in the duration ofintubation (10.8 +/- 3.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 26.1 +/- 6.4 days control group, p = 0.03), days on oxygen therapy (29.8 +/- 5.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 58.2 +/- 9.1 days control group, p = 0.01) and length of hospital stay (61.9 +/- 4.2 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 88.3 +/- 7.2 days control group, p = 0.002). The dose of vitamin A used in this study reduced biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency and, without complications, resulted in reducing duration of intubation, days of oxygen therapy, and length of
Boeschoten, E. W.; Schrijver, J.; Krediet, R. T.; Schreurs, W. H.; Arisz, L.
Concentrations of the vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folic acid, A, E and beta-carotene were determined in blood and 24-h dialysate in 44 CAPD patients. Twenty-five of these patients were studied during chronic treatment (mean 313 days, range 60-1034 days). Nineteen patients were studied during
Diabetes induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and the treated rats were received 1 g/l vitamin C with 0.5 mM CoCl2 in drinking water for eigth weeks. In all tissues, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase activities, lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels were significantly increased in diabetic rats at the end of ...
when compared to the control group. Although the RBC values were within normal range, the decrease in Hb and MCHC in DM group when taken together reflects anaemia. Morales-Ramirez et al. (1998) reported that Vitamin C increases the haematocrit through enhanced iron absorption. (Atanasova et al., 2004) and as ...
Lo, Jamie O; Schabel, Matthias C; Roberts, Victoria H J; Morgan, Terry K; Rasanen, Juha P; Kroenke, Christopher D; Shoemaker, Sophie R; Spindel, Eliot R; Frias, Antonio E
We previously demonstrated that prenatal nicotine exposure decreases neonatal pulmonary function in nonhuman primates, and maternal vitamin C supplementation attenuates these deleterious effects. However, the effect of nicotine on placental perfusion and development is not fully understood. This study utilizes noninvasive imaging techniques and histological analysis in a nonhuman primate model to test the hypothesis that prenatal nicotine exposure adversely effects placental hemodynamics and development but is ameliorated by vitamin C. Time-mated macaques (n = 27) were divided into 4 treatment groups: control (n = 5), nicotine only (n = 4), vitamin C only (n = 9), and nicotine plus vitamin C (n = 9). Nicotine animals received 2 mg/kg per day of nicotine bitartrate (approximately 0.7 mg/kg per day free nicotine levels in pregnant human smokers) from days 26 to 160 (term, 168 days). Vitamin C groups received ascorbic acid at 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg per day with or without nicotine. All underwent placental dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 135-140 days and Doppler ultrasound at 155 days to measure uterine artery and umbilical vein velocimetry and diameter to calculate uterine artery volume blood flow and placental volume blood flow. Animals were delivered by cesarean delivery at 160 days. A novel DCE-MRI protocol was utilized to calculate placental perfusion from maternal spiral arteries. Placental tissue was processed for histopathology. Placental volume blood flow was significantly reduced in nicotine-only animals compared with controls and nicotine plus vitamin C groups (P = .03). Maternal placental blood flow was not different between experimental groups by DCE-MRI, ranging from 0.75 to 1.94 mL/mL per minute (P = .93). Placental histology showed increased numbers of villous cytotrophoblast cell islands (P vitamin C. Prenatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased fetal blood supply via reduced placental volume blood flow, which
Murphy, Kellie A.
This thesis investigated possible changes in performance after one month of vitamin D supplementation in individuals found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient through blood spot testing. Thirty-two males, ages 18-32, participated. Each subject visited the lab three times in one-month, completing four performance tests each session, including an isometric mid-thigh pull and a vertical jump on a force plate, a isometric 90-degree elbow flexion test using a load cell, and a psychomotor vigilance test on a palm pilot. The initial lab included blood spot tests to find vitamin D levels. In a single blind manner, 16 subjects were assigned vitamin D and 16 the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=2.626, p=0.364), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.282, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.304, p=0.999) for maximum force production during an isometric mid-thigh pull. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.323, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.510, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.625, p=0.860) for rate of force production during a vertical jump. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.194, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=2.452, p=0.513), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.179, p=0.999) for maximal force production during a 90-degree isometric elbow flexion. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.710, p=0.804), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.471, p=0.94), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 0.293, p=0.999) for mean reaction time to random stimuli during the psychomotor vigilance test. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.530, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.141, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.784 p=0
Lips, Paul; Graafmans, Wilco C.; Ooms, Marcel E.; Bezemer, P. Dick; Bouter, Lex M.
Objective: To determine whether vitamin D supplementation decreases the incidence of hip fractures and other peripheral bone fractures. Design: Prospective, double-blind trial. Setting: Community setting (Amsterdam and surrounding area). Patients: 2578 persons (1916 women, 662 men) 70 years of age
The manuscript entitled "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: an updated meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation" sought to update a former AHRQ evidence report. The study was commissioned by the NOF to inform the organization, since a significant controversy...
Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.
The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions
The emerging role of oxidants as a causal factor in disease conditions in general and poor fertility, particularly in the male, necessitated investigation of the effects of oral supplements of vitamins C and E on sperm count in Wistar rats. Methodology: Twenty (20) male fully matured Wistar rats aged twelve (12) weeks with ...
Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Clarke, R.J.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.
Background Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B12 deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized,
Elsary, Asmaa Y; Elgameel, Alkassem A; Mohammed, Wael S; Zaki, Osman M; Taha, Shaimaa A
To assess the prevalence of hypocalcemia in outpatient clinic neonates and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from May to October 2016. Data were collected from 100 neonates by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire; which included socio-demographic information, maternal and neonatal history; in addition to investigations of serum calcium total and ionized and serum vitamin D level. Results: The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 76%, late hypocalcemia represent 52% of hypocalcemic neonates. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 38%. Hypocalcemia was found more prevalent among neonates with no history of vitamin D supplementation (98.7%), no history of maternal calcium supplementation (57.9%), while they had a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy (46.1%) which increased to 53.8% with late hypocalcemia. Conclusion: Neonatal hypocalcemia is widely prevalent in Fayoum governorate with significant association with a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy, not receiving maternal calcium or neonatal vitamin D supplementation.
Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J
Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.
Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OHD 65 pg/mL were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg weekly (if deficiency or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels. Rates of normalization of 25(OHD (levels above 20 ng/mL and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL. Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism.
Background: Fasting as a means of protest or religious purposes have increased in the last two decades, individuals involved take only water and supplements. This study investigated the roles of vitamin C and L-carnitine on metabolic parameters during fasting and re-feeding. Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats ...
Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B
BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...
Munasinghe, Lalani L.; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J.
Background Limited cutaneous synthesis due to low sun exposure and inadequate dietary intake makes vitamin D supplementation a necessity for many Canadian children. Identification of the factors associated with supplement use is necessary for public health awareness campaigns, but they have not been identified previously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and the determinants of the use of vitamin D supplements among children in the province of Alberta, Canada....
Hillyer, L L; Ridd, Z; Fenwick, S; Hincks, P; Paine, S W
While cobalt is an essential micronutrient for vitamin B 12 synthesis in the horse, at supraphysiological concentrations, it has been shown to enhance performance in human subjects and rats, and there is evidence that its administration in high doses to horses poses a welfare threat. Animal sport regulators currently control cobalt abuse via international race day thresholds, but this work was initiated to explore means of potentially adding to application of those thresholds since cobalt may be present in physiological concentrations. To devise a scientific basis for differentiation between presence of cobalt from bona fide supplementation and cobalt doping through the use of ratios. Six Thoroughbred horses were given 10 mL vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement (Hemo-15 ® ; Vetoquinol, Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, UK., 1.5 mg B 12 , 7 mg cobalt gluconate = 983 μg total Co) as an i.v. bolus then an i.v. infusion (15 min) of 100 mg cobalt chloride (45.39 mg Co) 6 weeks later. Pre-and post-administration plasma and urine samples were analysed for cobalt and vitamin B 12 . Urine and plasma samples were analysed for vitamin B 12 using an immunoassay and cobalt concentrations were measured via ICP-MS. Baseline concentrations of cobalt in urine and plasma for each horse were subtracted from their cobalt concentrations post-administration for the PK analysis. Compartmental analysis was used for the determination of plasma PK parameters for cobalt using commercially available software. On administration of a vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement, the ratio of cobalt to vitamin B 12 in plasma rapidly increased to approximately 3 and then rapidly declined below a ratio of 1 and then back to near baseline over the next week. On administration of 100 mg cobalt chloride, the ratio initially exceeded 10 in plasma and then declined with the lower 95% confidence interval remaining above a ratio of 1 for 7 days. For two horses with extended sampling, the plasma ratio remained above one for
Adams James B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited. Method This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16 pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted. Results The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003, reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008, ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002, nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004, ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001, NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002, and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001. Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008, and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003, Tantrumming (p = 0.009, Overall (p = 0.02, and Receptive Language (p = 0.03. For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant. Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R2 = 0.61, p Conclusions Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in
Arana, A; Mendizabal, J A; Alzón, M; Soret, B; Purroy, A
Vitamin A (retinoic acid) is known to be an adipogenic factor influencing both in vitro and in vivo cell development. This study aimed to determine its effect on lamb adipose tissue development during the early phase of postnatal development until 100 d of age. Male lambs (n = 24) of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were used. At birth, lambs were assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: 1) the control (C) group, which received feed without vitamin A supplementation, and 2) the vitamin A (V) group, which received a supplement of 500,000 IU/animal twice per week from birth to slaughter. The effect of vitamin A supplementation was studied at 16.8 +/- 0.35 kg of BW (58 +/- 0.7 d of age) and at 27.8 +/- 0.78 kg of BW (101 +/- 6.5 d of age). The variables of lamb growth, carcass, LM area, and lipid content were analyzed. To study adipose tissue development, the amount of adipose tissue accumulated, the size and number of adipocytes, and lipogenic enzyme activities (glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) of the omental, perirenal, and s.c. depots were quantified. Results showed that vitamin A supplementation had no influence on growth, carcass variables, LM area, and lipid content during lamb growth but that the number of adipocytes in the perirenal depot was 30% greater in lambs of the V group (P vitamin A during the whole period of growth of the lambs influenced the processes of hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the different adipose depots, depending on their degree of maturity.
Zhao, Junmei; Li, Defa; Piao, Xiangshu; Yang, Wenjun; Wang, Fenglai
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation on performance, iron status and immune function of pigs during the 21-day post-weaning period. In experiment one, 48 crossbred pigs (Chester White x Large White x Yorkshire), weaned at 30 days of age and weighing 7.7 +/- 0.9 kg, were allotted to diets containing either 0 or 300 mg/kg vitamin C. In experiment two, 96 crossbred pigs (Chester White x Large White x Yorkshire), weaned at 20 +/- 2 days and weighing 7.1 +/- 0.5 kg, were allotted to diets containing 0.75 or 300 mg/kg vitamin C. Six replicate pens were assigned to each treatment in experiment one while experiment two had eight replicates. All pens housed two barrows and two gilts. In both experiments, no improvement (P > 0.05) in growth rate, feed intake or feed conversion was observed as a result of vitamin C supplementation. Plasma iron concentration increased (P immunity (P > 0.05). In trial 2, the plasma levels of the immunoglobulin IgG showed a linear (P = 0.07) increase with increasing levels of vitamin C and the same trend was noted in trial 1. Antibody titers to bovine serum albumin also tended to increase in both trials but the increases were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the overall results of these experiments indicate that weanling pig performance is not improved as a result of vitamin C supplementation. Whether or not vitamin C plays a role in stimulating humoral immune function in pigs requires further study since the results of our experiments do not completely rule out the possibility that such a role exists.
Full Text Available Bone turnover markers (BTMs are used to evaluate bone health together with bone mineral density and fracture assessment. Vitamin D supplementation is widely used to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases but existing data on vitamin D effects on markers of bone resorption and formation are inconsistent. We therefore examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP, osteocalcin (OC, C-terminal telopeptide (CTX, and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP. This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial, a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT performed at the Medical University of Graz, Austria (2011–2014. Two hundred individuals with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels <75 nmol/L were randomized to 2800 IU of vitamin D daily or placebo for eight weeks. One hundred ninety-seven participants (60.2 ± 11.1 years; 47% women were included in this analysis. Vitamin D had no significant effect on bALP (mean treatment effect (MTE 0.013, 95% CI −0.029 to 0.056 µg/L; p = 0.533, CTX (MTE 0.024, 95% CI −0.163 to 0.210 ng/mL, p = 0.802, OC (MTE 0.020, 95% CI −0.062 to 0.103 ng/mL, p = 0.626, or P1NP (MTE −0.021, 95% CI −0.099 to 0.057 ng/mL, p = 0.597. Analyzing patients with 25(OHD levels <50 nmol/L separately (n = 74 left results largely unchanged. In hypertensive patients with low 25(OHD levels, we observed no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation for eight weeks on BTMs.
Lambert, Helen; Hart, Kathryn; Smith, Colin P; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Hyppönen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline; Vieth, Reinhold; Lanham-New, Susan
Background: Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D2 and D3 in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objective: The objective of this article was to report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have directly compared the effects of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D concentrations in humans. Design: The ISI Web of Knowledge (January 1966 to July 2011) database was searched electronically for all relevant studies in adults that directly compared vitamin D3 with vitamin D2. The Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number register, and clinicaltrials.gov were also searched for any unpublished trials. Results: A meta-analysis of RCTs indicated that supplementation with vitamin D3 had a significant and positive effect in the raising of serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared with the effect of vitamin D2 (P = 0.001). When the frequency of dosage administration was compared, there was a significant response for vitamin D3 when given as a bolus dose (P = 0.0002) compared with administration of vitamin D2, but the effect was lost with daily supplementation. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2, and thus vitamin D3 could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation. However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify. PMID:22552031
Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Rikke
Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between-subject variat......Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between......-subject variation of vitamin D status in serum samples from four different dietary intervention studies in which subjects (n=92) were supplemented with different doses of vitamin D3 (5-12 g/day) and for different durations (4-20 months). Results. The HPLC method was applicable for 4.0-200 nmol S-25OHD/L, while...... the within-day and between-days variations were 3.8 % and 5.7 %, respectively. There was a concentration-dependent difference between results obtained by a commercial radioimmunoassay and results from the HPLC method of -5 to 20 nmol 25OHD/L in the range 10-100 nmol 25OHD/L. The between-subject variation...
Lucinda J. Black
Full Text Available Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years. Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OHD concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OHD concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001. However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types.
Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.
de Boer, Ian H; Tinker, Lesley F; Connelly, Stephanie; Curb, J David; Howard, Barbara V; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Larson, Joseph C; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S
Experimental and epidemiologic studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of developing diabetes. We examined the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of drug-treated diabetes in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative Calcium/Vitamin D Trial randomly assigned postmenopausal women to receive 1,000 mg elemental calcium plus 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily, or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. Among 33,951 participants without self-reported diabetes at baseline, we ascertained by treatment assignment new diagnoses of diabetes treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Effects of the intervention on fasting measurements of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance were examined among a subset of participants. Over a median follow-up time of 7 years, 2,291 women were newly diagnosed with diabetes. The hazard ratio for incident diabetes associated with calcium/vitamin D treatment was 1.01 (95% CI 0.94-1.10) based on intention to treat. This null result was robust in subgroup analyses, efficacy analyses accounting for nonadherence, and analyses examining change in laboratory measurements. Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation did not reduce the risk of developing diabetes over 7 years of follow-up in this randomized placebo-controlled trial. Higher doses of vitamin D may be required to affect diabetes risk, and/or associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with improved glucose metabolism observed in nonrandomized studies may be the result of confounding or of other components of foods containing these nutrients.
Chandra, R K
To determine whether supplementation with vitamins and trace elements in modest amounts influences cognitive function in apparently healthy, elderly subjects. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six, apparently healthy, independent men and women older than 65 y of age were recruited and randomized to receive a supplement of trace elements and vitamins or a placebo daily for 12 mo. Blood-nutrient levels were estimated at baseline and at the end of the study. The major outcome measure assessed was cognitive function consisting of immediate and long-term memory, abstract thinking, problem-solving ability, and attention. Eighty-six subjects completed the 1-y trial. The supplemented group showed a significant improvement in all cognitive tests (P 0.1). Those whose blood-nutrient levels were below the reference standard showed lower responses on cognitive tests. There was no significant correlation between individual nutrient levels and performance on various cognitive function tests. Cognitive functions improved after oral supplementation with modest amounts of vitamins and trace elements. This has considerable clinical and public health significance. We recommend that such a supplement be provided to all elderly subjects because it should significantly improve cognition and thus quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Such a nutritional approach may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease.
Fernández Fernández, Nereida; Linares Torres, Pedro; Joáo Matias, Diana; Jorquera Plaza, Francisco; Olcoz Goñi, Jose Luis
Vitamin D (VD) is known to have multiple extra-skeletal health functions. There is emerging interest in exploring the relationship between vitamin D and chronic liver disease (CLD). To determine the prevalence of VD deficiency in patients with CLD in our setting and to assess whether VD supplementation influences plasma levels and is associated with improved liver function. We conducted a study in 2 phases. First, we analysed clinical and epidemiological characteristics in 94 patients with CLD; second, different doses of calcifediol (25-OH-VD) were administered to patients with VD deficiency (C (7.75ng/mL). After VD supplementation, optimal serum levels were achieved in 94% of patients and significant improvements were observed in platelet count, albumin levels (P<.05) and functional status assessed by the Child-Pugh scale (P<.05). Given the high prevalence of VD deficiency or insufficiency, the need for screening should be considered in the population with CLD. VD supplementation could be safe and effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
Wamberg, Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Rejnmark, Lars; Richelsen, Bjørn
Obese subjects are often characterized by low plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. Many explanations for this association have been proposed. Low plasma 25OHD is associated with obesity-related comorbidities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and low-grade inflammation. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms for low 25OHD in obesity and explore the results of recent RCTs on vitamin D (VD) supplementation on obesity and its metabolic complications such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although the results from these clinical randomized controlled trials vary, the general picture is that VD treatment of obese individuals does not seem to be an effective treatment of obesity-related metabolic complications.
Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.
Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni
Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823
Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni
Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko
We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50-69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985-1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases). Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495), risk ratio (RR) = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22). Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054), RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53), and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328), RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08). The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
Bruno D Riverin
Full Text Available There is growing evidence that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma but it is unclear whether supplementation during childhood may improve asthma outcomes.The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation as a treatment or adjunct treatment for asthma.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and CINAHL through July 2014.We included RCTs that evaluated vitamin D supplementation in children versus active control or placebo for asthma.One reviewer extracted data and one reviewer verified data accuracy. We qualitatively summarized the main results of efficacy and safety and meta-analyzed data on comparable outcomes across studies. We used GRADE for strength of evidence.Main planned outcomes measures were ED visits and hospitalizations. As secondary outcomes, we examined measures of asthma control, including frequency of asthma exacerbations, asthma symptom scores, measures of lung function, β2-agonist use and daily steroid use, adverse events and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.Eight RCTs (one parallel, one crossover design comprising 573 children aged 3 to 18 years were included. One study (moderate-quality, n = 100 reported significantly less ED visits for children treated with vitamin D. No other studies examined the primary outcome (ED visits and hospitalizations. There was a reduced risk of asthma exacerbations in children receiving vitamin D (low-quality; RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.63, 3 studies, n = 378. There was no significant effect for asthma symptom scores and lung function. The serum 25(OHD level was higher in the vitamin D group at the end of the intervention (low-quality; MD 19.66 nmol/L, 95% CI 5.96 nmol/L to 33.37 nmol/L, 5 studies, n = 167.We identified a high degree of clinical diversity (interventions and outcomes and methodological heterogeneity (sample size and risk of bias in included trials.Randomized controlled trials provide some low
Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M
The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the
Gasier, Heath G; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Colin R; McAdams, Douglas C; Lutz, Laura J; McClung, James P
Submariners spend prolonged periods submerged without sunlight exposure and may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to maintain vitamin D status. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily vitamin D supplementation on maintenance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during a 3-month submarine patrol. Submariners were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 16), 1,000 IU/day (n = 20), or 2,000 IU/day (n = 17). Anthropometrics, self-reported dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, serum markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) parameters of the tibia were determined before and after the patrol. Prior to departure, 49 % of the subjects were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Following the patrol, 25(OH)D increased in all groups (p < 0.001): 3.3 ± 13.1 (placebo), 4.6 ± 11.3 (1,000 IU/day), and 13 ± 14 nmol/L (2,000 IU/day). The changes in 25(OH)D levels were dependent upon the baseline concentration of 25(OH)D and body mass (p < 0.001). Osteocalcin increased by 38 % (p < 0.01), and pQCT analyses revealed small, yet significant increases in indices of tibial structure and strength (p < 0.05) that were independent of supplementation. These data suggest that vitamin D status was low prior to the patrol, and the subsequent changes in vitamin D status were dependent on the baseline 25(OH)D levels and body mass. Furthermore, short-term skeletal health does not appear to be negatively affected by 3 months of submergence in spite of a suboptimal response to vitamin D supplementation.
Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V
It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant...... for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546 g Ascophylum...... nodosum/kg), natural vitamin E (NatE: 562.5 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), synthetic vitamin E (SyntE: 1125 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), or no extra seaweed or vitamin E (control). The supplements were fed at an isoenergetic daily rate, on average 144 g DM/ewe for SW and 114 g DM/ewe...
Hagen, G.; Wisløff, T.; Sønbø Kristiansen, Ivar
Summary: Some studies indicate that calcium supplementation increases cardiovascular risk. We assessed whether such effects could counterbalance the fracture benefits from supplementation. Accounting for cardiovascular outcomes, calcium may cause net harm and would not be cost-effective. Clinicians...... may do well considering cardiovascular effects when prescribing calcium supplementation. Introduction: Accounting for possible cardiovascular effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation (CaD), the aims of this study were to assess whether CaD on balance would improve population health...... and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such supplementation. Methods: We created a probabilistic Markov simulation model that was analysed at the individual patient level. We analysed 65-year-old Norwegian women with a 2.3 % 10-year risk of hip fracture and a 9.3 % risk of any major fracture according...
Fisker, Ane Bærent; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia
OBJECTIVES: Within a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in Guinea-Bissau, neonatal VAS did not affect overall infant mortality. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to test the hypothesis that neonatal VAS primes the response to subsequent vitamin A. METHODS: All trial...... children were offered VAS after follow-up ended at 1 year of age (FU-VAS). We compared mortality between 1 and 3 years of age according to initial randomization to neonatal VAS or placebo in Cox-regression models; we expected that children randomized to neonatal VAS compared with those randomized...... to placebo would have lower mortality after reception of FU-VAS. RESULTS: Of 4345 infants enrolled in the original trial, 3646 lived in the study area at 1 year of age and 2958 received FU-VAS. Between 1 and 3 years of age, 112 children died. After FU-VAS, neonatal VAS was associated with lower mortality...
Full Text Available Sowohl Vitamin D als auch Kalzium werden für den gesunden Knochenstoffwechsel in ausreichender Konzentration benötigt. Die erhobenen Normwerte für die tägliche Aufnahme sind mit der Nahrung kaum abzudecken und die Regulationsmechanismen von Parathormon führen zur Osteoporose. Bisher ist, abgesehen vom Knochenstoffwechsel, eine Reihe von chronischen Erkrankungen bekannt, die wahrscheinlich mit einer Hypovitaminose D in Zusammenhang stehen. Da derzeit in den überwiegenden Studien die gezielte Supplementation von Vitamin D und Kalzium einen nachweisbaren Effekt zeigte oder zumindest fixer Bestandteil des Therapieregimes ist, kann die derzeit praktizierte Applikation als Standard gelten. Einen positiven Effekt auf Frakturdaten zeigte auch die kürzlich veröffentlichte Metaanalyse, allerdings bei einer Dosierung von 700800 IU. Da eindeutige Vitamin-D-Defizite in der gesunden Bevölkerung nachweisbar sind, sollte Vitamin D vermehrt appliziert werden, sei es durch Sonne, Ernährung oder auch mittels Supplementation. Wünschenswert ist allerdings zukünftig eine Vitamin D-Anreicherung von Nahrungsmitteln, z. B. Milch. Somit könnte zumindest bei Risikogruppen, wie es Altenheimbewohner sind, eine den Richtlinien entsprechende Versorgung gewährleistet werden.
Krause, Rolfdieter; Roth, Heinz Jürgen; Kaase, Heinrich; Stange, Rainer; Holick, Michael F
In chronic kidney disease (CKD) a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is common. The aim of this review was to compare vitamin D status after oral supplementation of vitamin D3 to that of serial suberythemal irradiation in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. Ninety-five patients, with a mean age of 62 (range=35-82) years, were treated with a mean dose of 35,000 (20,000-60,000) IU vitamin D3 per week for a period of 18 months. Fourteen patients, with a mean age of 51 (range=41-57) years, were whole-body UVB irradiated for over 6 months. From 3 hemodialysis patients skin biopsies were performed. With oral supplementation 25(OH)D3 increased by 60%. With UV irradiation 25(OH)D3 increased by 400%. Gene expression analysis demonstrated an improvement in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by 0.65 fold, in 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) by 1.0 fold, and in 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R) by 1.2 fold. Serial suberythemal UVB irradiation of patients with CKD on dialysis is capable to improve serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 by enhancing the skin's ability to activate vitamin D. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Savino, F; Bonfante, G; Madon, E
Sporting activities and periods of convalescence call for an added intake of nutrients in children. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a natural vitamin supplement on diet, food intake, body composition and muscular strength in children during convalescence and in children practising sports. A comparative study was performed in two different groups of subjects: 20 children aged between 6 and 12 years old during convalescence following infections of upper airways, and 20 9-year-old children forming part of a football team. All subjects were randomly subdivided into two groups who were respectively given a vitamin supplement (Vitality Roeder 2000 Junior) or a placebo for 4 weeks. Weight, body composition using and muscolar strength using dynamometer measured before and after the study and a food diary was kept for 3 days before each visit. No significant differences in body mass and strength emerged from the data collected in the athletic group, whereas an increase was observed in appetite, calorie intake, weight and muscular strength in the convalescent group (p vitamin B12, B3, B5 and D levels was observed in both groups. The supplement to provides an adequate intake for those categories at risk of vitamin deficiency or in conditions of increased requirements.
Wiysonge, Charles S; Ndze, Valantine N; Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Shey, Muki S
Background Strategies to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive women, exclusive breastfeeding from birth for six weeks plus nevirapine or replacement feeding plus nevirapine from birth for four to six weeks, elective Caesarean section delivery, and avoiding giving children chewed food. In some settings, these interventions may not be practical, feasible, or affordable. Simple, inexpensive, and effective interventions (that could potentially be implemented even in the absence of prenatal HIV testing programmes) would be valuable. Vitamin A, which plays a role in immune function, is one low-cost intervention that has been suggested in such settings. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving vitamin A supplements to HIV-positive women during pregnancy and after delivery. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) up to 25 August 2017, and checked the reference lists of relevant articles for eligible studies. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials conducted in any setting that compared vitamin A supplements to placebo or no intervention among HIV-positive women during pregnancy or after delivery, or both. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) as appropriate, with their 95% confidence intervals (CI), and conducted random-effects meta-analyses. This is an update of a review last published in 2011. Main results Five trials met the inclusion criteria. These were conducted in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe between 1995 and 2005 and none of the participants received ART. Women allocated to intervention arms received
Abrahamsen, Bo; Sahota, Opinder
on the Danish National Colorectal Cancer Database and included patients treated with abdominoperineal resection between 1 May 2001 and 31 December 2006. Follow up in the departments was supplemented with vital status in the Civil Registration System. The analysis included actuarial local and distant recurrence...
Apr 12, 2010 ... Lipid and myoglobin oxidation are major causes of meat quality deterioration during storage of fresh chicken meat. Our objective is to determine the effects of dietary α-tocopherol supplementation on lipid and colour stability of fresh chicken thigh meat exposed in a supermarket shopwindow or stored in a.
... from foods and supplements. It also plays a role in helping muscles, nerves, and the immune system work properly. Calcium is a mineral that helps maintain strong bones and teeth. The body also needs calcium for ... work properly, and it plays a role in the release of hormones and enzymes that ...
Kirchhoff, K. T.; Failing, K.; Goericke-Pesch, S.
Among others, selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VitE) have been provided to dogs to improve semen quality. However, scientific evidence documenting an effect in dogs is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of these antioxidants on various ejaculate parameters......, morphology, concentration) were performed before inclusion (D0) and after 1, 2 and 3 months (+1, +2, +3). At the same time, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and VitE in seminal plasma (SP) and GSH-PX in blood samples were determined. Vitamin E levels in SP were below the detection limit (1.0 mg/L) in all...
Mishra, Ashok; Mishra, Subodh; Jain, Pankaj; Bhadoriya, Rahul Singh; Mishra, Rakesh; Lahariya, Chandrakant
Measles is associated with high rate of complications and contributes to a major proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. The role of vit A supplementation (VAS) in the case management of measles and prevention of complications is partially understood and not sufficiently supported by epidemiological data. This paper analyses the possible role of vit A supplementation in prevention of measles related complications and associated fatality. A cross sectional study was carried out during an outbreak of measles in Shivpuri, India. A total population of 193,000 was covered by house to house visit and, the caregivers of total 1204 measles cases, including 214 cases with complications, were interviewed using a semi structured interview schedule. The analysis of data was done using Epi Info. The attack rate of 6.7% and rate of complications at 17.8% were found in this investigation. The coverage with routine measles vaccine and the vit A supplementation was 18.3% and 28.9% respectively. The management of measles cases was poor with only 15.8% cases receiving therapeutic doses of vit A. Both complications and case fatality rate was higher amongst children who had not received vit A supplementation in previous 6 months (pMeasles vaccine also found to have preventive effect on development of complications (pmeasles vaccination reduce the chances of complications amongst cases of measles. The role of VAS becomes more important when the case management is poor. While, measles is frequently associated with complications in the Indian setting, there is a need of enhancing the efforts to improve the delivery of vit A supplementation and measles vaccine to the children in rural areas.
Meheroz H Rabadi
Full Text Available Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog, and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS.Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20, FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41, FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21 sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59, and discharge disposition (home/institution (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60 between the vitamin C and the control groups.Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients
Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Andersen, Louise Bjoerkholt; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen; Nielsen, Jan; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Joergensen, Jan Stener; Husby, Steffen; Christesen, Henrik Thybo
Hypovitaminosis D, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) birth weight (BW) and placental weight (PW) as well as reduced placental development. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the risk factors of cord vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D birth to singletons and donated a blood sample for s-25(OH)D measurements were included (n = 2082). The prevalence of cord vitamin D deficiency was 16.7% and 41.0% for insufficiency. White skin, winter season at birth, maternal supplementation dose of supplementation dose (10 μg/day) was reported by 87% (primipara 91% vs. multipara 81%, p 60 nmol/L. Cord hypovitaminosis D was present in 57.7%. Multipara was identified as a novel risk factor of non-adherence to vitamin D supplementation recommendations; and a maternal supplementation dose <15 μg/day as a novel, independent risk factor of cord hypovitaminosis D. Higher BW, PW, and PW/BW ratio were associated to higher cord s-25(OH)D levels with a suggested cut-off at 60 nmol/L. More studies are encouraged to elucidate the impact of cord s-25(OH)D levels on offspring health and to establish optimal cut-offs for these outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Azami, Milad; Azadi, Tayebe; Farhang, Sepidezahra; Rahmati, Shoobo; Pourtaghi, Khadijeh
Several studies have reported the uncertain role of multi-minerals and vitamins in the prevention of preeclampsia. The present study aims to investigate the effect of multimineral-vitamin D supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D) and vitamins (C+ E) in the prevention of preeclampsia. In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were divided into three groups: group A received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + one tablet of Claci-care multimineral-vitamin D containing 800mg calcium, 200mg magnesium, 8mg zinc and 400 IU Vitamin D3 per day; group B received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + 250 mg vitamin C + 55 mg vitamin E; and the controls received only one Ferrous sulfate tablet daily. The incidence of preeclampsia in group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.03), while there was no significant difference between group B and controls (p=0.50), as well as groups A and B (p=0.063). The incidence of neonatal complications in the group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.01), while there was no significant difference between group B and control (p=0.48). According to the results, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplements have a significant effect on the prevention of preeclampsia. In addition, prescription of multimineral-vitamin D during pregnancy can be a low-cost and affordable way to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in women who are at high risk of preeclampsia.
Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam A; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé; Rosado, Jorge L; Keyes, William R; Newman, John W; Miller, Joshua W; Allen, Lindsay H
A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations has been reported in studies and surveys in Latin America including Mexico, but the functional consequences are unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the response to a high-dose vitamin B-12 supplementation of women in rural Querétaro, Mexico. Participants aged 20-59 y were stratified at baseline to deficient, marginal, and adequate status groups (serum vitamin B-12, 75-148, 149-220, and >220 pmol/L, respectively), and each group was randomized to vitamin B-12 treatment (single dose of 1 mg i.m. then 500 μg/d orally for 3 mo, n = 70) or placebo (n = 62). Measures at baseline and 3 mo included: complete blood count, serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), folate, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), bone alkaline phosphatase, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). At baseline, 11% of the women were vitamin B-12 deficient and 22% had marginal status. HoloTC was low (271 nmol/L) and tHcy (>12 μmol/L) occurred in 21 and 31%, respectively, and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.28, P alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B-12 supplementation normalized biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 status in the treatment group but did not affect the functional outcomes measured.
Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus; D'Angelo, Stefania; Curtis, Elizabeth M; Crozier, Sarah R; Barton, Sheila J; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Graham, Nikki J; Holloway, John W; Bishop, Nicholas J; Kennedy, Stephen; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Schoenmakers, Inez; Fraser, Robert; Gandhi, Saurabh V; Prentice, Ann; Inskip, Hazel M; Javaid, M Kassim
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to vitamin D metabolism have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, but these relationships have not been examined following antenatal cholecalciferol supplementation. To determine whether SNPs in DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, and GC are associated with the response to gestational cholecalciferol supplementation. Within-randomization group analysis of the Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study trial of antenatal cholecalciferol supplementation. Hospital antenatal clinics. In total, 682 women of white ethnicity (351 placebo, 331 cholecalciferol) were included. SNPs at rs12785878 (DHCR7), rs10741657 (CYP2R1), rs6013897 (CYP24A1), and rs2282679 (GC) were genotyped. 1000 IU/d cholecalciferol from 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. 25(OH)D at randomization and 34 weeks of gestation were measured in a single batch (Liaison; Diasorin, Dartford, UK). Associations between 25(OH)D and the SNPs were assessed by linear regression using an additive model [β represents the change in 25(OH)D per additional common allele]. Only rs12785878 (DHCR7) was associated with baseline 25(OH)D [β = 3.1 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0 to 5.2 nmol/L; P D status following supplementation, whereas rs12785878 and rs6013897 (CYP24A1) were not. Genetic variation in DHCR7, which encodes 7-dehyrocholesterol reductase in the epidermal vitamin D biosynthesis pathway, appears to modify baseline 25(OH)D. In contrast, the response to antenatal cholecalciferol supplementation was associated with SNPs in CYP2R1, which may alter 25-hydroxylase activity, and GC, which may affect vitamin D binding protein synthesis or metabolite affinity. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society
Shaik, Munvar Miya; Gan, Siew Hua
Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.
Full Text Available Abstract The history of the allergy pandemic is well documented, enabling us to put the vitamin D hypothesis into its historical context. The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence of rickets, vitamin D supply, and allergy prevalence at 50-year intervals by means of a retrospective analysis of the literature since 1880. English cities in 1880 were characterized by an extremely high rickets prevalence, the beginning of commercial cod liver oil production, and the near absence of any allergic diseases. By 1930 hay fever prevalence had risen to about 3% in English-speaking countries where cod liver oil was preferentially used for the treatment of rickets. In 1980 vitamin D was used nation-wide in all industrialized countries as supplement to industrial baby food, thus eradicating nearly all cases of rickets. At the same time the allergy prevalence reached an all-time high, affecting about 30% of the population. Time trends are therefore compatible with the vitamin D hypothesis although direct conclusions cannot be drawn. It is interesting, however, to note that there are at least two earlier research papers linking synthesized vitamin D intake and allergy (Reed 1930 and Selye 1962 published prior to the modern vitamin D hypothesis first proposed in 1999.
Background. Vitamin D has important skeletal and extraskeletal roles but those living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal levels because of reduced sunlight exposure. Aim. To describe the vitamin D status of Irish children and identify factors predictive of vitamin D status. Methods. A prospective cross sectional study was undertaken over a 12 month period. Two hundred and fifty two healthy children attending for minor medical or surgical procedures were recruited. All had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone and bone profiles measured. Results. The mean (standard deviation) for 25OHD was 51(25) nmol\\/L (20.4 (10) ng\\/mL). Forty-five percent had levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). The following variables were significantly associated with 25OHD levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL): sample drawn in April-September, use of vitamin D supplements, consumption of formula milk, and non-African ethnicity. Conclusion. More than half of the children in this study had 25OHD levels less than 50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). Vitamin D status was significantly improved by augmented oral vitamin D intake.
Nissen, S. B.; Tjonneland, A.; Stripp, C.
Objective: The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among...... postmenopausal women was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements. Methods: Data was sampled as case - control nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. Data on vitamin intakes were collected at entry into the cohort by means of self-administered questionnaires. Women...... eligible for the nested case - control study were postmenopausal at entry into the cohort. The analyses were based on 418 cases of incident breast cancer and 394 controls ( including two cases). Results: Breast cancer was not significantly related to the intakes of vitamin A or E, whereas a monotonic dose...
Nissen, S. B.; Tjonneland, A.; Stripp, C.
Objective: The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among...... A or E for postmenopausal women. For vitamin C we found an increase in breast cancer rate with increasing intake....... postmenopausal women was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements. Methods: Data was sampled as case - control nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. Data on vitamin intakes were collected at entry into the cohort by means of self-administered questionnaires. Women...
Ali Asghar Ghafarizadeh
Full Text Available Abstract Background: In Asthenoteratozoospermic men, low motility, defected DNA and highly oxidative stress in sperm cause poor assisted reproductive techniques (ART outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Vitamin E (Vit E, as a potent antioxidant, on sperm motility, viability and DNA integrity at different times of in vitro incubation (after 2, 4 and 6-h to improve asthenoteratozoospermic semen samples for ART. Materials and Methods: Asthenoteratozoospermic semen samples of 50 volunteers were collected and examined. Each sample was divided into two groups of control and vitamin E (2mM and kept in the 37 °C and 6 % CO2 for 2, 4 and 6 hours. After this incubation, sperm motility, viability and sperm DNA fragmentation (SCD were evaluated in each group. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement of ANOVA and T-test. The means were considered significantly different at p<0.05. Results:Significant decrease in total and progressive motility and viability as well as significant increase in sperm DNA damage (after 6h of incubation were found in control group vs. the control group before incubation (p<0.05. The sperm motility and viability was significantly higher in vitamin E group compared to untreated control group (p<0.05. Our results also showed that DNA fragmentation significantly was lower after 6h of vitamin E treatment (p<0.05. Conclusion: In vitro supplementation of vitamin E in asthenoteratozoospermia semen samples may protect spermatozoa from maltreatment effect of ROS during sperm sampling via keeping enzymatic and antioxidant process in optimum condition.
Full Text Available Background: The Neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly affecting the elderly with a severe impact on their brain health. There is a wide gap in supplementation based studies for increasing the cognition levels of the geriatric population, especially in developing countries like India which are at extreme risk of developing neurological disorders. And recently Vitamin B12 has drawn considerable attention due to its ability to improve the cognitive status. Current literature has linked the possibility of alleviating neurological disorders in the elderly with effective vitamin B12 management. Abundant animal and human models have proved that supplementation of vitamin B12 is beneficial for the restoration of cognitive functions. Objective: To supplement vitamin B12 deficient mild cognitively impaired geriatric patients with injectable doses of vitamin B12 followed by impact evaluation. Methods: Screening of the mild cognitively impaired patients was carried out using the Mini- Mental State Examination and Yamaguchi Fox Pigeon Imitation test. Baseline information was elicited from the patients residing in urban Vadodara (a district in the state of Gujarat, India. This included socio-demographic, medical and drug history, anthropometric and physical activity pattern, in addition to biochemical parameters comprising of serum vitamin B12 and glycated haemoglobin profile. A sub-sample of 60 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI demonstrating severe vitamin B12 deficiency were conveniently enrolled for injectable doses of Vitamin B 12 in the dosage of 1,000 µg every day for one week, followed by 1,000 µg every week for 4 weeks & finishing with 1,000 µg for the remaining 4 months. An intervention six- month after the experiment with all the parameters were elicited. Results: Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in a significant (p<0.001 improvement in the MMSE scores of the patients with a rise of 9.63% in the total patients. Gender
Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...
Marsh, Wendy K; Penny, Jessica L; Rothschild, Anthony J
Bipolar depression is difficult to treat. Vitamin D supplementation is well tolerated and may improve mood via its neurotransmitter synthesis regulation, nerve growth factor enhancement and antioxidant properties. Vitamin D adjunct reduces unipolar depression, but has not been tried in bipolar depression. 18-70yos with DSM IV bipolar depression and Vitamin D deficiency (Vitamin D 3 po qday supplementation versus placebo for twelve weeks. Change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), medication, and tolerance were assessed q2weeks. 16 VitD vs 17 placebo subjects did not differ in baseline characteristics (mean = 44 yo, SD = 13), VitD level (19.2 ± 65.8 g/ml vs 19.3 ± 5.5 ng/ml respectively) or mood ratings (MADRS 21.3 ± 6.4 vs 22.8 ± 6.9 respectively). At 12wks, the placebo group VitD levels remained unchanged, while the VitD group levels increased to 28 ng/ml. MADRS score decreased significantly in both placebo (mean = 6.42 (95% CI [2.28 to 10.56]) and VitD groups (mean = 9.54 (95% CI[3.51 to 15.56]) (p = 0.031), but there were no differences between treatment groups (time by treatment interaction estimate: 0.29, t (23) = 0.14, p = 0.89); VitD and placebo groups had similar reductions in YMRS and HAM-A. Vitamin D 3 was well tolerated. In this small study, despite a greater rise in Vitamin D levels in the VitD supplementation group, there was no significant difference reduction in depressive symptoms. However both groups' VitD levels remained deficient. Vitamin D 3 supplementation vs placebo did not improve reduction in mood elevation or anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McCarthy, Roberta A; McKenna, Malachi J; Oyefeso, Oyinkansola; Uduma, Ogenna; Murray, Barbara F; Brady, Jennifer J; Kilbane, Mark T; Murphy, John F; Twomey, Anne; O' Donnell, Colm P; Murphy, Nuala P; Molloy, Eleanor J
Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P125 nmol/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.
McCarthy, Roberta A
Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol\\/l (20 ng\\/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol\\/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P< 0·001). At follow-up, after a median of 104 (IQR 78-127) d, 87 % achieved levels ≥ 50 nmol\\/l and 8 % had levels >125 nmol\\/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol\\/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.
Ferira, Ashley J; Laing, Emma M; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hall, Daniel B; McCabe, George P; Martin, Berdine R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Warden, Stuart J; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, Richard D
Vitamin D supplementation trials with diabetes-related outcomes have been conducted almost exclusively in adults and provide equivocal findings. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response of vitamin D supplementation on fasting glucose, insulin, and a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in white and black children aged 9–13 years, who participated in the Georgia, Purdue, and Indiana University (or GAPI) trial: a 12-week multisite, randomized, triple-masked, dose-response, placebo-controlled vitamin D trial. Black and white children in the early stages of puberty (N = 323, 50% male, 51% black) were equally randomized to receive vitamin D3 (0, 400, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/day) for 12 weeks. Fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. Statistical analyses were conducted as intent-to-treat using a mixed effects model. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin (r = −0.140, P = 0.017) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = −0.146, P = 0.012) after adjusting for race, sex, age, pubertal maturation, fat mass, and body mass index. Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased (F > 5.79, P insulin resistance, vitamin D supplementation had no impact on fasting glucose, insulin, or a surrogate measure of insulin resistance over 12 weeks in apparently healthy children.
World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...
Weernink, M.G.; Wijk, R.M. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Lanting, C.I.; Grant, C.C.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.
Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbed skeletal homeostasis during infancy. Our aim was to investigate the influence of adherence to recommendations for vitamin D supplement intake of 10 μg per day (400 IU) during pregnancy (mother) and in the first months of life
Meydani, Mohsen; Kwan, Paul; Band, Michael; Knight, Ashley; Guo, Weimin; Goutis, Jason; Ordovas, Jose
Epidemiological and experimental evidence have indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials have reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from an early age may prevent or retard the development and progression of atherosclerosis and CHD mortality. To test this hypothesis, 300 Ldlr(-/-) mice were divided into groups receiving Western style high fat/cholesterol (HFHC), moderate fat/cholesterol (MFMC), or low fat/cholesterol (LFLC) diets all containing 50 IU of vitamin E. These dietary groups were further subdivided into four sub-groups (n = 25) receiving their respective diets with no vitamin E supplementation or additionally supplemented with vitamin E (500 IU/kg diet) starting at the early age of 5 wks, or 6 mo, or 12 mo. All mice remained on their assigned diets until age 18 mo. Body weight, health status and survival rate of mice were monitored and recorded. After 18 mo of dietary treatments, mice were sacrificed. Body weight was the highest in HFHC groups and the lowest in LFLC groups. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides was high in all dietary groups, and plasma vitamin E was high in vitamin E supplemented groups. Fifty percent of mice fed Western style HFHC diet and 53% of mice fed MFMC diet survived during the 18 mo, whereas 75% of mice fed LFLC diet survived during the 18 mo dietary treatments. At the age of 18 mo, all the Ldlr(-/-) mice, regardless of dietary treatments, had several advanced atherosclerotic lesions in both aortic root and aortic tree. Within the LFLC groups, those that received vitamin E supplements from age 5 wks up to 18 mo had a significantly higher survival rate of 88% (p = 0.04) and lower mortality (12%) compared to mice that did not receive vitamin E supplements (64%). This lower mortality rate and higher survival rate coincided with significantly (p = 0.03) fewer
Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe - recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
Płudowski, Paweł; Karczmarewicz, Elżbieta; Bayer, Milan; Carter, Graham; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta; Czech-Kowalska, Justyna; Dębski, Romuald; Decsi, Tamas; Dobrzańska, Anna; Franek, Edward; Głuszko, Piotr; Grant, William B; Holick, Michael F; Yankovskaya, Liudmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Książyk, Janusz B; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Litwin, Mieczysław; Lohner, Szimonetta; Lorenc, Roman S; Lukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Milewicz, Andrzej; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Nowicki, Michał; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Rozentryt, Piotr; Rudenka, Ema; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Socha, Piotr; Solnica, Bogdan; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Tałałaj, Marek; Varbiro, Szabolcs; Żmijewski, Michał A
Adequate Vitamin D intake and its concentration in serum are important for bone health and calcium-phosphate metabolism as well as for optimal function of many organs and tissues. Documented trends in lifestyle, nutritional habits and physical activity appear to be associated with moderate or severe Vitamin D deficits resulting in health problems. Most epidemiological studies suggest that Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Central European populations. Concern about this problem led to the organising of a conference focused on overcoming Vitamin D deficiency. After reviewing the epidemiological evidence and relevant literature, a Polish multidisciplinary group formulated theses on recommendations for Vitamin D screening and supplementation in the general population. These theses were subsequently sent to Scientific Committee members of the 'Vitamin D - minimum, maximum, optimum' conference for evaluation based on a ten-point scale.With 550 international attendees, the meeting 'Vitamin D - minimum, maximum, optimum' was held on October 19-20, 2012 in Warsaw(Poland). Most recent scientific evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal effects of Vitamin D as well as the results of panellists' voting were reviewed and discussed during eight plenary sessions and two workshops. Based on many polemical discussions, including post-conference networking, the key opinion leaders established ranges of serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D concentration indicating Vitamin D deficiency [consensus on supplementation guidance and population strategies for Vitamin D in Central Europe.
P. A. Astawa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the influence of vitamin-mineral supplementation on digestibility and rumen fermentation in Bali cattle. The randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replications were used in the research. In this study was used 16 Bali cattle with body weight around 295.31+23.07 kg. Rations used in the treatments were Treatment A (control: rice straw ad libitum plus commercial feed; Treatment B: Treatment A ration plus 0.2% vitamin-mineral in commercial feed; Treatment C: Treatment A ration plus 0.3% vitamin-mineral in commercial feed, and Treatment D: Treatment A ration plus 0.4% vitamin-mineral in commercial feed. Parameters measured were nutrient digestibility, rumen metabolites and urinary allantoin. The results showed that supplementation of vitamin-mineral at 0.2 - 0.4% in commercial feed did not increase the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fiber, except for dry matter and organic matter digestibilities at 0.2% supplementation (p<0.05. However, the vitamin-mineral supplementation increased concentrations of partial VFA and ammonia as well as for methane gas production, except for VFA and ammonia at 0.4% level. Vitamin-mineral supplementation at 0.2-0.4% level did not affected pH value of rumen fluid and urinary allantoin.
Methods:We utilized randomized controlled double – blind intervention, administering 300,000 IU vitamin D in divided doses of 6 50,000 IU pearls per day to the treatment group and 6 pearls of placebo to control group in the first week of intervention. Participants were 88 men and women aged 30 to 65 which had metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATP III definition and had referred to diabetes clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. 25(OHD3 levels and anthropometric parameters including weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio were measured at the beginning and 3 months later. Results: There was a significant increase in serum 25(OHD3 levels from 20 ng/ml to 33 ng/ml at the end of the study in vitamin D supplemented group (P-value < 0.001. There was a significant decrease in waist circumference in the vitamin D supplemented group at the end of the study (P-value = 0.005. There was no significant difference in weight, BMI and waist to hip ratio in the groups at the end of the study. Conclusion: Improving vitamin D status decreases waist circumference but does not affect other anthropometric parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Goldstein, Jennifer N; Long, Judith A; Arevalo, Doris; Ibrahim, Said A; Mao, Jun J
Vitamins and supplements are the most commonly used form of complementary and alternative medicine in the United States. Growing research suggests that patients substitute vitamins and supplements for their prescription medications. The reasons might include cost of prescription medications and discordant patient and doctor health belief systems. To investigate the prevalence of substitution of vitamins and supplements for prescription medications among veterans who receive care in the VA health care system and whether substitution is associated with prescription rationing due to cost, treatment beliefs, or distrust of the health system. Cross-sectional observational survey. Primary care patients (n=275) at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Medication substitution, prescription medication rationing, treatment beliefs, and health system distrust were measured with structured instruments. Multivariate logistic regression was performed with substitution as the dependent variable. A significant number of primary care patients in the VA system use vitamins and supplements 206 (75%). The prevalence of medication substitution is high 48 (18%). Medication substitution is strongly associated with prescription rationing due to cost (adjusted odds ratio 6.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.0-19.5, P=0.001). Similarly, greater belief in complementary and alternative approaches to care positively predicts medication substitution (adjusted odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.15, P=0.011). There is no significant association between health system distrust and likelihood of medication substitution. Medication substitution is prevalent in this sample of inner city primary care patients who receive care in the VA system. Cost of prescriptions and belief in the value of complementary and alternative approaches to care appear to be associated with this patient-driven treatment decision.
Fernández-Santos, M R; Domínguez-Rebolledo, A E; Esteso, M C; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F
We have approached the problem of refrigerated storage of epididymal sperm samples from red deer by comparing three options: storing the genital (testicles within the scrotum), diluting the semen in extender or diluting the semen in extender supplemented with an anti-oxidant. Twenty-nine pairs of testes were collected. Spermatozoa from one of each of the pairs were immediately recovered, and diluted to 400 x 10(6) sperm/ml in Tris-citrate-fructose with 20% egg yolk. Control group was stored as such, and Anti-oxidant group was supplemented with 0.8 mm vitamin C. The remaining epididymides and the diluted samples were stored at 5 degrees C and spermatozoa were analysed at 0, 24, 96 and 192 h for: motility [computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA)], acrosomal integrity, sperm viability (eosine/nigrosine staining), normal tails and chromatin status [sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)]. In general, seminal quality decreased with storage time. Vitamin C supported progressive motility better at 24 h (median 42% vs 23% Control and 15% epididymis), reduced the incidence of tail abnormalities and protected chromatin. Storing the semen in the epididymis slowed down motility loss, but slightly increased the occurrence of tail abnormalities and viability was lower at 192 h. However, regarding chromatin status, sperm stored in the epididymis was protected similarly to those diluted in the medium supplemented with vitamin C. Although the differences between the three groups were small, there were some advantages in supplementing the extender with vitamin C. Besides, refrigerating the epididymis may be a good option when immediate processing is not available.
Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.; West, C.E.; Muhilal,
Background: Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc are prevalent in women and infants in developing countries. Supplementation during pregnancy can benefit mother and infant. Objective: We examined whether supplementation during pregnancy with iron and folic acid plus beta-carotene or zinc or
Sultana, Tanjim; DeVita, Maria V; Michelis, Michael F
Functional iron deficiency (FID) is a major cause of persistent anemia in dialysis patients and also contributes to a suboptimal response to erythropoietin (Epo) administration. Vitamin C acts as an enzyme cofactor and enhances mobilization of the ferrous form of iron to transferrin thus increasing its bioavailability. High-dose intravenous vitamin C has been shown to decrease the Epo requirement and improve hemoglobin levels in previous studies. This study assessed the effect of low-dose oral vitamin C on possible reduction in Epo dose requirements in stable hemodialysis patients with FID. This prospective study included 22 stable hemodialysis patients with FID defined as transferrin saturation (T sat) 100 mcg/L with Epo requirement of ≥4000 U/HD session. Patients received oral vitamin C 250 mg daily for 3 months. Hemoglobin, iron and T sat levels were recorded monthly. No one received iron supplementation during the study period. There was a significant reduction in median Epo dose requirement in the 15 patients who completed the study, from 203.1 U/kg/week (95 % CI 188.4-270.6) to 172.8 U/kg/week (95 % CI 160.2-214.8), (P = 0.01). In the seven responders, there was 33 % reduction in Epo dose from their baseline. Despite adjustment of Epo dose, the mean hemoglobin level was significantly increased from 10.1 ± 0.6 to 10.7 ± 0.6 mg/dL (P = 0.03). No adverse effects of oral vitamin C were observed. Daily low-dose oral vitamin C supplementation reduced Epo dose requirements in hemodialysis patients with FID. Limitations of this study include a small sample size and the lack of measurements of vitamin C and oxalate levels. Despite concerns regarding oral vitamin C absorption in dialysis patients, this study indicates vitamin C was well tolerated by all participants without reported adverse effect.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the use of vitamin supplements among patients visiting Out-Patient clinics of a teaching hospital.Methods: Four hundred patients were interviewed during the period of July to September 2008, at the Out-patient clinics, Aga Khan University hospital, Karachi. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect information. It consisted of questions regarding demographics, awareness of vitamin supplements and its consumption, reasons for usage and its effects. The purpose of the study was explained and assurance of confidentiality was given. After obtaining written consent, eligible individuals were interviewed. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0 was used to analyze the data.Results: The results revealed that 98�0of the respondents were aware of vitamin supplements. The most known vitamin was found to be Vitamin C (16.9�20with Vitamin K being the least well known(0.4� while 51.8�0of the respondents were unaware of the harmful effects of vitamin supplements. The results also showed that 84.8�0of the study population had taken vitamin supplements, and 79�0of the participants considered that vitamin supplementsto be helpful. Taking vitamin supplements as a compensation for the deficiencies in the body was the most frequently chosen answer (17.7�20as the reason for use of vitamin supplements. On the other hand, a majority of the population was unaware of the indications for use of vitamin supplements.Conclusion: This study highlights a very significant yet ignored issue of vitamin supplementation in Pakistan. A need exists to inform the general population about the use of vitamin supplementation. The media and the medical community are required to play their role in this regard. Short/ refresher training courses are needed for doctors to update and disseminate adequate knowledge of vitamin supplementation to their patients.
Zoppi, Claudio C; Hohl, Rodrigo; Silva, Fernando C; Lazarim, Fernanda L; Neto, Joaquim Mf Antunes; Stancanneli, Mirtes; Macedo, Denise V
Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n = 5) received vitamins C and E supplementation daily during the pre-competitive season (S group), while the placebo group (PL group, n = 5) received a pill containing maltodextrin. Both groups performed the same training load during the three-month pre-season training period. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase and plasma carbonyl derivatives did not show any significant variation among the experimental groups. Similarly, fitness level markers did not differ among the experimental groups. However, S group demonstrated lower lipid peroxidation and muscle damage levels (p enhance performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n = 5 received vitamins C and E supplementation daily during the pre-competitive season (S group, while the placebo group (PL group, n = 5 received a pill containing maltodextrin. Both groups performed the same training load during the three-month pre-season training period. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase and plasma carbonyl derivatives did not show any significant variation among the experimental groups. Similarly, fitness level markers did not differ among the experimental groups. However, S group demonstrated lower lipid peroxidation and muscle damage levels (p
Winsey, K.; Simon, R.J.; Levenson, S.M.; Seifter, E.; Demetriou, A.A.
We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin A on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Rats were divided into two groups. Those in the first group were fed a standard chow diet and those in the second group were fed the same diet supplemented with 150 IU vitamin A/g of chow. The rats were maintained on their respective diets throughout the experiment. After 7 days, half the rats in each group underwent abdominal irradiation (200 rads). Seven days later, all of the rats underwent distal colon division and anastomosis under pentobarbital anesthesia. All rats were killed 7 days postoperatively, the colons excised, and bursting strength and hydroxyproline determinations performed on both the anastomotic segment and a normal proximal segment of adjacent colon. There was a significant decrease in the bursting strength at the colon anastomosis (p less than 0.02) and in the collagen content (p less than 0.02) after preoperative irradiation. This effect was mitigated by dietary vitamin A supplementation
Michalis G. Nikolaidis
Full Text Available The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body’s ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.
Sitorus, M. S.; Anggraini, D. R.; Hidayat
Has become a global issue that the increase in global warming mainly caused by high air pollution levels which are donated by motor vehicle emissions. As a rapidly developing country, Indonesia becomes vulnerable to health problems related to air pollution. Excessive free radicals that is produced by air pollution can initiate stress oxidative. Already known that, stress oxidative trigger many health problems. Vitamin C and E is a non enzymatic antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals. This study aims to investigate the decreasing free radicals level by administering vitamin C and E. This research using pre and post experimental design study. There are 24 operators gasoline station Pertamina as samples, with an average age of 26 years. The samples were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 (control), group 2, were given vitamin C doses of 500mg / day, group 3 was given vitamin E doses of 250 IU / day and the group 4 was given a combination of vitamins C and E. The treatment was given for 30 days. Free radicals level is obtained from malonaldehyde (MDA) level by spectrophotometer. Before treatment the average of MDA level is 5.540 µm. After the treatment, MDA is significantly decreased become 3.992 µm (T-test, sig<0.05). This result can be used as a sign of side affect of air pollutant in the operator SPBU. As reminding to protect the employee with safety aid and supplement.
Sheikhzadeh, Mahboobeh; Lotfi, Yones; Mousavi, Abdollah; Heidari, Behzad; Monadi, Mohsen; Bakhshi, Enayatollah
Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is linked to vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial aimed to determine the influence of vitamin D supplementation on intensity of BPPV. Methods: The study population was selected consecutively and the diagnosis of BPPV was made by history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Intensity of BPVV was assessed based on VAS score (0-10). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and levels BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period. Conclusion: This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV. PMID:27386060
Brasky, Theodore M; White, Emily; Chen, Chi-Ling
Purpose Inconsistent findings have been reported of a link between the use of one-carbon metabolism-related B vitamins and lung cancer risk. Because of the high prevalence of supplemental vitamin B use, any possible increased association warrants further investigation. We examined the association between long-term use of supplemental B vitamins on the one-carbon metabolism pathway and lung cancer risk in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort, which was designed specifically to look at supplement use relative to cancer risk. Methods A total of 77,118 participants of the VITAL cohort, 50 to 76 years of age, were recruited between October 2000 and December 2002 and included in this analysis. Incident, primary, invasive lung cancers (n = 808) were ascertained by prospectively linking the participants to a population-based cancer registry. The 10-year average daily dose from individual and multivitamin supplements were the exposures of primary interest. Results Use of supplemental vitamins B 6 , folate, and B 12 was not associated with lung cancer risk among women. In contrast, use of vitamin B 6 and B 12 from individual supplement sources, but not from multivitamins, was associated with a 30% to 40% increase in lung cancer risk among men. When the 10-year average supplement dose was evaluated, there was an almost two-fold increase in lung cancer risk among men in the highest categories of vitamin B 6 (> 20 mg/d; hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.65) and B 12 (> 55µg/d; hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.97) compared with nonusers. For vitamin B 6 and B 12 , the risk was even higher among men who were smoking at baseline. In addition, the B 6 and B 12 associations were apparent in all histologic types except adenocarcinoma, which is the type less related to smoking. Conclusion This sex- and source-specific association provides further evidence that vitamin B supplements are not chemopreventive for lung cancer and may be harmful.
Shetty, Rohit; Deshpande, Kalyani; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Sethu, Swaminathan
To report the case of a 28-year-old patient with persistent bilateral burning pain and foreign body sensation in both eyes for the past 1 year. The patient showed a poor response to 0.05% cyclosporine eye drops and frequent instillations of artificial tears. Ocular examination showed few superficial punctate epithelial defects, well-positioned laser in situ keratomileusis (performed 5 years ago with symptomless recovery) flaps, and clear interfaces bilaterally, with a tear film breakup time of 7 and 8 seconds in the right and left eyes, respectively. The results of Schirmer tests, confocal microscopy, corneal esthesiometry, and meibography were normal for both eyes. The patient was incidentally diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency, with a serum vitamin B12 value of 90 pg/mL (reference range, 236-911 pg/mL), during routine laboratory tests. In view of weak correlation between signs and symptoms, a putative diagnosis of ocular neuropathic pain secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency was made. Case report. The patient was treated with parenteral vitamin B12, and topical therapy was continued without any changes. The patient experienced dramatic improvement with a decrease in symptoms within 3 weeks of administering vitamin B12 supplements and was symptom-free in the absence of any topical medication 6 months after treatment. Vitamin B12 deficiency, although common in India, has not been reported to be associated with ocular symptoms, including pain and mimicking those seen in severe dry eye. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ocular neuropathic pain and dry eye in patients presenting with recalcitrant ocular neuropathic pain.
Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with Beta-carotene, vitamin a, and vitamin e singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality
Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian
Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias.......Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias....
Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels
Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. A single centre, triple-blinded, randomized clinical trial. 1427 infertile men were screened to include 330. 1002 men did not meet inclusion criteria and 95 did not wish to participate. The active group received cholecalciferol 300,000IU initially followed by 1400IU + 500mg calcium daily for 150 days, while the other group received placebo. Serum concentrations of 25-OHD and 1,25OH2D3 were significantly higher in men treated with vitamin D + calcium for 150 days compared with placebo. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with changes in semen parameters although spontaneous pregnancies tended to be higher 7.3% vs 2.4%,Δ5.0% [-0.6%;10.5%]. Vitamin D treatment in a subgroup of oligozoospermic men increased the chance for a live birth compared with placebo 35.6% vs 18.3%,Δ17.3% [1.6%; 32.9%]. Moreover, serum inhibin B was higher in vitamin D deficient men randomized to vitamin D 193pg/ml vs 143pg/ml, Δ49pg/ml [8;91pg/ml], however, the increase in sperm concentration was not significantly higher than placebo (p=0.07). High dose vitamin D supplementation did not improve semen quality in vitamin D insufficient infertile men. The positive impact of vitamin D supplementation on live birth rate and serum inhibin B in oligozoospermic and vitamin D deficient men may be of clinical importance and warrant verification by others. NCT01304927.
Yakoob, Mohammad Y; Salam, Rehana A; Khan, Farhan R; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Vitamin D is a micronutrient important for bone growth and immune function. Deficiency can lead to rickets and has been linked to various infections, including respiratory infections. The evidence on the effects of supplementation on infections in children has not been assessed systematically. To evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrhoea, and malaria in children under five years of age. This includes high-, middle-, and low-income countries. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; http://www.who.int/ictrp/en/) , ClinicalTrials.gov and the ISRCTN registry (http://www.isrctn.com/) up to 16 June 2016. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated preventive supplementation of vitamin D (versus placebo or no intervention) in children under five years of age. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of included trials. Four trials met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 3198 children under five years of age, and were conducted in Afghanistan, Spain, and the USA. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied widely in these populations (range: 73.1% in Afghanistan, 10 to 12% in USA, and 6.2% in Spain). The included trials evaluated mortality (two trials), pneumonia incidence (two trials), diarrhoea incidence (two trials), hospitalization (two trials), and mean serum vitamin D concentrations (four trials).We do not know whether vitamin D supplementation impacts on all-cause mortality because this outcome was underpowered due to few events (risk ratio (RR) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 3.74; one trial, 3046 participants, low quality evidence).For pneumonia, episodes of 'radiologically confirmed' first or
Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Edmondson, Donald; Wasson, Lauren Taggart; Falzon, Louise; Homma, Kirsten; Ezeokoli, Nchedcochukwu; Li, Peter; Davidson, Karina W.
Objective To review the effects of vitamin D supplementation on depression or depressive symptoms in randomized controlled trials. Although low vitamin D levels have been observationally associated with depression and depressive symptoms, the effect of vitamin D supplementation as an antidepressant remains uncertain. METHODS MEDLINE, CINAHL, Allied and Complimentary Medicine Database, PsycINFO, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library, and references of included reports (through May 2013) were searched. Two independent reviewers identified randomized trials that compared the effect of vitamin D supplementation on depression or depressive symptoms to a control condition. Two additional reviewers independently reviewed and extracted relevant data; disagreements were reconciled by consensus. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. Seven trials (3191 participants) were included. RESULTS Vitamin D supplementation had no overall effect on depressive symptoms (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.14; 95% CI, −0.33 to 0.05; P = 0.16), although considerable heterogeneity was observed. Subgroup analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation for participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms or depressive disorder had a moderate, statistically significant effect (2 studies: SMD, −0.60; 95% CI, −1.19 to −0.01; P = 0.046), but a small, nonsignificant effect for those without clinically significant depression (5 studies: SMD, −0.04; CI, −0.20 to 0.12; P = 0.61). Most trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Studies varied in the amount, frequency, duration, and mode of delivery of vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms in patients with clinically significant depression; however, further high quality research is needed. PMID:24632894
. Ninety seven percent of pregnant women and 86% of non-pregnant women were vitamin deficient or insufficient. Vitamin D levels were not correlated to income or education in either pregnant women or non-pregnant women. Vitamin D levels were not correlated to age in pregnant women, but a correlation was found in non-pregnant women (r=0.223747; P=0.000014. CONCLUSION This study joins a significant number of previous studies in providing evidence of widespread VDD in south Asian populations. It underscores the need for vitamin D supplementation and fortification guidelines in India, especially considering the deleterious health effects of VDD.
Hennessy, Áine; Browne, Fiona; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert
There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D. The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake. Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL). Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food
Helve, Otto; Viljakainen, Heli; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Rosendahl, Jenni; Hauta-Alus, Helena; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Valkama, Saara; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Hytinantti, Timo; Mäkitie, Outi; Andersson, Sture
Vitamin D is important for bone mass accrual during growth. Additionally, it is considered a requirement for a multitude of processes associated with, for example, the development of immunity. Many countries apply vitamin D supplementation strategies in infants, but the guidelines are not based on scientific evidence and aim at prevention of rickets. It remains unclear whether the recommended doses are sufficient for the wide array of other effects of vitamin D. The VIDI trial performed in Finland is the first large randomised controlled study for evaluation of the effects of different vitamin D supplemental doses in infancy on: 1. bone strength 2. infections and immunity 3. allergy, atopy and asthma 4. cognitive development 5. genetic regulation of mineral homeostasis METHODS/DESIGN: VIDI, a randomised controlled double-blinded single-centre intervention study is conducted in infants from the age of 2 weeks to 24 months. Participants, recruited at Helsinki Maternity Hospital, are randomised to receive daily either 10 μg (400 IU) or 30 μg (1 200 IU) of vitamin D3 supplementation. Both groups are assessed at 6 months of age for calcium homeostasis, and at 12 and 24 months of age for parameters associated with bone strength, growth, developmental milestones, infections, immunity, atopy-related diseases, and genetic factors involved in these functions. The study enables evaluation of short and long term effects of supplemental vitamin D on growth, immune functions and skeletal and developmental parameters in infants, and the effects of genetic factors therein. The results enable institution of evidence-based guidelines for vitamin D supplementation in infancy. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01723852 , registration date 6.11.2012.
Challoumas, Dimitrios; Stavrou, Antonio; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakakis, Georgios
Despite the growing body of evidence on the potential effects of calcium and vitamin D as monotherapies on different cardiovascular (CV) parameters, the combined supplementation with calcium and vitamin D (CaD), which is most frequently encountered in clinical practice, has not received the attention it deserves. A literature search was conducted via EMBASE and Medline and identified 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 meta-analyses reporting on effects of combined supplementation with CaD on CV events, CV death, blood pressure, lipids, glucose metabolism and weight. Overall, the existing evidence does not support beneficial properties of supplementation with CaD on the CV system, nor does it suggest that a re-appraisal of the use of CaD is necessary due to adverse effects, although increased risk of CV events has been reported by some authors. The guidelines for the use of CaD supplementation need not change until well-conducted RCTs that have CV effects as primary outcomes and adjust for major confounders indicate otherwise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Thirty clinically healthy dogs with poor semen quality were used in the study. Fifteen dogs were supplemented daily with selenium (0.6 mg/kg organic selenium from yeast and vitamin E (5 mg/kg per os for 60 d. The control group (15 dogs was not supplemented. Semen was collected from all dogs by manual manipulation on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. The sperm concentration and motility parameters were evaluated with a Hamilton Thorne sperm analyser, version IVOS 12.3. For the assessment of sperm morphology, Diff-Quik stain was used. The percentage of live and dead spermatozoa was estimated on dried smears stained with eosin-nigrosin. The concentration of spermatozoa, most motility parameters determined (PMOT, VSL, VCL, ALH, BCF, RAPID, MEDIUM, SLOW, and STATIC, and the percentage of spermatozoa morphologically normal and live increased significantly (P < 0.05 after 60 d of supplementation. In the control group, there were no changes in motility parameters while the concentration and total sperm count decreased over the duration of the study. In conclusion, supplementation with selenium and vitamin E for 60 d can improve the quality of semen in dogs with lowered fertility.
Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.
Var, Chivorn; Keller, Sheryl; Tung, Rathavy; Freeland, Dylan; Bazzano, Alessandra N
Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo). The intervention participants (n = 577) reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434). Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.
R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A
Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Conclusions: Excessive use of veterinary vitamin supplements containing high doses of vitamin A, D and E was associated with AKI. Hypercalcaemia, which was a common finding, appears to be a contributing factor to the development of this type of AKI.
Yang, Na; Wang, Linlin; Li, Zhixia; Chen, Sen; Li, Nan; Ye, Rongwei
We conducted a meta-analysis to review the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and calcium concentrations. Randomized controlled trials that supplemented subjects with vitamin D2 or D3 during pregnancy and reported cord blood 25(OH)D or calcium concentrations were included. A random-effect model was used to pool the data. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for relevant publications. Among 1768 publications identified by our search strategy, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. Cord blood 25(OH)D concentration was significantly increased by maternal vitamin D supplementation (mean difference, 22.48 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval, 15.90-29.06 nmol/L) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 98.8%, P effects on cord blood calcium concentration was reported (mean difference, 0.05 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -0.04-0.13 mmol/L). Supplementation regimens and the different control groups may be the major sources of heterogeneity. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy can improve cord blood 25(OH)D concentration in women with low 25(OH)D concentration, but does not affect cord blood calcium concentration. Future researches are needed to evaluate the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation in women with a normal 25(OH)D concentration and explore the combined effects of vitamin D, calcium, and multivitamins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vivek G Patwardhan
Full Text Available Background: Despite abundance of sunshine in India, Vitamin D deficiency is common and therefore there is an increasing trend toward taking Vitamin D supplements either as prescription medicine or as a nutritional supplement. Studies have suggested that duration of sun exposure may influence serum lipid profile. Objectives: To study the effect of increased sunlight exposure versus Vitamin D supplementation on Vitamin D status and lipid profile in individuals with Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25OHD] 50 nmol/L, n = 50 and intervention (<50 nmol/L, n = 100 groups. Individuals from intervention group were randomly allocated to two groups; either “increased sunlight exposure group” (n = 50, received at least 20 min sunlight exposure to forearms and face between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. over and above their current exposure or “cholecalciferol supplement group” (n = 50, received oral cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day. Results: Significant increase in 25OHD concentrations was seen in both intervention groups (P < 0.01. Significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was seen in individuals with increased sunlight exposure (P < 0.05. Cholecalciferol supplement group showed a significant increase in TC and HDL-C (P < 0.05 and insignificant increase in LDL-C. Conclusions: Increase in Vitamin D concentrations through sunlight exposure significantly reduced TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations, and cholecalciferol supplementation increased TC and HDL-C concentrations.
Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter
concentrations indicated vitamin A deficiency in 32% of the children at age 6 wk and in 16% at age 4 mo. VAS was not associated with higher RBP concentrations overall or in either sex. However, the effect of VAS varied with maternal education (P for interaction = 0.004): At age 6 wk, VAS was associated......BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...
Majid Mohammad Shahi
Methods: This double-blind, clinical trial was performed in Golestan Hospital of Ahvaz Jundishapur Medical Sciences University from November 2015 to February 2016 on 89 people with sleep disorders based on Pittsburgh Sleep quality index (PSQI. Participants of the study were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients under study were divided into two groups of vitamin D supplement and placebo recipients by random allocation. At the end of the study, the data on 89 subjects (44 in intervention group and 45 people in placebo group were examined. Participants in intervention group received four edible pearls, each 50000 IU vitamin D, one in a fortnight. To placebo group, a placebo capsule (edible paraffin was given one in a fortnight. Before and after intervention, Petersburg’s sleep quality questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 questionnaire, international physical activity questionnaire, general information questionnaire, sun exposure, vitamin D serum level and three-day food record questionnaire were assessed and recorded for all participants. To analyze data, Student's t-test, Chi-square test, ANCOVA, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon statistical tests were used. Results: Mean score of Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire before and after intervention was 9.45±2.44 and 6.75±2.97 respectively (P=0.001 in interventional group and 10.51±3.14 and 9.73±3.04 respectively (P=0.18 in controls. Based on the results of the present study, at the end of the study score of Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire reduced significantly in vitamin D recipients as compared with placebo recipients (P=0.001. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of vitamin D supplement reduced sleep score (PSQI or improved sleep score, reduced sleep latency, increased sleep duration and increased subjective sleep quality after modifying confounding variables in adult people with sleep disorder.
David JesÃºs Chan Diaz
Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets on the immune response during post-vaccine stress, a trial was conducted with 700 chicks (1 day-old which were distributed into 28 floor-pens and fed one of four dietary treatments (with 7 replicates randomly assigned: T1 = control diet (1.31 % of arginine and 10 IU of vitamin E/kg of feed; T2 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine; T3 = T1 + 70 IU of vitamin E; T4 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine + 70 IU of vitamin E. At 12 days of age, all birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (ND, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza (AI and fowl pox. The traits evaluated were: post-vaccine reaction at days 14, 16, 18, 21 and 23; antibody titers against ND and AI, and relative lymphoid organs weight at days 11, 19 and 26; and the performance were recorded weekly. Chickens fed T2, T4 (at day 16, and T3 (at day 21 had lesser (pâ‰¤0.05 post-vaccine reaction than birds fed T1. The antibody titers against ND (at day 11 was higher (pâ‰¤0.05 in chickens fed T4 (3.1, T3 (2.7 and T2 (2.7 compared to T1 (1.6; meanwhile, for AI titers no differences were found. There were no differences, neither for immune organs weight, nor for performance. In conclusion, arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets reduced the post-vaccine stress and improved the immune response without affecting the performance.
Going, Catherine C; Alexandrova, Ludmila; Lau, Kenneth; Yeh, Christine Y; Feldman, David; Pitteri, Sharon J
27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), drives the growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, is known to inhibit expression of CYP27B1, which is very similar in structure and function to CYP27A1, the synthesizing enzyme of 27HC. Therefore, we hypothesized that 1,25(OH) 2 D may also inhibit expression of CYP27A1, thereby reducing 27HC concentrations in the blood and tissues that express CYP27A1, including breast cancer tissue. 27HC, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and 1,25(OH) 2 D were measured in sera from 29 breast cancer patients before and after supplementation with low-dose (400 IU/day) or high-dose (10,000 IU/day) vitamin D in the interval between biopsy and surgery. A significant increase (p = 4.3E-5) in 25OHD and a decrease (p = 1.7E-1) in 27HC was observed in high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D subjects. Excluding two statistical outliers, 25OHD and 27HC levels were inversely correlated (p = 7.0E-3). Vitamin D supplementation can decrease circulating 27HC of breast cancer patients, likely by CYP27A1 inhibition. This suggests a new and additional modality by which vitamin D can inhibit ER+ breast cancer growth, though a larger study is needed for verification.
Bhargava, Pavan; Steele, Sonya U; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Revirajan, Nisha R; Marcus, Jacqueline; Dembele, Marieme; Cassard, Sandra D; Hollis, Bruce W; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mowry, Ellen M
Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and patients do not always show the expected response to vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to determine if vitamin D supplementation leads to a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with MS and healthy controls (HCs). Participants in this open-label study were female, white, aged 18-60 years, had 25(OH)D levels ⩽ 75 nmol/l at screening, and had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or were HCs. Participants received 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 90 days. Utilizing generalized estimating equations we examined the relationship between the primary outcome (serum 25(OH)D level) and the primary (MS versus HC status) and secondary predictors. For this study 27 MS patients and 30 HCs were enrolled. There was no significant difference in baseline 25(OH)D level or demographics except for higher body mass index (BMI) in the MS group (25.3 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p=0.035). In total, 24 MS subjects and 29 HCs completed the study. In a multivariate model accounting for BMI, medication adherence, and oral contraceptive use, MS patients had a 16.7 nmol/l (95%CI: 4.2, 29.2, p=0.008) lower increase in 25(OH)D levels compared with HCs. Patients with MS had a lower increase in 25(OH)D levels with supplementation, even after accounting for putative confounders. © The Author(s), 2015.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the influence of vitamin-mineral supplementation ondigestibility and rumen fermentation in Bali cattle. The randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4replications were used in the research. In this study was used 16 Bali cattle with body weight around295.31+23.07 kg. Rations used in the treatments were Treatment A (control: rice straw ad libitum pluscommercial feed; Treatment B: Treatment A ration plus 0.2% vitamin-mineral in commercial feed;Treatment C: Treatment A ration plus 0.3% vitamin-mineral in commercial feed, and Treatment D:Treatment A ration plus 0.4% vitamin-mineral in commercial feed. Parameters measured were nutrientdigestibility, rumen metabolites and urinary allantoin. The results showed that supplementation ofvitamin-mineral at 0.2 - 0.4% in commercial feed did not increase the digestibility of dry matter, organicmatter, crude protein and crude fiber, except for dry matter and organic matter digestibilities at 0.2%supplementation (p<0.05. However, the vitamin-mineral supplementation increased concentrations ofpartial VFA and ammonia as well as for methane gas production, except for VFA and ammonia at 0.4%level. Vitamin-mineral supplementation at 0.2-0.4% level did not affected pH value of rumen fluid andurinary allantoin.
Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik E
In contrast to the promised 'antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the ben......In contrast to the promised 'antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....
Smelt, Antonia F.H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Bermingham, Lynette W.; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D.; Eussen, Simone J.P.M.; Favrat, Bernard; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.; Kok, Frans J.; Kwok, Timothy; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Ntaios, George; Rest, van de Ondine; Seal, Eric; Vaucher, Paul; Verhoef, Petra; Stijnen, Theo; Elzen, Den Wendy P.J.
Background/objectives: Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in community-dwelling older people are usually corrected with supplements. However, the effect of this supplementation on haematological parameters in older persons is not known. Therefore, we executed a systematic review and individual
Introduction: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation has been widely recommended to prevent osteoporosis and subsequent fractures; however, considerable controversy exists regarding the association of such supplementation and fracture risk. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized contr...
Pengimbuhan Vitamin-E dalam Ransum Kaya Asam Lemak Tidak Jenuh Terhadap Profil Darah Induk Domba Laktasi§ (VITAMIN-E SUPPLEMENTATION ON RICH POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACID RATION TO BLOOD PROFILE OF LACTATION EWES
Dilla Mareistia Fassah
Full Text Available Sunflower oil is a source of rich poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA mainly Linoleic acid. PUFA on theewes ration was very useful due to its function as the precursors of prostaglandin. It plays an importantrole in the health and reproduction regulation. Early lactation was the critical period where the bodymetabolism is on an increasing stage. However, high level of PUFA on ewe’s lactation ration was also verysusceptible to induce lipid peroxidation which can cause health problems in the affected animals. Thesupplementation of vitamin E as antioxidant is needed to prevent the PUFA from oxidation damage. Theaim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the rich PUFA diet on theblood profile of lactating ewes. Fifteen ewes on lactation period were used in completely randomizednested design. The level of vitamin E supplementation was 30 IU, 60 IU and 90 IU then the blood profileevaluation was carried out on 28 and 56 days of lactation. The measured variables were haemoglobin,packed cell volume (PCV, erythrocytes, leukocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The number of erythrocytesof ewes was 5.53-9.85 x 106/mm3, the MCV value was 32.19-46.20 fl and the MCH value was 10.91-17.27pg on day-28. The results showed that Vitamin E supplementation has significant effect on the number oferythrocytes (p<0,05, and the high significant effect on MCV as well as MCH values(P<0.01 of lactationewes blood. The Vitamin E supplementation until 90 IU was able to maintain the ewe’s blood profile onthe lactation periods.
Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G
There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C, and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements, or both, prevent the development of AMD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 29 March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 29 March 2017), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) (1985 to 29 March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/); searched 29 March 2017, the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 29 March 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 29 March 2017 and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 29 March 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplement (alone or in combination) to control. Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5; the other author checked the data entry. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included a total of five RCTs in this review with data available for 76,756 people. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland, and the USA, and investigated vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and multivitamin supplements. All trials were judged to be at low risk of bias.Four studies reported the comparison of vitamin E with placebo. Average treatment and follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 10 years. Data were
Tanaka, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Masaharu; Isobe, Sarasa; Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Shirakawa, Kohsuke; Endo, Jin; Satoh, Toru; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), caused by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, leads to right heart failure and ultimately death. Vitamin D deficiency can predispose individuals to hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction; however, it remains unknown how serum vitamin D level is related to PH and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were assessed in PH patients for an association with disease severity. To examine whether vitamin D supplementation could prevent the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling and RV dysfunction in PH, a rat model of PH was fed either normal chow or a high vitamin D diet. The majority (95.1%) of PH patients had 25(OH)D levels in the insufficiency range, which is associated with increased mean pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac output in PH patients. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum 25(OH)D levels and improved survival in PH rats. Interestingly, while the supplemented rats retained the typical increases in medial thickness of the muscular pulmonary arteries and RV systolic pressure, RV cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and B-type natriuretic peptide expression was significantly attenuated. Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed with PH and low serum levels of 25(OH)D are associated with severity of PH and RV dysfunction. Vitamin D supplementation in PH rats improved survival via ameliorating pathological RV hypertrophy. These findings suggest an insufficient intake of vitamin D might potentially accelerate RV dysfunction, leading to a crucial clinical impact of vitamin D supplementation in PH.
Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH, caused by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, leads to right heart failure and ultimately death. Vitamin D deficiency can predispose individuals to hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction; however, it remains unknown how serum vitamin D level is related to PH and right ventricular (RV dysfunction.Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels were assessed in PH patients for an association with disease severity. To examine whether vitamin D supplementation could prevent the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling and RV dysfunction in PH, a rat model of PH was fed either normal chow or a high vitamin D diet.The majority (95.1% of PH patients had 25(OHD levels in the insufficiency range, which is associated with increased mean pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac output in PH patients. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum 25(OHD levels and improved survival in PH rats. Interestingly, while the supplemented rats retained the typical increases in medial thickness of the muscular pulmonary arteries and RV systolic pressure, RV cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and B-type natriuretic peptide expression was significantly attenuated.Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed with PH and low serum levels of 25(OHD are associated with severity of PH and RV dysfunction. Vitamin D supplementation in PH rats improved survival via ameliorating pathological RV hypertrophy. These findings suggest an insufficient intake of vitamin D might potentially accelerate RV dysfunction, leading to a crucial clinical impact of vitamin D supplementation in PH.
Dasarathy, Jaividhya; Varghese, Rony; Feldman, Abram; Khiyami, Amer; McCullough, Arthur J; Dasarathy, Srinivasan
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) supplementation are conflicting. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D 3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D. Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] D treated with 2000 IU cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) daily for 6 mo per clinical practice. Plasma 25(OH)D, hepatic and metabolic panels, and metabolic syndrome components were assessed before and after cholecalciferol supplementation. Body composition was measured by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The primary outcome measure was plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL at the end of the study. Secondary outcomes included change in serum transaminases, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Chi-square, Student's t tests, correlation coefficient, and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: Twenty-six (61.9%) patients had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 16 (38.1%) had hepatic steatosis. After 6 mo of cholecalciferol supplementation, plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL was observed in 16 subjects (38.1%; responders) whereas the remaining 26 patients (61.9%) were nonresponders with plasma 25(OH)D D in the majority of patients with NASH. Further studies are needed to determine if higher doses are effective. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as 13-00153. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Guo, Q; Richert, B T; Burgess, J R; Webel, D M; Orr, D E; Blair, M; Fitzner, G E; Hall, D D; Grant, A L; Gerrard, D E
The effects of dietary vitamin E (VE, alpha-tocopherol acetate) and fat supplementation on growth and carcass quality characteristics, oxidative stability of fresh and cooked pork patty in storage, fatty acid profiles of muscle and adipose tissue, and VE concentrations of plasma, muscle, and adipose tissue were studied. Six hundred pigs were allocated to 1 of 6 diets and fed for 63 d in a 3 x 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 fat levels (normal corn, high oil corn, high oil corn plus added beef tallow) and 2 levels of VE supplementation (40 IU/kg, normal VE supplementation; and 200 IU/kg, high VE supplementation). At 113 kg of BW, 54 pigs were slaughtered as a subsample to evaluate dietary effects on pork quality. Growth performance and meat quality characteristics did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatment groups. The high level of VE supplementation had a beneficial effect on the oxidative stability of pork as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values. Lean tissue had lower (P plasma and muscle. These results indicate that dietary VE acetate supplementation increased (P stability and the VE concentration of muscle.
Bolann Bjørn J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B12 and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. Methods Of 847 children who participated in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial, 214 were assessed for vitamin B12 and folate concentrations pre and post supplementation. One hundred and four children were randomised to two times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA of a 14 multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS and 114 to a 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins (MV. Serum vitamin B12 was measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and folate by a competitive protein-binding assay using Modular E (Roche automatic analyzer. Vitamin B12 concentrations were considered low if less than 221picomoles per litre (pmol/L and folate if Results Vitamin B12 was low in 60/214 (28% and folate in 62/214 (29.0% children. In the MMS group, the median concentration (IQR of vitamin B12 at 6 months was 401.5 (264.3 - 518.8 pmol/L compared to the baseline of 285.5 (216.5 - 371.8 pmol/L, p 12 at 6 months was 288.5 (198.8 - 391.0 pmol/L compared to the baseline of 280.0 (211.5 - 386.3 pmol/L while the median (IQR folate concentrations at 6 months were 16.5 (11.7 - 22.1 nmol/L compared to 15.7 (11.9 - 22.1 nmol/L at baseline. There was a significant difference in the MMS group in both vitamin B12 and folate concentrations but no difference in the MV group. Conclusions Almost a third of the HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years had low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate. Multiple micronutrient supplementation compared to the 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins improved the vitamin B12 and folate status of HIV infected children in Uganda
Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on neuropathy specific quality of life (NeuroQoL in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Methods. This prospective, open label study was conducted between June 2012 and April 2013. Patients with symptomatic diabetic neuropathy were given a single dose of 600,000 IU intramuscular vitamin D, and NeuroQol was assessed at baseline and at five follow-up visits every 4 weeks. Results. Of 143 participants, 41.3% were vitamin D deficient (vitamin D < 20 ng/ml. Treatment with vitamin D resulted in a significant increase in 25(OHD (P<0.0001 and a significant improvement in the NeuroQoL subscale score for emotional distress (P=0.04, with no significant change in the other NeuroQoL domains of painful symptoms and paresthesia, loss of temperature and touch sensation, unsteadiness, limitation in daily activities, and interpersonal problems. There was a significant reduction in patient perception about foot problems on QoL of “quite a lot” (P<0.05 and “very much” (P<0.0001 with a significant reduction in the baseline response of having a “poor” QoL from 5.2% to 0.7% (P<0.0001 and an increase in the response of an “excellent QoL” from 1.5% to 7.4% (P<0.0001. Conclusion. Vitamin D is effective in improving quality of life in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy.
Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum phosphide is one of the most commonly used grain fumigants and aluminum phosphide poisoning (ALP has been reported as the most common cause of acute poisoning in India. Aluminum toxicity has been reported to increase the rate of lipid peroxidation and free radical formation. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed to investigate the role of vitamin E supplementation on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation in acute aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats. Thirty disease free albino rats were taken to study the effect of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning (ALP poisoning were further divided into 3 subgroups of ten rats each: A, B and C. Group A: given vehicle (Ginni Oil only. Group B: given 5 ml 'celphos mixture' (or 0.3mg/g body wt.. Group C: rats with acute Celphos poisoning along with vitamin E (1.5 mg vitamin E/g body weight of rat. The MDA levels and superoxide levels (Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction were estimated. Results: MDA levels were significantly higher in the group B as compared to Group A. In group C, administration of vitamin E resulted in decreased MDA level compared to group B. MDA levels in group C still remained significantly higher as compared to group A. NBT reduction was significantly increased in group B as compared to group A. Administration of vitamin E to rats of group C resulted in significant decrease of NBT reduction. Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that vitamin E via its antioxidant action and anti-inflammatory effects has protective effect on phosphine-induced toxicity in rats.
Eckard, Allison Ross; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Rosebush, Julia C; Lee, Seungeun Thera; Habib, Jakob G; Ruff, Joshua H; Labbato, Danielle; Daniels, Julie E; Uribe-Leitz, Monika; Tangpricha, Vin; Chahroudi, Ann; McComsey, Grace A
Heightened immune activation and exhaustion drive HIV disease progression and co-morbidities. Vitamin D has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in HIV. Our study investigates changes in immune activation and exhaustion markers after 12 months of supplementation in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating with 3 different vitamin D 3 doses [18,000 (standard/active-control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in 8-26 year old HIV-infected youth on combination antiretroviral therapy with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations ≤30 ng/mL. Only subjects (N=51) who maintained an undetectable HIV-1 RNA over the 12-month study period were included in this analysis. Baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations and immune activation/exhaustion markers were not different between groups. By 12 months, 25(OH)D increased significantly within each dosing group with the greatest increase and most sustained concentrations ≥30 ng/mL in the high-dose group. Overall, all measured markers decreased with CD4 activation (CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+), CD8 activation (CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+), CD4 exhaustion (CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+PD1+), and inflammatory monocytes (CD14+CD16+) reaching statistical significance. When analyzed separately, there were no significant decreases in the moderate- or standard-dose groups, but CD4 and CD8 activation and inflammatory monocytes decreased significantly in the high-dose group. Vitamin D supplementation decreased markers of T-cell activation/exhaustion and monocyte activation in HIV-infected youth, with subjects given the highest dose (120,000 IU/month) showing the greatest decreases. These data suggest that high-dose vitamin D supplementation may attenuate immune activation and exhaustion and serve as adjuvant therapy to antiretroviral therapy in HIV.
... Images Fruits and vegetables References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, ...
Folate is generally considered as a safe water-soluble vitamin for supplementation. However, we do not have enough information to confirm the potential effects and safety of folate supplementation and the interaction with vitamin B12 deficiency. It has been hypothesized that a greater methyl group supply could lead to compensation for vitamin B12 deficiency. On this basis, the present study was conducted to examine the effects of high-dose folic acid (FA) supplementation on biomarkers involve...
Dall'Agnola, Alberto; Beghini, Lorenzo
Ninety percent of premature babies has nutritional deficiency at discharge. It is very important that not only carbohydrates, proteins, fats, but also mineral salts, and vitamins are in quantities and adequate quality according to the needs of the various scientific neonatal and nutrition programs so as to avoid any shortcomings or excess. The growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and quality of life depend on, among other factors, an adequate nutritional supply with essential nutrients including minerals. It is now recommended that all infants and children, including adolescents, have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU of vitamin D beginning soon after birth. The standard initial dose of vitamin K1 for full term infants (1.0 mg) may be too high for premature infants. The addition of folate and especially vitamin B-12 with formula feedings, provided an effective and nontoxic means of reducing anemia of prematurity. Several investigators have reported higher plasma concentrations of selenium and glutathione peroxidase in preterm infants fed with selenium-supplemented formula than in infants fed with unsupplemented formula.
Baldoceda-Baldeon, Luis Manuel; Gagné, Dominic; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude
Mitochondria play an important role during early development in mammalian embryos. It has been shown that properly controlled follicular preparation increases the likelihood of in-vitro-produced bovine embryos reaching the blastocyst stage and that competent embryos exhibit heightened expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that apparently incompetent embryos could be rescued by restoring mitochondrial function. It has been shown that vitamin K2 (a membrane-bound electron carrier similar to ubiquinone) can restore mitochondrial dysfunction in eukaryotic cells. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of vitamin K2 on bovine embryonic development in vitro. The vitamin was found most effective when added 72 h after fertilization. It produced a significant (Pembryos of better morphological quality. It improved the mitochondrial activity significantly and had a measurable impact on gene expression. This is the first demonstration that current standard conditions of in vitro production of bovine embryos may be inadequate due to the lack of support for mitochondrial function and may be improved significantly by supplementing the culture medium with vitamin K2. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Samuels, Noah; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y; Zevin, Shoshana; Becker, Evy L; Yinnon, Amos M; Oberbaum, Menachem
To study non-vitamin, non-mineral (NVNM) supplements use and disclosure of among hospitalized internal medicine patients. A convenience sample of patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire examining use of and perceptions regarding NVNM supplements, and disclosure to medical personnel. 280 patients were interviewed (54% female), 15.4% reporting NVNM supplement use. This practice was more prevalent among female patients (p=0.045), more educated (pinternal medicine patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reed, Robert M.; Reed, Anna W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Miller, Michael; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Mitchell, Braxton D.
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the form of vitamin and supplement use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. The interplay between CAM use and use of conventional medications is not well studied. We examined this issue in the Old Order Amish (OOA), a population lacking several factors known to influence supplement use, whose culture and barriers to conventional medications may result in high rates of supplement use. Objective We characterized the patterns of supplement use in the OOA, including the extent to which CAM use aggregates in families, and assessed whether higher use of supplements is associated with lower medication use. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of conventional medications and supplements in 2,372 adult Amish from the Lancaster County, PA area. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Supplements were subcategorized as herbal versus vitamin/mineral supplements. Results Seventy-seven percent of all Amish adults reported current supplement use, whereas 22% reported medication use. Women used supplements more often and used more supplements than men, and familial aggregation of supplement use was stronger in family pairs involving women. Supplement use was associated with lower medication use after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and self-reported histories of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, p=0.047). This association was driven primarily by use of herbal supplements (adjusted OR 0.94, 05% CI 0.89 to 0.99, p=0.025) as vitamin/mineral supplements were not associated with different use of medication (adjusted OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.09, p=0.8). In analyses limited to cardiovascular medications and cardiovascular supplements in participants with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes, supplement use was not associated with conventional medication use. Conclusions The Old Order Amish take dietary supplements much more frequently than they
Park, Yikyung; Spiegelman, Donna; Hunter, David J; Albanes, Demetrius; Bergkvist, Leif; Buring, Julie E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Harnack, Lisa; Kato, Ikuko; Krogh, Vittorio; Leitzmann, Michael F; Limburg, Paul J; Marshall, James R; McCullough, Marjorie L; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E; Schatzkin, Arthur; Shore, Roy; Sieri, Sabina; Stampfer, Meir J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weijenberg, Matty; Willett, Walter C; Wolk, Alicja; Zhang, Shumin M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A
To evaluate the associations between intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and risk of colon cancer. Using the primary data from 13 cohort studies, we estimated study- and sex-specific relative risks (RR) with Cox proportional hazards models and subsequently pooled RRs using a random effects model. Among 676,141 men and women, 5,454 colon cancer cases were identified (7-20 years of follow-up across studies). Vitamin A, C, and E intakes from food only were not associated with colon cancer risk. For intakes from food and supplements (total), the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) were 0.88 (0.76-1.02, >4,000 vs. ≤ 1,000 μg/day) for vitamin A, 0.81 (0.71-0.92, >600 vs. ≤ 100 mg/day) for vitamin C, and 0.78 (0.66-0.92, > 200 vs. ≤ 6 mg/day) for vitamin E. Adjustment for total folate intake attenuated these associations, but the inverse associations with vitamins C and E remained significant. Multivitamin use was significantly inversely associated with colon cancer risk (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96). Modest inverse associations with vitamin C and E intakes may be due to high correlations with folate intake, which had a similar inverse association with colon cancer. An inverse association with multivitamin use, a major source of folate and other vitamins, deserves further study.
Peter J. Joris
Full Text Available The effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplements on fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD of the brachial artery, a validated marker to assess CVD risk. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs were identified by a systematic search till July 2014. Seven RCTs studying the effects of vitamin E supplements (range: 300 to 1800 IU per day and nine RCTs examining the effects of vitamin D supplements, that involved, respectively, 303 and 658 adults, were included. No studies with carotenoid or vitamin K supplements were found. Vitamin E supplementation increased FMD vs. control by 2.42% (95% CI: 0.46% to 4.37%; p = 0.015. No effects of vitamin D supplementation were found (0.15%; 95% CI: −0.21% to 0.51%; p = 0.41. These effects did not depend on subject characteristics, treatment characteristics or technical aspects of the FMD measurement. However, no dose-response relationship was evident for vitamin E, statistical significance depended on one study, while the levels of supplement were far above recommended intakes. The current meta-analysis, therefore, does not provide unambiguous evidence to support the use of fat-soluble vitamin supplements to improve fasting FMD in adults.
Prawirohartono, Endy P; Nyström, Lennarth; Nurdiati, Detty S; Hakimi, Mohammad; Lind, Torbjörn
Prenatal supplementation with micronutrients may increase birth weight and thus improve infant health and survival in settings where infants and children are at risk of micronutrient deficiencies. To assess whether vitamin A and/or zinc supplementation given during pregnancy can improve birth weight, birth length, neonatal morbidity, or infant mortality. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial supplementing women (n = 2173) in Central Java, Indonesia throughout pregnancy with vitamin A, zinc, combined vitamin A+zinc, or placebo. Out of 2173 supplemented pregnant women, 1956 neonates could be evaluated. Overall, zinc supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.8 vs. 48.5 cm, p = 0.04); vitamin A supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.7 vs. 48.2 cm, p = 0.04). These effects remained after adjusting for maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight, and parity. There was no effect of supplementation on birth weight, the proportion of low birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality. Prenatal zinc or vitamin A supplementation demonstrates a small but significant effect on birth length, but supplementation with zinc, vitamin A or a combination of zinc and vitamin A, have no effect on birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality.
Joris, Peter J; Mensink, Ronald P
The effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplements on fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a validated marker to assess CVD risk. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by a systematic search till July 2014. Seven RCTs studying the effects of vitamin E supplements (range: 300 to 1800 IU per day) and nine RCTs examining the effects of vitamin D supplements, that involved, respectively, 303 and 658 adults, were included. No studies with carotenoid or vitamin K supplements were found. Vitamin E supplementation increased FMD vs. control by 2.42% (95% CI: 0.46% to 4.37%; p = 0.015). No effects of vitamin D supplementation were found (0.15%; 95% CI: -0.21% to 0.51%; p = 0.41). These effects did not depend on subject characteristics, treatment characteristics or technical aspects of the FMD measurement. However, no dose-response relationship was evident for vitamin E, statistical significance depended on one study, while the levels of supplement were far above recommended intakes. The current meta-analysis, therefore, does not provide unambiguous evidence to support the use of fat-soluble vitamin supplements to improve fasting FMD in adults.
Wang, Linlin; Li, Hongtian; Zhou, Yuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Jianmeng
We investigated whether daily supplementation with low-dose B vitamins in the healthy elderly population improves the Framingham risk score (FRS), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Between 2007 and 2012, a double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in a rural area of North China. In all, 390 healthy participants aged 60-74 were randomly allocated to receive daily vitamin C (50 mg; control group) or vitamin C plus B vitamins (400 µg folic acid, 2 mg B6, and 10 µg B12; treatment group) for 12 months. FRSs were calculated for all 390 subjects. Folate and vitamin B12 plasma concentrations in the treatment group increased by 253 and 80%, respectively, after 6 months, stopped increasing with continued supplementation after 12 months and returned to baseline levels 6 months after supplementation cessation. Compared with the control group, there was no significant effect of B vitamin supplementation on FRSs after 6 months (mean difference -0.38; 95% CI -1.06, 0.31; p = 0.279), whereas a significant effect of supplementation was evident after 12 months (reduced magnitude 7.6%; -0.77; 95% CI -1.47, -0.06; p = 0.033). However, this reduction disappeared 6 months after supplementation stopped (-0.07; 95% CI -0.80, 0.66; p = 0.855). The reduction in FRS 12 months after supplementation was more pronounced in individuals with a folate deficiency (10.4%; -1.30; 95% CI -2.54, -0.07; p = 0.039) than in those without (4.1%; -0.38; 95% CI -1.12, 0.36; p = 0.313). B vitamins increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 3.4% after 6 months (0.04; 95% CI -0.02, 0.10; p = 0.155) and by 9.2% after 12 months (0.11; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.18; p = 0.003). Compared with the control group, this change in magnitude decreased to 3.3% (0.04; 95 % CI -0.02, 0.10; p = 0.194) 6 months after supplementation cessation. Daily supplementation with a low-dose of B vitamins for 12 months reduced FRS, particularly in healthy elderly subjects with a folate deficiency. These reduced
Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat
Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the
Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Islam, M Munirul; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H
Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations. Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations. Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample. Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake
Full Text Available Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9–15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial during March 2014 to November 2015, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day with non-intervention for 18 months in school children aged 9–15 years. Meanwhile, a before-after study was conducted among white-collar workers for 1 year. Serum 25(OHD concentration was measured at baseline and after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Results: At the baseline, 95% of school children and 84% of adult participants had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL. In school children, no difference was observed between the intervention and control groups with regard to anthropometric data. Serum 25(OHD concentrations of the school children intervention group, school children control group and white-collar workers were 12.77 ± 3.01 ng/mL, 14.17 ± 3.59 ng/mL and 16.58 ± 3.66 ng/mL at baseline and increased to 17.34 ± 3.78 ng/mL, 18.04 ± 4.01 ng/mL and 17.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Although, after adjusting for potential confounders, the 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OHD concentration in school children (β = 0.81, p = 0.0426 as well as in white-collar workers (p = 0.0839, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was still very high among school children (79.23% in intervention group and 72.38% in control group and white-collar workers (76.00%. Conclusions: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was common in these two study populations. Daily doses of 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation was not able to adequately increase serum 25(OHD concentrations. A suitable recommendation regarding the level of vitamin D supplementation is required for this Chinese population.
Azami, Milad; Azadi, Tayebe; Farhang, Sepidezahra; Rahmati, Shoobo; Pourtaghi, Khadijeh
Background: Several studies have reported the uncertain role of multi-minerals and vitamins in the prevention of preeclampsia. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the effect of multimineral-vitamin D supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D) and vitamins (C+ E) in the prevention of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were divided into three groups: group A received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + one tablet of Claci-care multimineral-vitamin D containing 800mg calcium, 200mg magnesium, 8mg zinc and 400 IU Vitamin D3 per day; group B received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + 250 mg vitamin C + 55 mg vitamin E; and the controls received only one Ferrous sulfate tablet daily. Results: The incidence of preeclampsia in group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.03), while there was no significant difference between group B and controls (p=0.50), as well as groups A and B (p=0.063). The incidence of neonatal complications in the group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.01), while there was no significant difference between group B and control (p=0.48). Conclusion: According to the results, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplements have a significant effect on the prevention of preeclampsia. In addition, prescription of multimineral-vitamin D during pregnancy can be a low-cost and affordable way to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in women who are at high risk of preeclampsia. PMID:28744522
Full Text Available Background: Several studies have reported the uncertain role of multi-minerals and vitamins in the prevention of preeclampsia. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the effect of multimineral-vitamin D supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D and vitamins (C+ E in the prevention of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were divided into three groups: group A received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day + one tablet of Claci-care multimineral-vitamin D containing 800mg calcium, 200mg magnesium, 8mg zinc and 400 IU Vitamin D3 per day; group B received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day + 250 mg vitamin C + 55 mg vitamin E; and the controls received only one Ferrous sulfate tablet daily. Results: The incidence of preeclampsia in group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.03, while there was no significant difference between group B and controls (p=0.50, as well as groups A and B (p=0.063. The incidence of neonatal complications in the group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.01, while there was no significant difference between group B and control (p=0.48. Conclusion: According to the results, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplements have a significant effect on the prevention of preeclampsia. In addition, prescription of multimineral-vitamin D during pregnancy can be a low-cost and affordable way to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in women who are at high risk of preeclampsia.
Pusceddu, Irene; Herrmann, Markus; Kirsch, Susanne H; Werner, Christian; Hübner, Ulrich; Bodis, Marion; Laufs, Ulrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Herrmann, Wolfgang
Deficiencies of folate, vitamins B12 and D are common age-related conditions. Vitamin B12 and folate are necessary for DNA methylation. Telomeres appear to be regulated by DNA methylation. Here, we study the effect of B vitamins supplementation on telomere length and global DNA methylation in a prospective study. In total, 60 elderly subjects were supplemented for 1 year with either vitamin B12, B6, folate, vitamin D and calcium (group A n = 31) or only vitamin D and calcium (group B n = 29). LINE-1 methylation, relative telomere length (T/S), vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine (tHcy) , 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), cystathionine and vitamin D were quantified before and after supplementation. At baseline, tHcy was high, vitamin D was low, and T/S did not differ between groups A and B. Vitamin supplementation increased LINE-1 methylation in group A at site 317 but reduced LINE-1 methylation in group B at site 327. There was no correlation between T/S and LINE-1 methylation at baseline. Multiple backward regression analysis revealed baseline tHcy and 5-methylTHF are significant predictors of T/S. After supplementation in group B but not in group A, LINE-1 methylation correlated inversely with T/S, and LINE-1 methylation variation was an independent predictor of T/S variation. B vitamins decreased tHcy significantly in group A. Multiple backward regression analysis showed 5-methylTHF in group A and tHcy in group B were significant predictors for LINE-1 methylation. At baseline, the lower LINE-1 methylation observed in subjects with 5-methylTHF >10 nmol/l was in agreement with a reduced methyl group transfer due to a lower SAM formation. In group B, an increase in telomere length was correlated with lower LINE-1 methylation. Subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia >12 µmol/L had compared to those with normal tHcy a reduced LINE-1 methylation accompanied by a higher SAM and SAH (that inhibits
Hidiroglou, M; Batra, T R; Farnworth, E R; Markham, F
Twelve (Yorkshire) gilts were assigned to 2 dietary fat supplement groups starting at 57 d of gestation. Group 1 received no fat and Group 2 was supplemented with 5% Canola oil. Each group was supplemented with 0.1 ppm Se and 22 IU of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg of feed. Colostrum (d 0) and milk (7, 14, 21 and 28 d post partum) were sampled from gilts. At farrowing 3 piglets from each gilt of both groups were injected with alpha-tocopherol at birth (500 IU) and at 7 and 14 d (1,000 IU) of age and 3 piglets were injected with saline and used as control. Blood samples were taken from the newborn piglets at birth and at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of age. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of gilts was significantly higher than in the milk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and antibody titres to Key-hole limpet haemocyanin of piglets injected with vitamin E were significantly higher than the control piglets. Vitamin E injected piglets had significantly higher alpha-tocopherol concentrations in spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung and hip muscle than the control piglets.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study effects of vitamin E supplementation on physical, chemical and eating quality of longissimus dorsi muscle of Brahman x Thai native cattle. Four groups of three Brahman x Thai native steers, weighing 150-160 kg, were fed with concentrate supplemented with vitamin E at 0, 100, 200, 400 ppm before and after grazing in the pasture. The experiment lasted 120 days. At the end of the feeding trial all cattle were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi muscles were collected to determine various meat quality aspects. The results showed that the lowest shear force value of meat in the 400-ppm group indicated a more tender in comparison to the others. All supplementation levels had no effect on pH of the meat. Water holding capacity of the meat (after chilled for 24 hours from the 100-ppm group, was significantly different (P0.05 either triobarbituric acid (TBA value or eating quality (tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall acceptability.
Cox, Sharon E; Staalsoe, Trine; Arthur, Paul
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is believed to enhance immune responses to infection but few studies have assessed its effects on anti-malarial immunity, especially during pregnancy when women are at increased risk from both vitamin A deficiency and pregnancy-associated malaria....... The pathological effects of malaria in pregnancy are believed to be due to the sequestration of parasites in the placenta mediated via binding of variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed on the surface of P. falciparum infected red blood cells to placental chondroitin sulphate A (CSA). METHODS: We conducted...... infection at delivery, as determined by histology (OR=0.42, P=0.13--adjusted for level of education). After adjustment for differences in baseline values, levels of anti-VSACSA IgG to a placental, CSA-adherent isolate (EJ-24) but not to two isolates selected for CSA-adhesion in vitro (FCR3CSA and Busua...
Vaziri, Farideh; Nasiri, Samira; Tavana, Zohreh; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Jafari, Peyman
Mood disorders in pregnancy and post-partum period are common and considered as a public health issue. Researchers have studied the relationship between low serum vitamin D concentration and perinatal depression, although no clinical trial has been conducted on vitamin D's effects on depression related to childbirth. This study evaluated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on perinatal depression scores. This randomized clinical trial was done in pregnant women who were under prenatal care in a teaching hospital in Shiraz, Iran. The inclusion criteria were: being 18 years or older, no history of mental illness and internal diseases, a singleton live fetus, without any pregnancy complications, gestational age of 26-28 weeks upon enrollment, and depression score of 0 to 13. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale was used to evaluate depression scores. A total of 169 participants were assigned to the two groups of placebo and vitamin D through block randomization design. Vitamin D group received 2000 IU vitamin D3 daily from 26 to 28 weeks of gestation until childbirth. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were measured at baseline and childbirth. Besides, depression scores were evaluated four times: at 26-28 and 38-40 weeks of gestation, and finally at 4 and 8 weeks after birth. The two groups were similar in relation to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. However, at childbirth, the vitamin D group had significantly higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in comparison to the control group (p depression score (r = 0.13, p = 0.09). There was no significant difference between the two study groups in relation to the baseline depression score. While, the vitamin D group had greater reduction in depression scores than the control group at 38-40 weeks of gestation (p = 0.01) also, at 4 and 8 weeks after birth (p depression levels. We suggest further clinical trial in pregnant mothers who are at risk for postnatal depression
Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping
Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.
da Rosa, Cintia Leticia; Dames Olivieri Saubermann, Ana Paula; Jacqueline, Jacqueline; Pereira, Silvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa
Bariatric surgery can lead to nutritional deficiencies, including those related to bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D and PTH in obese adults before and six months after gastric bypass surgery in Roux-en-Y (RYGB) and evaluate the doses of calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery. Retrospective longitudinal study of adult patients of both sexes undergoing RYGB. We obtained data on weight, height, BMI and serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium and PTH. Following surgery, patients received dietary supplementation daily 500 mg calcium carbonate and 400 IU vitamin D. We studied 56 women and 27 men. Preoperative serum concentrations of vitamin D were inadequate in 45% of women and 37% of men, while in the postoperative period 91% of women and 85% of men had deficiency of this vitamin. No change in serum calcium was found before and after surgery. Serum PTH preoperatively remained adequate in 89% of individuals of both sexes. After surgery serum concentrations remained adequate and 89% women and 83% men evaluated. Obesity appears to be a risk factor for the development of vitamin D. The results show that supplementation routine postoperative was unable to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency in obese adults undergoing RYGB. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo. Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects. Twenty-seven RCTs with 28,000 women were eligible. A direct meta-analysis suggested that calcium, vitamin D, and calcium plus vitamin D could lower risk of preeclampsia when compared to placebo with the pooled risk ratios (RRs of 0.54 (0.41, 0.70, 0.47 (0.24, 0.89 and 0.50 (0.32, 0.78, respectively. Results of network meta-analysis were similar with the corresponding RRs of 0.49 (0.35, 0.69, 0.43 (0.17, 1.11, and 0.57 (0.30, 1.10, respectively. None of the controls were significant. Efficacy of supplementation, which was ranked by surface under cumulative ranking probabilities, were: vitamin D (47.4%, calcium (31.6% and calcium plus vitamin D (19.6%, respectively. Calcium supplementation may be used for prevention for preeclampsia. Vitamin D might also worked well but further large scale RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings.
Full Text Available Background and aim: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a part of broad spectrum of chronic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks vitamin E supplementation and aerobic training on liver enzymes level of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients (NASH. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 30 NASH patients, aged 25-50 years were participated, and divided into three groups of vitamin E (n=10, aerobic training (n=10 and combination (aerobic training plus vitamin E, n=10 randomly. Vitamin E Supplementation and aerobic training combination groups consumed 400 IU per day of Vitamin E Supplementation. Also in the group of aerobic exercise and combined, exercise program including the increasing activity of anaerobic (running on a treadmill with increasing intensity every two weeks 5% was carried out three times a week for 12 weeks. Data evaluation were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe. Results: A significant differences was observed ALT (intra-group of vitamin E (0001/0 = p aerobic exercise (0001/0 = p and combination (001/0 = p, respectively.There was a significant difference was seen among pre – post training in AST in supplementation(P=0.001, aerobic training(P=0.001 and combination (P=0.002 groups. But no significant difference in ALP level observed(P>0.05. In comparison among the groups, a significant differences was observed between groups ALP vitamin E, combination aerobic exercise but no significant difference was observed among the groups at the levels of ALT and AST. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that vitamin E supplementation and aerobic training can improve non-alcoholic steatohepatitis Patients (NASH.
Ashor, Ammar W; Siervo, Mario; van der Velde, Femke; Willis, Naomi D; Mathers, John C
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in humans revealed contradictory results regarding the effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood lipids. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs investigating the effect of vitamin C supplementation on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides and to determine whether the effects are modified by the participants' or intervention characteristics. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library) were searched from inception until August 2014 for RCTs supplementing adult participants with vitamin C for ≥ 2 weeks and reporting changes in blood lipids. Overall, vitamin C supplementation did not change blood lipids concentration significantly. However, supplementation reduced total cholesterol in younger participants (≤52 years age) (-0.26 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.45, -0.07) and LDL-C in healthy participants (-0.32 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.57, -0.07). In diabetics, vitamin C supplementation reduced triglycerides significantly (-0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30, -0.002) and increased HDL-C significantly (0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.11). Meta-regression analyses showed the changes in total cholesterol (β: -0.24, CI: -0.36, -0.11) and in triglycerides (β: -0.17, CI: -0.30, -0.05) following vitamin C supplementation were greater in those with higher concentrations of these lipids at baseline. Greater increase in HDL-C was observed in participants with lower baseline plasma concentrations of vitamin C (β: -0.002, CI: -0.003, -0.0001). Overall, vitamin C supplementation had no significant effect on lipid profile. However, subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed significant reductions in blood lipids following supplementation in sub-populations with dyslipidaemia or low vitamin C status at baseline. PROSPERO Database registration: CRD42014013487, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Copyright © 2015
Andersen, Rikke; Mølgaard, Christian; Skovgaard, Lene T.
Severe vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim immigrants. The dose necessary to correct the deficiency and its consequence for bone health are not known for immigrants. The aim was to assess the effect of relatively low dosages of supplemental vitamin D on vitamin D and bone status...... D (S-25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone turnover markers and bone mass. The study showed that supplementation with 10 and 20 mu g vitamin D-3 per d increased S-25OHD concentrations similarly in vitamin D-deficient Pakistani women (4-fold), and that 10 mu g increased S-25OHD concentrations 2-fold...... in Pakistani immigrants. This 1-year-long randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention with vitamin D-3 (10 and 20 mu g/d) included girls (10.1 - 14.7 years), women (18.1 - 52.7 years) and men (17.9-63.5 years) of Pakistani origin living in Denmark. The main endpoints were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin...
Cho, Sang Yeun; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Hyun Ju
To determine the efficacy and safety of early supplementation with 800 IU of vitamin D in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Sixty-six infants with a birth weight less than 1500 g admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Of these, 52 infants were eligible and received 800 IU/day vitamin D from 2 weeks of age. We examined 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25[OH]D) levels from cord blood at birth and serum at 32 and 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. The study infants were divided by cord-blood levels of 25(OH)D at birth into 25(OH)D concentrations birth. Considering the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation in this study, vitamin D intake of 800 IU/day may enhance vitamin D status during early hospitalization in VLBW infants with 25 OHD concentrations birth. The clinical significance of optimal vitamin D intake in VLBW infants needs to be studied in larger controlled studies.
Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio
(1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each
Moon, Rebecca J.; Harvey, Nicholas C.; D'Angelo, Stefania; Crozier, Sarah R.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Schoenmakers, Inez; Prentice, Ann; Arden, Nigel K.; Bishop, Nicholas J.; Carr, Andrew; Dennison, Elaine M.; Eastell, Richard; Fraser, Robert; Gandhi, Saurabh V.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kennedy, Stephen; Mughal, M. Zulf; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Reid, David M.; Robinson, Sian M.; Javaid, M. Kassim
Context: Current approaches to antenatal vitamin D supplementation do not account for interindividual differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) response. Objective: We assessed which maternal and environmental characteristics were associated with 25(OH)D after supplementation with cholecalciferol. Design: Within-randomization-group analysis of participants in the Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. Setting: Hospital antenatal clinics. Participants: A total of 829 pregnant women (422 placebo, 407 cholecalciferol). At 14 and 34 weeks of gestation, maternal anthropometry, health, and lifestyle were assessed and 25(OH)D measured. Compliance was determined using pill counts at 19 and 34 weeks. Interventions: 1000 IU/d of cholecalciferol or matched placebo from 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Main Outcome Measure: 25(OH)D at 34 weeks, measured in a single batch (Diasorin Liaison). Results: 25(OH)D at 34 weeks of gestation was higher in the women randomized to vitamin D (mean [SD], 67.7 [21.3] nmol/L) compared with placebo (43.1 [22.5] nmol/L; P pregnancy weight gain from 14 to 34 weeks of gestation (kg) (β = −0.81 [95% confidence interval −1.39, −0.22]), lower compliance with study medication (%) (β = −0.28 [−0.072, −0.48]), lower early pregnancy 25(OH)D (nmol/L) (β = 0.28 [0.16, 0.40]), and delivery in the winter vs the summer (β = −10.5 [−6.4, −14.6]) were independently associated with lower 25(OH)D at 34 weeks of gestation. Conclusions: Women who gained more weight during pregnancy had lower 25(OH)D in early pregnancy and delivered in winter achieved a lower 25(OH)D in late pregnancy when supplemented with 1000 IU/d cholecalciferol. Future studies should aim to determine appropriate doses to enable consistent repletion of 25(OH)D during pregnancy. PMID:27788053
Vitamins, minerals and food supplements (FSs) are often used without medical prescription. Valid data on the magnitude of use are rare in Germany. The aim of the present analysis is to describe the prevalence and trends of self-medication and the associations between health-related factors and self-medication with these substances. The data base consisted of the results of nationwide health surveys (GNHIES98: 1997-1999 and DEGS1: 2008-2001) in which adults aged 18-79 years were interviewed on health-related themes and were examined. The use of drugs and FSs was recorded in standardized personal interviews. Data of 7099 (GNHIES98) and 7091 (DEGS1) individuals were available for analysis. The dependent variable was self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FS. Analysis was conducted in SPSS Version 20 with the complex sample method. Statistical significance was tested with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and verified via p-values. Of all DEGS1 participants, 18.1% (95% CI: 17.0-19.2%) consumed vitamins, minerals and FSs in self-medication. Significantly higher prevalence was found among women, older people (60-79 years), those with a higher social status, people living alone, ex- and non-smokers, and those doing more sports. In comparison to the GNHIES98 study the prevalence in DEGS1 has increased by about 6 percentage points (5.8 percentage points, 95% CI 4.1-7.5%, p self-medication with vitamins, minerals or FSs shows a high user prevalence which has increased significantly over time. In light of potential interactions with prescribed medicines the results show the importance of ascertaining self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FSs in medical practice.
Gungorduk, Kemal; Asicioglu, Osman; Gungorduk, Ozgu Celikkol; Yildirim, Gokhan; Besimoğlu, Berhan; Ark, Cemal
To determine whether maternal vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation after the premature rupture of membranes is associated with an increase in the latency period before delivery. In the present prospective open randomized trial, 229 pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) at ≥ 24.0 and vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E (n = 126) or a placebo (n = 123). The primary outcome was the latency period until delivery. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. No significant differences in demographic or clinical characteristics were observed between the groups. Latency period until delivery was significantly higher in the group that received vitamins compared with the control group (11.2 ± 6.3 days versus 6.2 ± 4.0 days; p vitamin group compared with the control group (31.9 ± 2.6 weeks versus 31.0 ± 2.6 weeks; p = 0.01). No significant differences in adverse maternal outcome (i.e., chorioamnionitis or endometritis) or neonatal outcome (i.e., neonatal sepsis, neonatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, or grade 3 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhage) were noted between groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the use of vitamins C and E in women with PPROM is associated with a longer latency period before delivery. Moreover, adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, which are often associated with prolonged latency periods, were similar between the groups. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Evellyn C. Grilo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.
Grilo, Evellyn C; Lima, Mayara S R; Cunha, Lahyana R F; Gurgel, Cristiane S S; Clemente, Heleni A; Dimenstein, Roberto
To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) μg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) μg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) μg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05), showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2) μg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3) μg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05), representing an increase of 14.7%. This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Medeiros, Samara R; Pinheiro-Rosa, Natalia; Lemos, Luisa; Loli, Flavia G; Pereira, Alline G; Santiago, Andrezza F; Pinter, Ester C; Alves, Andrea C; Oliveira, Jamil S; Cara, Denise C; Maioli, Tatiani U; Faria, Ana Maria C
Dietary compounds, including micronutrients such as vitamin A and its metabolite retinoic acid, directly influence the development and function of the immune system. In this study, we show that either dietary deficiency of or supplementation with vitamin A had immunologic effects in mice that were fed these diets during their development (for 8 wk during the postweaning period). Deficient mice presented higher levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, transforming growth factor-β, IL-17, and IL-10 in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues and draining lymph nodes, indicating a proinflammatory shift in the gut mucosa. Serum immunoglobulin G levels also were elevated in these mice. Conversely, supplemented mice showed higher frequencies of CD4+Foxp3+LAP+ regulatory T cells in gut lymphoid tissues and spleen, suggesting that vitamin A supplementation in the diet may be beneficial in pathologic situations such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vaxman, F; Chalkiadakis, G; Olender, S; Maldonado, H; Aprahamian, M; Bruch, J F; Wittmann, T; Volkmar, P; Grenier, J F
To study the effects of vitamins B5 and C on the healing process of colonic anastomoses, 3 groups of 20 rabbits were given daily either placebo (group A), or vitamin B5 (100 mg/kg: group B) or vitamin C (100 mg/kg: group C). After 8 days of supplementation, via a midline incision and under general anaesthesia, 2 colonic segments were removed, and the continuity was restored. On the 3rd post-operative day, the rabbits were killed and the anastomoses were removed. Mechanical properties of both normal colon and anastomoses were determined by using bursting pressure tests, number of burst anastomoses, fibroblast count, hydroxyproline concentration and determination by microanalysis of trace element content: Mg, P, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. Vitamin B5 (p = 0.03) and vitamin C (p less than 0.01) both decreased the number of burst anastomoses. Furthermore the required bursting pressure values were higher with vitamin C (p = 0.01) than in controls. Both vitamins restored normal Zn levels at the anastomotic site, whereas these levels decreased on the 3rd post-operative day during the normal healing process of colonic anastomosis. Moreover, vitamins B5 and C increased Fe, Cu and Mn levels, which are intimately all involved in collagen synthesis. Vitamins B5 and C enhance the colonic wound healing process in the rabbit, acting together in synergy in vivo as well as in vitro, as previously demonstrated.
Kakitani, Ayano; Inoue, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Keiko; Watanabe, Jun; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki
An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 water-soluble vitamins that are widely used as additives in beverages and dietary supplements. This combined method involves the following simple pre-treatment procedures: dietary supplement samples were prepared by centrifugation and filtration after an extraction step, whereas beverage samples were diluted prior to injection. Chromatographic analysis in this method utilised a multi-mode ODS column, which provided reverse-phase, anion- and cation-exchange capacities, and therefore improved the retention of highly polar analytes such as water-soluble vitamins. Additionally, the multi-mode ODS column did not require adding ion pair reagents to the mobile phase. We optimised the chromatographic separation of 15 water-soluble vitamins by adjusting the mobile phase pH and the organic solvent. We also conducted an analysis of a NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 3280 Multi-vitamin/Multi-element tablets) using this method to verify its accuracy. In addition, the method was applied to identify the vitamins in commercial beverages and dietary supplements. By comparing results with the label values and results obtained by official methods, it was concluded that the method could be used for quality control and to compose nutrition labels for vitamin-enriched products.
Muhammad Zubair1, Maqbool Ahmad1, Huma Jamil1 and Farrah Deeba2
Full Text Available The present study was designed to observe the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on serum biochemical constituents and liver parenchyma along with amelioration with vitamin E in teddy bucks. Adult sixteen bucks were purchased from the market and divided into four groups with specific treatments for 84 days; A (control, B (sodium arsenite 5mg/kg BW, C (Sodium arsenite 5mg/kg BW +Vit E 200mg/kg BW and D (Vit E 200mg/kg BW. The serum biochemical parameters were evaluated fortnightly. Analysis of data revealed that there was significant P<0.05 rise in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, glucose and total cholesterol in arsenic treated animals. After slaughtering of animals, visceral organs were observed for gross lesions and processed for histopathologically studies. The major histopathological changes were congestions, pyknosis and cytoplasmic vacuolation in liver. Supplementation of vitamin E along with sodium arsenite alleviated the toxic effects on ALT, AST, glucose and total cholesterol level as well as histopathology of liver. It was concluded from the present study that sodium arsenite causes the toxicity in teddy bucks and vitamin E has the ameliorative effects on these toxic effects of arsenic.
Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Vinod; Banerjee, Debasish; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Jha, Vivekanand
Use of active forms of vitamin D is advocated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for treatment of mineral bone disease because of the presumption that native forms of vitamin D would not undergo significant activation to calcitriol, the most active biological form of vitamin D. We present secondary analysis looking at bone turnover in subjects who completed the randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in nondiabetic CKD stage G3-G4 and vitamin D ≤20 ng/mL (Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2013/05/003648). Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either two directly observed oral doses of 300,000 IU of cholecalciferol or matching placebo at baseline and 8 weeks. Of the 120 subjects enrolled, 58 in the cholecalciferol group and 59 in the placebo group completed the study. At 16 weeks, the serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH) 2 D levels increased in the cholecalciferol group but not in the placebo group (between-group difference in mean change: 23.40 ng/mL; 95% CI, 19.76 to 27.06; p p = 0.007, respectively). Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) decreased in the cholecalciferol group (between-group difference in mean change -100.73 pg/mL (95% CI, -150.50 to -50.95; p p = 0.008 for SAP; -12.54 U/L; 95% CI, -22.09 to -2.98 U/L; p = 0.013 for BAP; and -0.21 ng/mL; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.05 ng/mL; p = 0.05 for CTX-1). Correlation analysis showed significant correlation of Δ25(OH)D with ΔiPTH (r = -0.409, p D (r = 0.305, p = 0.001), ΔSAP (r = -0.301, p = 0.002), ΔBAP (r = -0.264, p = 0.004), and ΔCTX-1 (r = -0.210, p = 0.0230). Cholecalciferol supplementation corrects vitamin D deficiency and is effective in lowering serum intact parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers in early stages of CKD. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral
Full Text Available Zulfitri A Mat Daud,1 Boniface Tubie,2 Marina Sheyman,2 Robert Osia,2 Judy Adams,2 Sharon Tubie,2 Pramod Khosla1 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Great Lake Dialysis Clinic, LLC, Detroit, MI, USA Purpose: Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. Patients and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols. Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6, oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde, lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. Results: TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test. However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032 and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072 after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly
Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu
To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.
Chao, Yi-Sheng; Brunel, Ludovic; Faris, Peter; Veugelers, Paul J.
The importance of dose, frequency and duration of vitamin D supplementation for plasma 25(OH)D levels is not well described and rarely reported for supplementation that exceeds 2000 IU per day. The objective is to examine dose, frequency and duration of supplementation in relation to plasma 25(OH)D in a large population-based sample. We accessed data on 2714 volunteers that contributed to 4224 visits and applied multilevel regression. Compared to not using supplements, a minimum regimen of 1000–2000 IU once or twice per week for one month was not effective in raising 25(OH)D. Compared to this minimum regimen, higher doses of 2000–3000, 3000–4000, and 5000 IU or more were associated with a 7.49, 13.19 and 30.22 nmol/L 25(OH)D increase, respectively; frequencies of three to four, five to six and seven times/week were associated with a 5.44, 16.52 and 30.69 nmol/L increase, respectively; and supplementation of five months or longer was associated with an increase of 6.68 nmol/L (p < 0.01 for all). Age, body weight, physical activity, smoking, and self-rated health were significantly associated with 25(OH)D. Whereas dose, frequency and duration of supplementation are important to healthy subjects committed to optimizing their nutritional status, to the design of clinical trials, individual characteristics and lifestyle contribute substantially to 25(OH)D. PMID:24152747
MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG
Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester
Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Dopheide, J.
Background: In cystic fibrosis (CF), prophylactic supplementation of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K is recommended. Limited data is available describing vitamin prescription adherence by adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the use of prescribed vitamins and other nutritional
Braun Donald P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is the major circulating form of vitamin D and a standard indicator of vitamin D status. Emerging evidence in the literature suggests a high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D (as defined by serum 25(OHD levels of Methods This is a retrospective observational study of 2198 cancer patients who had a baseline test prior to initiation of cancer therapy at our hospital to evaluate serum 25(OHD levels between Jan 08 and Dec 09 as part of their initial nutritional evaluation. Patients with baseline levels of Results Of 2198 patients, 814 were males and 1384 females. 1051 were newly diagnosed and treated at our hospital while 1147 were diagnosed and treated elsewhere. The mean age at presentation was 55.4 years. The most common cancer types were breast (500, 22.7%, lung (328, 14.9%, pancreas (214, 9.7%, colorectal (204, 9.3% and prostate (185, 8.4%. The mean time duration between baseline and first follow-up assessment was 14.7 weeks (median 10.9 weeks and range 4 weeks to 97.1 weeks. The mean serum 25(OHD levels were 19.1 ng/ml (SD = 7.5 and 36.2 ng/ml (SD = 17.1 at baseline and first follow-up respectively; p 32 ng/ml compared to patients with baseline levels Conclusions The response to supplementation from suboptimal to optimal levels was greatest in patients with prostate and lung cancer as well as those with baseline levels between 20-32 ng/ml. Characteristics of non-responders as well as those who take longer to respond to supplementation need to be further studied and defined. Additionally, the impact of improved serum 25(OHD levels on patient survival and quality of life needs to be investigated.
Carol S. Johnston
Full Text Available The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with increased cold duration and severity. This study examined the impact of vitamin C on physical activity and respiratory tract infections during the peak of the cold season. Healthy non-smoking adult men (18–35 years; BMI < 34 kg/m2; plasma vitamin C < 45 µmol/L received either 1000 mg of vitamin C daily (n = 15 or placebo (n = 13 in a randomized, double-blind, eight-week trial. All participants completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire weekly. In the final two weeks of the trial, the physical activity score rose modestly for the vitamin C group vs. placebo after adjusting for baseline values: +39.6% (95% CI [−4.5,83.7]; p = 0.10. The number of participants reporting cold episodes was 7 and 11 for the vitamin C and placebo groups respectively during the eight-week trial (RR = 0.55; 95% CI [0.33,0.94]; p = 0.04 and cold duration was reduced 59% in the vitamin C versus placebo groups (−3.2 days; 95% CI [−7.0,0.6]; p = 0.06. These data suggest measurable health advantages associated with vitamin C supplementation in a population with adequate-to-low vitamin C status.
O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D
Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Pvitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.
Dobbelaar, P.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Jorritsma, R.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative status in blood, liver, milk, and ovarian follicular fluid in periparturient heifers. Vitamin E supplementation started 8 wk before calving and continued until 8 wk postpartum. Grass silage was the
Pipingas, Andrew; Camfield, David A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B; Cox, Katherine H M; White, David; Sarris, Jerome; Sali, Avni; Macpherson, Helen
Cognitive benefits of multivitamins have been observed in the elderly, but fewer trials have investigated younger, healthy cohorts. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the cognitive effects of 16-week multivitamin supplementation in adults aged 20-49 years. A total of 138 participants aged 20-50 years were randomised and 116 completed the trial. The participants completed a computerised battery of cognitive tasks before and after 16-week supplementation with a multivitamin containing minerals and herbs or placebo. Blood measures of homocysteine, vitamin B6, B12 and folate were collected at both time points. In men, there was a strong trend (p = 0.01; which did not reach significance when adjusted for multiple comparisons) for the multivitamin to improve performance on the incongruent stroop task, a measure of selective attention and response inhibition. There were no cognitive benefits of multivitamin supplements in women. Multivitamin supplementation substantially increased blood levels of vitamin B6, B12 and folate in both genders and decreased homocysteine in men. In men who received the multivitamin, improved stroop congruent performance was associated with increased vitamin B6 levels. Multivitamin supplementation may be useful for maintaining levels of B vitamins. The effects of multivitamins on speeded attention such as the stroop task in young adults warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shalan, M.G.; Mostafa, M.S.; Hassouna, M.M.; El-Nabi, S.E. Hassab; El-Refaie, A.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the combined administration of Vitamin C and silymarin on lead toxicity. Male albino rats were subdivided into three groups: the first was a control group, the second received lead acetate in diet as 500 mg/kg diet daily, the third received the same lead acetate dose and supplemented with Vitamin C (1 mg/100 g body weight) and silymarin (1 mg/100 g body weight) by gastric tube three times per week. Blood samples were taken after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. Significant lead-induced elevations in serum ALT, AST, GGT and ALP activities were observed after different periods of treatment. However, serum LDLc was decreased. The intensities of RNA and apoptotic fragments of DNA were measured as optical density by Gel-pro program. Lead acetate decreased the intensity of DNA at 6 weeks and induced apoptotic DNA fragments reversibly with time. After 2 weeks of lead administration dilation and congestion of terminal hepatic veins and portal vein branches were observed. Lead also induced hepatocyte proliferation without any localized distribution among zones 1-3. Portal inflammatory infiltrate with disruption of the limiting plates (interface hepatitis), steatosis, apoptosis and mild fibrosis were detected especially by sixth week of lead administration. Combined treatment of lead-exposed animals with Vitamin C and silymarin showed marked improvement of the biochemical, molecular and histopathological findings. These experimental results strongly indicate the protective effect of Vitamin C and silymarin against toxic effects of lead on liver tissue
Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.
Devi, Sarita; Mukhopadhyay, Arpita; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Thomas, Tinku; Crasta, Julian; Thomas, Annamma; Sheela, C N; Hsu, Jean W; Tang, Grace J; Jahoor, Farook; Kurpad, Anura V
Background: Low-quality dietary protein intake and vitamin B-12 deficiency could interact to decrease methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates during pregnancy and may affect epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. Objective: The objective of this randomized, partially open-labeled intervention trial was to examine the effect of supplemental high-quality protein and vitamin B-12 on third-trimester methionine kinetics in pregnant Indian women with a low vitamin B-12 status. Methods: Pregnant women with low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations (protein-energy supplementation of 500 mL milk/d plus a 10-μg vitamin B-12 tablet/d (M+B-12 group; n = 30), the second group received milk (500 mL/d) plus a placebo tablet (M+P group; n = 30), and the third group received a placebo tablet alone (P group; n = 33). Third-trimester fasting plasma amino acid kinetics were measured by infusing 1- 13 C,methyl- 2 H 3 -methionine, ring- 2 H 5 -phenylalanine, ring- 2 H 4 -tyrosine,1- 13 C-glycine, and 2,3,3- 2 H 3 , 15 N-serine in a subset of participants. Placental mRNA expression of genes involved in methionine pathways, placental long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (LINE-1) methylation, and promoter methylation levels of vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) were analyzed. Results: Remethylation rates in the M+B-12, M+P, and P groups were 5.1 ± 1.7, 4.1 ± 1.0, and, 5.0 ± 1.4 μmol ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ h -1 , respectively ( P = 0.057), such that the percentage of transmethylation remethylated to methionine tended to be higher in the M+B-12 group (49.5% ± 10.5%) than in the M+P group (42.3% ± 8.4%; P = 0.053) but neither differed from the P group (44.2% ± 8.1%; P > 0.1). Placental mRNA expression, LINE-1, and VEGF promoter methylation did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Combined vitamin B-12 and balanced protein-energy supplementation increased the homocysteine remethylation rate in late pregnancy. Thus, vitamin B-12 along with balanced protein
Oguntibeju, O.O.; Schalkwyk, F.V; Heever, WMJ. V.den.; Veldman, F.J.
Nutrition intervention aimed at preventing or reversing weight loss and wasting in HIV infection may help to improve quality of life and prolong survival. Micronutrient supplementation may help to strengthen the immune system and reduce the severity and impact of opportunistic infections in people living with HIV / AIDS. HIV contributes to malnutrition for physiological reasons related to the infection itself. HIV /AIDS, being a disease of the immune system, new strategies, including specific dietary nutrients (nutrient supplementation) to improve immune functions, quality of life and prolong survival in infected individuals, could provide additional/alternative approaches for therapeutic treatment in HIV infected subjects. Several vitamins and minerals are important in fighting HIV infection and its resultant effects, hence nutritional supplementation has been advocated. This review focuses on the importance of vitamin/mineral supplementation in HIV / AIDS subjects. (author)
Abramovici, A; Gandley, R E; Clifton, R G; Leveno, K J; Myatt, L; Wapner, R J; Thorp, J M; Mercer, B M; Peaceman, A M; Samuels, P; Sciscione, A; Harper, M; Saade, G; Sorokin, Y
Smoking and pre-eclampsia (PE) are associated with increases in preterm birth, placental abruption and low birthweight. We evaluated the relationship between prenatal vitamin C and E (C/E) supplementation and perinatal outcomes by maternal self-reported smoking status focusing on outcomes known to be impacted by maternal smoking. A secondary analysis of a multi-centre trial of vitamin C/E supplementation starting at 9-16 weeks in low-risk nulliparous women with singleton gestations. We examined the effect of vitamin C/E by smoking status at randomisation using the Breslow-Day test for interaction. The trial's primary outcomes were PE and a composite outcome of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH) with serious adverse outcomes. Perinatal outcomes included preterm birth and abruption. There were no differences in baseline characteristics within subgroups (smokers versus nonsmokers) by vitamin supplementation status. The effect of prenatal vitamin C/E on the risk of PE (P = 0.66) or PAH composite outcome (P = 0.86) did not differ by smoking status. Vitamin C/E was protective for placental abruption in smokers (relative risk [RR] 0.09; 95% CI 0.00-0.87], but not in nonsmokers (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.52-1.62) (P = 0.01), and for preterm birth in smokers (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58-0.99) but not in nonsmokers (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.90-1.17) (P = 0.046). In this cohort of women, smoking was not associated with a reduction in PE or the composite outcome of PAH. Vitamin C/E supplementation appears to be associated with a reduction in placental abruption and preterm birth among smokers. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Kiraly, Nicholas; Balde, Aliu; Lisse, Ida Marie; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell
The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood. Infants in Guinea-Bissau were randomly allocated VAS or placebo, either at six and nine months of age, or only at nine months of age. At six months of age, children were furthermore randomized to measles vaccine or inactivated polio vaccine. At nine months of age all children received measles vaccine. Children were revisited seven years later and skin prick testing was performed. Atopy was defined as a skin prick reaction ≥ 3 mm. 40 of 263 children (15%) were atopic. Overall VAS had no significant effect on the risk of atopy (Prevalence Ratio 1.23; 95% CI 0.69-2.18). The Prevalence Ratio was 1.60 (0.66-3.90) for males and 1.00 (0.46-2.15) for females. There was no significant effect of VAS in infancy on atopy later in childhood. The role of infant VAS in the development of atopy is still unclear.
Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Blacher, Jacques; Galan, Pilar
Certain epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids and folate can reduce blood pressure (BP). We investigated the effect of a daily supplementation with dietary doses of B-vitamins or n-3 fatty acids for 5 years on BP in patients with a history of CVD who participated in the Supplémentation en Folates et Omega-3 trial. The patients (n 2501; 1987 men and 514 women) were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of four groups: B-vitamins (5-methyl-THF (560 μg); vitamin B₆ (3 mg) and vitamin B₁₂ (20 μg)) and a placebo capsule for n-3 fatty acids; n-3 fatty acids (600 mg of EPA and DHA at a ratio of 2:1) and a placebo capsule for B-vitamins; both B-vitamins and n-3 fatty acids; or placebo capsules for both treatments. The patients took two capsules daily in a double-blind manner for a median duration of 4·7 years. At baseline and annual examination for 5 years, the patients underwent a clinical examination where BP and clinical and biological parameters were assessed. No effect of supplementation with either n-3 PUFA or B-vitamins on BP was observed in crude and adjusted multivariate models. Change in BP was not associated with change in homocysteine. In conclusion, the present results do not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing B-vitamins, or of n-3 fatty acids, to reduce BP in people with prior CVD.
Grønborg, Ida Marie; Tetens, Inge; Ege, Majken
Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18-50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies...... from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe...... on safe and adequate levels. Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake...
Safer, Umut; Safer, Vildan Binay; Demir, Sibel Ozbudak; Yanikoglu, Inci
Postmenopausal osteoporosis has been linked to accelerated cognitive decline; however, little is known about the effects of medical treatment on cognitive functions. In this prospective study, we evaluated the effects of bisphosphonate treatment and calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on cognitive functions in 45 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis who were started on medical treatment. The medications included alendronate, zoledronic acid, risedronate, or ibandronic acid along with a low or high dose of calcium plus vitamin D supplements. The cognitive function was assessed by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) test. All subjects underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurement via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at study completion. The mean T-score improved significantly at 1 year, except for neck of the femur area. The mean MMSE score did not change significantly at 12 months (26.40 ± 2.07 vs. 26.48 ± 2.07; p = 0.513), with no difference among bisphosphonates combined with calcium plus vitamin D. Higher dose (1200 mg/800 U/day) of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation tended to have a greater improvement as compared with lower dose (600 mg/400 U/day) (Δ MMSE: 0.11 ± 0.72 vs. -0.14 ± 0.69). Cognitive functions in the women remained unaltered, whereas bone BMD T-scores were significantly improved at the 12(th) month after the administration of bisphosphonates and calcium plus vitamin D supplements. Higher doses of calcium plus vitamin D supplements were likely to have better cognitive effects as compared with lower doses.
Saboori, S; Shab-Bidar, S; Speakman, J R; Yousefi Rad, E; Djafarian, K
C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, has a major role in the etiology of chronic disease. Vitamin E may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no consensus on the effects of vitamin E supplementation on CRP levels in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that report on the effects of vitamin E supplementation (α- and γ-tocopherols) on CRP levels. A systematic search of RCTs was conducted on Medline and EMBASE through PubMed, Scopus, Ovid and Science Direct, and completed by a manual review of the literature up to May 2014. Pooled effects were estimated by using random-effects models and heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q and I(2) tests. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were also performed according to intervention duration, dose of supplementation and baseline level of CRP. Of 4734 potentially relevant studies, only 12 trials met the inclusion criteria with 246 participants in the intervention arms and 249 participants in control arms. Pooled analysis showed a significant reduction in CRP levels of 0.62 mg/l (95% confidence interval = -0.92, -0.31; P vitamin E-treated individuals, with the evidence of heterogeneity across studies. This significant effect was maintained in all subgroups, although the univariate meta-regression analysis showed that the vitamin E supplementation dose, baseline level of CRP and duration of intervention were not the sources of the observed heterogeneity. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that supplementation with vitamin E in the form of either α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol would reduce serum CRP levels.
Makinde, Oluwamayowa; Rotimi, Kunle; Ikumawoyi, Victor; Adeyemo, Titilope; Olayemi, Sunday
HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV infected and HIV-TB co-infected subjects. 40 HIV/TB co-infected and 50 HIV mono-infected patients were divided into 2 equal groups. Participants provided demographic information and blood was collected to determine oxidative stress parameters before and after vitamin A (5000 IU) and C (2600 mg) supplementation for 1 month. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) at baseline for HIV infected subjects compared with HIV-TB co-infected subjects. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) lower level of MDA and higher level of Catalase (CAT) in subjects administered supplementation compared to subjects without supplementation for the HIV infected group. There was a significantly lower level of Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and higher level of MDA after one month of supplementation compared with baseline levels for HIV/TB co infected subjects. A similar result was also obtained for the HIV mono-infected groups which had a significantly lower level of SOD, MDA and CAT compared to the baseline. There was a significantly lower level of GSH and SOD, and higher level of MDA after supplementation compared with the baseline for HIV/TB co-infected subjects. Comparing the indices at baseline and post no-supplementation in HIV/TB co-infection showed no significant differences in the oxidative stress parameters. HIV/TB co-infection and HIV mono-infection seems to diminish the capacity of the anti-oxidant system to control oxidative stress, however exogenous anti-oxidant supplementation appears not to have beneficial roles in positively modulating the associated oxidative stress.
Chen Chee Keong
Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat
Shaw, Gregory; Lee-Barthel, Ann; Ross, Megan Lr; Wang, Bing; Baar, Keith
Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common complaint in active populations. More than 50% of all injuries in sports can be classified as sprains, strains, ruptures, or breaks of musculoskeletal tissues. Nutritional and/or exercise interventions that increase collagen synthesis and strengthen these tissues could have an important effect on injury rates. This study was designed to determine whether gelatin supplementation could increase collagen synthesis. Eight healthy male subjects completed a randomized, double-blinded, crossover-design study in which they consumed either 5 or 15 g of vitamin C-enriched gelatin or a placebo control. After the initial drink, blood was taken every 30 min to determine amino acid content in the blood. A larger blood sample was taken before and 1 h after consumption of gelatin for treatment of engineered ligaments. One hour after the initial supplement, the subjects completed 6 min of rope-skipping to stimulate collagen synthesis. This pattern of supplementation was repeated 3 times/d with ≥6 h between exercise bouts for 3 d. Blood was drawn before and 4, 24, 48, and 72 h after the first exercise bout for determination of amino-terminal propeptide of collagen I content. Supplementation with increasing amounts of gelatin increased circulating glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine, peaking 1 h after the supplement was given. Engineered ligaments treated for 6 d with serum from samples collected before or 1 h after subjects consumed a placebo or 5 or 15 g gelatin showed increased collagen content and improved mechanics. Subjects who took 15 g gelatin 1 h before exercise showed double the amino-terminal propeptide of collagen I in their blood, indicating increased collagen synthesis. These data suggest that adding gelatin to an intermittent exercise program improves collagen synthesis and could play a beneficial role in injury prevention and tissue repair. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical
Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R
Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.
Muscovy duck meat that vitamin E-supplemented feed brightness levels did not differ (P> 0.05 with non-supplemented, otherwise Muscovy duck meat that feed supplemented vitamin C or a combination of vitamin E and C levels of brightness up to 3 days either at room temperature or stored the refrigerator is still high. Supplementation of vitamin E and C was highly significant (P 0.05 between the age of 0 hours with that stored in the refrigerator or freezer. B * value of Muscovy duck meat that feed not given vitamin E and C as well as different combinations (P <0.05 with Muscovy duck meat that feed supplemented with vitamin C or a combination of vitamins E and C. The Muscovy duck meat that feed supplemented vitamin E, C or a combination of vitamins E and C if stored at room temperature or refrigerator up to 3 days the value of L* and a* is still high, but the b * low.
Moon, Rebecca J; Crozier, Sarah R; Dennison, Elaine M; Davies, Justin H; Robinson, Sian M; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C
The role of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in fetal development is uncertain, and findings of observational studies have been inconsistent. Most studies have assessed 25(OH)D only one time during pregnancy, but to our knowledge, the tracking of an individual's 25(OH)D during pregnancy has not been assessed previously. We determined the tracking of serum 25(OH)D from early to late pregnancy and factors that influence this. The Southampton Women's Survey is a prospective mother-offspring birth-cohort study. Lifestyle, diet, and 25(OH)D status were assessed at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. A Fourier transformation was used to model the seasonal variation in 25(OH)D for early and late pregnancy separately, and the difference between the measured and seasonally modeled 25(OH)D was calculated to generate a season-corrected 25(OH)D. Tracking was assessed with the use of the Pearson correlation coefficient, and multivariate linear regression was used to determine factors associated with the change in season-corrected 25(OH)D. A total of 1753 women had 25(OH)D measured in both early and late pregnancy. There was a moderate correlation between season-corrected 25(OH)D measurements at 11 and 34 wk of gestation (r = 0.53, P Vitamin D supplementation was the strongest predictor of tracking; in comparison with women who never used supplements, the discontinuation of supplementation after 11 wk was associated with a reduction in season-corrected 25(OH)D (β = -7.3 nmol/L; P supplementation was associated with increases in season-corrected 25(OH)D. Higher pregnancy weight gain was associated with a reduction in season-corrected 25(OH)D (β = -0.4 nmol · L(-1) · kg(-1); P = 0.015), whereas greater physical activity (β = 0.4 nmol/L per h/wk; P = 0.011) was associated with increases. There is a moderate tracking of 25(OH)D status through pregnancy; factors such as vitamin D supplementation, weight gain, and physical activity are associated with changes in season-corrected 25
Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Błażej; Majak, Paweł; Podlecka, Daniela; Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Stelmach, Iwona
Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a potential contributing factor in patients with allergic diseases. We compared the clinical and immunological effects of vitamin D supplementation to placebo during the pollen season in children with allergic rhinitis. Thirty-eight children aged 5-12, sensitive to grass pollen, participated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Children received either vitamin D 1000 IU daily supplementation or placebo. We studied symptoms/medication score, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FENO), methacholine bronchial provocation test and serum level of 25(OH)D, as well as; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, TLR4, IL-1, IL-6, TNF and the IL-10 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels in cell culture supernatants. Vitamin D therapy was effective in reduction of the symptoms/medication score ( p = 0.0371). In vitamin D group an increase in the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells (7.06 vs. 10.5%; p = 0.0013) and serum 25(OH)D concentration (49.6 vs. 96.6 ng/ml; p = 0.0001) and in control group an increase in FENO (15.6 vs. 21 ppb; p = 0.0331) and serum 25(OH)D level were observed (82.9 vs. 100.3 ng/ml; p = 0.0003).We revealed a higher increase from baseline in the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the vitamin D group compared to the control group ( p = 0.0058). A significant correlation between CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cell induction and FENO reduction in the vitamin D group was observed ( p = 0.0217). Vitamin D 1000 IU as a supplementary treatment of grass pollen allergy in children with allergic rhinitis during the pollen season significantly reduced the symptoms/medication score. The study revealed an immunological effect of vitamin D.
Full Text Available Ling Zhang,1 Qiao-ying Yuan2 1Department of Out-patient Clinic, 2Department of Nutriology, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Objective: It is not clear whether vitamin D should be actively supplemented in elderly patients suffering from an acute attack of COPD (AECOPD and coronary heart disease (CHD. Patients and methods: The patients were divided into three groups according to specific criteria: patients with AECOPD (group A, patients with COPD combined with CHD (group B, and patients with CHD (group C. We measured the levels of vitamin D and analyzed the correlation between vitamin D and important electrolytes, including prealbumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, cystatin C, blood fat, blood calcium, and blood magnesium, and the nutrition state of the whole body. The serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP was measured using an ELISA kit. Results: The vitamin D level in group B was the lowest, followed by group A. When compared with group C, they all had statistical significance (P<0.05, but there was no statistical difference between groups A and B. There was no difference among the three groups when prealbumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, cystatin C, blood fat, blood calcium, and blood magnesium were compared. The level of BNP in the three groups increased, but it had no obvious correlation with the level of vitamin D (P>0.05. Conclusion: When elderly patients have coronary artery disease with AECOPD, vitamin D levels were obviously lower and were negatively correlated with the BNP. Low vitamin D levels, as well as poor nutrition, affect cardiopulmonary function and quality of living of elderly patients, especially female patients. Therefore, vitamin D should be supplemented more actively in the female patients suffering from AECOPD and CHD. Keywords: COPD, CHD, cardiac function, vitamin D, nutrition
Ishikawa, Yohei; Tanaka, Haruka; Akutsu, Taisuke; Koide, Kentaro; Sakuma, Mio; Okazaki, Minoru; Ida, Hiroyuki; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi
Many pregnant women take vitamin supplements during pregnancy. The aim of this paper was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation prior to and/or during pregnancy on child behavior. A prospective birth cohort study from pregnancy to 3 years of age involving 1271 pairs of Japanese pregnant women and their newborns, was carried out. The women completed a self-administered questionnaire during the third trimester of pregnancy. To evaluate deviations in child behavior as an endpoint, each mother completed the Japanese Child Behavior Checklist for ages 2-3 years after 3 years of birth. Participant characteristics were compared between supplement takers and non-takers. Among many kinds of supplements, intake of supplemental vitamin A/β-carotene prior to and/or during pregnancy was associated with hazardous effects on child behavior at 3 years of age (total t-score, P = 0.003; internal t-score, P = 0.027; external t-score, P = 0.013). This association held true even after adjusting for age, number of deliveries, infertility treatment, consumption of fast food, smoking status, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal income, gestational age at birth, anthropometry at birth (weight, height, head circumference and body circumference), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at 3 years of age by means of multiple imputation. Intake of supplemental vitamin A prior to and/or during pregnancy may worsen child behavior at 3 years of age. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with vitamins C and E and organic minerals Zn and Se on the performance of 1 to 35 day-old broilers from, kept under cyclic heat stress (25 to 32ºC. Four levels of vitamin-mineral supplementation were used (T1-control diet (60/30 IU of vit E for starter and growing diet, respectively, zero vit. C, 80 ppm of inorganic Zn, 0.3 ppm of inorganic Se; T2-control diet + 100 UI vit E and 300 ppm vit C/kg; T3-control diet + 40 ppm Zn and 0,3 ppm Se/kg; T4-control diet + T2 and T3 levels and two environments - thermoneutral and cyclic heat stress (TN and HS from 14 to 35 days of age. In the period when part of the birds was submitted to HS, from 14 to 35 days, it was observed lower feed intake (FI and better feed conversion (FC for HS birds receiving supplementation compared to the group without supplementation. Evaluating the total period, all the types of supplementation provided lower FI and better FC than the control treatment, but not affected weight gain (WG. The supplementation of vitamins C and E and/or organic minerals Zn and Se improved the performance of birds due to a lower FI resulting in better FC, independently on the environment.
Cruz, Sabrina; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Ramalho, Andréa
The aim of this review was to evaluate the impact of vitamin A supplementation on adult pregnant women and women who have just given birth in studies examining serum concentrations of vitamin A in breast milk and in maternal/child morbidity and mortality. This review followed the recommendations in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). In November 2014, an electronic search was independently performed by two authors on the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS databases on studies published from January 2004 to November 2014. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed in accordance with the Jadad scale, which determines the exclusion of studies with scores lower than 3. It was observed that when supplementation was provided only in the immediate postpartum period, it increased the liver stores of vitamin A. On the other hand, when supplementation was provided during pregnancy and puerperium5, the propensity for depleting the stores of vitamin A at the end of pregnancy decreased, the immune system improved, and cases of gestational night blindness decreased, but there were no changes in the outcomes at childbirth or in maternal, fetal, and child mortality. When supplementation was provided before and during pregnancy and in the immediate postpartum period, an additional improvement of lung function evaluated in preschool-aged children was found, but no significant changes in cognitive and motor development were noted. Studies show the benefits of vitamin A supplementation, not just in the immediate postpartum period but, above all, when it is provided before and/or during pregnancy. Considering the positive repercussions observed, we suggest supplementation both in the gestational period and in the immediate postpartum period as a way to enhance the safety of mother-child care.
Kermack, A J; Macklon, N S
Approximately one in six couples suffer from subfertility, and many seek treatment with artificial reproductive technologies (ART). Despite improvements in laboratory techniques and ovarian stimulation, ongoing pregnancy rates per cycle remain at ~25%. Couples wanting to improve their chances may turn to adjuvant therapies, such as nutritional supplements. There is growing evidence that periconceptional nutritional status is a key determinant of fertility and long-term health of the offspring, and a lucrative market has developed to meet the demand based on these benefits. However, the practice of routine dietary supplementation before and during IVF treatment has not been subject to well-powered prospective randomised trials. In this article, the potential roles of specific nutritional supplements in the context of improving IVF outcomes are reviewed and an assessment is made of the evidence base supporting their clinical use in this context. Finally, current research needs in the field are outlined.
Edmonds, M S; Arentson, B E
Two trials with finishing pigs (PIC line 355 x Camborough 22) were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) supplement deletions on performance, carcass quality, and tissue nutrient levels. Trial 1, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM supplement regimens and two stress regimens, was conducted for 12 wk with 252 pigs (mixed sex). Average initial weight of pigs was 54 kg. The VTM regimens consisted of control (adequate level of VTM throughout trial), VTM deleted for the final 6 wk, and VTM deleted for entire 12 wk of the trial. The stress regimens consisted of leaving half the treatments in their original location or moving the other half of the treatments to a new pen location every 3 wk. There were three replications (pens) per treatment with 14 pigs per pen (0.80 m2). Diets were medicated with bacitracin methylene disalicylate. Overall, there were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) for ADG, ADFI, gain:feed ratio, longissimus muscle area, or last-rib backfat. However, there was a greater than 75% decrease (P < 0.001) in vitamin E content of longissimus muscle from deleting VTM for 6 or 12 wk. Trial 2, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM regimens and two genders, was conducted for 12 wk with 306 pigs. Average initial weight of pigs was 58 kg. The VTM regimens were identical to those used in Trial 1. Each treatment consisted of three gender replications of 17 pigs per pen (0.66 m2), and all diets were unmedicated. Overall, pigs fed diets without VTM for 12 wk had lower (P < 0.06) ADG than those fed the control diets. Vitamin E content of the ham muscle was reduced by greater than 50% (P < 0.001) when pigs were fed diets without VTM for 6 or 12 wk compared with those fed the control diet. Concentrations of copper in ham muscle were reduced (P < 0.05) in pigs fed diets without VTM. These data suggest that deleting VTM during the finishing stage markedly lowers the vitamin E content of
Full Text Available ... the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such ...
Pan, Tianrong; Zhong, Mingkui; Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhu, Defa
Hypothyroidism has a variety of adverse effects on cognitive function. The treatment of levothyroxine alone cannot restore cognitive defects of hypothyroid patients. Antioxidant vitamin E supplementation could be useful in disturbances which are associated with oxidative stress and could effectively slow the progression of Alzheimer disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress status of the serum and hippocampus in hypothyroidism and to examine the effects of levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation on cognitive deficit. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, PTU group, PTU + Vit E group, PTU + L-T4 group, and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group. Serum and hippocampus malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances method. Serum and hippocampus superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined by measuring its ability to inhibit the photoreduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. In the present study, we found that the rats of PTU + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 than the PTU group. Moreover, the rats of PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 4 and 5 than the PTU + L-T4 group. The time spent in the target quadrants was measured in the probe test and no difference was observed in all groups. Oxidative damage has been observed in the serum and hippocampus of hypothyroidism rat. SOD levels of serum and hippocampus tissue were significantly increased and MDA levels were significantly decreased in the PTU + Vit E and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E groups than the PTU and PTU + L-T4 groups. Therefore, these findings indicate that levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation may ameliorate cognitive deficit in PTU-induced hypothyroidism through the decrease of oxidative stress status.
Sanam Behjat Sasan
Full Text Available Introduction. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome. One of the hypotheses concerning the etiology of preeclampsia is vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy. Method and Materials. The present study is a randomized controlled clinical trial which aims to determine the effect of vitamin D supplement on reducing the probability of recurrent preeclampsia. 72 patients were placed in control group while 70 patients were randomized to the intervention group. The intervention group received a 50000 IU pearl vitamin D3 once every two weeks. The control group was administered placebo. Vitamin D or placebo was given until the 36th week of pregnancy. Results. The patients in intervention group have significantly lower (P value = 0.036 probability of preeclampsia than patients in the control group. The risk of preeclampsia for the control group was 1.94 times higher than that for the intervention group (95% CI 1.02, 3.71. Conclusion. The intended intervention (i.e., prescription of vitamin D has a protective effect against recurrent preeclampsia. Vitamin D supplementation therapy in pregnancy could help in reducing the incidence of gestational hypertension/preeclampsia. Registration. This study has been registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT site with ID number IRCT2017010131695N1.
Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R
Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.
French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial.
Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Fezeu, Léopold; Jeandel, Claude; Ferry, Monique; Andreeva, Valentina; Amieva, Hélène; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar
Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline. The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial. This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics. Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline. This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.
Trautvetter, Ulrike; Neef, Nadja; Leiterer, Matthias; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Jahreis, Gerhard
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of calcium phosphate and/or vitamin D₃ on bone and mineral metabolism. Sixty omnivorous healthy subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃). At the beginning of the study (baseline), all subjects documented their normal nutritional habits in a dietary record for three successive days. After baseline, subjects were allocated to three intervention groups: CaP (additional 1 g calcium/d), vitamin D₃ (additional 10 μg/d) and CaP + vitamin D₃. In the first two weeks, all groups consumed placebo bread, and afterwards, for eight weeks, the test bread according to the intervention group. In the last week of each study period (baseline, placebo, after four and eight weeks of intervention), a faecal (three days) and a urine (24 h) collection and a fasting blood sampling took place. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were determined in faeces, urine and blood. Bone formation and resorption markers were analysed in blood and urine. After four and eight weeks, CaP and CaP + vitamin D₃ supplementations increased faecal excretion of calcium and phosphorus significantly compared to placebo. Due to the vitamin D₃ supplementations (vitamin D₃, CaP + vitamin D₃), the plasma 25-(OH)D concentration significantly increased after eight weeks compared to placebo. The additional application of CaP led to a significant increase of the 25-(OH)D concentration already after four weeks. Bone resorption and bone formation markers were not influenced by any intervention. Supplementation with daily 10 μg vitamin D₃ significantly increases plasma 25-(OH)D concentration. The combination with daily 1 g calcium (as CaP) has a further increasing effect on the 25-(OH)D concentration. Both CaP alone and in combination with vitamin D₃ have no beneficial effect on bone remodelling markers and on
Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Radio-Technical Department (Russian Federation); Novikov, E. G. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)
Control of the iron state in iron containing vitamins and dietary supplements using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution was done. An improvement of velocity resolution appeared to be useful in determination of impurities and analysis of the main components in iron containing pharmaceuticals with better quality.
Bader, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Koch, Andreas
healthy men were exposed to HBO (100 % O2; 240 kPa) before and after 4 weeks' supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C plus 165 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents. Exposure to 21 % O2 at 100 kPa served as intra-individual controls (control). Samples for the analysis of plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress...
Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, J.W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five
Londhe, Vedang A; Nolen, Tracy L; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Tyson, Jon E; Oh, William; Devaskar, Sherin U
Preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction are at increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A randomized clinical trial by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) preterm infants requiring early respiratory support decreased the risk of developing BPD. A subgroup analysis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants from the original NICHD trial was performed to test the hypothesis that in infants requiring early respiratory support, vitamin A supplementation decreases the relative risk of BPD or death in premature SGA infants to a greater extent than in gestational age-equivalent vitamin A-treated appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Although vitamin A supplementation significantly increased serum retinol concentrations in AGA ELBW infants (median [5th percentile, 95th percentile]: 16.3 [-7.0, 68.8] versus 2.4 [-13.9, 55.1]; p supplementation in preterm SGA infants requiring early respiratory support decreases the relative risk of BPD or death as compared with preterm AGA infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Erikstrup, Christian
Within a neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) trial, we investigated the effect of VAS on TNF-a, IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 production after lipopolysaccharide, purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phytohaemagglutinin stimulation using a whole blood culture protocol....
Jørgensen, Mathias J; Fisker, Ane B; Sartono, Erliyani
Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth was not associated with improved survival in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. However, a negative sex-differential effect, which became evident after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination, was noted; among girls who had rec...
Diness, Birgitte R; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth has been associated with decreased mortality in Asia. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given at birth in tuberculosis-endemic countries. Previous studies suggest that VAS may influence the immune response to vaccines. OBJECTIVE: Our obj...
Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas
As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...
Fisker, Ane Bærent; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Frydenberg, Morten; Bibby, Bo Martin; Benn, Christine Stabell
Within a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in Guinea-Bissau, neonatal VAS did not affect overall infant mortality. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to test the hypothesis that neonatal VAS primes the response to subsequent vitamin A. All trial children were offered VAS after follow-up ended at 1 year of age (FU-VAS). We compared mortality between 1 and 3 years of age according to initial randomization to neonatal VAS or placebo in Cox-regression models; we expected that children randomized to neonatal VAS compared with those randomized to placebo would have lower mortality after reception of FU-VAS. Of 4345 infants enrolled in the original trial, 3646 lived in the study area at 1 year of age and 2958 received FU-VAS. Between 1 and 3 years of age, 112 children died. After FU-VAS, neonatal VAS was associated with lower mortality than placebo: Mortality Rate Ratio (MRR) = 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31-0.94). The effect was more pronounced in girls (MRR = 0.37 (0.16-0.89)) than boys (MRR = 0.73 (0.35-1.51)). The beneficial effect of neonatal VAS may have been particularly strong for girls who received both VAS in a campaign and FU-VAS (MRR = 0.15 (0.03-0.67)). Among children who had not received FU-VAS, mortality in the second and third year of life did not differ according to reception of neonatal VAS or placebo. Hence, in the second and third year of life the effect of neonatal VAS versus placebo was different in girls who had or had not received FU-VAS (p for homogeneity = 0.01). The present results suggest that neonatal VAS primes the response in girls such that they get a beneficial effect after a subsequent dose of VAS. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00168597.
Ane Bærent Fisker
Full Text Available Within a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS in Guinea-Bissau, neonatal VAS did not affect overall infant mortality. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to test the hypothesis that neonatal VAS primes the response to subsequent vitamin A.All trial children were offered VAS after follow-up ended at 1 year of age (FU-VAS. We compared mortality between 1 and 3 years of age according to initial randomization to neonatal VAS or placebo in Cox-regression models; we expected that children randomized to neonatal VAS compared with those randomized to placebo would have lower mortality after reception of FU-VAS.Of 4345 infants enrolled in the original trial, 3646 lived in the study area at 1 year of age and 2958 received FU-VAS. Between 1 and 3 years of age, 112 children died. After FU-VAS, neonatal VAS was associated with lower mortality than placebo: Mortality Rate Ratio (MRR = 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31-0.94. The effect was more pronounced in girls (MRR = 0.37 (0.16-0.89 than boys (MRR = 0.73 (0.35-1.51. The beneficial effect of neonatal VAS may have been particularly strong for girls who received both VAS in a campaign and FU-VAS (MRR = 0.15 (0.03-0.67. Among children who had not received FU-VAS, mortality in the second and third year of life did not differ according to reception of neonatal VAS or placebo. Hence, in the second and third year of life the effect of neonatal VAS versus placebo was different in girls who had or had not received FU-VAS (p for homogeneity = 0.01.The present results suggest that neonatal VAS primes the response in girls such that they get a beneficial effect after a subsequent dose of VAS.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00168597.
Fisker, Ane Bærent; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Frydenberg, Morten; Bibby, Bo Martin; Benn, Christine Stabell
Objectives Within a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in Guinea-Bissau, neonatal VAS did not affect overall infant mortality. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to test the hypothesis that neonatal VAS primes the response to subsequent vitamin A. Methods All trial children were offered VAS after follow-up ended at 1 year of age (FU-VAS). We compared mortality between 1 and 3 years of age according to initial randomization to neonatal VAS or placebo in Cox-regression models; we expected that children randomized to neonatal VAS compared with those randomized to placebo would have lower mortality after reception of FU-VAS. Results Of 4345 infants enrolled in the original trial, 3646 lived in the study area at 1 year of age and 2958 received FU-VAS. Between 1 and 3 years of age, 112 children died. After FU-VAS, neonatal VAS was associated with lower mortality than placebo: Mortality Rate Ratio (MRR) = 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31–0.94). The effect was more pronounced in girls (MRR = 0.37 (0.16–0.89)) than boys (MRR = 0.73 (0.35–1.51)). The beneficial effect of neonatal VAS may have been particularly strong for girls who received both VAS in a campaign and FU-VAS (MRR = 0.15 (0.03–0.67)). Among children who had not received FU-VAS, mortality in the second and third year of life did not differ according to reception of neonatal VAS or placebo. Hence, in the second and third year of life the effect of neonatal VAS versus placebo was different in girls who had or had not received FU-VAS (p for homogeneity = 0.01). Conclusions The present results suggest that neonatal VAS primes the response in girls such that they get a beneficial effect after a subsequent dose of VAS. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00168597 PMID:21853099
Mathur, N B; Saini, Ashish; Mishra, T K
To compare the effect of 400 IU and 1000 IU vitamin D for 6 weeks in very low birth weight preterm neonates. Randomized, double-blinded controlled trial in a teaching hospital. Fifty very low birth weight preterm neonates. Vitamin D 400 IU/day (Group 1) or 1000 IU/day (Group 2). Change in serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), parathormone, incidence of skeletal hypomineralization and growth. After 6 weeks of supplementation, the mean serum calcium and 25-OHD levels were significantly higher (p supplementation in a dose of 1000 IU/day is more effective in maintaining serum calcium, phosphate, ALP, 25-OHD and parathormone levels with lower incidence of skeletal hypomineralization and better growth. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Bader, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Koch, Andreas
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of normobaric and hyperbaric O2 (HBO) on plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress in plasma and urine and to investigate the effect of a 4-week vitamin C plus E supplementation on HBO-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen...... healthy men were exposed to HBO (100 % O2; 240 kPa) before and after 4 weeks' supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C plus 165 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents. Exposure to 21 % O2 at 100 kPa served as intra-individual controls (control). Samples for the analysis of plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress...... biomarkers were collected before and immediately after each treatment. The present results showed that when compared with 'control', a single exposure to HBO resulted in a decrease of plasma vitamin C (P = 0.027) and an increase of lipid peroxides (P = 0.0008) and urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxod...
Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia J.; Andersen, Andreas
High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin...... derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide. There were no differences between the two doses of NVAS, and thus they were analysed combined as NVAS (any dose) v. placebo. All analyses were performed unstratified and by sex. NVAS increased the chance of having a scar after BCG vaccination...... in females (NVAS v. placebo: 96 v. 71 %, proportion ratio: 1·24; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·42), but not in males (Pfor interaction=0·012). NVAS was associated with significant sex-differential effects on the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios (TNF-α:IL-10) to PPD, tetanus toxoid and medium alone, which were...
Major, Jacqueline M; Yu, Kai; Chung, Charles C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Snyder, Kirk; Wright, Margaret E; Virtamo, Jarmo; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius
Vitamin E inhibits lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, prevents oxidative damage to DNA by scavenging free radicals, and reduces carcinogen production. No study to our knowledge, however, has examined the association between genetic variants and response to long-term vitamin E supplementation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of common variants associated with circulating α-tocopherol concentrations following 3 y of controlled supplementation. The study population included 2112 middle-aged, male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort who received a trial supplementation of α-tocopherol (50 mg/d) and had fasting serum α-tocopherol concentrations measured after 3 y. Serum concentrations were log-transformed for statistical analysis and general linear models adjusted for age, BMI, serum total cholesterol, and cancer case status. Associations with serum response to α-tocopherol supplementation achieved genome-wide significance for 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): rs964184 on 11q23.3 (P = 2.6 × 10(-12)) and rs2108622 on 19pter-p13.11 (P = 2.2 × 10(-7)), and approached genome-wide significance for one SNP, rs7834588 on 8q12.3 (P = 6.2 × 10(-7)). Combined, these SNP explain 3.4% of the residual variance in serum α-tocopherol concentrations during controlled vitamin E supplementation. A GWAS has identified 3 genetic variants at different loci that appear associated with serum concentrations after vitamin E supplementation in men. Identifying genetic variants that influence serum nutrient biochemical status (e.g., α-tocopherol) under supplementation conditions improves our understanding of the biological determinants of these nutritional exposures and their associations with cancer etiology.
Chawes, Bo L; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Stokholm, Jakob; Vissing, Nadja H; Bjarnadóttir, Elín; Schoos, Ann-Marie M; Wolsk, Helene M; Pedersen, Tine Marie; Vinding, Rebecca K; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Arianto, Lambang; Hallas, Henrik W; Heickendorff, Lene; Brix, Susanne; Rasmussen, Morten A; Bisgaard, Hans
Observational studies have suggested that increased dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against wheezing in the offspring, but the preventive effect of vitamin D supplementation to pregnant women is unknown. To determine whether supplementation of vitamin D3 during the third trimester of pregnancy reduces the risk of persistent wheeze in the offspring. A double-blind, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted within the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort. Enrollment began March 2009 with a goal of 708 participants, but due to delayed ethical approval, only 623 women were recruited at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Follow-up of the children (N = 581) was completed when the youngest child reached age 3 years in March 2014. Vitamin D3 (2400 IU/d; n = 315) or matching placebo tablets (n = 308) from pregnancy week 24 to 1 week postpartum. All women received 400 IU/d of vitamin D3 as part of usual pregnancy care. Age at onset of persistent wheeze in the first 3 years of life. Secondary outcomes included number of episodes of troublesome lung symptoms, asthma, respiratory tract infections, and neonatal airway immunology. Adverse events were assessed. Of the 581 children, persistent wheeze was diagnosed during the first 3 years of life in 47 children (16%) in the vitamin D3 group and 57 children (20%) in the control group. Vitamin D3 supplementation was not associated with the risk of persistent wheeze, but the number of episodes of troublesome lung symptoms was reduced, and the airway immune profile was up-regulated (principal component analysis, P = .04). There was no effect on additional end points. Intrauterine death was observed in 1 fetus (interpretation of the study is limited by a wide CI that includes a clinically important protective effect. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00856947.
Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E on NADH-diaphorase-positive (NADH-d+ and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the duodenum and ileum in diabetic rats. Forty rats were distributed into the following groups: normoglycemic (N, normoglycemic supplemented with vitamin C and vitamin E (NS, diabetic (D, and diabetic supplemented with vitamin C and vitamin E (DS. Vitamin C was added to the drinking water, and vitamin E was incorporated in the diet (1%. After 120 days, the animals were euthanized, and the duodenum and ileum were subjected to NADH-d and nNOS staining. Quantitative and morphometric analyses of myenteric neurons were performed. Diabetes reduced NADH-d+ neurons in the D group. The density of nitrergic neurons was not changed by diabetes or vitamin treatment. Hypertrophy of the cell body area of NADH-d+ and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was observed in both intestinal segments. Combined supplementation with vitamin C and vitamin E prevented the reduction of the density of NADH-d+ neurons and hypertrophy, demonstratred by both techniques. Supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E promoted myenteric neuroprotection in the small intestine in diabetic rats.
... Isabel Valentín-Oquendo 2 FCS8702 Why do we need vitamin C? Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, ... who eat plenty of fruits and vegetables rarely need vitamin C supplements. Contrary to popular opinion, taking vitamin ...
Frandsen, Tenna Bloch; Pareek, Manan; Hansen, Jens Peter
BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been associated with a higher likelihood of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and poor mental well-being, yet firm evidence for either remains lacking. Thus, vitamin D supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with SAD. METHODS......: This study was a randomized, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including healthcare professionals employed in psychiatric and somatic hospitals. 3345 healthcare professionals were invited to participate, 50 participants were screened, and 34 were able to complete the study. The main......, absenteeism from work and 25(OH)D. RESULTS: There were no significant between-group differences in SIGH-SAD sums at 12 weeks (p = 0.7 (CI: - 3.27 to 4.81)). However, there was a significant improvement of primary SIGH-SAD over time from inclusion (autumn-winter) to the completion of the study (winter...
Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.
Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro
Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.
Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is the more aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. NASH can progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and primary liver cancer. Therapy is evolving with a substantial number of trials of promising new agents now in progress. In this article however, we will examine data for several older forms of therapy which have been fairly extensively studied over the years: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA supplements, vitamin E, insulin sensitizing agents with a focus on pioglitazone and statin agents. Early interest in PUFA derived from their potential benefit in cardio-metabolic disease and the close association of NAFLD/NASH with Metabolic Syndrome. Results have been variable although most studies show reduction of liver fat without other major effects and their effects are influenced by concomitant weight loss and underlying genetic factors. Vitamin E has had some efficacy in pediatric NASH but questionable efficacy in even mild NASH among adults. Pioglitazone has shown significant histological benefit in a number of trials but concern over side-effects (especially weight gain have dampened enthusiasm. A newer insulin sensitizer, liraglutide, has also shown promise in a small randomized, controlled trial. Very limited data exists regarding the histological effects of the statins in NASH and these agents appear to be fairly neutral with neither clear cut benefit nor detriment. Their use is best guided by cardiovascular risks rather than liver histology.
Full Text Available Evidence from the literature and practical experiences suggests that nutritional factors are perhaps the most crucial for their direct effects on the reproductive phenomenon. Several studies and reviews (Barnes et al., 1996; Brake and Garlich, 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Donoghue et al., 1995; Donoghue et al., 1997; Froman et al., 1997; Hocking and Bernard, 1997; Holm, 1998 describe the effects of quantitative feed and energy on reproductive performance of farm animals but only recently there was an increasing attention for the effects of micronutrients intake. The aim of the present work was to verify and compare the effects of a supplementation of selenium, zinc and vitamin E on quality of poultry semen, with a particular attention to the selenium, because its beneficial effects on reproduction (Surai, 2002 needs further elucidation. These micronutrients were chosen because play a fundamental role in semen quality, in fact it was known that chicken semen contains the natural antioxidant vitamin E (Surai, 1997; Surai, 2000 together with antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD...
Shahdadian, Farnaz; Mohammadi, Hamed; Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important public health issues. Vitamin K supplementation might have favorable effect on risk factors of T2DM. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies to examine the effect of vitamin K supplementation on glycemic indices. A systematic search was performed in electronic databases including PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science, and Google scholar up to July 2017. We used a random effects model to estimate pooled effect size of fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2-h OGTT), fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Five clinical trials (533 participants) fulfilled the eligibility criteria of the present meta-analysis. Overall, meta-analysis could not show any beneficial effect of vitamin K supplementation on FBS (-0.91 mg/dl, 95% CI: -2.57, 0.76, p=0.28), FINS (-0.35 μIU/ml, 95% CI: -1.70, 1.00, p=0.61), HOMA-IR (-0.06, 95% CI: -0.32, -0.19, p=0.63), and 2-h OGTT (-4.00 mg/dl, 95% CI: -20.00, 11.99, p=0.62). Sensitivity analysis showed that overall estimates were not affected by elimination of any study. We did not observe any evidence regarding publication bias. In conclusion, vitamin K supplementation had no signiﬁcant effect on glycemic control in healthy subjects. However, further studies should be performed on diabetic and pre-diabetic patients to determine the effect of vitamin K supplementation on impaired glycemic control. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi
Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.
TURNER, Abigail Norris; REESE, Patricia CARR; FIELDS, Karen S.; ANDERSON, Julie; ERVIN, Melissa; DAVIS, John A.; FICHOROVA, Raina N.; ROBERTS, Mysheika Williams; KLEBANOFF, Mark A.; JACKSON, Rebecca D.
Objective Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with increased prevalence of the reproductive tract condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on BV recurrence. Study design This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled 118 women with symptomatic BV from an urban STD clinic (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01450462). All participants received 500mg oral metronidazole twice daily for seven days. Intervention participants (n=59) also received nine doses of 50,000 international units of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) over 24 weeks; control women (n=59) received matching placebo. Recurrent BV was assessed via Nugent scoring after 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat approach, fitting Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate recurrent BV over the follow-up period. Results Most participants (74%) were black, with a median age of 26 years. Median presupplementation serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was similar across randomization arms: 16.6 ng/mL in the vitamin D arm and 15.8 ng/mL in the control arm. At trial completion, median 25(OH)D among women receiving vitamin D was 30.5 ng/mL, vs 17.8 ng/mL in control women; 16% of women receiving vitamin D and 57% receiving placebo remained vitamin D deficient (vitamin D was very similar to those randomized to placebo at the 4- and 12-week visits, but by the 24-week visit, BV prevalence was 65% among women in the vitamin D arm and 48% among control women. BV recurrence was not reduced by vitamin D supplementation (intention-to-treat hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.81). Among women experiencing recurrent BV, median time to recurrence was 13.7 weeks in the vitamin D arm and 14.3 weeks in the control arm. Conclusions Women receiving vitamin D experienced significant increases in serum 25(OH)D, but this increase was not associated with
Darlow, Brian A; Graham, P J; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena
Vitamin A is necessary for normal lung growth and the integrity of respiratory tract epithelial cells. Preterm infants have low vitamin A status at birth and this has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic lung disease. To evaluate supplementation with vitamin A on the incidence of death or neonatal chronic lung disease and long-term neurodevelopmental disability in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants compared with a control (placebo or no supplementation), and to consider the effect of the supplementation route, dose, and timing. For the original review and subsequent updates, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. The reference lists of relevant trials, paediatric and nutrition journals, and conference abstracts and proceedings were handsearched up to 2010.For the 2016 update, we used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE via PubMed (1 May 2016), EMBASE (1 May 2016), and CINAHL (1 May 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin A supplementation with a control (placebo or no supplementation) or other dosage regimens in VLBW infants (birth weight ≤ 1500 grams or less than 32 weeks' gestation). Two review authors screened the search results, extracted data, and assessed the trials for risk of bias. Results were reported as risk ratios (RR), risk differences (RD), and number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Trialists were contacted for additional data. Eleven trials met the inclusion criteria. Ten trials (1460 infants) compared vitamin A supplementation with a
Li, W J; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J
1. The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens. 2. A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg feed). At 120 d, 30 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to examine the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on evaluated traits. 3. The results showed that supplemental vitamin E in diet significantly increased alpha-tocopherol contents of breast and thigh muscles, reduced the drip loss and improved tenderness but did not influence carcase yield, meat colour or pH value 24 h after slaughter. 4. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values decreased with increase in dietary vitamin E, and the addition of 100 mg/kg or more vitamin E had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability as indicated by TBARS values during storage up to 7 d. 5. Dietary vitamin E supplementation significantly altered fatty acid composition of breast muscle. Supplementing with 200 mg/kg vitamin E led to lower saturated fatty acids and greater polyunsaturated fatty acids proportions in breast muscle than control and 10 mg/kg vitamin E treatments. 6. Vitamin E supplementation significantly inhibited expression of the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) gene (cPLA(2)) in breast muscle, while enhancing that of the peroxisome proliterator-activated receptor beta (PPAP-beta) and heart fatty acid binding protein genes (H-FABP). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased lipid stability in muscle and improved meat quality and fatty acid composition, probably by its influence on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism.
Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Holden, Geir; Hallén, Jostein; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Sveen, Ole; Skaug, Arne; Paur, Ingvild; Bastani, Nasser E; Østgaard, Hege Nymo; Buer, Charlotte; Midttun, Magnus; Freuchen, Fredrik; Wiig, Havard; Ulseth, Elisabeth Tallaksen; Garthe, Ina; Blomhoff, Rune; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls
In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endurance training adaptations in humans. Fifty-four young men and women were randomly allocated to receive either 1000 mg of vitamin C and 235 mg of vitamin E or a placebo daily for 11 weeks. During supplementation, the participants completed an endurance training programme consisting of three to four sessions per week (primarily of running), divided into high-intensity interval sessions [4-6 × 4-6 min; >90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] and steady state continuous sessions (30-60 min; 70-90% of HRmax). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), submaximal running and a 20 m shuttle run test were assessed and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected, before and after the intervention. Participants in the vitamin C and E group increased their VO2 max (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5%) and performance in the 20 m shuttle test (10 ± 11%) to the same degree as those in the placebo group (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5% and 14 ± 17%, respectively). However, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) increased in the m. vastus lateralis in the placebo group by 59 ± 97% and 19 ± 51%, respectively, but not in the vitamin C and E group (COX4: -13 ± 54%; PGC-1α: -13 ± 29%; P ≤ 0.03, between groups). Furthermore, mRNA levels of CDC42 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) in the trained muscle were lower in the vitamin C and E group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Daily vitamin C and E supplementation attenuated increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance training. However, no clear interactions were detected for improvements in VO2 max and running performance. Consequently, vitamin C and E supplementation hampered cellular adaptations in the exercised muscles, and although this did not translate to the performance tests
Rafiq, R.; Aleva, F.E.; Schrumpf, J.A.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Taube, C.; Daniels, J.M.A.; Lips, P.; Bet, P.M.; Hiemstra, P.S.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; den Heijer, M.; de Jongh, R.T.
Background: Vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation, but is increasingly studied for its potential immunomodulatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in patients with COPD. Previous studies have not demonstrated a beneficial effect
Rafiq, R.; Aleva, F.E.; Schrumpf, J.A.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Taube, C.; Daniels, J.M.; Lips, P.; Bet, P.M.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Heijer, M. den; Jongh, R.T. de
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation, but is increasingly studied for its potential immunomodulatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in patients with COPD. Previous studies have not demonstrated a beneficial effect
Full Text Available Beyond its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism for healthy bone mineralization, there is increasing awareness for vitamin D contribution in modulation of immune reactions. Given that ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease involving excess immune/inflammatory activity and posing great therapeutic challenges, it is conceivable to claim that vitamin D treatment may be a safe and effective treatment to influence or modify the primary disease and its related comorbidities. Nevertheless, consistent body of research supporting this hypothesis is still lacking. In this paper, we examine whether systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency are feasible at present. We will review the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D and its contribution in initiation and progression of AS, as well as how