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Sample records for technique supports soft

  1. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  2. ON SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES IN VARIOUS AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft Computing refers to the science of reasoning, thinking and deduction that recognizes and uses the real world phenomena of grouping, memberships, and classification of various quantities under study. As such, it is an extension of natural heuristics and capable of dealing with complex systems because it does not require strict mathematical definitions and distinctions for the system components. It differs from hard computing in that, unlike hard computing, it is tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth. In effect, the role model for soft computing is the human mind. The guiding principle of soft computing is: Exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. The main techniques in soft computing are evolutionary computing, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic and Bayesian statistics. Each technique can be used separately, but a powerful advantage of soft computing is the complementary nature of the techniques. Used together they can produce solutions to problems that are too complex or inherently noisy to tackle with conventional mathematical methods. The applications of soft computing have proved two main advantages. First, it made solving nonlinear problems, in which mathematical models are not available, possible. Second, it introduced the human knowledge such as cognition, recognition, understanding, learning, and others into the fields of computing. This resulted in the possibility of constructing intelligent systems such as autonomous self-tuning systems, and automated designed systems. This paper highlights various areas of soft computing techniques.

  3. Soft Computing Techniques for Process Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Malhotra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovations in soft computing techniques have brought automation capabilities to new levelsof applications. Process control is an important application of any industry for controlling the complexsystem parameters, which can greatly benefit from such advancements. Conventional control theory isbased on mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour of process control systems. Due to lackin comprehensibility, conventional controllers are often inferior to the intelligent controllers. Softcomputing techniques provide an ability to make decisions and learning from the reliable data or expert’sexperience. Moreover, soft computing techniques can cope up with a variety of environmental and stabilityrelated uncertainties. This paper explores the different areas of soft computing techniques viz. Fuzzy logic,genetic algorithms and hybridization of two and abridged the results of different process control casestudies. It is inferred from the results that the soft computing controllers provide better control on errorsthan conventional controllers. Further, hybrid fuzzy genetic algorithm controllers have successfullyoptimized the errors than standalone soft computing and conventional techniques.

  4. Soft computing techniques in voltage security analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Kabir

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on soft computing techniques for enhancing voltage security in electrical power networks. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been chosen as a soft computing tool, since such networks are eminently suitable for the study of voltage security. The different architectures of the ANNs used in this book are selected on the basis of intelligent criteria rather than by a “brute force” method of trial and error. The fundamental aim of this book is to present a comprehensive treatise on power system security and the simulation of power system security. The core concepts are substantiated by suitable illustrations and computer methods. The book describes analytical aspects of operation and characteristics of power systems from the viewpoint of voltage security. The text is self-contained and thorough. It is intended for senior undergraduate students and postgraduate students in electrical engineering. Practicing engineers, Electrical Control Center (ECC) operators and researchers will also...

  5. Experimental and Computational Techniques in Soft Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    1. Microscopy of soft materials Eric R. Weeks; 2. Computational methods to study jammed Systems Carl F. Schrek and Corey S. O'Hern; 3. Soft random solids: particulate gels, compressed emulsions and hybrid materials Anthony D. Dinsmore; 4. Langmuir monolayers Michael Dennin; 5. Computer modeling of granular rheology Leonardo E. Silbert; 6. Rheological and microrheological measurements of soft condensed matter John R. de Bruyn and Felix K. Oppong; 7. Particle-based measurement techniques for soft matter Nicholas T. Ouellette; 8. Cellular automata models of granular flow G. William Baxter; 9. Photoelastic materials Brian Utter; 10. Image acquisition and analysis in soft condensed matter Jeffrey S. Olafsen; 11. Structure and patterns in bacterial colonies Nicholas C. Darnton.

  6. Neutron reflectometry of soft films supported on electrified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, A.I. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Chemistry, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Vezvaie, M. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Burgess, I.J., E-mail: ian.burgess@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Chemistry, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The specular reflection of neutrons is a non-destructive, nuclear-based technique, sensitive to low atomic number elements, has a high penetration depth, and can distinguish between isotopes of the same element. This makes neutron reflectometry (NR) especially effective for the study of biological membranes, soft films and buried interfaces. Furthermore, commonly used NR substrates such as silicon and quartz single-crystals can be modified with thin metallic layers to form conductive supports allowing for the precise control of the electrical state of the interface. The coupling of NR with in-situ electrochemical control provides a powerful tool to study the composition of soft and/or buried interfaces under conditions that mimic, for example, transmembrane potentials or corrosion potentials. Here we report our recent efforts to perform in situ electrochemical NR studies and the previous experimental framework from which they were developed. The talk will address technical and infrastructure challenges but emphasize scientific highlights from our work with biomimetic phospholipid membranes. 'Isotopic variation has been applied to quantify the electroporation and distribution of water as a function of surface charge density in lipid bilayers. These studies have more recently been extended to study the location of redox-active ubiquinone (coenzyme Q{sub 10}) in biomimetic lipid bilayers as a function of potential and temperature. To probe the location of ubiquinone, a phospholipid bilayer was prepared on a gold coated solid substrate using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett and vesicle fusion techniques. The combination of these two methods allowed for the composition of the inner and outer membrane leaflets to be varied. Preliminary results show sensitivity to the location of a small biologically relevant molecule. (author)

  7. A systematic review assessing soft tissue augmentation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Benić, Goran I; Zwahlen, Marcel; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present review was to systematically assess the dental literature in terms of soft tissue grafting techniques. The focused question was: is one method superior over others for augmentation and stability of the augmented soft tissue in terms of increasing the width of keratinized tissue (part 1) and gain in soft tissue volume (part 2). A Medline search was performed for human studies focusing on augmentation of keratinized tissue and/or soft tissue volume, and complemented by additional hand searching. Relevant studies were identified and statistical results were reported for meta-analyses including the test minus control weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals, the I-squared statistic for tests of heterogeneity, and the number of significant studies. Twenty-five (part 1) and three (part 2) studies met the inclusion criteria; 14 studies (part 1) were eligible for comparison using meta-analyses. An apically positioned flap/vestibuloplasty (APF/V) procedure resulted in a statistically significantly greater gain in keratinized tissue than untreated controls. APF/V plus autogenous tissue revealed statistically significantly more attached gingiva compared with untreated controls and a borderline statistical significance compared with APF/V plus allogenic tissue. Statistically significantly more shrinkage was observed for the APF/V plus allogenic graft compared with the APF/V plus autogenous tissue. Patient-centered outcomes did not reveal any of the treatment methods to be superior regarding postoperative complications. The three studies reporting on soft tissue volume augmentation could not be compared due to lack of homogeneity. The use of subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTGs) resulted in statistically significantly more soft tissue volume gain compared with free gingival grafts (FGGs). APF/V is a successful treatment concept to increase the width of keratinized tissue or attached gingiva around teeth. The addition of autogenous

  8. International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Engineering Application

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of ICSCTEA 2013 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers and academicians from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in soft computing techniques and engineering application. This conference provides opportunities for them to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.

  9. Introduction of Soft Computing Techniques to Welfare Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Hideyuki, Takagi; Kamohara, Shin'ichi; Kamohara, Shinichi; TAKEDA, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces our research into the use of soft computing techniques for hearing impairment compensation and physical rehabilitation. Evolutionary computation (EC) is used for fitting hearing aids based on an interactive EC and the user's preferences for sound. This technology allows hearing aid users to optimize their hearing aids in any acoustic environment without professional assistance. The virtual reality (VR) system for physical rehabilitation allows patients to train their mus...

  10. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral

  11. New Technique for Evaluating Adhesion Properties between Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaya; Goto, Motoaki; Nakano, Ken; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2005-11-01

    A new, simple apparatus for measuring the surface adhesion properties of soft materials was designed, where the adhesion force of a point contact between soft materials and the total energy required to separate the contact can be measured using the springs of phosphor-bronze thin plates with strain gauges. The adhesion between swollen hydrogels was studied here by this simple technique in air at room temperature. The gels used in the present preliminary experiments were poly(sodium acrylate) hydrogels physically cross-linked by aluminum ions. The adhesion force and the separation energy showed a power-law increase with separation velocity. The apparatus was applied to evaluate the adhesion properties of seven anti-inflammatory analgesic cataplasms on the market. It was found that the easiness to separate (rank of adhesion force and the separation energy) was consistent with the results of those obtained by organoleptic evaluations.

  12. Appraisal of soft computing techniques in prediction of total bed material load in tropical rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C K Chang; H Md Azamathulla; N A Zakaria; A Ab Ghani

    2012-02-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of three soft computing techniques, namely Gene-Expression Programming (GEP) (Zakaria et al 2010), Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNN) (Ab Ghani et al 2011), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in the prediction of total bed material load for three Malaysian rivers namely Kurau, Langat and Muda. The results of present study are very promising: FFNN (2 = 0.958, RMSE = 0.0698), ANFIS (2 = 0.648, RMSE = 6.654), and GEP (2 = 0.97, RMSE = 0.057), which support the use of these intelligent techniques in the prediction of sediment loads in tropical rivers.

  13. Tools to support maintenance strategies under soft soil conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J. W. M.; van Meerten, J. J.; Woning, M. P.; Eijbersen, M. J.; Huber, M.

    2015-11-01

    Costs for maintenance of infrastructure in municipalities with soft soil underground conditions, are estimated to be almost 40 % higher than in others. As a result, these municipalities meet financial problems that cause overdue maintenance. In some cases municipalities are even afraid to be unable to offer a minimum service level in future. In common, traditional practice, roads and sewerage systems have been constructed in trenches that consist of sandy material that replaces the upper meters of the soft soil. Under influence of its weight, this causes accelerated settlements of the construction. A number of alternative constructions have been developed, e.g. using light-weight materials to limit settlement velocity. In order to limit future maintenance costs, improvement of maintenance strategies is desired. Tools have been and will be developed to support municipalities in improving their maintenance strategies and save money by doing that. A model (BALANS) that weighs the attractiveness of alternative solutions under different soil, environmental and economic circumstances, will be presented.

  14. The Potential of Soft Soil Improvement Through a Coupled Technique Between Electro Kinetic and Alkaline Activation of Soft Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, G. E.; Ismail, H. B.; Huat, B. K.; Afshin, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization techniques have been in development for decades with different rates of success. Alkaline activation of soft soil is one of those techniques that has proved to deliver some of the best shear strength values with minor drawbacks in comparison with conventional soil stabilization methods. However, environmental considerations have not been taken into account, as major mineral glassy phase activators are poisoning alkaline solutions, such as sodium-, potassium-hydroxide, and sodium-, potassium-silicate, which poses serious hazards to man and environment. This paper addresses the ways of discarding the involvement of the aforementioned alkaline solutions in soft soil stabilization by investigating the potential of a coupled electro kinetic alkaline activation technique for soft soil strengthening, through which the provision of alkaline pH is governed by electro kinetic potential. Uncertainties in regard to the dissolution of aluminosilicate as well as the dominance of acidic front are challenges that need to be overcome.

  15. Imaging techniques for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso PD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available P Diana Afonso,1,2 VV Mascarenhas21Department of Radiology, Hospital Beatriz Angelo, Loures, 2Department of Radiology, Hospital da Luz, Lisbon, PortugalAbstract: The primary aim in soft tissue tumor imaging should be to reach a specific diagnosis or to narrow the differential diagnosis, and to help to decide whether biopsy, surgical intervention, or simple observation is required for further management. In addition to contributing toward diagnosis, imaging has an important role in the staging of soft tissue malignancies and potentially in response assessment. This general review article highlights a rational diagnostic imaging approach to patients presenting with soft tissue tumors, emphasizing the fundamental principles inherent to soft tissue tumor imaging and diagnosis.Keywords: soft tissue tumors, ultrasound, CT, PET, MRI

  16. Improving Performance of Cantilevered Momentum Wheel Assemblies by Soft Suspension Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on improving the performance of the rigid support cantilevered momentum wheel assemblies (CMWA by soft suspension support. A CMWA, supported by two angular contact ball bearings, was modeled as a Jeffcott rotor. The support stiffness, before and after in series with a linear soft suspension support, were simplified as two Duffing's type springs respectively. The result shows that the rigid support CMWA produces large disturbance force at the resonance speed range. The soft suspension CMWA can effectively reduce the force on the bearing (also disturbance forces produced by the CMWA at high rotational speed, and also reduce the nonlinear characteristic of the stiffness. However, the instability of the soft suspension CMWA will limit the maximum rotational speed of the CMWA. Thus, a "proper" stiffness of the soft suspension system is a trade-off strategy between reduction of the force and extension of the speed range simultaneously.

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the...

  18. A technique to replicate soft tissues around fixed restoration pontics on working casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, W W; Cho, G C; Ikoma, M M; Arcidiacono, A

    1999-03-01

    When missing maxillary incisors are replaced, the patient's primary concern is usually esthetics. Depending on the patient's smile line and the display of the incisors, the esthetic zone may extend to the entire clinical crown and include the surrounding soft tissue. For these patients, the appearance and form of the soft tissue at the base of the pontics is as critical as the esthetics of the incisal edges of the restoration. A technique is presented to precisely transfer the soft tissue morphology of the pontic area to the working cast. This modified master cast allows the laboratory technician to fabricate restorations that will harmonize precisely with the soft tissues of the patient.

  19. Investigation into the deformation of a large span roadway in soft seams and its support technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jianqiu; Feng Chao; Shi Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the deformation failure mechanism of surrounding rock from the aspect of engineering support for a roadway in seams with soft roofs and soft floors and observed the large displacement of the roadway in these soft seams.The result shows that the deformation area is quite large,and settlement of the roof is evident and displacement of the side walls is also obvious.We considered rock bolt-cable coupling for roadway support in seams with soft roofs and floors,in which the cable should be fixed at key positions.As well,we designed an optimal scheme to support a roadway in soft seams of the Shizuishan Second Mine in Ningxia,China.Field monitoring results show that bolt-cable coupling support has achieved the aims of roadway stability control and minimizes deformation.

  20. Debating the soft support of starting entrepreneurship in an educational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Rudpolhus Gerardus Maria

    2013-01-01

    There are all kind of support programs to support entrepreneurship. There are several ways of supporting entrepreneurship, where the person, the entrepreneur, is seen as one of the key factors for stimulating entrepreneurship. The support of the person is what I mention as soft support. To avoid

  1. Soft Tissue Augmentation Techniques in Implants Placed and Provisionalized Immediately: A Systematic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojo, Rosa; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Manchón, Ángel; Rodríguez-Molinero, Jesús; Sammartino, Gilberto; Calvo Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-de Diego, Rafael

    2016-01-01

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques for soft tissue augmentation in the placement of immediate implants with and without provisionalization and to assess the quality...

  2. SOFT SENSING MODEL BASED ON SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Weiwu; Shao Huihe; Wang Xiaofan

    2004-01-01

    Soft sensor is widely used in industrial process control.It plays an important role to improve the quality of product and assure safety in production.The core of soft sensor is to construct soft sensing model.A new soft sensing modeling method based on support vector machine (SVM) is proposed.SVM is a new machine learning method based on statistical learning theory and is powerful for the problem characterized by small sample, nonlinearity, high dimension and local minima.The proposed methods are applied to the estimation of frozen point of light diesel oil in distillation column.The estimated outputs of soft sensing model based on SVM match the real values of frozen point and follow varying trend of frozen point very well.Experiment results show that SVM provides a new effective method for soft sensing modeling and has promising application in industrial process applications.

  3. Failure mechanism and supporting measures for large deformation of Tertiary deep soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhibiao; Wang Jiong; Zhang Yuelin

    2015-01-01

    The Shenbei mining area in China contains typical soft rock from the Tertiary Period. As mining depths increase, deep soft rock roadways are damaged by large deformations and constantly need to be repaired to meet safety requirements, which is a great security risk. In this study, the characteristics of deformation and failure of typical roadway were analyzed, and the fundamental reason for the roadway deformation was that traditional support methods and materials cannot control the large deformation of deep soft rock. Deep soft rock support technology was developed based on constant resistance energy absorption using constant resistance large deformation bolts. The correlative deformation mechanisms of surrounding rock and bolt were analyzed to understand the principle of constant resistance energy absorption. The new technology works well on-site and provides a new method for the excavation of roadways in Tertiary deep soft rock.

  4. APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK TO SUPPORT OF ROADWAY IN SOFT ROCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Fengshan; Kang Lixun

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that artificial neural network which has marvelous ability to gain knowledge has been widely used in various engineering field.In this paper, support of roadway in soft rock has been researched based on neural network.

  5. Controlling entry in soft rock with natural support strength, strike sill, etc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-jun; ZHAO Qing-biao; SUN Li-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Presented the concept of the natural support strength. The natural support strength, the strike sill, the multifunction retractors (developed by the author) and etc. were used with the technical measures to change the passive support to the initiative support,and the soft rock entry was supported. And its process is simple and less equipment is needed, and the cost is low and the advance rate is high, which can meet the requirements of actual mining. It solves many support difficult problems.

  6. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  7. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  8. Introduction of Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy as an Advanced Technique for Plant Biopolymers Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R.; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M.; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S.; Hitchcock, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed. PMID:25811457

  9. Operator support system using computational intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio, E-mail: ebueno@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Computational Intelligence Systems have been widely applied in Monitoring and Fault Detection Systems in several processes and in different kinds of applications. These systems use interdependent components ordered in modules. It is a typical behavior of such systems to ensure early detection and diagnosis of faults. Monitoring and Fault Detection Techniques can be divided into two categories: estimative and pattern recognition methods. The estimative methods use a mathematical model, which describes the process behavior. The pattern recognition methods use a database to describe the process. In this work, an operator support system using Computational Intelligence Techniques was developed. This system will show the information obtained by different CI techniques in order to help operators to take decision in real time and guide them in the fault diagnosis before the normal alarm limits are reached. (author)

  10. Optimizing Nuclear Reactor Operation Using Soft Computing Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entzinger, J.O.; Ruan, D.; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    The strict safety regulations for nuclear reactor control make it di±cult to implement new control techniques such as fuzzy logic control (FLC). FLC however, can provide very desirable advantages over classical control, like robustness, adaptation and the capability to include human experience into

  11. A Novel Soft Sensor Modeling Approach Based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Rui(冯瑞); Song Chunlin; Zhang Yanzhu; Shao Huihe

    2004-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) such as radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) have been successfully used in soft sensor modeling. However, the generalization ability of conventional ANNs is not very well. For this reason, we present a novel soft sensor modeling approach based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Since standard SVMs have the limitation of speed and size in training large data set, we hereby propose Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LS_SVMs) and apply it to soft sensor modeling. Systematic analysis is performed and the result indicates that the proposed method provides satisfactory performance with excellent approximation and generalization property. Monte Carlo simulations show that our soft sensor modeling approach achieves performance superior to the conventional method based on RBFNNs.

  12. RESEARCH ON REPAIR SUPPORT FOR FLOOR HEAVE IN SOFT ROCK ROADWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆享; 杨忠民

    1997-01-01

    The run-around of Xiagou subincline bottom is a soft rock roadway, its floor has heaved over 1 m. In this paper, by electronic microscope scanning and X-ray diffraction analysis, the components of the soft rock are determined and the breaking mechanism of roadway is analyzed as well. Through finite element calculation and simulation model test, the reasonable repair support method is put forward.

  13. Determination of rational support parameters of bolting and shotcreting with wire mesh in soft roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU She-yu; MA Nian-jie; LIU Shao-wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on a great number of measured data, the author put forward zonal compressive and tensile deformation mechanism of soft rock around roadway. By using self-supporting capacity of compressive zone and controlling rock deformation of tensile zone, the long bolt or short bolt group supporting form was given for different size of rock compressive zone and tensile zone. Finally, studied on the determining method of rational support parameters of bolting and shotcreting with wire mesh in different support technology.

  14. A Review of Techniques to Measure Protein Sorption to Soft Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brad; Forrest, James A; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-09-01

    To compare and critically evaluate a variety of techniques to measure the quantity and biological activity of protein sorption to contact lenses over short time periods. A literature review was undertaken investigating the major techniques to measure protein sorption to soft contact lens materials, with specific reference to measuring protein directly on lenses using in situ, ex situ, protein structural, and biological activity techniques. The use of in situ techniques to measure protein quantity provides excellent sensitivity, but many are not directly applicable to contact lenses. Many ex situ techniques struggle to measure all sorbed proteins, and these measurements can have significant signal interference from the lens materials themselves. Techniques measuring the secondary and tertiary structures of sorbed proteins have exhibited only limited success. There are a wide variety of techniques to measure both the amount of protein and the biological activity of protein sorbed to soft contact lens materials. To measure the mass of protein sorbed to soft contact lenses (not just thin films) over short time periods, the method of choice should be I radiolabeling. This technique is sensitive enough to measure small amounts of deposited protein, provided steps are taken to limit and measure any interaction of the iodine tracer with the materials. To measure the protein activity over short time periods, the method of choice should be to measure the biological function of sorbed proteins. This may require new methods or adaptations of existing ones.

  15. Integration of organic nanofibers by soft transfer techniques and nanostenciling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana

    by a roll printing technique that maintains the nanofibers’ integrity and thereby enables their integration onto device platforms. The roll printing method is used to integrate the organic nanofibers in different field-effect transistor platform configurations. Electrical characterization reveals...... nanowires due their excellent and well-behaved electrical properties combined with a decent mechanical strength that enables easy manipulation of these materials without damage. Organic semiconductors based on small molecules have several advantages over inorganic materials including lower cost, flexibility......, and tunability of their properties through chemical synthesis of appropriate molecular building blocks that can self-assemble into crystalline nanostructures. However, such organic nanoaggregates are van der Waals bonded crystals and are therefore more fragile than the covalently bonded inorganic nanowires...

  16. Use of the Soft-agar Overlay Technique to Screen for Bacterially Produced Inhibitory Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Kevin L; Baltrus, David A

    2017-01-14

    The soft-agar overlay technique was originally developed over 70 years ago and has been widely used in several areas of microbiological research, including work with bacteriophages and bacteriocins, proteinaceous antibacterial agents. This approach is relatively inexpensive, with minimal resource requirements. This technique consists of spotting supernatant from a donor strain (potentially harboring a toxic compound(s)) onto a solidified soft agar overlay that is seeded with a bacterial test strain (potentially sensitive to the toxic compound(s)). We utilized this technique to screen a library of Pseudomonas syringae strains for intraspecific killing. By combining this approach with a precipitation step and targeted gene deletions, multiple toxic compounds produced by the same strain can be differentiated. The two antagonistic agents commonly recovered using this technique are bacteriophages and bacteriocins. These two agents can be differentiated using two simple additional tests. Performing a serial dilution on a supernatant containing bacteriophage will result in individual plaques becoming less in number with greater dilution, whereas serial dilution of a supernatant containing bacteriocin will result a clearing zone that becomes uniformly more turbid with greater dilution. Additionally, a bacteriophage will produce a clearing zone when spotted onto a fresh soft agar overlay seeded with the same strain, whereas a bacteriocin will not produce a clearing zone when transferred to a fresh soft agar lawn, owing to the dilution of the bacteriocin.

  17. Problems and Issues in Using Computer- Based Support Tools to Enhance 'Soft' Systems Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stansfield

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issue of whether computer-based support tools can enhance the use of 'soft' systems methodologies as applied to real-world problem situations. Although work has been carried out by a number of researchers in applying computer-based technology to concepts and methodologies relating to 'soft' systems thinking such as Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, such attempts appear to be still in their infancy and have not been applied widely to real-world problem situations. This paper will highlight some of the problems that may be encountered in attempting to develop computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. Particular attention will be paid to an attempt by the author to develop a computer-based support tool for a particular 'soft' systems method of inquiry known as the Appreciative Inquiry Method that is based upon Vickers' notion of 'appreciation' (Vickers, 196S and Checkland's SSM (Checkland, 1981. The final part of the paper will explore some of the lessons learnt from developing and applying the computer-based support tool to a real world problem situation, as well as considering the feasibility of developing computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. This paper will put forward the point that a mixture of manual and computer-based tools should be employed to allow a methodology to be used in an unconstrained manner, but the benefits provided by computer-based technology should be utilised in supporting and enhancing the more mundane and structured tasks.

  18. Controlling the Charge State and Redox Properties of Supported Polyoxometalates via Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Andersen, Amity; Du, Dan; Zhang, Weiying; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Lin, Yuehe; Laskin, Julia

    2014-12-04

    We investigate the controlled deposition of Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anions, PMo12O403- and PMo12O402-, onto different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces via soft landing of mass-selected ions. Utilizing in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electronic structure calculations, we examine the structure and charge retention of supported multiply-charged POM anions and characterize the redox properties of the modified surfaces. SAMs of alkylthiol (HSAM), perfluorinated alkylthiol (FSAM), and alkylthiol terminated with NH3+ functional groups (NH3+SAM) are chosen as model substrates for soft landing to examine the factors which influence the immobilization and charge retention of multiply charged anionic molecules. The distribution of charge states of POMs on different SAM surfaces are determined by comparing the IRRAS spectra with vibrational spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT). In contrast to the results obtained previously for multiply charged cations, soft landed anions are found to retain charge on all three SAM surfaces. This charge retention is attributed to the substantial electron binding energy of the POM anions. Investigation of redox properties by CV reveals that, while surfaces prepared by soft landing exhibit similar features to those prepared by adsorption of POM from solution, the soft landed POM2- has a pronounced shift in oxidation potential compared to POM3- for one of the redox couples. These results demonstrate that ion soft landing is uniquely suited for precisely controlled preparation of substrates with specific electronic and chemical properties that cannot be achieved using conventional deposition techniques.

  19. A rate-jump method for characterization of soft tissues using nanoindentation techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of soft tissues play an important role in their normal physiological and physical function, and may possibly relate to certain diseases. The advent of nanomechanical testing techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-indentation and optical tweezers, enables the nano/micro-mechanical properties of soft tissues to be investigated, but in spite of the fact that biological tissues are highly viscoelastic, traditional elastic contact theory has been routinely used to analyze experimental data. In this article, a novel rate-jump protocol for treating viscoelasticity in nanomechanical data analysis is described. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Testing equipment and experimental techniques for the investigation of the photoviscoelastic behaviour of soft polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, H.

    Creep tests with uniaxial stress and pure shear have been carried out in order to determine the behaviour of soft plastics, which is governed by a non-linear material law, and to apply it to the photoelastic analysis of biaxial stress in plastic components under quasistatic and isothermal loads. The test facility is described as well as the technique applied to correct stress/creep curves for sigma=const. Results are presented for plane and tubular samples of soft PVC and an unsaturated polyester.

  1. State-of-the-art soft computing techniques in image steganography domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanizan Shaker; Din, Roshidi; Samad, Hafiza Abdul; Yaacub, Mohd Hanafizah; Murad, Roslinda; Rukhiyah, A.; Sabdri, Noor Maizatulshima

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews major works of soft computing (SC) techniques in image steganography and watermarking in the last ten years, focusing on three main SC techniques, which are neural network, genetic algorithm, and fuzzy logic. The findings suggests that all these works applied SC techniques either during pre-processing, embedding or extracting stages or more than one of these stages. Therefore, the presence of SC techniques with their diverse approaches and strengths can help researchers in future work to attain excellent quality of image information hiding that comprises both imperceptibility and robustness.

  2. Prediction of Seasonal Temperature Using Soft Computing Techniques: Application in Benevento (Southern Italy) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Rampone, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In this work two soft computing methods, Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Programming, are proposed in order to forecast the mean temperature that will occur in future seasons. The area in which the soft computing techniques were applied is that of the surroundings of the town of Benevento, in the south of Italy, having geographic coordinates (lat. 41{\\deg}07'50"N; long.14{\\deg}47'13"E). This area is not affected by maritime influences as well as by winds coming from the west. The methods are fed by data recorded in the meteorological stations of Benevento and Castelvenere, located in the hilly area, which characterizes the territory surrounding this city, at 144 m a.s.l. Both the applied methods show low error rates, while the Genetic Programming offers an explicit rule representation (a formula) explaining the prevision. Keywords Seasonal Temperature Forecasting; Soft Computing; Artificial Neural Networks; Genetic Programming; Southern Italy.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of Soft-lined Mandibular Complete Denture and its Supporting Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Sadr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. There are many edentulous people with severely resorbed residual ridges and non-resilient lining mucosa that are unable to tolerate occlusal forces during functional and parafunctional movements. Lining the tissue surface of dentures with a flexible material can theoretically distribute and absorb forces with cushioning effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soft liner on stress levels in mandibular complete denture and its supporting structures by finite element analysis. Materials and methods. A simplified 3-dimensional finite element model of relatively resorbed mandible, mucosa, denture and a soft liner was prepared. Then the model, with and without soft liner, underwent normal vertical and lateral occlusal forces. The stresses were analyzed using the ANSYS 12 software. Results. Using the soft liner increased stress levels up to 18.5% and 30% in the cortical bone and mucosa, respectively, after vertical load was applied in the incisor region. Application of bilateral vertical load on the molar area increased stress in cortical bone u to 44% and in the mucosa up to 29%. Unilateral loading in the canine area increased stress level in the mucosa up to 63.5%. The highest stress was seen at denture base followed by the cortical bone. Conclusion. Use of soft liners increased stress in denture supporting structures. Higher level of stress concentration was observed primarily in the denture base followed by the cortical bone.

  4. Learning to Support Learning Together: An Experience with the Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Adolfo; Mejia, Andres

    2008-01-01

    An action research approach called soft systems methodology (SSM) was used to foster organisational learning in a school regarding the role of the learning support department within the school and its relation with the normal teaching-learning activities. From an initial situation of lack of coordination as well as mutual misunderstanding and…

  5. Plastic zone analysis and support optimization of shallow roadway with weakly cemented soft strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jihua; Wang Lianguo; Li Qinghai; Zhu Shuangshuang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a shallow roadway with weakly cemented soft strata in western China, this paper studies the range and degree of plastic zones in soft strata roadways with weak cementation. Geological radars were used to monitor the loose range and level of surrounding rocks. A mechanical model of weakly cemented roadway was established, including granular material based on the measured results. The model was then used to determine the plastic zone radium. The predicted results agree well with measured results which provide valuable theoretical references for the analysis of surrounding rock stability and support reinforcing design of weakly cemented roadways. Finally, a combined supporting scheme of whole sec-tion bolting and grouting was proposed based on the original supporting scheme. It is proved that this support plan can effectively control the deformation and plastic zone expansion of the roadway sur-rounding rock and thus ensure the long-term stable and safe mining.

  6. Soft tissue conditioning by immediate restoration of immediately placed implants in full-arch rehabilitation: the double provisional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Luca; Torsello, Ferruccio

    2006-01-01

    The safety and effectiveness of full-arch implant-supported fixed partial dentures have been established. Thus, clinicians are now focusing on the treatment modalities that can reduce patient discomfort, treatment time, and cost, and that could enhance the esthetic outcome of the restorations. Full-arch implant-supported rehabilitations are used when the patient is edentulous or if the residual dentition has a poor prognosis. In order to improve patients' comfort and avoid the use of a removable prosthesis, some protocols for immediate replacement of hopeless dentitions have been proposed, but there are no data on their outcomes regarding the soft tissues. The aim of this article is to describe the double provisional technique and to show evidence of its efficacy in easily achieving predictable esthetic results when immediately restoring a hopeless dentition with a fixed implant-supported restoration.

  7. Fuzzy logic as support for security and safety solution in soft targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ďuricová Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security and safety situations in objects, which are categorized as soft targets, is difficult. The current solving is based on several different type of solving. Soft targets are specific objects, and it requires special software solution. The proposal is based on fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic could apply more expert’s knowledges and it could help owners and managers with adequate responses in critical situation, and also definition of adequate preventive actions. System solving could help effectivity of proposed measures. The decision making is based on this fuzzy logic support and aim is explained in paper.

  8. Analysis of mechanical interaction between human gluteal soft tissue and body supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, C; Menger, J; Benderoth, G; Alizadeh, M; Vogl, T J; Hübner, F; Silber, G

    2008-01-01

    Pressure sores are the most common complication associated with patient immobilization. They develop through sustained localized tissue strain and stress, primarily caused by body supports. Modifying support design can reduce the risk and extent of pressure sore development with computational simulations helping to provide insight into tissue stress-strain distribution. Appropriate material parameters for human soft tissue and support material, as well as precise anatomical modelling, are indispensable in this process. A finite element (FE) model of the human gluteal region based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data has been developed. In vivo human gluteal skin/fat and muscle long-term material parameters as well as open-cell polyurethane foam support long-term material parameters have been characterised. The Ogden form for slightly compressible materials was employed to describe human gluteal soft tissue behaviour. Altering support geometries and support materials, effects on human gluteal soft tissue could be quantified. FE-analysis indicated maximal tissue stress at the muscle-bone interface, not at the skin. Shear strain maxima were found in the muscle layer near the fat-muscle interface. Maximum compressive stress magnitude at the sacral bone depended strongly on the behaviour of the pelvic diaphragm musculature. We hypothesize that the compliance of the muscles forming the pelvic diaphragm govern the relative motion of the buttock tissue to the adjacent bone structure under compression, thus influencing tissue stress magnitudes.

  9. Controller Design of DFIG Based Wind Turbine by Using Evolutionary Soft Computational Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Bharti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript illustrates the controller design for a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine by using a bioinspired scheme. This methodology is based on exploiting two proficient swarm intelligence based evolutionary soft computational procedures. The particle swarm optimization (PSO and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO techniques are employed to design the controller intended for small damping plant of the DFIG. Wind energy overview and DFIG operating principle along with the equivalent circuit model is adequately discussed in this paper. The controller design for DFIG based WECS using PSO and BFO are described comparatively in detail. The responses of the DFIG system regarding terminal voltage, current, active-reactive power, and DC-Link voltage have slightly improved with the evolutionary soft computational procedure. Lastly, the obtained output is equated with a standard technique for performance improvement of DFIG based wind energy conversion system.

  10. A Review of Intrusion Detection Technique by Soft Computing and Data Mining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Shrivastava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of internet technology spread a large amount of data communication. The communication of data compromised network threats and security issues. The network threats and security issues raised a problem of data integrity and loss of data. For the purpose of data integrity and loss of data before 20 year Anderson developed a model of intrusion detection system. Initially intrusion detection system work on process of satirical frequency of audit system logs. Latter on this system improved by various researchers and apply some other approach such as data mining technique, neural network and expert system. Now in current research trend of intrusion detection system used soft computing approach such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm and machine learning. In this paper discuss some method of data mining and soft computing for the purpose of intrusion detection. Here used KDDCUP99 dataset used for performance evaluation for this technique.

  11. [Integration of soft and hard classifications using linear spectral mixture model and support vector machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tan-Gao; Pan, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Jin-Shui; Li, Ling-Ling; Le, Li

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a new soft and hard classification. By analyzing the target objects in the image distribution, and calculating the adaptive threshold automatically, the image is divided into three regions: pure regions, non-target objects regions and mixed regions. For pure regions and non-target objects regions, hard classification method (support vector machine) is used to quickly extract classified results; For mixed regions, soft classification method (selective endmember for linear spectral mixture model) is used to extract the abundance of target objects. Finally, it generates an integrated soft and hard classification map. In order to evaluate the accuracy of this new method, it is compared with SVM and LSMM using ALOS image. The RMSE value of new method is 0.203, and total accuracy is 95.48%. Both overall accuracies and RMSE show that integration of hard and soft classification has a higher accuracy than single hard or soft classification. Experimental results prove that the new method can effectively solve the problem of mixed pixels, and can obviously improve image classification accuracy.

  12. Engineering study on roadway support in high-stress composite soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾明魁; 程东泉

    2003-01-01

    The present study is focused on the roadway support in high-stress composite soft rock. This paper expounds the two main features of roadway in soft rock, i.e., great deformation of surrounding rock and remarkable rheological deformation. Furthermore, on the basis of analyzing physico-chemical component of surrounding rock and the situation of the damaged roadway, the method of adopting strong bolting and shotcreting mesh for the primary support, bolting and grouting for the secondary support is put forward in light of the on-the-spot investigation of stress tension, mechanical parameter and engineering geology. The application reveals the method facilitates the continuation of west main roadway and the restoration of shaft station and chambers. Consequently, better techno-economic results have been achieved.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTUMENTAL ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE WITH STATIC STRETCHING IN SUBJECTS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization and static stretching found to be effective in plantar fasciitis, however the combined effectiveness of these techniques were unknown. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique for plantar fascia combined with static stretching of triceps surae for subjects with chronic stage of Plantar Fasciitis on pain intensity, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability. Methods: An experimental study design, selected subjects with chronic Plantar Fasciitis randomized subjects into each Study and Control group. Total of 40 subject’s data who completed study, 20 in each group, was used for analysis. Control group received conventional exercise while Study group received conventional exercises with Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle. Outcome measurements such as Intensity of pain using Numerical Pain Rating Scale-101 (NPRS-101, function disability using Foot Function Index Pain Subscale (FFI and ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion using Goniometer was measured before and after 2 weeks of intervention. Results: There is statistically significant improvement in means of NRS-101, ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion and Foot Function Index Pain Subscale after intervention in both groups. When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 2 weeks of treatment there is statistically significant difference in means between the groups whereas study group showed greater percentage of improvement than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle is significantly effective than conventional exercises on reducing pain, improving ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability for subjects

  14. Soft Roof Failure Mechanism and Supporting Method for Gob-Side Entry Retaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the soft roof failure mechanism and the supporting method for a gateway in a gently inclined coal seam with a dip angle of 16° kept for gob-side entry retaining, and through the methodology of field investigation and numerical and analytical modeling, this paper analyzed the stress evolution law of roof strata at the working face end and determined that the sharp horizontal stress unloading phenomenon along the coal wall side did not appear after the working face advanced. Conversely, the horizontal stress along the gob side instantly decreased and the tensile stress produced, and the vertical stress in the central part of the roof had a higher reduction magnitude as well. An in-depth study indicates that the soft roof of the working face end subsided and seriously separated due to the effect of the front abutment pressure and the roof hanging length above the gob line, as well as certain other factors, including the rapid unloading of the lateral stress, tension and shear on the lower roof rock layer and dynamic disturbance. Those influencing factors also led to rapid crack propagation on a large scale and serious fracturing in the soft roof of the working face end. However, in the gob stress stabilized zone, the soft roof in the gob-side entry retaining has a shearing failure along the filling wall inside affected by the overburden pressure, rock bulking pressure, and roof gravity. To maintain the roof integrity, decrease the roof deformation, and enable the control of the working face end soft roof and the stabilization of the gob-side entry retaining roof, this study suggests that the preferred bolt installation angle for the soft roof situation is 70° based on the rock bolt extrusion strengthening theory.

  15. Surgical Removal of Neglected Soft Tissue Foreign Bodies by Needle-Guided Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The phenomenon of neglected foreign bodies is a significant cause of morbidity in soft tissue injuries and may present to dermatologists as delayed wound healing, localized cellulitis and inflammation, abscess formation, or foreign body sensation. Localization and removal of neglected soft tissue foreign bodies (STFBs is complex due to possible inflammation, indurations, granulated tissue, and fibrotic scar. This paper describes a simple method for the quick localization and (surgical removal of neglected STFBs using two 23-gauge needles without ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic guidance.  Materials and Methods: A technique based on the use of two 23-gauge needles was used in 41 neglected STFBs in order to achieve proper localization and fixation of foreign bodies during surgery.  Results:    Surgical removal was successful in 38 of 41 neglected STFBs (ranging from 2–13mm in diameter.  Conclusion: The cross-needle-guided technique is an office-based procedure that allows the successful surgical removal of STFBs using minimal soft tissue exploration and dissection via proper localization, fixation, and propulsion of the foreign body toward the surface of the skin.

  16. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  17. Support-Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set: A New Concept for Soft Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Thao Nguyen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, soft computing is a field that is used a lot in solving real-world problems, such as problems in economics, finance, banking... With the aim to serve for solving the real problem, many new theories and/or tools which were proposed, improved to help soft computing used more efficiently. We can mention some theories as fuzzy sets theory (L. Zadeh, 1965, intuitionistic fuzzy set (K Atanasov, 1986. In this paper, we introduce a new notion of support-intuitionistic fuzzy (SIF set, which is the combination a intuitionistic fuzzy set with a fuzzy set. So, SIF set is a directly extension of fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy sets (Atanassov. Then, we define some operators on support-intuitionistic fuzzy sets, and investigate some properties of these operators.

  18. Bolt-grouting combined support technology in deep soft rock roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanlong; Meng Qingbin; Xu Guang; Wu Haoshuai; Zhang Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the mineral composition, mechanical properties and ground stress testing in surrounding rock, the study investigated the failure mechanism of deep soft rock roadway with high stress. The bolt-grouting combined support system was proposed to prevent such failures. By means of FLAC3D numer-ical simulation and similar material simulation, the feasibility of the support design and the effectiveness of support parameters were discussed. According to the monitoring the surface and deep displacement in surrounding rock as well as bolt axial load, this paper analyzed the deformation of surrounding rock and the stress condition of the support structure. The monitor results were used to optimize the proposed support scheme. The results of field monitors demonstrate that the bolt-grouting combined support tech-nology could improve the surround rock strength and bearing capacity of support structure, which con-trolled the great deformation failure and rheological property effectively in deep soft rock roadway with high stress. As a result, the long term stability and safety are guaranteed.

  19. A Survey of Soft-Error Mitigation Techniques for Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparsh Mittal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile memories (NVMs offer superior density and energy characteristics compared to the conventional memories; however, NVMs suffer from severe reliability issues that can easily eclipse their energy efficiency advantages. In this paper, we survey architectural techniques for improving the soft-error reliability of NVMs, specifically PCM (phase change memory and STT-RAM (spin transfer torque RAM. We focus on soft-errors, such as resistance drift and write disturbance, in PCM and read disturbance and write failures in STT-RAM. By classifying the research works based on key parameters, we highlight their similarities and distinctions. We hope that this survey will underline the crucial importance of addressing NVM reliability for ensuring their system integration and will be useful for researchers, computer architects and processor designers.

  20. Characteristics of compression fracture of "three soft" coal bed by perfusion and gas sucking technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-rong; LI Shu-kai; WANG Yuan-xiao

    2011-01-01

    Against the particularity of stratum-structure in "three soft" mine areas, according to rock indoor test and on-site sucking experiment, discussed the characteristics of argillization, compression fracture and sucking technique of soft coal with low permeability. It is clearly pointed out that the gas can be highly effectively sucked only by compression fracture along the occurrence of the coal seam, creating inter-seams crack belt because of the difference of bulgy deformation. After the flooding experiment in the 24080 workface of Pingdingshan No. 10 mine, the average single-bore volume of gas increases from 77 m3 to 7 893 m3, while decay cycle extended from 7 days to 80~90 days. Also, the single-bore extracting rate of gas increases to 33%.

  1. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  2. ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Ramnarayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. Objectives: This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption-elution technique with some modifications. Results: Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Conclusion: Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual.

  3. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kamel Gharghan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Artificial Neural Network (ANN, focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA, and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA. The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively.

  4. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik Kamel; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2016-08-06

    In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA). The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively.

  5. Techniques and Apparatus for Measuring Rotational Core Losses of Soft Magnetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In many situations such as the cores of a rotating electrical machine and the T joints of a multiphase transformer, the local flux density varies with time in terms of both magnitude and direction, i.e. the flux density vector is rotating. Therefore, the magnetic properties of the core materials under the rotating flux density vector excitation should be properly measured, modeled and applied in the design and analysis of these electromagnetic devices. This paper presents an extensive review on the development of techniques and apparatus for measuring the rotational core losses of soft magnetic materials based on the experiences of various researchers in the last hundred years.

  6. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths.......High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...

  7. A survey and proposed framework on the soft biometrics technique for human identification in intelligent video surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  8. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  9. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hexemer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS, new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  10. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  11. Recovery of material parameters of soft hyperelastic tissue by an inverse spectral technique

    KAUST Repository

    Gou, Kun

    2012-07-01

    An inverse spectral method is developed for recovering a spatially inhomogeneous shear modulus for soft tissue. The study is motivated by a novel use of the intravascular ultrasound technique to image arteries. The arterial wall is idealized as a nonlinear isotropic cylindrical hyperelastic body. A boundary value problem is formulated for the response of the arterial wall within a specific class of quasistatic deformations reflective of the response due to imposed blood pressure. Subsequently, a boundary value problem is developed via an asymptotic construction modeling intravascular ultrasound interrogation which generates small amplitude, high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on the static finite deformation. This leads to a system of second order ordinary Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems that are then employed to reconstruct the shear modulus through a nonlinear inverse spectral technique. Numerical examples are demonstrated to show the viability of the method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Foreign body extraction from soft tissue by using CT and fluoroscopic guidance: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Lesbats-Jacquot, Virginie; Fonquerne, Marie-Eve; Maratos, Yvonne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Radiology Department, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Unite d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, CHU de Bordeaux (France); Hovorka, Istvan; Boileau, Pascal [Centre Hopitalier Universitaire de Nice, Orthopaedic Department, Nice (France)

    2010-01-15

    We report on a new minimally invasive technique for the retrieval of a surgical pin fragment after accidental migration into the soft tissue of the shoulder in two patients. The technique is performed under local anaesthesia and uses combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance. The materials used were simple, combining a bone biopsy needle and an endoscopy clamp. Pin displacement was confirmed under fluoroscopic guidance and the clamp was used to withdraw the pin to the cutaneous entry point under CT (step-by-step) guidance. The CT slices provide perfect visualisation of the vascular or nervous structures as well as perfect positioning of the extremity of the trocar relative to the material to be removed. This intervention avoids a second surgical intervention with a longer incision and avoided repeated general anaesthesia. (orig.)

  13. Identifying Opportunities for Decision Support Systems in Support of Regional Resource Use Planning: An Approach Through Soft Systems Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu; Dale

    2000-10-01

    / Regional resource use planning relies on key regional stakeholder groups using and having equitable access to appropriate social, economic, and environmental information and assessment tools. Decision support systems (DSS) can improve stakeholder access to such information and analysis tools. Regional resource use planning, however, is a complex process involving multiple issues, multiple assessment criteria, multiple stakeholders, and multiple values. There is a need for an approach to DSS development that can assist in understanding and modeling complex problem situations in regional resource use so that areas where DSSs could provide effective support can be identified, and the user requirements can be well established. This paper presents an approach based on the soft systems methodology for identifying DSS opportunities for regional resource use planning, taking the Central Highlands Region of Queensland, Australia, as a case study.

  14. Modified technique of pancreaticogastrostomy for soft pancreas with two continuous hemstitch sutures: a single-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Wang, Min; Wang, Xin; Tian, Rui; Shi, Chengjian; Xu, Meng; Shen, Ming; Han, Juan; Luo, Ninanian; Qin, Renyi

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a persistent problem after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), especially in the presence of a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas. To reduce the risk of POPF, pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) is an optional reconstruction technique for surgeons after PD. This study presents a new technique of PG for a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas with double-binding continuous hemstitch sutures and evaluates its safety and reliability. From January 2011 to June 2012, 92 cases of patients with periampullary malignancy with a soft pancreas underwent this technique. A modified technique of PG was performed with two continuous hemstitch sutures placed in the mucosal and seromuscular layers of the posterior gastric wall, respectively. Then the morbidity and mortality was calculated. This technique was applied in 92 patients after PD all with soft pancreas. The median time for the anastomosis was 12 min (range, 8-24). Operative mortality was zero, and morbidity was 16.3 % (n = 15), including hemorrhage (n = 2), biliary fistula (n = 2), pulmonary infection (n = 1), delayed gastric emptying (DGE; n = 5, 5.4 %), abdominal abscess (n = 3, one caused by PF), and POPF (n = 2, 2.2 %). Two patients developed a pancreatic fistula (one type A and one type B) classified according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula. The described technique is a simple and safe reconstruction procedure after PD, especially for patients with a soft and fragile pancreas.

  15. Optimum Setting of Controller Using Soft Computing Techniques for a Chemical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Glandevadhas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to present an intelligent tuning technique for PID controller that are simple and still result in good closed loop behavior. The idea is to start with a tuned conventional PID controller, replace it with an equivalent intelligent controllers like Fuzzy, ANN, Genetic and PSO techniques implies fine tuned nonlinear PID controller which is most suitable for nonlinear process like Continuous stirred tank reactor. The performance of various optimization techniques and intelligent techniques are compared. Approach: In this study we present soft computing techniques to design and tune the PID controller. The objective is tominimise the steady state error and to obtain the optimum response. Results: The comparisons amoung the Conventional PID, Fuzzy Sliding PID, Simulated Anneling PID and PSO tuned PID controllers PSO PID implies better result for the nonlinear chemical process. Conclusion: With the nonlinear model of CSTR process the PSO tuned PID controller implies the optimum response for both setpoint and load variations.

  16. A study of support strategies in deep soft rock: The horsehead crossing roadway in Daqiang Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhibiao; Yang Xiaojie; Bai Yunpeng; Zhou Feng; Li Erqiang

    2012-01-01

    Geomechanics in deep mines becomes more complex and structural support in soft rock can be very difficult.Highly stressed soft rock subject to expansion deformation is particularly difficult to control.The Tiefa Coal Industry Group Daqiang Coal Mine is used as an example.A ventilation shaft,-550 horsehead,is located in tertiary soft rock.Analysis of the reasons for deformation shows an intumescent rock,which is easily damaged.Field observations and theoretical analysis led to a design capable of stabilizing the rock.A combination of spray,anchors,anchor bolts,and soft comer coupled truss supports allowed the deformation to be controlled.This provides a model for similar designs when support ofa horsehead roadway is required.

  17. Soft sensor development and optimization of the commercial petrochemical plant integrating support vector regression and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Lahiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft sensors have been widely used in the industrial process control to improve the quality of the product and assure safety in the production. The core of a soft sensor is to construct a soft sensing model. This paper introduces support vector regression (SVR, a new powerful machine learning methodbased on a statistical learning theory (SLT into soft sensor modeling and proposes a new soft sensing modeling method based on SVR. This paper presents an artificial intelligence based hybrid soft sensormodeling and optimization strategies, namely support vector regression – genetic algorithm (SVR-GA for modeling and optimization of mono ethylene glycol (MEG quality variable in a commercial glycol plant. In the SVR-GA approach, a support vector regression model is constructed for correlating the process data comprising values of operating and performance variables. Next, model inputs describing the process operating variables are optimized using genetic algorithm with a view to maximize the process performance. The SVR-GA is a new strategy for soft sensor modeling and optimization. The major advantage of the strategies is that modeling and optimization can be conducted exclusively from the historic process data wherein the detailed knowledge of process phenomenology (reaction mechanism, kinetics etc. is not required. Using SVR-GA strategy, a number of sets of optimized operating conditions were found. The optimized solutions, when verified in an actual plant, resulted in a significant improvement in the quality.

  18. Using soft computing techniques to predict corrected air permeability using Thomeer parameters, air porosity and grain density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooruddin, Hasan A.; Anifowose, Fatai; Abdulraheem, Abdulazeez

    2014-03-01

    Soft computing techniques are recently becoming very popular in the oil industry. A number of computational intelligence-based predictive methods have been widely applied in the industry with high prediction capabilities. Some of the popular methods include feed-forward neural networks, radial basis function network, generalized regression neural network, functional networks, support vector regression and adaptive network fuzzy inference system. A comparative study among most popular soft computing techniques is presented using a large dataset published in literature describing multimodal pore systems in the Arab D formation. The inputs to the models are air porosity, grain density, and Thomeer parameters obtained using mercury injection capillary pressure profiles. Corrected air permeability is the target variable. Applying developed permeability models in recent reservoir characterization workflow ensures consistency between micro and macro scale information represented mainly by Thomeer parameters and absolute permeability. The dataset was divided into two parts with 80% of data used for training and 20% for testing. The target permeability variable was transformed to the logarithmic scale as a pre-processing step and to show better correlations with the input variables. Statistical and graphical analysis of the results including permeability cross-plots and detailed error measures were created. In general, the comparative study showed very close results among the developed models. The feed-forward neural network permeability model showed the lowest average relative error, average absolute relative error, standard deviations of error and root means squares making it the best model for such problems. Adaptive network fuzzy inference system also showed very good results.

  19. Influence of dynamic pressure on deep underground soft rock roadway support and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingbin; Han Lijun; Chen Yanlong; Fan Jiadong; Wen Shengyong; Yu Liyuan; Li Hao

    2016-01-01

    Due to high ground stress and mining disturbance, the deformation and failure of deep soft rock roadway is serious, and invalidation of the anchor net-anchor cable supporting structure occurs. The failure char-acteristics of roadways revealed with the help of the ground pressure monitoring. Theoretical analysis was adopted to analyze the influence of mining disturbance on stress distribution in surrounding rock, and the change of stress was also calculated. Considering the change of stress in surrounding rock of bot-tom extraction roadway, the displacement, plastic zone and distribution law of principal stress difference under different support schemes were studied by means of FLAC3D. The supporting scheme of U-shaped steel was proposed for bottom extraction roadway that underwent mining disturbance. We carried out a similarity model test to verify the effect of support in dynamic pressure. Monitoring results demonstrated the change rules of deformation and stress of surrounding rock in different supporting schemes. The supporting scheme of U-shaped steel had an effective control on deformation of surrounding rock. The scheme was successfully applied in underground engineering practice, and achieved good technical and economic benefits.

  20. Application of supporting structure combining with basement slab in soft soil excavations engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rencheng; Liu, Le

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, based on the case of a soft soil excavations project in Zhongshan and the field measured data, the ABAQUS, a finite element software for engineering simulation, analyses the system which combines steel cement-soil pile and basement plate. Moreover it can simulate the deformation results and get the supporting stress model. The results show that the supporting effect of this system is remarkable. This simplified model calculation results are conservative. But there exists the problem of varying depth of excavations. As a result, the stress characteristics and design methods of the proposed scheme are less studied and need further research and discussion. The analysis method and the design scheme can provide useful reference for similar projects.

  1. Benchmarking and Optimizing Techniques for Inverting Images of DIII-D Soft X-Ray Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, E.; Unterberg, E. A.; Shafer, M. W.; Wingen, A.

    2012-10-01

    A tangential 2-D soft x-ray (SXR) imaging system is installed on DIII-D to directly measure the 3-D magnetic topology at the plasma edge. This diagnostic allows the study of the plasma SXR emissivity at time resolutions >=,0 ms and spatial resolutions ˜1 cm. Extracting 3-D structure from the 2-D image requires the inversion of large ill-posed matrices - a ubiquitous problem in mathematics. The goal of this work is to reduce the memory usage and computational time of the inversion to a point where image inversions can be processed between shots. We implement the Phillips-Tikohnov and Maximum Entropy regularization techniques on a parallel GPU processor. To optimize the memory demands of computing these matrixes, effects of reducing the inversion grid size and binning images are analyzed and benchmarked. Further benchmarking includes a characterization of the final image quality (with respect to numerical and instrumentation noise).

  2. Step Response Enhancement of Hybrid Stepper Motors Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amged S. El-Wakeel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of different soft computing techniques for step response enhancement of Hybrid Stepper Motors. The basic differential equations of hybrid stepper motor are used to build up a model using MATLAB software package. The implementation of Fuzzy Logic (FL and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controllers are used to improve the motor performance. The numerical simulations by a PC-based controller show that the PID controller tuned by Genetic Algorithm (GA produces better performance than that tuned by Fuzzy controller. They show that, the Fuzzy PID-like controller produces better performance than the other linear Fuzzy controllers. Finally, the comparison between PID controllers tuned by genetic algorithm and the Fuzzy PID-like controller shows that, the Fuzzy PID-like controller produces better performance.

  3. A Novel Algorithmic Cost Estimation Model Based on Soft Computing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Attarzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Software development effort estimation is the process of predicting the most realistic use of effort required for developing software based on some parameters. It has always characterized one of the biggest challenges in Computer Science for the last decades. Because time and cost estimate at the early stages of the software development are the most difficult to obtain and they are often the least accurate. Traditional algorithmic techniques such as regression models, Software Life Cycle Management (SLIM, COCOMO II model and function points, require an estimation process in a long term. But, nowadays that is not acceptable for software developers and companies. Newer soft computing techniques to effort estimation based on non-algorithmic techniques such as Fuzzy Logic (FL may offer an alternative for solving the problem. This work aims to propose a new fuzzy logic realistic model to achieve more accuracy in software effort estimation. The main objective of this research was to investigate the role of fuzzy logic technique in improving the effort estimation accuracy by characterizing inputs parameters using two-side Gaussian function which gave superior transition from one interval to another. Approach: The methodology adopted in this study was use of fuzzy logic approach rather than classical intervals in the COCOMO II. Using advantages of fuzzy logic such as fuzzy sets, inputs parameters can be specified by distribution of its possible values and these fuzzy sets were represented by membership functions. In this study to get a smoother transition in the membership function for input parameters, its associated linguistic values were represented by two-side Gaussian Membership Functions (2-D GMF and rules. Results: After analyzing the results attained by means of applying COCOMO II and proposed model based on fuzzy logic to the NASA dataset and created an artificial dataset, it had been found that proposed model was performing

  4. Finemet nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy: Investigation of glass forming ability, crystallization mechanism, production techniques, magnetic softness and the effect of replacing the main constituents by other elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheiratmand, T.; Hosseini, H.R. Madaah, E-mail: madaah@sharif.ir

    2016-06-15

    Finemet soft magnetic alloy has been in the focus of interest in the last years due to its high saturation magnetization, high permeability and low core loss. The great quantity of papers has been devoted to the study of its structural and magnetic properties, confirms this claim. This paper reviews the different researches performed on Finemet up to now. The criteria that should be satisfied in order to have the high glass forming ability in an alloy and also the techniques applied for production of Finemet ribbons, powders and bulk samples have been explained. In addition, the mechanism of devitrification, nanocrystallization and magnetic softness in this applicable magnetic alloy has been discussed in detail. Finally, the effect of different elements substituted with the main constituents in Finemet has been summarized through the studies on the characterization and magnetic properties of different Finemet-type alloys. - Highlights: • The criteria for getting high glass forming ability in an alloy have been reviewed. • Techniques applied to make Finemet ribbons and bulk samples have been explained. • Mechanism of devitrification and nanocrystallization has been discussed in detail. • The mechanism of magnetic softness in this magnetic alloy has been demonstrated. • The effect of main elements substitution in Finemet has been summarized.

  5. Alar soft-tissue techniques in rhinoplasty: algorithmic approach, quantifiable guidelines, and scar outcomes from a single surgeon experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy P; Chauhan, Nitin; Adamson, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    To describe various techniques, including alar base reduction, alar flaring reduction, and alar hooding reduction and present a decision-making treatment algorithm and quantifiable guidelines for soft-tissue excision, along with scar outcomes from a single-surgeon practice. The soft tissue of the nasal tip, ala, and nostrils is important in overall nasal tip dynamics. Excisional alar contouring is an essential part of many successful cosmetic rhinoplasty outcomes. The various soft-tissue excision techniques are described in detail and an algorithm is provided. Quantitative analysis of excision parameters was performed using statistical analysis. Finally, qualitative scar analysis was performed and scar outcomes were statistically derived. Seventy-four patients were female and 26 were male. Of the procedures reviewed, 47% involved alar soft-tissue excision. Alar base reduction was performed in 46 patients (46%). Alar flare reduction was performed in 16 patients (16%). Alar hooding reduction was performed in 2 patients (2%). Mean scar outcome scores ranged from 0.55 to 0.69. Alar soft-tissue techniques are often necessary to achieve a balanced outcome and superior results when performing rhinoplasty surgery. Therefore, they should be an integral part of every rhinoplasty evaluation and surgical plan as indicated.

  6. Fabrication of polyurethane and polyurethane based composite fibres by the electrospinning technique for soft tissue engineering of cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska-Lipka, J; Gubanska, I; Janik, H; Sienkiewicz, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning is a unique technique, which provides forming of polymeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering, which include tissue scaffolds for soft tissues of the cardiovascular system. Such artificial soft tissues of the cardiovascular system may possess mechanical properties comparable to native vascular tissues. Electrospinning technique gives the opportunity to form fibres with nm- to μm-scale in diameter. The arrangement of obtained fibres and their surface determine the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Polyurethanes (PUs) are being commonly used as a prosthesis of cardiovascular soft tissues due to their excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity, elasticity and mechanical properties. PUs also possess fine spinning properties. The combination of a variety of PU properties with an electrospinning technique, conducted at the well tailored conditions, gives unlimited possibilities of forming novel polyurethane materials suitable for soft tissue scaffolds applied in cardiovascular tissue engineering. This paper can help researches to gain more widespread and deeper understanding of designing electrospinable PU materials, which may be used as cardiovascular soft tissue scaffolds. In this paper we focus on reagents used in PU synthesis designed to increase PU biocompatibility (polyols) and biodegradability (isocyanates). We also describe suggested surface modifications of electrospun PUs, and the direct influence of surface wettability on providing enhanced biocompatibility of scaffolds. We indicate a great influence of electrospinning parameters (voltage, flow rate, working distance) and used solvents (mostly DMF, THF and HFIP) on fibre alignment and diameter - what impacts the biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of such electrospun PU scaffolds. Moreover, we present PU modifications with natural polymers with novel approach applied in electrospinning of PU scaffolds. This work may contribute with further developing of novel electrospun PUs, which may be

  7. Using the Delphi Technique to Support Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitlington, Helen Barbara; Coetzer, Alan John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the use of the Delphi technique to support curriculum development with a view to enhancing existing literature on use of the technique for renewal of business course curricula. Design/methodology/approach: The authors outline the Delphi process for obtaining consensus amongst a…

  8. Using the Delphi Technique to Support Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitlington, Helen Barbara; Coetzer, Alan John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the use of the Delphi technique to support curriculum development with a view to enhancing existing literature on use of the technique for renewal of business course curricula. Design/methodology/approach: The authors outline the Delphi process for obtaining consensus amongst a…

  9. Prediction of monthly regional groundwater levels through hybrid soft-computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Huang, Chien-Wei; Kao, I.-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater systems are intrinsically heterogeneous with dynamic temporal-spatial patterns, which cause great difficulty in quantifying their complex processes, while reliable predictions of regional groundwater levels are commonly needed for managing water resources to ensure proper service of water demands within a region. In this study, we proposed a novel and flexible soft-computing technique that could effectively extract the complex high-dimensional input-output patterns of basin-wide groundwater-aquifer systems in an adaptive manner. The soft-computing models combined the Self Organized Map (SOM) and the Nonlinear Autoregressive with Exogenous Inputs (NARX) network for predicting monthly regional groundwater levels based on hydrologic forcing data. The SOM could effectively classify the temporal-spatial patterns of regional groundwater levels, the NARX could accurately predict the mean of regional groundwater levels for adjusting the selected SOM, the Kriging was used to interpolate the predictions of the adjusted SOM into finer grids of locations, and consequently the prediction of a monthly regional groundwater level map could be obtained. The Zhuoshui River basin in Taiwan was the study case, and its monthly data sets collected from 203 groundwater stations, 32 rainfall stations and 6 flow stations during 2000 and 2013 were used for modelling purpose. The results demonstrated that the hybrid SOM-NARX model could reliably and suitably predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels with high correlations (R2 > 0.9 in both training and testing cases). The proposed methodology presents a milestone in modelling regional environmental issues and offers an insightful and promising way to predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels, which is beneficial to authorities for sustainable water resources management.

  10. Soft sensor design for hydrodesulfurization process using support vector regression based on WT and PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeid Shokri; Mohammad Taghi Sadeghi; Mahdi Ahmadi Marvast; Shankar Narasimhan

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for developing a reliable data driven soft sensor to improve the prediction accuracy of sulfur content in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process was proposed. Therefore, an integrated approach using support vector regression (SVR) based on wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Experimental data from the HDS setup were employed to validate the proposed model. The results reveal that the integrated WT-PCA with SVR model was able to increase the prediction accuracy of SVR model. Implementation of the proposed model delivers the best satisfactory predicting performance (EAARE=0.058 andR2=0.97) in comparison with SVR. The obtained results indicate that the proposed model is more reliable and more precise than the multiple linear regression (MLR), SVR and PCA-SVR.

  11. Soft Computing Technique for the Control of Triple-Lift Luo Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dhanasekar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Positive output Luo converters are a series of new DC-DC step-up (boost converters, which were developed from prototypes using voltage lift technique. These converters perform positive to positive DC-DC voltage increasing conversion with high power density, high efficiency and cheap topology in simple structure. They are different from other existing DC-DC step-up converters with a high output voltage and small ripples. Triple lift LUO circuit is derived from positive output elementary Luo converter by adding the lift circuit three times. Due to the time varying and switching nature of the Luo converters, their dynamic behaviour becomes highly nonlinear. The classical control methods employed to design the controllers for Luo converters depend on the operating point so that it is very difficult to select control parameters because of the presence of parasitic elements, time varying loads and variable supply voltages. Conventional controllers require a good knowledge of the system and accurate tuning in order to obtain the desired performances. A fuzzy logic controller is a soft computing technique which neither requires a precise mathematical model of the system nor complex computations. The performances of the Triple-lift Luo converter with fuzzy logic controller are evaluated under line and load disturbances using Matlab-Simulink based simulation. The results are presented and analyzed.

  12. Applications of soft computing in time series forecasting simulation and modeling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Pritpal

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on an in-depth study of fuzzy time series (FTS) modeling. It reviews and summarizes previous research work in FTS modeling and also provides a brief introduction to other soft-computing techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), rough sets (RS) and evolutionary computing (EC), focusing on how these techniques can be integrated into different phases of the FTS modeling approach. In particular, the book describes novel methods resulting from the hybridization of FTS modeling approaches with neural networks and particle swarm optimization. It also demonstrates how a new ANN-based model can be successfully applied in the context of predicting Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Thanks to its easy-to-read style and the clear explanations of the models, the book can be used as a concise yet comprehensive reference guide to fuzzy time series modeling, and will be valuable not only for graduate students, but also for researchers and professionals working for academic, business and governmen...

  13. Soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism : a new technique for probing magnetic properties of magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Idzerda, Y.U.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of applying the novel soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (SXMCD) technique to investigate the magnetic properties of magnetic surfaces and uitrathin films. Measurements have been carried out on Ni films of various thickness on a Cu(100) substrate at the Ni L2,3 abs

  14. Current pathology work-up of extremity soft tissue sarcomas, evaluation of the validity of different techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, P.; Witjes, H.; van Gorp, J.; Hennipman, A.; van Dalen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) a correct histopathological diagnosis is considered important before surgical treatment. We evaluated the preoperative use and sensitivity of the various pathology techniques. Methods: In a population-based study in patients operated

  15. Combined Soft and Hard Tissue Peri-Implant Plastic Surgery Techniques to Enhance Implant Rehabilitation: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacıoğlu, Esra; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bağış, Nilsun; Aydın, Güven; Yuva, Pınar; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Bağış, Bora

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents an implant-aided prosthetic treatment in which peri-implant plastic surgery techniques were applied in combination to satisfactorily attain functional aesthetic expectations. Peri-implant plastic surgery enables the successful reconstruction and restoration of the balance between soft and hard tissues and allows the option of implant-aided fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:25489351

  16. Soft tissue augmentation techniques and materials used in the oral cavity : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.; Farré-Guasch, E.; Sandor, G.K.; Gibbs, S.; Jager, D.J.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Oral soft tissue augmentation or grafting procedures are often necessary to achieve proper wound closure after deficits resulting from tumor excision, clefts, trauma, dental implants, and tooth recessions. Materials and Methods: Autologous soft tissue grafts still remain the gold standard t

  17. Magnetism at spinel thin film interfaces probed through soft x-ray spectroscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, R.V.; Liberati, M.; Takamura, Y.; Kourkoutis, L. Fitting; Bettinger, J. S.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Arenholz, E.; Doran, A.; Scholl, A.; Muller, D. A.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-12-16

    Magnetic order and coupling at the interfaces of highly spin polarized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} heterostructures have been determined by surface sensitive and element specific soft x-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy techniques. At ambient temperature, the interface between paramagnetic CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} or MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} isostructural bilayers exhibits long range magnetic order of Co, Mn and Cr cations which cannot be explained in terms of the formation of interfacial MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} or CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Instead, the ferrimagnetism is induced by the adjacent Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer and is the result of the stabilization of a spinel phase not achievable in bulk form. Magnetism at the interface region is observable up to 500 K, far beyond the chromite bulk Curie temperature of 50-95 K.

  18. Soft Computing Technique and Conventional Controller for Conical Tank Level Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsana Vijayan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many process industries the control of liquid level is mandatory. But the control of nonlinear process is difficult. Many process industries use conical tanks because of its non linear shape contributes better drainage for solid mixtures, slurries and viscous liquids. So, control of conical tank level is a challenging task due to its non-linearity and continually varying cross-section. This is due to relationship between controlled variable level and manipulated variable flow rate, which has a square root relationship. The main objective is to execute the suitable controller for conical tank system to maintain the desired level. System identification of the non-linear process is done using black box modelling and found to be first order plus dead time (FOPDT model. In this paper it is proposed to obtain the mathematical modelling of a conical tank system and to study the system using block diagram after that soft computing technique like fuzzy and conventional controller is also used for the comparison.

  19. Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Llabrés-Bennasar, Bartomeu; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a protocol involving soft tissue techniques and/or neural mobilization techniques in the management of patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and those with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled before and after trial. Rehabilitation area of the local hospital and a private physiotherapy center. Patients (N=97; 78 women, 19 men) diagnosed with FETTH or CTTH were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, or D. (A) Placebo superficial massage; (B) soft tissue techniques; (C) neural mobilization techniques; (D) a combination of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the temporal muscles (points 1 and 2) and supraorbital region (point 3), the frequency and maximal intensity of pain crisis, and the score in the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) were evaluated. All variables were assessed before the intervention, at the end of the intervention, and 15 and 30 days after the intervention. Groups B, C, and D had an increase in PPT and a reduction in frequency, maximal intensity, and HIT-6 values in all time points after the intervention as compared with baseline and group A (Ptechniques to patients with FETTH or CTTH induces significant changes in PPT, the characteristics of pain crisis, and its effect on activities of daily living as compared with the application of these techniques as isolated interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Control over surrounding rocks deformation of soft floor and whole-coal gateways with trapezoidal supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X.; Li, D.; Shao, Q.; Sun, Y. [Henan Polytechnic University, Jaozuo (China). Dept. of Resource and Material Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The coal seams of Guengcun Coal mine of Yima Coal Group Co. Ltd. are prone to spontaneous combustion. Fully mechanized longwall mining with sublevel caving is used as the mining method. Based on the characteristics of the gateways of the 1301 coal face and of the roof coal seams, the natural equilibrium arch theory was used to design the parameters of 11 mine-type metal supports. Then, in-situ supporting experiments were carried out. The results indicate that under the action of virgin rock stress, the width of broken rocks zone of surrounding rocks is 1.7-2.0 m in the return heading and 1.1-1.3 m in the outgoing headway and their surrounding rocks belong to the IV-type soft rock and the III-type common surrounding rock respectively. Therefore, under the movable abutment pressure, the gateway deformation is serious. At the same time, the accumulated water on gateway floor must be drained in time. These measures were taken in the 1302 and 1304 coal faces in Gengcun colliery, and satisfactory results have been obtained. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Supporting the Development of Soft-Error Resilient Message Passing Applications using Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bit flip faults are of particular concern in extreme-scale high-performance computing systems. This paper presents a simulation-based tool that enables the development of soft-error resilient message passing applications by permitting the investigation of their correctness and performance under various fault conditions. The documented extensions to the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) enable the injection of bit flip faults at specific of injection location(s) and fault activation time(s), while supporting a significant degree of configurability of the fault type. Experiments show that the simulation overhead with the new feature is ~2,325% for serial execution and ~1,730% at 128 MPI processes, both with very fine-grain fault injection. Fault injection experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the new feature by injecting bit flips in the input and output matrices of a matrix-matrix multiply application, revealing vulnerability of data structures, masking and error propagation. xSim is the very first simulation-based MPI performance tool that supports both, the injection of process failures and bit flip faults.

  2. NEW THEORY IN TUNNEL STABLILITY CONTROL OF SOFT ROCK ——MECHANICS OF SOFT ROCK ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满朝

    1996-01-01

    Tunnel stability control is a world-wide difficult problem. For the sake of solving it,the new theory of soft rock engineering mechanics has been estabilished. Some key points,such as the definition and classification of soft rock, mechanical deformation mechanism of a soft rock tunnel, the critical support technique of soft rock tunnel and the new theory of the soft rock tunnel stability control are proposed in this paper.

  3. Water resources climate change projections using supervised nonlinear and multivariate soft computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Burn, Donald H.; Johnson, Fiona; Mehrotra, Raj; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-05-01

    Accurate projection of global warming on the probabilistic behavior of hydro-climate variables is one of the main challenges in climate change impact assessment studies. Due to the complexity of climate-associated processes, different sources of uncertainty influence the projected behavior of hydro-climate variables in regression-based statistical downscaling procedures. The current study presents a comprehensive methodology to improve the predictive power of the procedure to provide improved projections. It does this by minimizing the uncertainty sources arising from the high-dimensionality of atmospheric predictors, the complex and nonlinear relationships between hydro-climate predictands and atmospheric predictors, as well as the biases that exist in climate model simulations. To address the impact of the high dimensional feature spaces, a supervised nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm is presented that is able to capture the nonlinear variability among projectors through extracting a sequence of principal components that have maximal dependency with the target hydro-climate variables. Two soft-computing nonlinear machine-learning methods, Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), are engaged to capture the nonlinear relationships between predictand and atmospheric predictors. To correct the spatial and temporal biases over multiple time scales in the GCM predictands, the Multivariate Recursive Nesting Bias Correction (MRNBC) approach is used. The results demonstrate that this combined approach significantly improves the downscaling procedure in terms of precipitation projection.

  4. Low-dose phase-based X-ray imaging techniques for in situ soft tissue engineering assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Zohreh; Honaramooz, Ali; Wiebe, Sheldon; Belev, George; Chen, Xiongbiao; Chapman, Dean

    2016-03-01

    In tissue engineering, non-invasive imaging of biomaterial scaffolds and tissues in living systems is essential to longitudinal animal studies for assessments without interrupting the repair process. Conventional X-ray imaging is inadequate for use in soft tissue engineering due to the limited absorption difference between the soft tissue and biomaterial scaffolds. X-ray phase-based imaging techniques that derive contrast from refraction or phase effects rather than absorption can provide the necessary contrast to see low-density biomaterial scaffolds and tissues in large living systems. This paper explores and compares three synchrotron phase-based X-ray imaging techniques-computed tomography (CT)-diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), -analyzer based imaging (ABI), and -phase contrast imaging (PCI)-for visualization and characterization of low-density biomaterial scaffolds and tissues in situ for non-invasive soft tissue engineering assessments. Intact pig joints implanted with polycaprolactone scaffolds were used as the model to assess and compare the imaging techniques in terms of different qualitative and quantitative criteria. For long-term in vivo live animal imaging, different strategies for reducing the imaging radiation dose and scan time-reduced number of CT projections, region of interest, and low resolution imaging-were examined with the presented phase-based imaging techniques. The results demonstrated promising capabilities of the phase-based techniques for visualization of biomaterial scaffolds and soft tissues in situ. The low-dose imaging strategies were illustrated effective for reducing the radiation dose to levels appropriate for live animal imaging. The comparison among the imaging techniques suggested that CT-DEI has the highest efficiency in retaining image contrast at considerably low radiation doses.

  5. ANFIS, SVM and ANN soft-computing techniques to estimate daily global solar radiation in a warm sub-humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quej, Victor H.; Almorox, Javier; Arnaldo, Javier A.; Saito, Laurel

    2017-03-01

    Daily solar radiation is an important variable in many models. In this paper, the accuracy and performance of three soft computing techniques (i.e., adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were assessed for predicting daily horizontal global solar radiation from measured meteorological variables in the Yucatán Peninsula, México. Model performance was assessed with statistical indicators such as root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The performance assessment indicates that the SVM technique with requirements of daily maximum and minimum air temperature, extraterrestrial solar radiation and rainfall has better performance than the other techniques and may be a promising alternative to the usual approaches for predicting solar radiation.

  6. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  7. Optimal reliability allocation for large software projects through soft computing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Albu, Razvan-Daniel

    2012-01-01

    or maximizing the system reliability subject to budget constraints. These kinds of optimization problems were considered both in deterministic and stochastic frameworks in literature. Recently, the intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization approach was considered as a soft computing successful modelling approach....... Firstly, a review on existing soft computing approaches to optimization is given. The main section extends the results considering self-organizing migrating algorithms for solving intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization problems attached to complex fault-tolerant software architectures which proved...

  8. Supporting international development through the integration of relevant 'soft-skills' into geoscience education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.

    2014-05-01

    Geologists have an important role to play in international development, improving disaster risk reduction and access to clean water, sanitation, infrastructure, and natural resources. That geologists can contribute to international development is well established. Less so, however, is an understanding of the 'soft' skills required to do this effectively. The fight against global poverty requires an integrated and interdisciplinary approach, demanding a host of skills other than technical geology. Factors such as cultural understanding, cross disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilisation and participation are all aspects that, if lacking, may result in a project failing to have maximum impact. Whilst project success may be highly dependent on these skills and aspects of knowledge, opportunities to develop them throughout a geologist's education are not common. Through a discussion of two case studies (based on water and hazards work), this study seeks to demonstrate the value of an integrated approach and the skills that geologists should invest in at an early stage of their career. It proceeds to examine a range of practical ways by which geology students can develop these skills during and after their education. A number of these opportunities are currently being utilised by Geology for Global Development (GfGD), a not-for-profit organisation working in the UK to support young geoscientists to make a long-term and effective contribution to international development.

  9. Microwave Photonics Techniques Supporting Flexible Wireless Communications Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    Wireless data communication links supporting the next generation 5G and beyond mobile networking face a set of engineering challenges related to the mandatory operation at mmw and higher frequency bands, provide capacities above 10 Gb/s, satisfy latency, robustness, flexibility and low complexity...... constrains. Microwave photonic techniques support a number of key functionalities required to satisfy above-mentioned demands. We will review, in particular, experimental realizations of a number of functionalities such as mmw generation, detection, optical fiber transport and multi-Gigabit data transmission...

  10. Support failure of a high-stress soft-rock roadway in deep coal mine and the equalized yielding support technology:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Sun; Haoyuan Wu; Bensheng Yang; Qiangqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    There are many soft-rock roadway coal mines in China. The surrounding rocks of the high-stress soft-rock roadways in deep mine are especially difficult to be supported using the traditional supporting way. In this study, the south wing rail roadway on the second level of Yunjialing coal mine in China was used as an example to analyze the deformation and failure characteristics and influencing factors of roadway. On this basis, this study proposed the equalized yielding support idea which employs the yielding rings to realize the pressure equalization on the bolts and cables in the section. To achieve this purpose, the first bolt-mesh-cable equalizing pressure yielding support was integrated with the second grouting reinforcement. The results proved that the yield rings of the bolts and cables on the spandrel of the arched roadway firstly developed yielding deformation;then the deformation extended to the vault of the roadway;the bolts and cables achieved a yielding extreme value of 15 and 18 tonnes, respectively. The roadway surrounding rock tended to be stable at the 26th day after the maintenance. The equalizing pressure yielding supporting technology plays a moderate pressure-releasing and actively controlling role on the surrounding rocks in the soft-rock roadway with large deformation.

  11. Development of Material Characterization Techniques using Novel Nanoindendation Approaches on Hard and Soft Materials used in MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Eyup

    Investigating and modeling the mechanical properties of materials is important for many applications. The most common technique used for mechanical characterization of materials is called nanoindentation. The currently available tools utilized in order to perform nanoindentation have their limitations in terms of sensitivities in force and displacement for a broad range of material properties. When it comes to investigation of soft materials, these limitations might be more detrimental. In this dissertation work, novel nanoindentation techniques have been developed with a multi-probe scanning force microscopy (SPM) system in order to ease the major problems encountered with standard Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) or nanoindentation systems. Tuning forks are used as probes during nanoindentation. By using the newly developed nanoindentation techniques for quasi-static nanoindentation experiments, the force information is extracted through the displacement of the indenter probe measured by a second probe with ultraresolution. For dynamic nanoindentation, frequency modulation techniques have been used to extract force information from a single indenter tuningfork probe. Thanks to the high quality of resonance (Q factor) of tuning fork probes, force measurements can be performed with an ultra high resolution. The accurate measurements of material properties on soft materials is used in characterization of microfabricated pillar sensors which can be used in measuring nN level of cell traction forces in a biomedical application. The techniques developed in this research also enable the system as an ultra-sensitive force sensor to apply nN scale lateral and vertical loads on microfabricated structures or biological specimens.

  12. An assessment on the use of bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques for collapse susceptibility in GIS environ

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Işık Yilmaz; Marian Marschalko; Martin Bednarik

    2013-04-01

    The paper presented herein compares and discusses the use of bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques for collapse susceptibility modelling. Conditional probability (CP), logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) models representing the bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques were used in GIS based collapse susceptibility mapping in an area from Sivas basin (Turkey). Collapse-related factors, directly or indirectly related to the causes of collapse occurrence, such as distance from faults, slope angle and aspect, topographical elevation, distance from drainage, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) by means of vegetation cover, distance from roads and settlements were used in the collapse susceptibility analyses. In the last stage of the analyses, collapse susceptibility maps were produced from the models, and they were then compared by means of their validations. However, Area Under Curve (AUC) values obtained from all three models showed that the map obtained from soft computing (ANN) model looks like more accurate than the other models, accuracies of all three models can be evaluated relatively similar. The results also showed that the conditional probability is an essential method in preparation of collapse susceptibility map and highly compatible with GIS operating features.

  13. Two soft-error mitigation techniques for functional units of DSP processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, Alireza; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two soft-error mitigation methods for DSP processors. Considering that a DSP processor is composed of several functional units and each functional unit constitutes of a control unit, some registers and combinational logic, a unique characteristic of DSP workloads has been deploye

  14. Two soft-error mitigation techniques for functional units of DSP processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    This paper presents two soft-error mitigation methods for DSP processors. Considering that a DSP processor is composed of several functional units and each functional unit constitutes of a control unit, some registers and combinational logic, a unique characteristic of DSP workloads has been

  15. [Immunological Techniques that Support the Diagnosis of the Autoimmune Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ramírez, Diego F; Cabiedes, Javier

    2010-01-01

    During the past few years technological advance have been allowed the developing of techniques that help to the diagnosis of multiple diseases. In the case of the autoimmune diseases, immunological techniques are helpful since they allow the detection of multiple autoantibodies at the same time with small volumes of sample. Together with the development of the new techniques, sensitivity and specificity in the detection of the antibodies specificities' also have been increased, in such a way that the clinicians can count with tests that allow them to make early diagnoses with greater certainty and also to follow the course of the disease based on the variation of the antibodies presents in the patient's samples. It is important to emphasize that the new techniques of laboratory that are used for the support of the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, no longer are exclusive for research laboratories but by their facility of standardization, quality control and reproducibility they can be used in clinical laboratory of medium and small sizes. In the present paper we describe those techniques with greater application in the clinical laboratory of autoimmune diseases.

  16. Fabricating a Soft Liner-Retained Implant-Supported Palatal Lift Prosthesis for an Edentulous Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Savabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes fabrication of a palatal lift prosthesis for a quadriplegic edentulous 30-year-old male with past head traumatic injury. We constructed an implant supported bar and used a soft-lining material for the maxillary palatal lift prosthesis to minimize the possibility of implant overloading and also provide a less complex and less expensive procedure for this patient.

  17. Soft tissue coverage of war extremity injuries: the use of pedicle flap transfers in a combat support hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Laurent; Gaillard, Christophe; Pellet, Nicolas; Bertani, Antoine; Rigal, Sylvain; Rongiéras, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    Definitive management of extremity injuries including soft tissue coverage is seldom achieved in battlefield medical treatment facilities due to limited resources and operational constraints. The purpose of this study was to analyse the French Army Medical Service experience performing such reconstructive surgery in a Combat Support Hospital (CSH) in Afghanistan. A clinical study was performed in the KaIA (Kabul International Airport) CSH from July 2012 to January 2013. During this period 23 Afghan patients treated for soft tissue coverage of combat-related extremity injuries were included. They totalled 28 extremity injuries including 18 blast trauma (BT) and ten non blast trauma (NBT). Overall, 35 extremity pedicled flaps were performed. There were 26 fasciocutaneous flaps, eight muscle flaps and one composite flap. Soft tissue coverage was achieved on all patients reviewed with a mean follow-up of 59 days. Five postoperative complications occurred including two deep infections, one partial flap necrosis and two flap failures, without difference according to injury mechanism. Reconstruction of traumatic soft tissue defect can be achieved in CSHs for local nationals. Pedicle flap transfers provide simple and safe coverage for war extremity injuries in this challenging environment whatever the injury mechanism.

  18. Optimization of Partitioned Architectures to Support Soft Real-Time Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new Tabu Search-based design optimization strategy for mixed-criticality systems implementing hard and soft real-time applications on the same platform. Our proposed strategy determined an implementation such that all hard real-time applications are schedulable...

  19. Soft drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marzani, Simone [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Soyez, Gregory [IPhT, CEA Saclay, CNRS URA 2306,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-29

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called “soft drop declustering”, which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters — a soft threshold z{sub cut} and an angular exponent β — with the β=0 limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the β dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The β=0 limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only “Sudakov safe” but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic results to parton shower simulations and find good agreement, and we also estimate the impact of non-perturbative effects such as hadronization and the underlying event. Finally, we demonstrate how soft drop can be used for tagging boosted W bosons, and we speculate on the potential advantages of using soft drop for pileup mitigation.

  20. Various Techniques to Increase Keratinized Tissue for Implant Supported Overdentures: Retrospective Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elkhaweldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to describe and compare different surgical techniques that can be utilized to augment the keratinized soft tissue around implant-supported overdentures. Materials and Methods. The data set was extracted as deidentified information from the routine treatment of patients at the Ashman Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry at New York University College of Dentistry. Eight edentulous patients were selected to be included in this study. Patients were treated for lack of keratinized tissue prior to implant placement, during the second stage surgery, and after delivery of the final prosthesis. Results. All 8 patients in this study were wearing a complete maxillary and/or mandibular denture for at least a year before the time of the surgery. One of the following surgical techniques was utilized to increase the amount of keratinized tissue: apically positioned flap (APF, pedicle graft (PG, connective tissue graft (CTG, or free gingival graft (FGG. Conclusions. The amount of keratinized tissue should be taken into consideration when planning for implant-supported overdentures. The apical repositioning flap is an effective approach to increase the width of keratinized tissue prior to the implant placement.

  1. Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in soft drinks, sauces and vinegars of Greek market using two liquid chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Moti, Sofia; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Goumenou, Marina; Nosyrev, Alexander E; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-03-19

    The substance 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans, although no harmonized classification has yet been decided. The regulatory limits for food products set by various authorities in Europe and the USA differ considerably. The purpose of the present study is to compare two liquid chromatography techniques in order to determine the levels of 4-MEI in food products from the Greek market and roughly estimate the possible exposure and relevant health risk for the consumers. A total of thirty-four samples (soft drinks, beers, balsamic vinegars, energy drinks and sauces) were collected and analyzed. The quality parameters for both analytical methodologies (linearity, accuracy, inter day precision, recovery) are presented. No detectable levels of 4-MEI are found in beers and soft drink samples, other than cola type. On the other hand, 4-MEI was detected in all cola type soft drinks (15.8-477.0 ng/ml), energy drinks (57.1%, 6.6-22.5 ng/ml) and vinegar samples (66.7%, 9.7-3034.7 ng/ml), while only one of the sauce samples was found to have a detectable level of 17.5 ng/ml 4-MEI.

  2. ArteFill permanent injectable for soft tissue augmentation: I. Mechanism of action and injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemperle, Gottfried; Knapp, Terry R; Sadick, Neil S; Lemperle, Stefan M

    2010-06-01

    After more than 25 years of research and development, in October 2006 ArteFill became the first and only permanent injectable wrinkle filler to receive FDA approval. ArteFill is a third-generation polymeric microsphere-based filler, following its predecessor Artecoll, which was marketed outside the United States between 1994 and 2006. ArteFill is approved for the correction of nasolabial folds and has been used in over 15,000 patients since its U.S. market introduction in February 2007. No serious side effects have been reported to date according to the FDA's MAUDE reporting database. ArteFill consists of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres (20% by volume), 30-50 microm in diameter, suspended in 3.5% bovine collagen solution (80% by volume) and 0.3% lidocaine. The collagen carrier is absorbed within 1 month after injection and completely replaced by the patient's own connective tissue within 3 months. Each cc of ArteFill contains approximately six million microspheres and histological studies have shown that long-term wrinkle correction consists of 80% of the patient's own connective tissue and 20% microspheres. The standard injection technique is subdermal tunneling that delivers a strand of ArteFill at the dermal-subdermal junction. This strand beneath a wrinkle or fold acts like a support structure that protects against further wrinkling and allows the diminished thickness of the dermis to recover to its original thickness.

  3. An experimental study of a yielding support for roadways constructed in deep broken soft rock under high stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yinlong; Wang Lianguo; Zhang Bei

    2011-01-01

    A rationally designed support for deep roadways excavated in broken soft rock under high stress was investigated.The deformation and failure characteristics and the mechanism of “yielding support” was studied for anchor bolts and cables.The rail roadway of the 2-501 working face in the Liyazhuang Mine of the Huozhou coal area located in Shanxi province was used for field trials.The geological conditions used there were used during the design phase.The new “highly resistant,yielding” support system has a core of high strength,yielding bolts and anchor cables.The field tests show that this support system adapts well to the deformation and pressure in the deep broken soft rock.The support system effectively controls damage to the roadway and ensures the long term stability of the wall rock and safe production in the coal mine.This provides a remarkable economic and social benefit and has broad prospects for further application.

  4. A Simplified Technique for Implant-Abutment Level Impression after Soft Tissue Adaptation around Provisional Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kutkut; Osama Abu-Hammad; Robert Frazer

    2016-01-01

    Impression techniques for implant restorations can be implant level or abutment level impressions with open tray or closed tray techniques. Conventional implant-abutment level impression techniques are predictable for maximizing esthetic outcomes. Restoration of the implant traditionally requires the use of the metal or plastic impression copings, analogs, and laboratory components. Simplifying the dental implant restoration by reducing armamentarium through incorporating conventional techniq...

  5. Sensitivity of knee soft-tissues to surgical technique in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirm, Andreas C; Jeffcote, Benjamin O; Nicholls, Rochelle L; Jakob, Hilaire; Kuster, Markus S

    2011-06-01

    Restricted range of motion and excessive laxity are both potential complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). During TKA surgery, the surgeon is frequently faced with the question of how tightly to implant the prosthesis. The most common method of altering implantation tightness is to vary the thickness of the polyethylene inlay after the bone cuts have been made and the trial components inserted. We have sought to quantify how altering the polyethylene thickness may affect post-operative soft tissue tension for a range of prosthetic designs. Four different prosthetic designs were implanted into fresh-frozen cadaveric knee joints. All four designs were implanted in the standard manner, with a 100 Newton distraction force used to set soft tissue balance. The tibiofemoral force was then recorded at 15° intervals throughout the passive flexion range. After the standard implantation of each prosthesis, the tibial component was raised or lowered to mimic increasing and decreasing the polyethylene thickness by 2mm and the force measurements repeated. Tibiofemoral force in extension correlated with implantation tightness for all prosthesis designs. Between 15° and 90° of knee flexion, all four designs were insensitive to changes in implantation tightness. Beyond 90° the effect was more notable in rotating platform mobile-bearing and cruciate-retaining prostheses than in posterior-stabilised mobile-bearing designs. The findings of this research may be useful in assisting surgical decision-making during the implantation of TKA prostheses.

  6. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  7. Decision Support System for Diabetes Mellitus through Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik A. Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, the diseases of diabetes mellitus have grown into extremely feared problems that can have damaging effects on the health condition of their sufferers globally. In this regard, several machine learning models have been used to predict and classify diabetes types. Nevertheless, most of these models attempted to solve two problems; categorizing patients in terms of diabetic types and forecasting blood surge rate of patients. This paper presents an automatic decision support system for diabetes mellitus through machine learning techniques by taking into account the above problems, plus, reflecting the skills of medical specialists who believe that there is a great relationship between patient’s symptoms with some chronic diseases and the blood sugar rate. Data sets are collected from Layla Qasim Clinical Center in Kurdistan Region, then, the data is cleaned and proposed using feature selection techniques such as Sequential Forward Selection and the Correlation Coefficient, finally, the refined data is fed into machine learning models for prediction, classification, and description purposes. This system enables physicians and doctors to provide diabetes mellitus (DM patients good health treatments and recommendations.

  8. Case Study on Soft Soil Improvement using Innovative and Cost-Effective Reinforcing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Susila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes, discusses and compares three new innovations of reinforcement systems for soft soils: (a a combination of gridded matrass and piles of bamboo, (b a combination of matrass and piles of bamboo, and (c a group of mini piles connected by small H-beams with a compacted top layer to hold the top mini piles. First, illustrations and applications of the three types of reinforcement are described from three full-scale field works. Technical bases for the three types are presented, while technical comparisons are discussed next. Finally, conclusions are developed. The case studies, analysis results, and full-scale fieldwork verifications show that the three reinforcement systems have worked properly. Each system has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of construction duration and cost, capability/effectiveness and material availability, especially in rural areas.

  9. One-stage reconstruction of soft tissue defects with the sandwich technique: Collagen-elastin dermal template and skin grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A full-thickness soft tissue defect closure often needs complex procedures. The use of dermal templates can be helpful in improving the outcome. Objective : The objective was to evaluate a sandwich technique combining the dermal collagen-elastin matrix with skin grafts in a one-stage procedure. Materials and Methods : Twenty-three patients with 27 wounds were enrolled in this prospective single-centre observational study. The mean age was 74.8 ± 17.2 years. Included were full-thickness defects with exposed bone, cartilage and/ or tendons. The dermal collagen-elastin matrix was applied onto the wound bed accomplished by skin transplants, i.e. ′sandwich′ transplantation. In six wounds, the transplants were treated with intermittent negative pressure therapy. Results : The size of defects was ≤875 cm 2 . The use of the dermal template resulted in a complete and stable granulation in 100% of wounds. Seventeen defects showed a complete closure and 19 achieved a complete granulation with an incomplete closure. There was a marked pain relief. No adverse events were noted due to the dermal template usage. Conclusions : Sandwich transplantation with the collagen-elastin matrix is a useful tool when dealing with full-thickness soft tissue defects with exposed bone, cartilage or tendons.

  10. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; (Peter Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K.

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo. It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s-1, as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo.

  11. Soft Drop

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters--a soft threshold $z_\\text{cut}$ and an angular exponent $\\beta$--with the $\\beta = 0$ limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the $\\beta$ dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The $\\beta = 0$ limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic r...

  12. Creep characteristic simulation of deep soft rock roadway and long-term mechanical analysis of lining support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong-bin Zhao; Yan-hua Ma; Yun-liang Tan; Yun-juan Chen [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2009-06-15

    By the generalized Kelvin creep model, rheological characteristics of deep soft rock and long-term mechanical behaviors of support structures were simulated. Mechanical deformation characteristics of support structures under different lining circumstances were also analyzed on the basis of deducing the relationship between the generalized Kelvin creep model and implicit creep equations in ANSYS FEM software. The results show that high stress of deep tunnels is the main factor in creep damage; the surrounding rock's deformation binding effect due to lining increases as the thickness increases but the effect becomes very weak when it increases to a certain value; contact pressure on the lining decreases as its thickness decreases. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Outburst control in soft and outburst prone coal seam using the waterjet slotting technique from modeling to field work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ting-kan; YAO Zai-feng; CHANG Fang-tao; ZHAO Zhi-jian

    2012-01-01

    The paper discussed a comprehensive numerical simulation and field work by the usage of waterjet slotting technique to prevent the occurrence of outbursts in soft and outburst prone coal seams.This was based on the geological and geomechanical conditions of Jinjiachong Colliery,Guizhou Province,associated with varied waterjet slotting parameters such as slotting penetration,slotting thickness and slotting distance along the length of borehole.Also,to understand the variation of internal stress of coal seams after waterjet slotting application,the internal stress levels were compared with and without slotting application,and the results indicate that the internal effective stress levels can be reduced to 70% and 45% for the vertical and horizontal stresses,respectively,and the gas concentration can be increased up to 5 times when the waterjet slotting is applied.

  14. Reconstruction of compound tibial and soft tissue loss using a traction histogenesis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoble, E; Lewertowski, J M; Goutallier, D

    1995-08-01

    We used simultaneous bone and soft tissue transport for reconstruction of large compound tissue loss in the lower leg. We report the results and complications of a 12-patient series. The average age of the patients was 31.2 years (range 20 to 48 years). Seven patients had grade IIIB open tibial fractures, three had complications after grade II or IIIA, and two had an en-bloc resection of bone, muscle, and skin for a malignant bone tumor. Arteriography was routinely performed, and demonstrated at least one patent tibial artery. Every patient had normal sensibility of the sole. The first stage of the reconstruction was an aggressive excision of the all necrotic skin, muscle, and bone. The Ilizarov external fixator was applied and wires were secured under a tension of 100 kg, using a dynamometric tensioner. Cutaneous tissue loss was not replaced in 10 patients, when the bone was not exposed. A medial gastrocnemius flap was performed in two patients and lengthened with the bone. Corticotomy was performed 15 days after the first stage with careful respect for the periosteum. Distraction was initiated 15 days after the corticotomy. The average bone defect was 12.5 cm after initial excision. An average of 9 operative procedures and 18 months of treatment were required before bony union. The mean duration of bone transport was 6.5 months, and the mean duration of external fixation was 12 months. The final functional results were fair and only two patients returned to work. One patient had a below-knee amputation after 10 months of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Impact of soft loading conditions on the performance of elongate support elements.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available keyblock when the support resistance safety factor is 2,0..................................................................................................................34 Figure 2.2.14 Effect of support spacing and support resistance on probability... of data to ensure SRSF of 2,0 for a 10 kN block. ................................33 Table 2.2.2 Various values of k for different probabilities......................................................46 Table 2.2.3 FR for different values of α, for S=0,5L...

  16. Analysing soft matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McLeish

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new volume on soft materials ranges broadly across systems and techniques, experiment, and theory. Despite a lack of coherence, there is much of interest, which conveys the energy within soft-matter science, says

  17. Triple labrum tears repaired with the JuggerKnot™ soft anchor: Technique and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The 2-year outcomes of patients undergoing repair of triple labrum tears using an all-suture anchor device were assessed. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (17 male, one female; mean age 36.4 years, range: 14.2-62.3 years with triple labrum tears underwent arthroscopic repair using the 1.4 mm JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (mean number of anchors 11.5, range: 9-19 anchors. Five patients had prior surgeries performed on their operative shoulder. Patients were followed for a mean of 2.0 years (range: 1.6-3.0 years. Constant-Murley shoulder score (CS and Flexilevel scale of shoulder function (FLEX-SF scores were measured, with preoperative and final postoperative mean scores compared with a paired Student′s t-test (P < 0.05. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was also performed at final postoperative. Results: Overall total CS and FLEX-SF scores increased from 52.9 ± 20.4 to 84.3 ± 10.7 (P < 0.0001 and from 29.3 ± 4.7 to 42.0 ± 7.3 (P < 0.0001, respectively. When divided into two groups by whether or not glenohumeral arthrosis was present at the time of surgery (n = 9 each group, significant improvements in CS and FLEX-SF were obtained for both groups (P < 0.0015. There were no intraoperative complications. All patients, including contact athletes, returned to their preinjury level of sports activity and were satisfied. MRI evaluation revealed no instances of subchondral cyst formation or tunnel expansion. Anchor tracts appeared to heal with fibrous tissue, complete bony healing, or combined fibro-osseous healing. Conclusion: Our results are encouraging, demonstrating a consistent healing of the anchor tunnels through arthroscopic treatment of complex labrum lesions with a completely suture-based implant. It further demonstrates a meaningful improvement in patient outcomes, a predictable return to activity, and a high rate of patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence: Level IV case series.

  18. The intersection between Descriptivism and Meliorism in reasoning research: further proposals in support of 'soft normativism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupple, Edward J N; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    The rationality paradox centers on the observation that people are highly intelligent, yet show evidence of errors and biases in their thinking when measured against normative standards. Elqayam and Evans' (2011) reject normative standards in the psychological study of thinking, reasoning and deciding in favor of a 'value-free' descriptive approach to studying high-level cognition. In reviewing Elqayam and Evans' (2011) position, we defend an alternative to descriptivism in the form of 'soft normativism,' which allows for normative evaluations alongside the pursuit of descriptive research goals. We propose that normative theories have considerable value provided that researchers: (1) are alert to the philosophical quagmire of strong relativism; (2) are mindful of the biases that can arise from utilizing normative benchmarks; and (3) engage in a focused analysis of the processing approach adopted by individual reasoners. We address the controversial 'is-ought' inference in this context and appeal to a 'bridging solution' to this contested inference that is based on the concept of 'informal reflective equilibrium.' Furthermore, we draw on Elqayam and Evans' (2011) recognition of a role for normative benchmarks in research programs that are devised to enhance reasoning performance and we argue that such Meliorist research programs have a valuable reciprocal relationship with descriptivist accounts of reasoning. In sum, we believe that descriptions of reasoning processes are fundamentally enriched by evaluations of reasoning quality, and argue that if such standards are discarded altogether then our explanations and descriptions of reasoning processes are severely undermined.

  19. Soft X-ray tomography in support of impurity control in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynar, J.; Mazon, D.; Imrisek, M.; Loffelmann, V.; Malard, P.; Odstrcil, T.; Tomes, M.; Vezinet, D.; Weinzettl, V.

    2016-10-01

    This contribution reviews an important example of current developments in diagnostic systems and data analysis tools aimed at improved understanding and control of transport processes in magnetically confined high temperature plasmas. The choice of tungsten for the plasma facing components of ITER and probably also DEMO means that impurity control in fusion plasmas is now a crucial challenge. Soft X-ray (SXR) diagnostic systems serve as a key sensor for experimental studies of plasma impurity transport with a clear prospective of its control via actuators based mainly on plasma heating systems. The SXR diagnostic systems typically feature high temporal resolution but limited spatial resolution due to access restrictions. In order to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the SXR radiation from line integrated measurements, appropriate tomographic methods have been developed and validated, while novel numerical methods relevant for real-time control have been proposed. Furthermore, in order to identify the main contributors to the SXR plasma radiation, at least partial control over the spectral sensitivity range of the detectors would be beneficial, which motivates for developments of novel SXR diagnostic methods. Last, but not least, semiconductor photosensitive elements cannot survive in harsh conditions of future fusion reactors due to radiation damage, which calls for development of radiation hard SXR detectors. Present research in this field is exemplified on recent results from tokamaks COMPASS, TORE SUPRA and the Joint European Torus JET. Further planning is outlined.

  20. Using Soft Computer Techniques on Smart Devices for Monitoring Chronic Diseases: the CHRONIOUS case

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, Piero; Rosso, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    CHRONIOUS is an Open, Ubiquitous and Adaptive Chronic Disease Management Platform for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Renal Insufficiency. It consists of several modules: an ontology based literature search engine, a rule based decision support system, remote sensors interacting with lifestyle interfaces (PDA, monitor touchscreen) and a machine learning module. All these modules interact each other to allow the monitoring of two types of chronic diseases and to help clinician in taking decision for cure purpose. This paper illustrates how some machine learning algorithms and a rule based decision support system can be used in smart devices, to monitor chronic patient. We will analyse how a set of machine learning algorithms can be used in smart devices to alert the clinician in case of a patient health condition worsening trend.

  1. Blind steganalysis method for JPEG steganography combined with the semisupervised learning and soft margin support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Zhang, Tao; Xi, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Stego images embedded by unknown steganographic algorithms currently may not be detected by using steganalysis detectors based on binary classifier. However, it is difficult to obtain high detection accuracy by using universal steganalysis based on one-class classifier. For solving this problem, a blind detection method for JPEG steganography was proposed from the perspective of information theory. The proposed method combined the semisupervised learning and soft margin support vector machine with steganalysis detector based on one-class classifier to utilize the information in test data for improving detection performance. Reliable blind detection for JPEG steganography was realized only using cover images for training. The experimental results show that the proposed method can contribute to improving the detection accuracy of steganalysis detector based on one-class classifier and has good robustness under different source mismatch conditions.

  2. Do gingival soft tissues benefit from the application of a papilla preservation flap technique in endodontic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschieri, Silvio; Corbella, Stefano; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    A healthy gingival condition after endodontic surgery may depend on adequate soft tissue management. The aim of this study was to compare 2 incision techniques, papilla base incision (PBI) and intrasulcular flap (IS), which are currently used in endodontic surgery. In the present nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, patients requiring endodontic surgery on a single tooth were enrolled. PBI was used in 1 group and IS was used in the other group. The primary outcomes were changes in periodontal probing depth, gingival recession, and height of the interproximal mesial and distal papillae. Outcome variables were assessed preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Between-group differences were evaluated through appropriate statistical analysis, with significance set at a P value equal to .05. Each group was composed of 12 patients and the 2 groups were comparable at baseline. Two weeks after surgery, papilla height decreased significantly in the IS group (2.05 and 1.80 mm at the mesial and distal aspects, respectively), whereas no significant decrease in papilla height was observed in the PBI group (0.10 and 0.20 mm). No statistically significant difference between groups was observed after 6 months. No significant difference between groups was found for gingival recession or probing depth at any follow-up time. Better soft tissue preservation in the early postoperative period was achieved using the PBI approach compared with the IS approach. The PBI can be recommended for endodontic surgical procedures involving esthetic regions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Higher lung deposition with Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler than HFA-MDI in COPD patients with poor technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brand

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Brand1, Bettina Hederer2, George Austen3, Helen Dewberry3, Thomas Meyer41RWTH, Aachen, Germany; 2Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany; 3Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell, UK; 4Inamed Research, Gauting, GermanyAbstract: Aerosols delivered by Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI are slower-moving and longer-lasting than those from pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs, improving the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery to patients. In this four-way cross-over study, adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and with poor pMDI technique received radiolabelled Berodual® (fenoterol hydrobromide 50 µg/ipratropium bromide 20 µg via Respimat® SMI or hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-MDI (randomized order on test days 1 and 2, with no inhaler technique training. The procedure was repeated on test days 3 and 4 after training. Deposition was measured by gamma scintigraphy. All 13 patients entered (9 males, mean age 62 years; FEV1 46% of predicted inhaled too fast at screening (peak inspiratory flow rate [IF]: 69–161 L/min. Whole lung deposition was higher with Respimat® SMI than with pMDI for untrained (37% of delivered dose vs 21% of metered dose and trained patients (53% of delivered vs 21% of metered dose (pSign-Test = 0.15; pANOVA< 0.05. Training also improved inhalation profiles (slower average and peak IF as well as longer breath-hold time. Drug delivery to the lungs with Respimat® SMI is more efficient than with pMDI, even with poor inhaler technique. Teaching patients to hold their breath as well as to inhale slowly and deeply increased further lung deposition using Respimat® SMI.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug delivery, inhalation, metered-dose inhaler, poor inhalation technique, training

  4. Hot Resistance Estimation for Dry Type Transformer Using Multiple Variable Regression, Multiple Polynomial Regression and Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents a novel method for the determination of average winding temperature rise of transformers under its predetermined field operating conditions. Rise in the winding temperature was determined from the estimated values of winding resistance during the heat run test conducted as per IEC standard. Approach: The estimation of hot resistance was modeled using Multiple Variable Regression (MVR, Multiple Polynomial Regression (MPR and soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. The modeled hot resistance will help to find the load losses at any load situation without using complicated measurement set up in transformers. Results: These techniques were applied for the hot resistance estimation for dry type transformer by using the input variables cold resistance, ambient temperature and temperature rise. The results are compared and they show a good agreement between measured and computed values. Conclusion: According to our experiments, the proposed methods are verified using experimental results, which have been obtained from temperature rise test performed on a 55 kVA dry-type transformer.

  5. ITER-relevant calibration technique for soft x-ray spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzadkiewicz, J; Książek, I; Zastrow, K-D; Coffey, I H; Jakubowska, K; Lawson, K D

    2010-10-01

    The ITER-oriented JET research program brings new requirements for the low-Z impurity monitoring, in particular for the Be—the future main wall component of JET and ITER. Monitoring based on Bragg spectroscopy requires an absolute sensitivity calibration, which is challenging for large tokamaks. This paper describes both “component-by-component” and “continua” calibration methods used for the Be IV channel (75.9 Å) of the Bragg rotor spectrometer deployed on JET. The calibration techniques presented here rely on multiorder reflectivity calculations and measurements of continuum radiation emitted from helium plasmas. These offer excellent conditions for the absolute photon flux calibration due to their low level of impurities. It was found that the component-by-component method gives results that are four times higher than those obtained by means of the continua method. A better understanding of this discrepancy requires further investigations.

  6. Use of SERI Surgical Scaffold for Soft-tissue Support in a Massive Weight Loss Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Gross, MD, FACS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Patients with a history of massive weight loss have compromised and poor-quality skin and fascia. Various body contouring surgeries aim to improve appearance and shape of the trunk and restore fascial integrity. These patients may be at increased risk of recurrent fascial laxity or bulges after conventional techniques. Here, the author presents a case where a silk-based bioresorbable scaffold was used prophylactically in a massive weight loss patient undergoing a circumferential body lift.

  7. REAL TIME PULVERISED COAL FLOW SOFT SENSOR FOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS USING EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raja Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverised coal preparation system (Coal mills is the heart of coal-fired power plants. The complex nature of a milling process, together with the complex interactions between coal quality and mill conditions, would lead to immense difficulties for obtaining an effective mathematical model of the milling process. In this paper, vertical spindle coal mills (bowl mill that are widely used in coal-fired power plants, is considered for the model development and its pulverised fuel flow rate is computed using the model. For the steady state coal mill model development, plant measurements such as air-flow rate, differential pressure across mill etc., are considered as inputs/outputs. The mathematical model is derived from analysis of energy, heat and mass balances. An Evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using on-line plant data. Validation results indicate that this model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of steady state coal mill dynamics. This coal mill model is being implemented on-line in a 210 MW thermal power plant and the results obtained are compared with plant data. The model is found accurate and robust that will work better in power plants for system monitoring. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  8. Soft Computing Technique Based Enhancement of Transmission System Lodability Incorporating Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vara Prasad,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growth of electricity demands and transactions in power markets, existing power networks need to be enhanced in order to increase their loadability. The problem of determining the best locations for network reinforcement can be formulated as a mixed discrete-continuous nonlinear optimization problem (MDCP. The complexity of the problem makes extensive simulations necessary and the computational requirement is high. This paper compares the effectiveness of Evolutionary Programming (EP and an ordinal optimization (OO technique is proposed in this paper to solve the MDCP involving two types of flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS devices, namely static var compensator (SVC and thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC, for system loadability enhancement. In this approach, crude models are proposed to cope with the complexity of the problem and speed up the simulations with high alignment confidence. The test and Validation of the proposed algorithm are conducted on IEEE 14–bus system and 22-bus Indian system.Simulation results shows that the proposed models permit the use of OO-based approach for finding good enough solutions with less computational efforts.

  9. Control over Surrounding Rocks Deformation of Soft Floor and Whole-Coal Gateways with Trapezoidal Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xin-xian; LI De-Quan; SHAO Qiang; SUN Yu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In Gengcun Colliery, Yima Coal Group Co. Ltd.the characteristics of the gateways of thick coal seam and the coal seam is with fully mechanized sublevel caving mining are that the thickness of roof coal seam of gateways is larger, their surrounding rocks are the whole-coal mass and the coal seam is prone to Spontaneous Combustion. With the natural equilibrium arch theory, the reasonable adjacent distance of No.11 mine-type metal supports was calculated in trapezoidal gateways based on these characteristics. Then, in-situ supporting experiments were carried out. The results indicate that under the action of virgin rock stress, the width of broken rocks zone of surrounding rocks is 1.7-2.0 m in return heading and 1.1-1.3 m in going headway. And their surrounding rocks belong to the Ⅳ-type soften rock and the Ⅲ-type common surrounding rock respectively. Therefore, under the movable abutment pressure, the gateways deformation is serious. It is suggested that the designed gateways have to use pre-broadened cross section to suit their deformation. At the same time, the accumulated water on gateway floor must be drained in time. These measures were taken in the 1302 and 1304 coal faces in Gengcun Colliery, and the satisfactory results have been obtained.

  10. Review on different experimental techniques developed for recording force-deformation behaviour of soft tissues; with a view to surgery simulation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Elnaz; Rostami, Mostafa; Farahmand, Farzam

    2017-05-01

    Different experimental techniques which have been developed to obtain data related to force-deformation behaviour of soft tissues play an important role in realistically simulating surgery processes as well as medical diagnoses and minimally invasive procedures. Indeed, an adequate quantitative description of soft-tissue-mechanical-behaviour requires high-quality experimental data to be obtained and analysed. In this review article we will first scan the motivations and basic technical issues on surgery simulation. Then, we will concentrate on different experimental techniques developed for recording force-deformation (stress-strain) behaviour of soft tissues with focussing on the in-vivo experimental setups. We will thoroughly review the available techniques by classifying them to four groups; elastography, indentation, aspiration and grasping techniques. The evolutions, advantages and limitations of each technique will be presented by a historical review. At the end, a discussion is given with the aim of summarising the proposed points and predicting the future of techniques utilised in extracting data related to force-deformation behaviour.

  11. Settlement Prediction of Road Soft Foundation Using a Support Vector Machine (SVM Based on Measured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The suppor1t vector machine (SVM is a relatively new artificial intelligence technique which is increasingly being applied to geotechnical problems and is yielding encouraging results. SVM is a new machine learning method based on the statistical learning theory. A case study based on road foundation engineering project shows that the forecast results are in good agreement with the measured data. The SVM model is also compared with BP artificial neural network model and traditional hyperbola method. The prediction results indicate that the SVM model has a better prediction ability than BP neural network model and hyperbola method. Therefore, settlement prediction based on SVM model can reflect actual settlement process more correctly. The results indicate that it is effective and feasible to use this method and the nonlinear mapping relation between foundation settlement and its influence factor can be expressed well. It will provide a new method to predict foundation settlement.

  12. Controlled Clinical Trial on Bone-anchored Hearing Implants and a Surgical Technique With Soft-tissue Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, C.A. den; Bosman, A.J.; Nelissen, R.C.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Hol, M.K.S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and audiological outcomes after linear incision with soft-tissue preservation and standard linear incision with soft-tissue reduction for placement of percutaneous bone-anchored hearing implants. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial with historical control-group from a

  13. EFFICACY OF SOFT TISSUE APPLICATION, MANUALLY-THERAPEUTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR KNEE ARTHROKINEMATICS RECOVERY COMPLEX IN PATIENTS AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC MENISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Rostislav V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this article we present the final effect of the application of complex soft tissue manually-treatment system for recovery of joint kinematics in patients with moderate and minimal protective period of rehabilitation after arthroscopic meniscectomy. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2005-2012 into three medical centers in Bulgaria: Blagoevgrad, Sofia and Pleven. The study included a total of 110 patients divided into three groups (Control and Experimental I and Experimental Group II who studied the effect of topical application of the manual therapeutic techniques compared to traditional rehabilitation methods applied. For testing the efficacy of a treatment approach in the three groups of patients, the results have processed by the method of variational analysis. Results: After analysis of results we find significantly more fully and without residual short violations recovery for all controlled parameters in patients who have implemented comprehensive manually-therapeutic treatment compared with control group patients. Conclusion: Application of adequate physiological and pedagogically grounded complex rehabilitation is required in patients after arthroscopic meniscectomy model with motor deficits in tractable routine rehabilitation. Observations allow us to offer a methodology for implementation in general practice rehabilitation in patients after meniscal ruptures treated by arthroscopic meniscectomy and motor deficits, intractable routine rehabilitation.

  14. Using Comedy Improvisation Techniques to Support Dance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although contemporary dance improvisation techniques and comedy improvisation are seldom linked, the two forms evolved around the same time and have many similarities. Both forms exist in the moment, share a highly ephemeral nature, and make use of physical games and structures. Both forms teach students the skill of being present, so essential to…

  15. Using Comedy Improvisation Techniques to Support Dance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although contemporary dance improvisation techniques and comedy improvisation are seldom linked, the two forms evolved around the same time and have many similarities. Both forms exist in the moment, share a highly ephemeral nature, and make use of physical games and structures. Both forms teach students the skill of being present, so essential to…

  16. Haptic Rendering Techniques for Non-Physical, Command Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    tactile and haptic rendering techniques. BACKGROUND Usually visualizing battlefield implies maps, computer screens filled with information and perhaps 3...Traditional 2-D Screens 3-D stereo glasses HMD CAVE Audio Haptics Level 1, 2 3 …..Fusion - Estimates INTEL SATELLITE RAW DATA Transforms...sensory modes of data presentation Haptics Tactile 8-14 Virtual Lexicon Haptic feedback The sensation of weight or resistance in a virtual world. (from

  17. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one of ...

  18. Characterization of the nonlinear elastic properties of soft tissues using the supersonic shear imaging (SSI) technique: inverse method, ex vivo and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Guo-Yang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Hu, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Dong; Liang, Si; Cao, Yanping

    2015-02-01

    Dynamic elastography has become a new clinical tool in recent years to characterize the elastic properties of soft tissues in vivo, which are important for the disease diagnosis, e.g., the detection of breast and thyroid cancer and liver fibrosis. This paper investigates the supersonic shear imaging (SSI) method commercialized in recent years with the purpose to determine the nonlinear elastic properties based on this promising technique. Particularly, we explore the propagation of the shear wave induced by the acoustic radiation force in a stressed hyperelastic soft tissue described via the Demiray-Fung model. Based on the elastodynamics theory, an analytical solution correlating the wave speed with the hyperelastic parameters of soft tissues is first derived. Then an inverse approach is established to determine the hyperelastic parameters of biological soft tissues based on the measured wave speeds at different stretch ratios. The property of the inverse method, e.g., the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution, has been investigated. Numerical experiments based on finite element simulations and the experiments conducted on the phantom and pig livers have been employed to validate the new method. Experiments performed on the human breast tissue and human heel fat pads have demonstrated the capability of the proposed method for measuring the in vivo nonlinear elastic properties of soft tissues. Generalization of the inverse analysis to other material models and the implication of the results reported here for clinical diagnosis have been discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DECISIONS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES RELATED TO DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  20. Ecological Footprint Model Using the Support Vector Machine Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance. PMID:22291949

  1. Development of a smart backboard system for real-time feedback during CPR chest compression on a soft back support surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohier, Francis; Dellimore, Kiran; Scheffer, Cornie

    2013-01-01

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often inconsistent and frequently fails to meet recommended guidelines. One promising approach to address this problem is for clinicians to use an active feedback device during CPR. However, one major deficiency of existing feedback systems is that they fail to account for the displacement of the back support surface during chest compression (CC), which can be important when CPR is performed on a soft surface. In this study we present the development of a real-time CPR feedback system based on an algorithm which uses force and dual-accelerometer measurements to provide accurate estimation of the CC depth on a soft surface, without assuming full chest decompression. Based on adult CPR manikin tests it was found that the accuracy of the estimated CC depth for a dual accelerometer feedback system is significantly better (7.3% vs. 24.4%) than for a single accelerometer system on soft back support surfaces, in the absence or presence of a backboard. In conclusion, the algorithm used was found to be suitable for a real-time, dual accelerometer CPR feedback application since it yielded reasonable accuracy in terms of CC depth estimation, even when used on a soft back support surface.

  2. Soft calender; Soft calender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This facility is a soft nip calender with both hot roll and soft roll. Since a multi-zone controlled shim CD roll is used as the soft roll, profile control of a caliper is possible only by deflection control of the roll without any peripheral facility. Main specifications: (1) Kinds of paper: newspaper paper, medium-quality paper, (2) Designed processing speed: 1,100m/min, (3) Paper width: 8,300mm. Features: (1) Possible of keeping paper strength by soft nip, (2) Soft paper surface, high smoothness and excellent gloss by using the hot roll, (3) Uniform ink absorbing by a constant paper bulk density, (4) Large mass even in kinds of paper including much DIP by possible low-linear pressure operation. (translated by NEDO)

  3. A rotated palatal flap ridge preservation technique to enhance restorative and hard and soft tissue esthetics for tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Robert N

    2010-04-01

    Hard and soft tissue alveolar ridge deformities occur following the extraction of teeth, creating functional and esthetic tooth replacement challenges, especially in the maxillary anterior smile zone. A surgical technique using a rotated palatal flap for ridge preservation is discussed that, whether combined with conventional fixed dentures or implant treatment for tooth replacement, provides the possibility for greatly improved esthetics. This technique, used in combination with or in preparation for implant treatment, allows for preservation of the alveolar bone height and width for improved implant size and placement options. In addition, preservation and enhancement of the soft tissue at the extraction site provides for soft tissue contours adjacent to the definitive restoration that vary little from those of the original natural tooth. Combined with conventional fixed dentures, use of this technique creates a template of the labial and interproximal sulcus of the extracted tooth, allowing for the molding of an ovate pontic replacement tooth. This results in vastly improved restorative emergence profiles with minimal or no change in the height of the labial gingival margin and the form and height of the interproximal papillae with adjacent teeth.

  4. Applying a soft-robotic glove as assistive device and training tool with games to support hand function after stroke: Preliminary results on feasibility and potential clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange-Lasonder, Gerdienke B; Radder, Bob; Kottink, Anke I R; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2017-07-01

    Recent technological developments regarding wearable soft-robotic devices extend beyond the current application of rehabilitation robotics and enable unobtrusive support of the arms and hands during daily activities. In this light, the HandinMind (HiM) system was developed, comprising a soft-robotic, grip supporting glove with an added computer gaming environment. The present study aims to gain first insight into the feasibility of clinical application of the HiM system and its potential impact. In order to do so, both the direct influence of the HiM system on hand function as assistive device and its therapeutic potential, of either assistive or therapeutic use, were explored. A pilot randomized clinical trial was combined with a cross-sectional measurement (comparing performance with and without glove) at baseline in 5 chronic stroke patients, to investigate both the direct assistive and potential therapeutic effects of the HiM system. Extended use of the soft-robotic glove as assistive device at home or with dedicated gaming exercises in a clinical setting was applicable and feasible. A positive assistive effect of the soft-robotic glove was proposed for pinch strength and functional task performance 'lifting full cans' in most of the five participants. A potential therapeutic impact was suggested with predominantly improved hand strength in both participants with assistive use, and faster functional task performance in both participants with therapeutic application.

  5. Failure Mechanism Analysis and Support Design for Deep Composite Soft Rock Roadway: A Case Study of the Yangcheng Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyou Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a case study of the failure mechanisms and support design for deep composite soft rock roadway in the Yangcheng Coal Mine of China. Many experiments and field tests were performed to reveal the failure mechanisms of the roadway. It was found that the surrounding rock of the roadway was HJS complex soft rock that was characterized by poor rock quality, widespread development of joint fissures, and an unstable creep property. The major horizontal stress, which was almost perpendicular to the roadway, was 1.59 times larger than the vertical stress. The weak surrounding rock and high tectonic stress were the main internal causes of roadway instabilities, and the inadequate support was the external cause. Based on the failure mechanism, a new support design was proposed that consisted of bolting, cable, metal mesh, shotcrete, and grouting. A field experiment using the new design was performed in a roadway section approximately 100 m long. Detailed deformation monitoring was conducted in the experimental roadway sections and sections of the previous roadway. The monitoring results showed that deformations of the roadway with the new support design were reduced by 85–90% compared with those of the old design. This successful case provides an important reference for similar soft rock roadway projects.

  6. 软开关脉宽调制变频技术%Soft-Switching Technique in Pulse Width Modulation Inverters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 谷口胜则; 中村博人

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new soft-switching inverter using a minimum number of devices, and a new PWM (pulse-width modulation)method suitable for 3-phase soft-switching inverters are proposed. The circuit is used as an interface between the DC supply and the conventional voltage source of a PWM inverter. The number of switching operations can be reduced by using the PWM strategy. Increasing the amplitude of the fundamental component contained in the output waveform results in an effective utilization of the DC supply, a reduction of nominated capacity of the inverter elements, and a reduction of switching loss in the switching devices.

  7. 高应力松软围岩煤仓失稳分析及联合支护技术%High Stress Soft Surrounding Rock Coal Bunker Instability Analysis and Combined Support Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the supporting problem of coal bunker instability under high stress soft surrounding rock, studies the mechanism of coal bunker damage under complicated conditions through theory analysis,puts forward the combined supporting technology,which includes first high -strength anchor net spray support and secondary structure reinforcement,and carries out the engineering application and surrounding rock deformation monitoring.The results show that by adopting the recovery technique for support,the surrounding rock deformation of coal bunker is effective-ly controlled,the supporting result is well,and safety and normal use of coal bunker is ensured.It provides an effec-tive support method for coal bunker soft surrounding rock supporting under the similar condition.%针对高应力松软围岩煤仓失稳破坏面临的支护难题,通过理论分析,研究了复杂条件下煤仓破坏的机理,提出了“一次高强锚网喷支护+二次结构补强”的联合支护技术,并进行了工程应用和围岩变形量监测。结果表明,采用该支护修复技术后,煤仓围岩变形得到有效控制,支护效果良好,保障了煤仓正常安全使用。为类似条件下煤仓软弱围岩支护提供了一种有效的支护方法。

  8. A new submerged split-thickness skin graft technique to rebuild peri-implant keratinized soft tissue in composite flap reconstructed mandible or maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Ma, Wei; Ma, Wei-guang; Li, De-hua; Liu, Bao-lin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce our preliminary experience on a submerged split-thickness skin graft (STSG) technique combined with secondary vestibuloplasty to rebuild keratinized peri-implant soft tissue and oral vestibule for patients with large oromandibular defects reconstructed by composite flaps. Five patients were enrolled in this study. Stage 1 was submerged STSG and simultaneous implant placement. Stage 2 was the uncovering of the STSG and vestibuloplasty. The implant-borne fixed denture was inserted after this 2-stage treatment. All patients were followed for at least 12 months (average 18 months). Eighteen implants were placed. The rebuilt peri-implant keratinized soft tissue was healthy clinically. The STSG graft had firm adherence to the underlying periosteum. The vestibule had adequate depth to maintain local hygiene. All implants were osseointegrated and all implant-borne prostheses were functioning well. Submerged STSG technique combined with secondary vestibuloplasty may become a feasible and effective solution to rebuild keratinized soft tissue before dental implant restoration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic ankle pain and fibrosis successfully treated with a new noninvasive augmented soft tissue mobilization technique (ASTM): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melham, T J; Sevier, T L; Malnofski, M J; Wilson, J K; Helfst, R H

    1998-06-01

    This clinical case report demonstrates the clinical effectiveness of a new form of soft tissue mobilization in the treatment of excessive connective tissue fibrosis (scar tissue) around an athlete's injured ankle. The scar tissue was causing the athlete to have pain with activity, pain on palpation of the ankle, decreased range of motion, and loss of function. Surgery and several months of conventional physical therapy failed to alleviate the athlete's symptoms. As a final resort, augmented soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) was administered. ASTM is an alternative nonsurgical treatment modality that is being researched at Performance Dynamics (Muncip, IN). ASTM is a process that uses ergonomically designed instruments that assist therapists in the rapid localization and effective treatment of areas exhibiting excessive soft tissue fibrosis. This is followed by a stretching and strengthening program. Upon the completion of 6 wk of ASTM therapy, the athlete had no pain and had regained full range of motion and function. This case report is an example of how a noninvasive augmented form of soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) demonstrated impressive clinical results in treating a condition caused by connective tissue fibrosis.

  10. A review on preparation techniques for synthesis of nanocrystalline soft magnetic ferrites and investigation on the effects of microstructure features on magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajalilou, Abdollah; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-07-01

    Soft magnetic materials have been used in many applications, i.e., electrical and electronic industries, due to their desirable electromagnetic characteristics. The performance of these materials in bulk form, where the size of grains is in micrometer scale, is only limited to a few megahertz frequencies due to their higher conductivity and domain wall resonance. Synthesizing the ferrite particles in nanometer scales before compacting them for sintering would be one way to solve using these materials at higher frequencies. The properties of ferrite depend mainly on the technique and conditions of preparation, which, in turn, affect the cation distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Thus, the aim of this study was to introduce some methods used for synthesizing nanocrystalline soft magnetic ferrites. Furthermore, the microstructure features, i.e., grain sizes and porosities, which are influenced by the types of method used for preparation, playing key role on the magnetic properties of the sample, are also highlighted.

  11. History, progress and prospect for controlled ecological life support technique in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Constructing controlled ecological life support system is an important supporting condition for carrying out manned deep-space exploration and extraterrestrial inhabitation and development in the future. In China, the controlled ecological life support technique has gone through a developmental process of more than twenty years, undergoing the course of from conceptual research, to key unit-level technique and key system-level integrated technique, and from ground-based simulated tests to spaceflight demonstrating test, and gained many important stagy harvests. In this paper, the present status, subsistent problems and next plans in the domain of CELSS techniques in China are introduced briefly, so as to play a referential role for promoting development of the techniques internationally.

  12. The tent pole splint: a bone-supported stereolithographic surgical splint for the soft tissue matrix expansion graft procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Joseph E; Theodotou, Nicholas; Samuels, Marc; Krajekian, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This report details the use of computer-aided planning and intraoperative stereolithographic direct-bone-contact surgical splints for the accurate extraoral placement of dental implants in the soft tissue matrix expansion (tent pole) graft of the severely resorbed mandible.

  13. MRI in the assessment of the supportive soft tissues of the cervical spine in acute trauma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiper, M.D.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We carried out a retrospective analysis of imaging and clinical findings in 52 children with a history of cervical spinal trauma. No patient had evidence of a fracture on plain films or CT. All had MRI at 1.5 T because of persistent or delayed symptoms, unexplained findings of injury or instability, or as further assessment of the extent of soft-tissue injury. Clinical follow-up ranged from 6 months to 3.5 years. MRI was evaluated for its influence on therapy and outcome. MRI was positive in 16 (31 %) of 52 patients. Posterior soft-tissue or ligamentous injury was the most common finding in the 10 patients with mild to moderate trauma, while acute disc bulges and longitudinal ligament disruption, each seen in one case, were uncommon. MRI was superior to CT for assessment of the extent of soft-tissue injury and for identification of spinal cord injuries and intracanalicular hemorrhage in the six patients with more severe trauma. MRI specifically influenced the management of all four patients requiring surgery by extending the level of posterior stabilization. No patients with normal MRI or any of the 10 with radiographically stable soft-tissue injury on MRI, developed delayed clinical or radiographic evidence of instability or deformity. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  14. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled M; Murphy, Michael M; Lawson, Heather E; Klemetti, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are: (1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting; (2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load-external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing; (3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration; (4) potential rib instability occurred when certain geological features prevailed-these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata; (5) 47% of the studied rib spall was classified as blocky-this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards; and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  15. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Khaled M.; Murphy Michael M.; Lawson Heather E.; Klemetti Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are:(1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting;(2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load—external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing;(3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration;(4) potential rib insta-bility occurred when certain geological features prevailed—these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata;(5) 47%of the stud-ied rib spall was classified as blocky—this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards;and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  16. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  17. Fabrication of an Implant-Supported Fixed Interim Prosthesis Using a Duplicate Denture: An Alternative Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad M

    2016-06-22

    The fabrication of an implant-supported fixed complete denture prosthesis involves multiple clinical and laboratory steps. One of the main steps is to provide the patient with an interim fixed prosthesis to evaluate the patient's esthetic and functional needs as well as to enhance the patient's psychology before proceeding to the definitive prosthesis. Different techniques for fabricating interim prostheses have been described in the literature. This report describes an alternative technique that uses a duplicate denture made of self-curing acrylic resin to fabricate an implant-supported fixed interim prosthesis. The interim prosthesis was later used as a blueprint for the definitive implant-supported hybrid prosthesis.

  18. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  19. Selective nano alumina supported vanadium oxide catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene using CO2 as soft oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Elfadly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano alumina-supported V2O5 catalysts with different loadings have been tested for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with CO2 as an oxidant. High surface area nano-alumina was prepared and used as support for V2O5 as the catalyst. The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation techniques followed by calcinations and microwave treatment, denoted as V2O5/γ-Al2O3-C and V2O5/γ-Al2O3-MW, respectively. The V2O5 loading was varied on nano-alumina from 5 to 30 wt%. The support and catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Barett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH pore-size distribution, N2-adsorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and temperature programed desorption (TPD-NH3. The characterization results indicated that V2O5 is highly dispersed on alumina up to 30%-V2O5/γ-Al2O3-MW prepared by MW method. The TPD studies indicated that there are significant differences in acid amount and strength for V2O5/γ-Al2O3-C and V2O5/γ-Al2O3-MW-catalysts. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was evaluated in the temperature range 450–600 °C in relation to the physicochemical properties and surface acidity. The results revealed that optimum catalytic activity and selectivity (∼100% toward styrene production were obtained using 10% V2O5/γ-Al2O3-MW catalyst treated with microwave.

  20. The role of post-failure brittleness of soft rocks in the assessment of stability of intact masses: FDEM technique applications to ideal problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Andriani, Gioacchino Francesco; Fazio, Nunzio Luciano; Perrotti, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Strain-softening under low confinement stress, i.e. the drop of strength that occurs in the post-failure stage, represents a key factor of the stress-strain behavior of rocks. However, this feature of the rock behavior is generally underestimated or even neglected in the assessment of boundary value problems of intact soft rock masses. This is typically the case when the stability of intact rock masses is treated by means of limit equilibrium or finite element analyses, for which rigid-plastic or elastic perfectly-plastic constitutive models, generally implementing peak strength conditions of the rock, are respectively used. In fact, the aforementioned numerical techniques are characterized by intrinsic limitations that do not allow to account for material brittleness, either for the method assumptions or due to numerical stability problems, as for the case of the finite element method, unless sophisticated regularization techniques are implemented. However, for those problems that concern the stability of intact soft rock masses at low stress levels, as for example the stability of shallow underground caves or that of rock slopes, the brittle stress-strain response of rock in the post-failure stage cannot be disregarded due to the risk of overestimation of the stability factor. This work is aimed at highlighting the role of post-peak brittleness of soft rocks in the analysis of specific ideal problems by means of the use of a hybrid finite-discrete element technique (FDEM) that allows for the simulation of the rock stress-strain brittle behavior in a proper way. In particular, the stability of two ideal cases, represented by a shallow underground rectangular cave and a vertical cliff, has been analyzed by implementing a post-peak brittle behavior of the rock and the comparison with a non-brittle response of the rock mass is also explored. To this purpose, the mechanical behavior of a soft calcarenite belonging to the Calcarenite di Gravina formation, extensively

  1. Investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization by means of 2-D fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Sara; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen, E-mail: kmpz@dr.com

    2016-02-04

    Reversible hybridization reaction plays a key role in fundamental biological processes, in many laboratory techniques, and also in DNA based sensing devices. Comprehensive investigation of this process is, therefore, essential for the development of more sophisticated applications. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the hybridization reaction, as a second order process, are systematically investigated with the aid of the soft and hard chemometric methods. Labeling two complementary 21 mer DNA single strands with FAM and Texas red fluorophores, enabled recording of the florescence excitation−emission matrices during the experiments which led to three-way data sets. The presence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in excitation and emission modes and the closure in concentration mode, made the three-way data arrays rank deficient. To acquire primary chemical information, restricted Tucker3 as a soft method was employed. Herein a model-based method, hard restricted trilinear decomposition, is introduced for in depth analysis of rank deficient three-way data sets. By employing proposed hard method, the nonlinear model parameters as well as the correct profiles could be estimated. In addition, a simple constraint is presented to extract chemically reasonable output profiles regarding the core elements of restricted Tucker3 model. - Highlights: • Hard restricted trilinear decomposition (HrTD) was introduced for model-based analysis of three-way rank deficient data. • DNA hybridization was investigated by two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard multi-way techniques. • Restricted Tucker3 analysis enabled accurate estimation of pure FRET profiles in the hybridized form. • HrTD was successfully employed to estimate kinetic and equilibrium parameters of DNA hybridization system. • The performance of the proposed methods in response to different physical stimuli was successfully evaluated.

  2. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    as controls. Paired sample t-testand Pearson´s correlation analysis were used to analyze implant position, dimension of crownand papilla fill.Cohen’s ¿ andSpearman correlation were used to validate the PIS.The implant-supported crown was statistically longer than the contra-lateral tooth......The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one......, and there was significant correlation between the oro-facial position of the implant and the crown length difference (r=.607, p=.001). The distalpapilla was significantly shorter than the mesialpapilla at implant-supported crowns (p

  3. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  4. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  5. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  6. Generation and characterization of plasma channels in gas puff targets using soft X-ray radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachulak, P. W., E-mail: wachulak@gmail.com; Bartnik, A.; Jarocki, R.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Jabczyński, J.; Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, ul. gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    We present our recent results of a formation and characterization of plasma channels in elongated krypton and xenon gas puff targets. The study of their formation and temporal expansion was carried out using a combination of a soft X-ray radiography (shadowgraphy) and pinhole camera imaging. Two high-energy short laser pulses were used to produce the channels. When a pumping laser pulse was shaped into a line focus, using cylindrical and spherical lenses, the channels were not produced because much smaller energy density was deposited in the gas puff target. However, when a point focus was obtained, using just a spherical lens, the plasma channels appeared. The channels were up to 9 mm in length, had a quite uniform density profile, and expanded in time with velocities of about 2 cm/μs.

  7. A soft systems approach to designing an information system model to be used as a tool support in the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases in a health jurisdiction of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Chapula, C A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the preliminary results of research in progress on the design of an information system model that is capable of supporting prevention and control activities related to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in a Mexican health jurisdiction. The project is being developed in the following five phases: 1) informetric indicators on the prevention and control of STD; 2) information flow models representing the access and use of information by the actors involved in the activities; 3) system analysis; 4) system design; and 5) implementation. Bibliometric/scientometric techniques have been applied to conduct the first phase of the project. A soft systems approach is to be conducted throughout phases 2-5. Austin and Kendall and Kendall criteria are to be used for system analysis, design, and implementation. Expected products and benefits include: a) a bibliographic database on the prevention and control of STD in Mexico; b) science policy indicators to improve decision making; c) an information system model/prototype; and d) the development of the soft systems methodology, as applied to improving information-problem-situations in a health system.

  8. Modal Techniques for Remote Identification of Nonlinear Reactions at Gap-Supported Tubes under Turbulent Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaune, X.; Piteau, Ph.; Borsoi, L. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire d' Etudes de Dynamique, CEA, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Antunes, J.; Debut, V. [Applied Dynamics Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, ITN/ADL, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686 Sacavem Codex (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    Predictive computation of the nonlinear dynamical responses of gap-supported tubes subjected to flow excitation has been the subject of very active research. Nevertheless, there is a need for robust techniques capable of extracting, from the actual vibratory response data, information which is relevant for asserting the components integrity. The dynamical contact/impact (vibro-impact) forces are of paramount significance, as are the tube/support gaps. Following our previous studies in this field using wave-propagation techniques, we apply modal methods in the present paper for extracting such information. The dynamical support forces, as well as the vibratory responses at the support locations, are identified from one or several vibratory response measurements at remote transducers, from which the support gaps can be inferred. As for most inverse problems, the identification results prove quite sensitive to noise and modeling error problems. Therefore, topics discussed in the paper include regularization techniques to mitigate the effects of non-measured noise perturbations. In particular, a method is proposed to improve the identification of contact forces at the supports when the system is excited by an unknown distributed turbulence force field. The important topic of dealing with the imperfect knowledge of the modal parameters used to build the inverted transfer functions is addressed elsewhere. Here, the extensive identifications presented are based on the exact modal parameters and performed on realistic numerical simulations of gap-supported tubes subjected to flow excitation. We can thus confront the identified dynamical support contact forces and vibratory motions at the gap-support with the actual values stemming from the original nonlinear computations, with overall satisfying results. (authors)

  9. Design of Decision Support System for Loans Based on Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSS is a particular type of computerized information system that support business and organizational decision making activities. on the other hand, Data Mining (DM expand the potentials for decision support by finding styles and connections hidden in the data and in this way enabling an inductive way to deal with data analysis. Data is analyzed through a mechanized process, known as Knowledge Discovery in data mining techniques. Data mining can be characterized as a process of browsing and analysis for large amounts of data with a particular focus on discovering significantly important patterns and rules. Data mining helps discovering knowledge from raw, not equipped data. Utilizing data mining techniques permits extracting knowledge from data mart, data warehouse and, specifically cases, even from operational databases. In this paper a methodology is introduced to integrate the DSS with DM for loans to the Real Estate developments fund (REDF Customers. It causes to cooperative interaction of DSS, through getting more options to analysis, utilizing expert's data, and improving assessment process. So I will talk about the function of data mining to simplify decision support, the utilization of data mining methods in decision support systems, talking about applied approaches and present a data mining decision support system called DMDSS – (Data Mining Decision Support System. We also present some obtained results and plans for future development.

  10. Mobile Augmented Reality Support for Architects Based on Feature Tracking Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Nielsen, Michael; Kramp, Gunnar; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile AR system called the SitePack supporting architects in annotating and visualizing models in real-time. We describe examples of how the SitePack visualization techniques help architects making decisions on site. One example is the effect of vegetation heights on the ho...

  11. Mobile Augmented Reality Support for Architects based on feature Tracking Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Nielsen, Mikkel Bang; Kramp, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile Augmented Reality (AR) system called the SitePack supporting architects in visualizing 3D models in real-time on site. We describe how vision based feature tracking techniques can help architects making decisions on site concerning visual impact assessment. The AR...

  12. Swarm Intelligence: New Techniques for Adaptive Systems to Provide Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a system adapting itself to provide support for learning has always been an important issue of research for technology-enabled learning. One approach to provide adaptivity is to use social navigation approaches and techniques which involve analysing data of what was previously selected by a cluster of users or what worked for…

  13. Mobile Augmented Reality Support for Architects based on feature Tracking Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Nielsen, Mikkel Bang; Kramp, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile Augmented Reality (AR) system called the SitePack supporting architects in visualizing 3D models in real-time on site. We describe how vision based feature tracking techniques can help architects making decisions on site concerning visual impact assessment. The AR...

  14. Layout-aware Soft Error Rate Estimation Technique for Integrated Circuits under the Environment with Energetic Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekov, A. O.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Bobkov, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Single Event Transient (SET) is a current and voltage disturbance in an integrated circuit (IC), caused by charged particle impact. In modern IC technologies single charged particle can cause multiple SETs on multiple electrical nodes, this can lead to faults. There are several mitigation techniques with their drawbacks affecting circuit performance. This work presents a comparison of experimental data with simulation results acquired by the means of our technique and tools. Our technique is able to simulate sub-100 nm IC performance under multiple SET using industry standard SPICE simulator, without incorporation of a T-CAD or physical measurements, and taking into account layout of the device.

  15. Soft computing for business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

  16. The High-yield Cultivation Techniques for Soft-seed Punica granatum from Tunisia%突尼斯软子石榴丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕中伟; 王鹏; 王东升; 刘许成; 许领军

    2009-01-01

    Through six-year examination in cultivation, the main variety soft-seed Punica granatum from Tunisia should be matched with pollinizer as the proportion of 6:1. The cultivation techniques were severely thinning blossom and fruit, pruning according to branch trait, adopting frost protection measures in the winter and so on. The soft-seed Punica granatum from Tunisia was of favorable varietal characteristics, fruit properties and economic benefits compared with other varieties. It had better market prospect and broader space for further development.%经过6年栽培试验,突尼斯软子石榴栽培上需要配置授粉树(6:1),严格疏花疏果,根据枝条特性整形修剪,冬季要采取防冻措施等.表现出良好的品种特性,果实性状、经济效益远高于其他品种,具有良好的市场前景,有很大的发展空间.

  17. Mass spectrometry hyphenated techniques for the analysis of volatiles and peptides in soft cheese: Useful tools for the shelf life optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentana, Annalisa; Natale, Anna; Palermo, Carmen; Nardiello, Donatella; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2016-07-01

    In order to assess the product quality and shelf life of an Italian soft cream cheese under different storage conditions, the volatile and peptide profiles evolution were tested. Volatiles were sampled directly from the head space of cheese packaging by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by GC-MS. Peptide profiles were obtained by nanoLC-MS/MS, following a novel bioinformatics approach based on scoring distribution associated to the protein hits originating from the database search. In particular, a refined identification by focusing on selected time segments corresponding to the most intense peaks was carried out. A total of 40 compounds including acids, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, terpene, sulfur, and aromatic compounds were detected. Significant differences in their abundance during the storage in different packagings were observed, as well as an evolution of peptides mainly belonging to αS1-casein. The results demonstrated the usefulness of the above-mentioned hyphenated techniques for the determination of the soft cheese shelf life under different storage conditions.

  18. Investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization by means of 2-D fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Sara; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen

    2016-02-01

    Reversible hybridization reaction plays a key role in fundamental biological processes, in many laboratory techniques, and also in DNA based sensing devices. Comprehensive investigation of this process is, therefore, essential for the development of more sophisticated applications. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the hybridization reaction, as a second order process, are systematically investigated with the aid of the soft and hard chemometric methods. Labeling two complementary 21 mer DNA single strands with FAM and Texas red fluorophores, enabled recording of the florescence excitation-emission matrices during the experiments which led to three-way data sets. The presence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in excitation and emission modes and the closure in concentration mode, made the three-way data arrays rank deficient. To acquire primary chemical information, restricted Tucker3 as a soft method was employed. Herein a model-based method, hard restricted trilinear decomposition, is introduced for in depth analysis of rank deficient three-way data sets. By employing proposed hard method, the nonlinear model parameters as well as the correct profiles could be estimated. In addition, a simple constraint is presented to extract chemically reasonable output profiles regarding the core elements of restricted Tucker3 model.

  19. Fully-Polymeric pH Sensor Realized by Means of a Single-Step Soft Embossing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fanzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here an electrochemical sensor microsystem for the monitoring of pH. The all-polymeric device is comprised of a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate, a 200 nm-thin patterned layer of conductive polymer (PEDOT, and a 70 nm electropolymerized layer of a pH sensitive conductive polymer (polyaniline. The patterning of the fluidic (microfluidic channels and conductive (wiring and electrodes functional elements was achieved with a single soft PDMS mold via a single embossing step process. A post-processing treatment with ethylene glycol assured the functional enhancement of the electrodes, as demonstrated via an electrical and electrochemical characterization. A surface modification of the electrodes was carried out, based on voltammetric electropolymerization, to obtain a thin layer of polyaniline. The mechanism for pH sensing is based on the redox reactions of the polyaniline layer caused by protonation. The sensing performance of the microsystem was finally validated by monitoring its potentiometric response upon exposure to a relevant range of pH.

  20. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  1. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  2. The saddle connective tissue graft: a periodontal plastic surgery technique to obtain soft tissue coronal gain on immediate implants. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, David; Cabello, Gustavo; Olmos, Gema; Niñoles, Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent studies regarding the advantages of flapless immediate implants on the maintenance of the soft tissue architecture (especially at papillae level) in those situations where it is necessary to extract an anterior tooth, this case report describes a clinical procedure designed to replace a hopeless central incisor (2.1) showing root resorption adjacent to an implant-supported crown (1.1), whose gingival margin is 2 mm coronal regarding the hopeless tooth to be replaced. After the extraction of the hopeless tooth (2.1), a flapless immediate implant was placed. The implant-bone gap was then filled with bone substitute and a palatal connective tissue graft was placed ad modum saddle extending at buccal level from apical to the mucogingival line, sealing the socket and extending until 6 mm at palatal level ad modum saddle. This procedure allowed symmetry of the soft tissue margins between the two implants (1.1 and 2.1) to be obtained as well as the preservation of the inter-implant papillae (1.1).

  3. Dermal Fenestration With Negative Pressure Wound Therapy: A Technique for Managing Soft Tissue Injuries Associated With High-Energy Complex Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Henrietta; Le Cocq, Heather; Mountain, Alistair J; Sargeant, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Military casualties can sustain complex foot fractures from blast incidents. This frequently involves the calcaneum and is commonly associated with mid-foot fracture dislocations. The foot is at risk of both compartment syndrome and the development of fracture blisters after such injuries. The amount of energy transfer and the environment in which the injury was sustained also predispose patients to potential skin necrosis and deep infection. Decompression of the compartments is a part of accepted practice in civilian trauma to reduce the risk of complications associated with significant soft tissue swelling. The traditional methods of foot fasciotomy, however, are not without significant complications. We report a simple technique of dermal fenestration combined with the use of negative pressure wound therapy, which aims to preserve the skin integrity of the foot without resorting to formal fasciotomy.

  4. Wind Turbines Support Techniques during Frequency Drops — Energy Utilization Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman B. Attya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The supportive role of wind turbines during frequency drops is still not clear enough, although there are many proposed algorithms. Most of the offered techniques make the wind turbine deviates from optimum power generation operation to special operation modes, to guarantee the availability of reasonable power support, when the system suffers frequency deviations. This paper summarizes the most dominant support algorithms and derives wind turbine power curves for each one. It also conducts a comparison from the point of view of wasted energy, with respect to optimum power generation. The authors insure the advantage of a frequency support algorithm, they previously presented, as it achieved lower amounts of wasted energy. This analysis is performed in two locations that are promising candidates for hosting wind farms in Egypt. Additionally, two different types of wind turbines from two different manufacturers are integrated. Matlab and Simulink are the implemented simulation environments.

  5. Postoperative volume increase of facial soft tissue after percutaneous versus endonasal osteotomy technique in rhinoplasty using 3D stereophotogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, B. van; Heerbeek, N. van; Maal, T.J.J.; Borstlap, W.A.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Berge, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When lateral osteotomies are performed as part of a rhinoplasty, the nose and paranasal region invariably change in three dimensions. The PURPOSE of this study is to compare the effect of the percutaneous perforating and endonasal continuous osteotomy techniques concerning the degree of

  6. 4D DATA FUSION TECHNIQUE IN URBAN WATERLOG-DRAINING DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies urban waterlog-draining decision support system based on the 4D data fusion technique.4D data includes DEM,DOQ,DLG and DRG.It supplies entire databases for waterlog forecast and analysis together with non-spatial fundamental database.Data composition and reasoning are two key steps of 4D data fusion.Finally,this paper gives a real case: Ezhou Waterlog-Draining Decision Support System (EWDSS) with two application models,i.e.,DEM application model,water generating and draining model.

  7. Characteristics of High Quality Rice Xiang 5 and the Supporting Cultivation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deze XU; Haiya CAI; Feng ZHAO; Jianping WU; Aiqing YOU

    2016-01-01

    The high quality rice,Xiang 5,is a new strain bred by Institute of Food Crops of Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences which first hybridizes Chinese scented rice with 9311,and then re-crosses it with Ezhong 5 for continuous generations. The strain has good quality,high yield,suitable maturity period,strong scent,strong combining ability and other features. This paper summarizes the appearance characteristics of Xiang 5 and main points of the supporting cultivation techniques,aimed at providing technical support and theoretical reference for its field production.

  8. A New Caching Technique to Support Conjunctive Queries in P2P DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Koji; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Fujita, Satoshi

    P2P DHT (Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Table) is one of typical techniques for realizing an efficient management of shared resources distributed over a network and a keyword search over such networks in a fully distributed manner. In this paper, we propose a new method for supporting conjunctive queries in P2P DHT. The basic idea of the proposed technique is to share a global information on past trials by conducting a local caching of search results for conjunctive queries and by registering the fact to the global DHT. Such a result caching is expected to significantly reduce the amount of transmitted data compared with conventional schemes. The effect of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated by simulation. The result of experiments indicates that by using the proposed method, the amount of returned data is reduced by 60% compared with conventional P2P DHT which does not support conjunctive queries.

  9. A new burst assembly technique for supporting QoS in optical burst switching networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolong Yang(阳小龙); Mingrui Dang(党明瑞); Youju Mao(毛幼菊); Lemin Li(李乐民)

    2003-01-01

    This letter proposes a new burst assembly technique for supporting QoS in optical burst switching (OBS)networks. It consists of the adaptive-threshold burst assembly mechanism and QoS-based random offset-time scheme. The assembly mechanism, which is fit well to multi-class burst assembly, not only matcheswith IP QoS mechanism based on packet classification, and also utilizes fairly and efficiently assemblycapacity. Based on token-bucket model and burst segment selective discard (BSSD), the offset-time schemecan smooth the traffic to support OBS QoS. The simulation results show that the technique can improvethe performance in terms of packet loss probability (PLP).

  10. Evaluation of an Improved Technique for Geosynthetic-Reinforced and Pile-Supported Embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large number of applications of conventional technique for geosynthetic-reinforced and pile-supported (GRPS embankment (called CT embankment, many deficiencies have been exposed. In view of the deficiencies, an improved technique, fixed-geosynthetic-reinforced and pile-supported embankment (called FGT embankment, is developed. To investigate the performance of the FGT embankment, the comparison analyses and parametric studies are conducted by Finite Element Method (FEM. The influencing factors investigated include elastic modulus of soil, tensile stiffness of geosynthetics, pile length, pile spacing, and pile elastic modulus. In addition, the cost evaluation for the FGT embankment and CT embankment is also made. The results show that the FGT embankment can significantly reduce the settlement and differential settlement, enhance the stability, and provide an economical and effective measure for the construction of high embankment at the bridge approach.

  11. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  12. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  13. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  14. Intelligent Techniques Using Molecular Data Analysis in Leukaemia: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjar, Haneen; Adelson, David; Brown, Fred; Chaudhri, Naeem

    2017-01-01

    The use of intelligent techniques in medicine has brought a ray of hope in terms of treating leukaemia patients. Personalized treatment uses patient's genetic profile to select a mode of treatment. This process makes use of molecular technology and machine learning, to determine the most suitable approach to treating a leukaemia patient. Until now, no reviews have been published from a computational perspective concerning the development of personalized medicine intelligent techniques for leukaemia patients using molecular data analysis. This review studies the published empirical research on personalized medicine in leukaemia and synthesizes findings across studies related to intelligence techniques in leukaemia, with specific attention to particular categories of these studies to help identify opportunities for further research into personalized medicine support systems in chronic myeloid leukaemia. A systematic search was carried out to identify studies using intelligence techniques in leukaemia and to categorize these studies based on leukaemia type and also the task, data source, and purpose of the studies. Most studies used molecular data analysis for personalized medicine, but future advancement for leukaemia patients requires molecular models that use advanced machine-learning methods to automate decision-making in treatment management to deliver supportive medical information to the patient in clinical practice.

  15. Hard and Soft

    OpenAIRE

    Claes H. de Vreese; Boomgaarden, Hajo G.; Semetko, Holli A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Support for European integration is a function no longer only of `hard' economic and utilitarian predictors but also of `soft' predictors such as feelings of identity and attitudes towards immigrants. Focusing on the issue of the potential membership of Turkey in the European Union (EU), this study demonstrates that the importance of `soft' predictors outweighs the role of `hard' predictors in understanding public opinion about Turkish membership. The study draws on survey...

  16. High-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique in deep-well oil shale roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Wang Xiangyu; Wang Junde; Xue Shizhi; Xu Ke

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the deep-well oil shale roadway being deformed, damaged, or difficult to maintain after excavating and supporting in Haishiwan coal mine, this paper has analyzed the characteristics of the deformed roadway and revealed its failure mechanism by taking comprehensively the methods of field geological investigation, displacement monitoring of surrounding rock, rock properties and hydration properties experiments and field application tests. Based on this work, the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting principle is proposed, which is:to‘resist’ by high pre-tightening force and high stiff-ness in the early stage, to‘yield’ by making use of the controlled deformation of a yielding tube in the middle stage, and to‘fix’ by applying total-section Gunite in the later stage. A high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique of‘high pre-tightening force yielding anchor bolt+small-bore pre-tight-ening force anchor cable+rebar ladder beam+rhombic metal mesh+lagging gunite’ has been estab-lished, and industrial on site testing implemented. The practical results show that the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique can effectively control the large deformation and long-time rhe-ology of deep-well oil shale roadways and can provide beneficial references for the maintenance of other con-generic roadways.

  17. Visco chop-a new technique for nucleus separation for soft cataracts in femtolaser assisted cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sri; Ganesh; Sheetal; Brar

    2015-01-01

    <正>INTRODUCTION Femtosecond laser technology,introduced clinically for ophthalmic surgery as a technique for creating lamellar flaps in laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK),has recently been developed into a tool for cataract surgery.Preliminary experience for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery show appropriate safety and efficacy,and possible advantage over conventional cataract surgery[1-4].The ability of the femtosecond laser to fragment the lens results in the need for less ultrasound energy to be expended inside the eye.Several studies indicate that less effective phacoemulsification time is needed to emulsify the lens

  18. Study on supporting technology for roadways of soft rock mass in natural caving method%自然崩落法采场软破围岩巷道支护技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明建; 单强; 严荣富

    2014-01-01

    As for the problem of intense roadway layout, long time existence, large mining influence and great maintenance difficulty in the mine with natural caving mining method, a comprehensive me-thod including field investigation, laboratory test,theoretical analysis, underground roadway test and deformation measurement has been used to analyze the deformation failure characteristics and support difficulties. With the guidance of confining pressure restored reinforcement theory, the active and pas-sive combined support system of the surrounding rock is put forward, and mudsill, roof-contacted filling and other enhanced support techniques are adopted. The industrial test shows that the roadway deforma-tion can be controlled within 80 mm after support provided. This proposes support technology can ef-fectively control the surround rock deformation in soft rock roadway, which ensures the safety and fea-sibility of natural caving method in soft rock.%针对自然崩落法采场巷道布置密集、存在时间长、采动影响大、维护难度大等特点,采用现场调研、室内试验、理论分析、井下巷道试验与变形实测等综合手段,分析软破围岩巷道变形破坏特征和支护难点。以围压恢复加固理论为指导,提出了被动和主动联合支护体系,采用增设底梁和提高充填接顶等全封闭强化支护措施。现场实施结果表明,巷道收敛量能够控制在80 mm以内,实现了对巷道围岩变形的有效控制,维护高应力环境软破围岩巷道的稳定性,为自然崩落法采矿奠定基础。

  19. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  20. Study on Prevention and Control Technique of Pickled Radish Soft Rot%泡菜萝卜软腐病防治技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉茂林; 彭化贤; 刘独臣; 雍晓平; 陈琳

    2012-01-01

    Through influencing factors screening of disease resistance, different varieties, chemistry agents, planting ways and soil disinfection ways prevention and control technique of pickle radish soft rot was put forward. The ways were disease resistance/tolerance variety of pickled radish selecton, such as Luluo 5, long-white Japanese radish, C9292; ridge culture adopton, and rotaton different types of same species and rotating different crop plant. Soft rot could be effectively reduced by this method: soil disinfect with lime 2.25 t/hm2 before sowing seeds, "kejia" 2 000 mg/kg or thiazole copper 1 500 mg/kg to sprinkle radish root at the early infection once a week for 3 times.%通过不同萝卜品种抗病性筛选,不同化学药剂、种植方式及土壤消毒方式对萝卜软腐病的影响研究,提出泡菜萝卜软腐病防治技术.结果表明,选用抗(耐)病萝卜品种如泸萝5号、日本长白萝卜、C9292,采用垄作,同种不同类型萝卜品种轮作或不同作物轮茬,播种前每公顷土壤用石灰2.25 t撒施消毒,发病初期用科佳2000 mL/L或噻唑铜1500 mL/L淋根,每隔7d淋灌一次,连续3次,可有效减轻萝卜软腐病的发生.

  1. Usage and applications of Semantic Web techniques and technologies to support chemistry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkum, Mark I; Frey, Jeremy G

    2014-01-01

    The drug discovery process is now highly dependent on the management, curation and integration of large amounts of potentially useful data. Semantics are necessary in order to interpret the information and derive knowledge. Advances in recent years have mitigated concerns that the lack of robust, usable tools has inhibited the adoption of methodologies based on semantics. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THREE EXAMPLES OF HOW SEMANTIC WEB TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGIES CAN BE USED IN ORDER TO SUPPORT CHEMISTRY RESEARCH: a controlled vocabulary for quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry; a controlled vocabulary for the classification and labelling of chemical substances and mixtures; and, a database of chemical identifiers. This paper also presents a Web-based service that uses the datasets in order to assist with the completion of risk assessment forms, along with a discussion of the legal implications and value-proposition for the use of such a service. We have introduced the Semantic Web concepts, technologies, and methodologies that can be used to support chemistry research, and have demonstrated the application of those techniques in three areas very relevant to modern chemistry research, generating three new datasets that we offer as exemplars of an extensible portfolio of advanced data integration facilities. We have thereby established the importance of Semantic Web techniques and technologies for meeting Wild's fourth "grand challenge".

  2. The Integrated Use of Enterprise and System Dynamics Modelling Techniques in Support of Business Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Agyapong-Kodua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise modelling techniques support business process (reengineering by capturing existing processes and based on perceived outputs, support the design of future process models capable of meeting enterprise requirements. System dynamics modelling tools on the other hand are used extensively for policy analysis and modelling aspects of dynamics which impact on businesses. In this paper, the use of enterprise and system dynamics modelling techniques has been integrated to facilitate qualitative and quantitative reasoning about the structures and behaviours of processes and resource systems used by a Manufacturing Enterprise during the production of composite bearings. The case study testing reported has led to the specification of a new modelling methodology for analysing and managing dynamics and complexities in production systems. This methodology is based on a systematic transformation process, which synergises the use of a selection of public domain enterprise modelling, causal loop and continuous simulation modelling techniques. The success of the modelling process defined relies on the creation of useful CIMOSA process models which are then converted to causal loops. The causal loop models are then structured and translated to equivalent dynamic simulation models using the proprietary continuous simulation modelling tool iThink.

  3. The statistical analysis techniques to support the NGNP fuel performance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh T.; Einerson, Jeffrey J.

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the development and application of statistical analysis techniques to support the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experimental program on Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel performance. The experiments conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule. The tests are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in graphite blocks and the target quantity (fuel temperature) is regulated by the He-Ne gas mixture that fills the gap volume. Three techniques for statistical analysis, namely control charting, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, are implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System for automated processing and qualification of the AGR measured data. The neutronic and thermal code simulation results are used for comparative scrutiny. The ultimate objective of this work includes (a) a multi-faceted system for data monitoring and data accuracy testing, (b) identification of possible modes of diagnostics deterioration and changes in experimental conditions, (c) qualification of data for use in code validation, and (d) identification and use of data trends to support effective control of test conditions with respect to the test target. Analysis results and examples given in the paper show the three statistical analysis techniques providing a complementary capability to warn of thermocouple failures. It also suggests that the regression analysis models relating calculated fuel temperatures and thermocouple readings can enable online regulation of experimental parameters (i.e. gas mixture content), to effectively maintain the fuel temperature within a given range.

  4. Self-Supporting Nanoclay as Internal Scaffold Material for Direct Printing of Soft Hydrogel Composite Structures in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Liu, Chengcheng; Chai, Wenxuan; Compaan, Ashley; Huang, Yong

    2017-05-24

    Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology enables the freeform fabrication of complex constructs from various hydrogels and is receiving increasing attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a novel self-supporting direct hydrogel printing approach to extrude complex 3D hydrogel composite structures in air without the help of a support bath. Laponite, a member of the smectite mineral family, is investigated to serve as an internal scaffold material for the direct printing of hydrogel composite structures in air. In the proposed printing approach, due to its yield-stress property, Laponite nanoclay can be easily extruded through a nozzle as a liquid and self-supported after extrusion as a solid. Its unique crystal structure with positive and negative charges enables it to be mixed with many chemically and physically cross-linked hydrogels, which makes it an ideal internal scaffold material for the fabrication of various hydrogel structures. By mixing Laponite nanoclay with various hydrogel precursors, the hydrogel composites retain their self-supporting capacity and can be printed into 3D structures directly in air and retain their shapes before cross-linking. Then, the whole structures are solidified in situ by applying suitable cross-linking stimuli. The addition of Laponite nanoclay can effectively improve the mechanical and biological properties of hydrogel composites. Specifically, the addition of Laponite nanoclay results in a significant increase in the Young's modulus of each hydrogel-Laponite composite: 1.9-fold increase for the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-Laponite composite, 7.4-fold increase for the alginate-Laponite composite, and 3.3-fold increase for the gelatin-Laponite composite.

  5. 弱胶结软岩巷道支护技术研究%Study on Support Technology of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock Roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任冬冬; 周纪华

    2013-01-01

    Roadway surrounding rock in Yili No.1 mine belongs to the weakly consolidated soft rock in western and has the characteristics with low strength and poor cement. As applying the results of the rock physical-mechanical properties research and combined with in-situ stress spatial distribution, a new support concept with “moderate release the pressure, enhanced support, coupling deformation, combination of active and passive support, key position reinforcement”was introduced on the basis of analyzing the main cause of deformation and failure of surrounding rocks in inclined shafts. In the process of practice production it brings good supporting effect through applying it in conducting roadway excavation, support technology. The roadway stability control can be achieved ultimately.%  伊犁一矿巷道围岩属于西部弱胶结软岩,具有强度低、胶结差等特性,应用岩石物理力学测试结果,配合地应力空间分布情况,在分析该矿主斜井围岩变形破坏的原因的基础上,提出了“适度让压、强化支护、耦合变形、主被动支护相结合、关键部位补强”的新支护理念,通过该支护理念指导巷道开挖、支护工艺,在实践生产过程中取得了良好的支护效果,最终实现了巷道的稳定性控制。

  6. Use of a charge-injection technique to improve performance of the Soft X-ray Imager aboard ASTRO-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata, E-mail: kumiko@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsuru, Takeshi Go [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nobukawa, Masayoshi [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nagino, Ryo [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Natsukari, Chikara [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tomida, Hiroshi; Kimura, Masashi [ISS Project Science Office, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Yamauchi, Makoto; Mori, Koji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Nishioka, Yusuke [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kohmura, Takayoshi [Physics Department, Kogakuin University, 2665-1, Nakano-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); and others

    2014-11-21

    We are developing the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system to be deployed onboard the ASTRO-H satellite. Using an engineering model system in which design specifications were the same as those of the flight model, we measured charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) and the effects of charge trailing. The CCD was irradiated with monochromatic X-rays produced by a radio isotope ({sup 55}Fe) and X-ray generator using alpha particles from {sup 241}Am. We used four targets for the X-ray generator: (C{sub 2}F{sub 4}){sub n}, SiO{sub 2}, Ti, and Ge. Since CTI degrades energy resolution, we adopted the charge-injection technique to the SXI. With this technique, injected charges fill traps, and subsequent signal charges are transferred with less loss of charge. However, the charge-injection technique can cause positional variations in gain on the CCD chip. Thus, we constructed a method for correcting CTI. We also evaluated the charge trailing effect and tested a method for correcting its effects. After applying these corrections to charge injection, variations in gain improved from 0.5% to 0.1% over the CCD chip, and the energy resolution (FWHM) improved from ∼220eV to ∼180eV at 5.9 keV. - Highlights: • We measured CTI and charge trailing in the energy band from <1keV to ∼10keV. • We developed a method for correcting CTI and charge trailing effects. • Our data with high statistics required exponential functions as CTI model. • After applying the corrections, the remaining positional variations over the CCD satisfy requirements for flight operations.

  7. Does the Papilla Preservation Flap Technique Induce Soft Tissue Modifications over Time in Endodontic Surgery Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Francetti, Luca; Perondi, Isabella; Corbella, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present controlled clinical trial was to compare 2 incision techniques, papilla base incision (PBI) and sulcular incision (IS), evaluating changes in papilla and recession height over a 12-month period. A total of 24 subjects requiring endodontic surgery on a single tooth were enrolled. PBI was used in 1 group and IS in the other group. The primary outcomes were changes in gingival recession of the tooth affected by periapical lesions and the mesial and distal teeth and the mesial and distal papilla height using the treated tooth as the reference. Outcome variables were assessed at baseline and 12 months after the surgical intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by a blinded operator through appropriate tests, with significance set at a P value equal to .05. In the PBI group, the papilla height at the 12-month follow-up in the mesial and distal aspect decreased 0.10 ± 0.32 mm and 0.10 ± 0.32 mm, respectively, and 0.23 ± 0.68 mm and 0.25 ± 0.40 mm, respectively, in the IS group without any significant differences. There were no differences found for recession change values between groups. The PBI and IS approaches in endodontic surgery showed similar results in terms of papilla height preservation and recession changes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CHARACTER BASED WEIGHTED SUPPORT THRESHOLD ALGORITHM USING MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.T.Christopher

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An association rule technique generally used to generate frequent itemsets from databases and generates association rules by considering each item in the datasets. However, the values of items are different in many aspects in a number of real applications, such as retail marketing, network log, etc. The difference between items makes a strong impact on the decision making in these applications.Therefore, traditional Association Rule Mining(ARM cannot meet the demands arising from these applications. In this paper a new approach is introduced for computing profit weight of an item and generating frequent itemsets by minimum support threshold. The profit or theimportance of the items in the itemsets is computed, based on the item subjective measures of characteristic through the proposed Global Profit Weight (GPW algorithm using multi criteria decision making technique to improve the quality of output.

  9. Clustering technique-based least square support vector machine for EEG signal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuly; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng Paul

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach called clustering technique-based least square support vector machine (CT-LS-SVM) for the classification of EEG signals. Decision making is performed in two stages. In the first stage, clustering technique (CT) has been used to extract representative features of EEG data. In the second stage, least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is applied to the extracted features to classify two-class EEG signals. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, several experiments have been conducted on three publicly available benchmark databases, one for epileptic EEG data, one for mental imagery tasks EEG data and another one for motor imagery EEG data. Our proposed approach achieves an average sensitivity, specificity and classification accuracy of 94.92%, 93.44% and 94.18%, respectively, for the epileptic EEG data; 83.98%, 84.37% and 84.17% respectively, for the motor imagery EEG data; and 64.61%, 58.77% and 61.69%, respectively, for the mental imagery tasks EEG data. The performance of the CT-LS-SVM algorithm is compared in terms of classification accuracy and execution (running) time with our previous study where simple random sampling with a least square support vector machine (SRS-LS-SVM) was employed for EEG signal classification. We also compare the proposed method with other existing methods in the literature for the three databases. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can produce a better classification rate than the previous reported methods and takes much less execution time compared to the SRS-LS-SVM technique. The research findings in this paper indicate that the proposed approach is very efficient for classification of two-class EEG signals.

  10. Preparation of A-type zeolite membranes on nonporous metal supports by using electrophoretic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Aisheng; LIU Jie; LI Yanshuo; LIN Yuesheng; YANG Weishen

    2004-01-01

    A-type zeolite membranes were prepared onthe nonporous metal supports by using electrophoretic tech-nique. The as-synthesized membranes were characterized byXRD and SEM. The effect of the applied potential on theformation of the A-type zeolite membrane was investigated,and the formation mechanism of zeolite membrane in theelectric field was discussed. The results showed that thenegative charged zeolite particles could migrate to the anodemetal surface homogenously and rapidly under the action ofthe applied electric field, consequently formed uniform anddense membranes in short time. The applied potential hadgreat effect on the membrane formation, and more uniformand denser zeolite membranes were prepared on the non-porous metal supports with 1 V potential.

  11. Sweet potato for closed ecological life support systems using the nutrient film technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Lu, J. Y.; Ogbuehi, C. R. A.; Mortley, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique (NFT) in support of the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program. Experiments in the greenhouse with the TI-155 sweet potato cultivar produced up to 1790 g/plant of fresh storage roots. Studies with both TI-155 and Georgia Jet cultivars resulted in an edible biomass index of approximately 60 percent, with edible biomass linear growth rates of 12.1 to 66.0 g m(exp -2)d(exp -1) in 0.05 to 0.13 sq meters in 105 to 130 days. Additional experimental results are given. All studies indicate good potential for sweet potatoes in CELSS.

  12. Preparation of microcapsule-supported palladium catalyst using SPG (Shirasu Porous Glass) emulsification technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Liu; Xiu Juan Feng; De Cai Bao; Kai Xiao Li; Ming Bao

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of microcapsule-supported palladium catalyst was described.The highly monodisperse crosslinked polystyrene microcapsules containing phosphine ligand were synthesized by the self-assembling of phase separated polymer(SaPSeP)method using diphenyl(4-vinylphenyl)phosphine and divinylbenzene as a monomer and crosslinking agent,respectively,and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile(AIBN)as an initiator within the droplets of oil-in-water(O/W)emulsions,which were prepared by using the Shirasu Porous Glass(SPG)membrane emulsification technique.The prepared microcapsule-supported palladium catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for Heck reaction and can be reused several times without loss of activity.

  13. Modelling and validation of particle size distributions of supported nanoparticles using the pair distribution function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamez-Mendoza, Liliana; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Martinez-Inesta, Maria

    2017-04-13

    The particle size of supported catalysts is a key characteristic for determining structure–property relationships. It is a challenge to obtain this information accurately andin situusing crystallographic methods owing to the small size of such particles (<5 nm) and the fact that they are supported. In this work, the pair distribution function (PDF) technique was used to obtain the particle size distribution of supported Pt catalysts as they grow under typical synthesis conditions. The PDF of Pt nanoparticles grown on zeolite X was isolated and refined using two models: a monodisperse spherical model (single particle size) and a lognormal size distribution. The results were compared and validated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results. Both models describe the same trends in average particle size with temperature, but the results of the number-weighted lognormal size distributions can also accurately describe the mean size and the width of the size distributions obtained from STEM. Since the PDF yields crystallite sizes, these results suggest that the grown Pt nanoparticles are monocrystalline. This work shows that refinement of the PDF of small supported monocrystalline nanoparticles can yield accurate mean particle sizes and distributions.

  14. Soft-x-ray-induced ionization and fragmentation dynamics of Sc3N @C80 investigated using an ion-ion-coincidence momentum-imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Obaid, Razib; Fang, Li; Bomme, Cédric; Kling, Nora G.; Ablikim, Utuq; Petrovic, Vladimir; Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea E.; Li, Heng; Bilodeau, Rene C.; Wolf, Thomas; Osipov, Timur; Rolles, Daniel; Berrah, Nora

    2017-09-01

    The fragmentation dynamics of an endohedral fullerene, S c3N @C80 , after absorption of a soft-x-ray photon, has been studied with an ion-ion-coincidence momentum-imaging technique. Molecular inner-shell ionization at 406.5 eV, targeting the Sc (2 p ) shell of the encapsulated S c3N moiety and the C (1 s ) shell of the C80 cage, leads to the cage fragmentation through evaporation of C2, emission of small molecular carbon ions (Cn+ , n ≤24 ), and release of Sc and Sc-containing ions associated with the carbon cage opening or fragmentation. The predominant charge states of Sc and Sc-containing ionic fragments are +1 despite an effective Sc valence of 2.4, indicating that charge transfer or redistribution plays an important role in the fragmentation of the encaged S c3N . Sequential emission of two out of the three Sc atoms of the encaged moiety, via Coulomb explosion in the form of S c+ or Sc-containing ions, is significant. We also find that the resonant excitation of the Sc (2 p ) shell electrons significantly increased the yield of the parent S c3N @C80 and its fragment ions, partially attributed to the collision of the energetic Auger electrons from the Sc site with the carbon cage.

  15. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  16. Projection of climate change impacts on precipitation using soft-computing techniques: A case study in Zayandeh-rud Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestani, Shapour; Eslamian, Sayed Saeid; Abedi-Koupai, Jahangir; Besalatpour, Ali Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Due to the complexity of climate-related processes, accurate projection of the future behavior of hydro-climate variables is one of the main challenges in climate change impact assessment studies. In regression-based statistical downscaling processes, there are different sources of uncertainty arising from high-dimensionality of atmospheric predictors, nonlinearity of empirical and quantitative models, and the biases exist in climate model simulations. To reduce the influence of these sources of uncertainty, the current study presents a comprehensive methodology to improve projection of precipitation in the Zayandeh-Rud basin in Iran as an illustrative study. To reduce dimensionality of atmospheric predictors and capture nonlinearity between the target variable and predictors in each station, a supervised-PCA method is combined with two soft-computing machine-learning methods, Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM). Three statistical transformation methods are also employed to correct biases in atmospheric large-scale predictors. The developed models are then employed on outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multimodal dataset to project future behavior of precipitation under three climate changes scenarios. The results indicate reduction of precipitation in the majority of the sites in this basin threatening the availability of surface water resources in future decades.

  17. Differentiation of Salmonella enterica serovars and strains in cultures and food using infrared spectroscopic and microspectroscopic techniques combined with soft independent modeling of class analogy pattern recognition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männig, Annegret; Baldauf, Nathan A; Rodriguez-Romo, Luis A; Yousef, Ahmed E; Rodríguez-Saona, Luis E

    2008-11-01

    Detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food is often a tedious and time-consuming exercise. Developing rapid and cost-effective techniques for identifying pathogens to subspecies is critical for tracking causes of foodborne disease outbreaks. The objective of this study was to develop a method for rapid identification and differentiation of Salmonella serovars and strains within these serovars through isolation on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs), examination by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and microspectroscopy, and data analysis by multivariate statistical techniques. Salmonella serovars (Anatum, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Kentucky, Muenchen, and Typhimurium), most of which were represented by multiple strains, were grown in tryptic soy broth (24 h at 42 degrees C), diluted to 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml, and filtered using HGMFs. The membranes were incubated on Miller-Mallinson agar (24 h at 42 degrees C), and typical Salmonella colonies were sonicated in 50% acetonitrile and centrifuged. Resulting pellets were vacuum dried on a ZnSe crystal and analyzed using IR spectroscopy. Alternatively, the membranes containing Salmonella growth were removed from the agar, vacuum dried, and colonies were analyzed directly by IR microspectroscopy. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) models were developed from spectra. The method was validated by analyzing Salmonella-inoculated tomato juice, eggs, milk, and chicken. Salmonella serovars exhibited distinctive and reproducible spectra in the fingerprint region (1,200 to 900 cm(-1)) of the IR spectrum. SIMCA permitted distinguishing Salmonella strains from each other through differences in bacterial lipopolysaccharides and other membrane components. The model correctly predicted Salmonella in foods at serovar (100%) and strain (90%) levels. Isolation of Salmonella on HGMF and selective agar followed by IR spectroscopic analysis resulted in rapid and efficient isolation, identification, and differentiation of

  18. The Statistical Analysis Techniques to Support the NGNP Fuel Performance Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihn T. Pham; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and application of statistical analysis techniques to support the AGR experimental program on NGNP fuel performance. The experiments conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule. The tests are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in graphite blocks and the target quantity (fuel/graphite temperature) is regulated by the He-Ne gas mixture that fills the gap volume. Three techniques for statistical analysis, namely control charting, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, are implemented in the SAS-based NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) for automated processing and qualification of the AGR measured data. The NDMAS also stores daily neutronic (power) and thermal (heat transfer) code simulation results along with the measurement data, allowing for their combined use and comparative scrutiny. The ultimate objective of this work includes (a) a multi-faceted system for data monitoring and data accuracy testing, (b) identification of possible modes of diagnostics deterioration and changes in experimental conditions, (c) qualification of data for use in code validation, and (d) identification and use of data trends to support effective control of test conditions with respect to the test target. Analysis results and examples given in the paper show the three statistical analysis techniques providing a complementary capability to warn of thermocouple failures. It also suggests that the regression analysis models relating calculated fuel temperatures and thermocouple readings can enable online regulation of experimental parameters (i.e. gas mixture content), to effectively maintain the target quantity (fuel temperature) within a given range.

  19. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Lara; Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; Villacorta, Juan J; Raboso, Mariano

    2015-06-17

    Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation-based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to separate the person from the background, masking-to reduce the dimensions of images-and binarization-to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  20. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara del Val

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation—based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM to separate the person from the background, masking—to reduce the dimensions of images—and binarization—to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  1. Support from neurobiology for spiritual techniques for anxiety: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Kelley Raab

    2009-01-01

    Research in neurobiology supports use of spiritual techniques as a beneficial treatment for anxiety. Psychotherapy, including mindfulness CBT and meditation, has been shown to change brain structure. The amygdala-the brain structure responsible for processing emotion and anxiety-demonstrates plasticity, and the purpose of therapy may be to allow the cortex to establish more effective and efficient synaptic links with the amygdala. A main feature of spiritual approaches is changing one's focus of attention. Instead of worry, one focuses on peaceful thoughts, thoughts of helping others, etc. Research demonstrates that thought, meditation, and other manifestations of mind can alter the brain, sometimes in an enduring way. Few studies have addressed the neurobiological underpinnings of meditation. Limited evidence, however, suggests that brain changes occur during prolonged meditation and that meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system.

  2. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Lara; Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; Villacorta, Juan J.; Raboso, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation—based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to separate the person from the background, masking—to reduce the dimensions of images—and binarization—to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements. PMID:26091392

  3. Novel fabrication technique of hollow fibre support for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan; Droushiotis, Nicolas; Wu, Zhentao; Kelsall, Geoff; Li, K.

    In this work, a cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO)/nickel (Ni)-CGO hollow fibre (HF) for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which consists of a fully gas-tight outer electrolyte layer supported on a porous inner composite anode layer, has been developed via a novel single-step co-extrusion/co-sintering technique, followed by an easy reduction process. After depositing a multi-layers cathode layer and applying current collectors on both anode and cathode, a micro-tubular SOFC is developed with the maximum power densities of 440-1000 W m -2 at 450-580 °C. Efforts have been made in enhancing the performance of the cell by reducing the co-sintering temperature and improving the cathode layer and current collection from inner (anode) wall. The improved cell produces maximum power densities of 3400-6800 W m -2 at 550-600 °C, almost fivefold higher than the previous cell. Further improvement has been carried out by reducing thickness of the electrolyte layer. Uniform and defect-free outer electrolyte layer as thin as 10 μm can be achieved when the extrusion rate of the outer layer is controlled. The highest power output of 11,100 W m -2 is obtained for the cell of 10 μm electrolyte layer at 600 °C. This result further highlights the potential of co-extrusion technique in producing high quality dual-layer HF support for micro-tubular SOFC.

  4. An innovative technique to distalize maxillary molar using microimplant supported rapid molar distalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, enhancements in implants have made their use possible as a mode of absolute anchorage in orthodontic patients. In this paper, the authors have introduced an innovative technique to unilaterally distalize the upper left 1 st molar to obtain an ideal Class I molar relationship from a Class II existing molar relationship with an indigenous designed distalizer. Clinical Innovation: For effective unilateral diatalization of molar, a novel cantilever sliding jig assembly was utilized with coil spring supported by a buccally placed single micro implant. The results showed 3 mm of bodily distalization with 1 mm of intrusion and 2° of distal tipping of upper left 1 st molar in 1.5 months. Discussion: This appliance is relatively easy to insert, well-tolerated, and requires minimal patient cooperation compared to other present techniques of molar distalization. Moreover, it is particularly useful in cases that are Class II on one side and Class I on the other, with a minor midline discrepancy and nominal overjet. Patient acceptance level was reported to be within patients physiological and comfort limits.

  5. Complications of tube thoracostomy using Advanced Trauma Life Support technique in chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribhogbe, P E; Uwuigbe, O

    2011-01-01

    Tube thoracostomy (TT) is central in the management of chest trauma sufficing in over 80% of cases. As a result the procedure is commonly performed in most emergency departments. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and complications of TT using Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) technique in chest trauma. This prospective study was done at the Trauma Unit of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. All patients with chest trauma who needed tube thoracostomy between February 2006 and February 2009 were studied. Data recorded for each patient included injury, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma score, revised trauma score, and indications for tube thoracostomy. Chest radiographs were obtained preinsertion, post insertion and post extubation for all the cases. Patients were monitored for tube thoracostomy complications. Of 9415 trauma patients seen during the period 105 patients had tube thoracostomy but only 70 (56 male, 14 female) had adequate data for analysis. Seventy-four tubes were passed in the 70 patients with unilateral tubes in 66 (94.3%) and bilateral tubes in 4 (5.7%). Blunt chest trauma occurred in 32 (45.7%) and penetrating chest trauma in 38 (54.3%) of the patients. Simple haemothorax and haemopneumothorax were the commonest indications for tube thoracostomy. Complications recorded include four cases of kinked tubes, four of superficial wound infection and 10 cases of residual haemothorax. Tube thoracostomy in the emergency department using advanced trauma life support principles is effective in chest trauma and associated with few complications.

  6. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  7. Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix for application of MALDI-MS for forensics. Soft-ionization to obtain protonated molecules of low molecular weight compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, Tetsu, E-mail: tetsu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asano, Takashi [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Metropolitan Police Department, 2-1-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8929 (Japan); Fujino, Tatsuya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishihara, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► MALDI-MS applications for drug identification in forensic science is investigated. ► Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrices strongly suppress the obstacle peaks of organic matrix compounds. ► Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrices also suppress the alkali adducted molecule peaks. ► Sugar units of cyclodextrins work for this specific features. - Abstract: A mass measurement technique for detecting low-molecular-weight drugs with a cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix was investigated. By using cyclodextrin-supported 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), the matrix-related peaks of drugs were suppressed. The peaks of protonated molecules of the sample and THAP were mainly observed, and small fragments were detected in a few cases. Despite the Na{sup +} and K{sup +} peaks were observed in the spectrum, Na{sup +} or K{sup +} adduct sample molecules were undetected, owing to the sugar units of cyclodextrin. The advantages of MALDI-MS with cyclodextrin-supported matrices as an analytical tool for forensic samples are discussed. The suppression of alkali adducted molecules and desorption process are also discussed.

  8. [Micro-tourniquet method: a substitute or supporting technique for aneurysm clipping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Makoto; Fujitsu, Kazuhiko; Kurashima, Yukiya; Noguchi, Norio; Takeda, Yukihiro; Ohnuki, Takahiro

    2004-07-01

    The micro-tourniquet method is designed as a substitute and/or supporting technique for obliterating aneurysms that are difficult to operate on using the conventional clipping technique. This method is useful for squeezing the aneurysm neck and making a detour around the neck to spare the branching vessels. These micro-tourniquet instruments are a ligature with both ends attached to a ligature guide, a guide holder, a silastic sheath, and a hemostatic clip or a small aneurysm clip set. The ligature is a 20cm long GORE-TEX suture CV-3, and is attached on both ends to a ligature guide. These ligature guides are made of 7mm wire, and are malleable enough to be bent intentionally during surgery. However, they are also rigid enough to be used as a micro dissector. The silastic sheath is made of a 20G infusion needle, and is cut to a length of 2cm. After branching vessels and perforators are dissected and spared with the aid of the ligature guide, the ligature is passed around the aneurysm neck, both ends of the ligature are passed through the sheath, the aneurysm neck is squeezed, and a clip is applied as a stopper on the ligatures adjacent to the distal end of the sheath. By gently displacing the distal end of the sheath, a conventional aneurysm clip is applied on the aneurysm neck just distal or proximal to the ligature on the neck. Then, the ligature is removed. Two demonstrable cases are presented and the usefulness of the micro-tourniquet method is discussed.

  9. Program planning for a community pharmacy residency support service using the nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    To define programmatic objectives and initial operational priorities for CommuniRes, a university-based education and support service designed to help community pharmacists successfully implement and sustain community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs). Advisory committee of nationally recognized experts in CPRPs in a small-group planning session. CPRPs are postgraduate clinical training experiences conducted in chain and independent community pharmacies. The nominal group technique (NGT), a structured approach to group planning and decision making, was used to identify and prioritize the needs of CPRPs. Results of the NGT exercise were used as input to a brainstorming session that defined specific CommuniRes services and resources that must be developed to meet high priority needs of CPRPs. Group consensus on the priority needs of CPRPs was determined through rank order voting. The advisory committee identified 20 separate CPRP needs that it believed must be met to ensure that CPRPs will be successful and sustainable. Group voting resulted in the selection of six needs that were considered to be consensus priorities for services and resources provided through CommuniRes: image parity for CPRPs; CPRP marketing materials; attractive postresidency employment opportunities; well-defined goals, objectives, and residency job descriptions; return on investment and sources of ongoing funding for the residency; and opportunities and mechanisms for communicating/networking with other residents and preceptors. The needs-based programmatic priorities defined by the advisory committee are now being implemented through a tripartite program consisting of live training seminars for CPRP preceptors and directors, an Internet site (www.communires.com), and a host of continuing support services available to affiliated CPRP sites. Future programmatic planning will increasingly involve CPRP preceptors, directors, and former residents to determine the ongoing needs of CPRPs.

  10. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2014-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships among the different members of this complex is a prerequisite for the rational application of sterile insect technique (SIT) approaches for population control. Colonies established in the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) (Seibersdorf, Vienna), representing five of the main economic important members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex were cytologically characterized. The taxa under study were B. dorsalis s.s., B. philippinensis, B. papayae, B. invadens and B. carambolae. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analyses did not reveal any chromosomal characteristics that could be used to distinguish between the investigated members of the B. dorsalis complex. Therefore, their polytene chromosomes can be regarded as homosequential with the reference maps of B. dorsalis s.s.. In situ hybridization of six genes further supported the proposed homosequentiallity of the chromosomes of these specific members of the complex. The present analysis supports that the polytene chromosomes of the five taxa under study are homosequential. Therefore, the use of the available polytene chromosome maps for B. dorsalis s.s. as reference maps for all these five biological entities is proposed. Present data provide important insight in the genetic relationships among the different members of the B. dorsalis complex, and, along with other studies in the field, can facilitate SIT applications targeting this complex. Moreover, the availability of 'universal' reference polytene chromosome maps for members of the complex

  11. Lipase immobilized by different techniques on various support materials applied in oil hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILMA MINOVSKA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch hydrolysis of olive oil was performed by Candida rugosa lipase immobilized on Amberlite IRC-50 and Al2O3. These two supports were selected out of 16 carriers: inorganic materials (sand, silica gel, infusorial earth, Al2O3, inorganic salts (CaCO3, CaSO4, ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-50 and IR-4B, Dowex 2X8, a natural resin (colophony, a natural biopolymer (sodium alginate, synthetic polymers (polypropylene, polyethylene and zeolites. Lipase immobilization was carried out by simple adsorption, adsorption followed by cross-linking, adsorption on ion-exchange resins, combined adsorption and precipitation, pure precipitation and gel entrapment. The suitability of the supports and techniques for the immobilization of lipase was evaluated by estimating the enzyme activity, protein loading, immobilization efficiency and reusability of the immobilizates. Most of the immobilizates exhibited either a low enzyme activity or difficulties during the hydrolytic reaction. Only those prepared by ionic adsorption on Amberlite IRC-50 and by combined adsorption and precipitation on Al2O3 showed better activity, 2000 and 430 U/g support, respectively, and demonstrated satisfactory behavior when used repeatedly. The hydrolysis was studied as a function of several parameters: surfactant concentration, enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. The immobilized preparation with Amberlite IRC-50 was stable and active in the whole range of pH (4 to 9 and temperature (20 to 50 °C, demonstrating a 99% degree of hydrolysis. In repeated usage, it was stable and active having a half-life of 16 batches, which corresponds to an operation time of 384 h. Its storage stability was remarkable too, since after 9 months it had lost only 25 % of the initial activity. The immobilizate with Al22O3 was less stable and less active. At optimal environmental conditions, the degree of hydrolysis did not exceed 79 %. In repeated usage, after the fourth batch, the degree of

  12. KGI-XGIS SUPPORTING DECISION MAKING WITH KNOWLEDGE-BASED TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the King George Island Expert GIS (KGI-XGIS) is introduced.KGI-XGIS is a combination of a rule-based expert system and a GIS meant to form anintelligent spatial decision support system.The system provides the spatial knowledge necessary for the environmental impact assessment process as dictated by the 'Madrid Protocol'for King George Island (South Shetland Islands,Antarctica).It also serves as information system to the scientific user community.Topographic maps,remote sensing data,thematic maps based on field surveys and other digital data these must be combined and usea in the most efficient way.Therefore expert knowledge of different dom ains will be coded into a rule-based expert system whichis coupled to the GIS .To handle the expert knowledge and the spatial data of different types and dirrerent quality the KGI-XGIS incorporates knowledge-based techniques and fuizzyreasoning.The selection of a camp site on the ice free area of Fildes Peninsula and data quality management are used as two examples to demonstrate the capabioities of the system

  13. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas;

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...

  14. Nanobiotechnology: soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Elisa; Pisignano, Dario

    2009-01-01

    An entirely new scientific and technological area has been born from the combination of nanotechnology and biology: nanobiotechnology. Such a field is primed especially by the strong potential synergy enabled by the integration of technologies, protocols, and investigation methods, since, while biomolecules represent functional nanosystems interesting for nanotechnology, micro- and nano-devices can be very useful instruments for studying biological materials. In particular, the research of new approaches for manipulating matter and fabricating structures with micrometre- and sub-micrometre resolution has determined the development of soft lithography, a new set of non-photolithographic patterning techniques applied to the realization of selective proteins and cells attachment, microfluidic circuits for protein and DNA chips, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering. Today, soft lithographies have become an asset of nanobiotechnology. This Chapter examines the biological applications of various soft lithographic techniques, with particular attention to the main general features of soft lithography and of materials commonly employed with these methods. We present approaches particularly suitable for biological materials, such as microcontact printing (muCP) and microfluidic lithography, and some key micro- and nanobiotechnology applications, such as the patterning of protein and DNA microarrays and the realization of microfluidic-based analytical devices.

  15. Soft Tissue Elasticity Measurement: Techniques, Instrument and Applications%生物组织弹性测量:技术、仪器和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永平; 黄燕平

    2011-01-01

    在临床上,可以通过用手触诊去感知某些组织的硬块来作出一些初步的诊断,例如乳腺癌的早期诊断.但是这种手触诊技术只能给出定性的结果,该结果依赖于操作者的经验,所以带有很大的主观性,于是能让诊断结果更加客观化的弹性成像和测量技术应运而生.弹性成像和弹性测量技术各有不同特点:弹性成像往往给出成像区域里面的弹性对比度而不必给出组织的本征参数;不同于弹性成像,弹性测量技术能给出组织弹性的本征参数例如杨氏模量等,有利于诊断某些弥漫性的组织疾病,例如肝硬化,并且跟踪组织的弹性随时间的变化情况,而且结果的比较不会受制于所使用的测量仪器.因此,伴随着各种医学成像技术,例如超声、核磁共振成像(MRI)和光学成像的广泛普及,针对活体组织的弹性测量学在最近的二三十年里得到了长足的发展,诞生了很多新的测量技术和仪器,并且部分已经开始用于临床测试.可以预见,随着这些测量技术的发展和进步还将有源源不断的新的测量技术诞生,将会有越来越多的临床领域开始尝试或者大力普及通过弹性测量的方法来补充现有的一些不太完善的诊断方法,或者用来评估治疗方法的有效性.本文尝试给读者介绍一些传统和近来出现的弹性测量的技术和系统,然后简要介绍它们在诊断特定组织病变和评估治疗方法疗效方面的应用,最后我们对此领域的未来研究方向和前景作一些展望.对于其中比较成熟的几种方法,我们会在这一期刊的随后几期作详细的介绍.%Clinically it is generally known that palpation can be used to detect the existence of hard lesion in soft tissues for a first-step diagnosis, such as the detection of breast cancer. However, palpation can only give qualitative results, which quite depend on the experience of the operator and suffer from diagnosis

  16. 高应力软岩巷道预留刚隙柔层支护技术%Technology of Rigid Gap Flexible Layer Support in High Stress Soft Rock Roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗吉安; 王连国; 侯化强; 卢小雨

    2012-01-01

    High stress soft rock is a kind of engineering soft rock that has low intensity and strong theology in high stress area. The de- formation characteristics demonstrated by boring in soft rock are very different from in hard rock. Rigid gap flexible layer support plays an important role in releasing roadway deformation energy effectively and controlling roadway deformation in the support of soft rock roadway in high stress area. The mechanism of rigid gap flexible layer support is researched in depth by analyzing the coupling relation- ship between rigid and flexible layers and interaction of support and surrounding rock in rigid gap flexible layer support. According to a- bove, the choice of materials and parameters in rigid gap flexible layer support is discussed in detail at last, which provides a reasona- ble design method reference for rigid gap flexible layer support of soft rock roadway in high stress area.%高应力软岩是一种在高应力环境下强度低、流变性强的的工程软岩体。在这些岩体中掘进巷道显示出来的变形特征与硬岩巷道截然不同。预留刚隙柔层支护在高应力软岩巷道支护工作中起到了有效释放巷道变形能量和控制巷道变形的作用。通过剖析预留刚隙柔层支护中的刚、柔层耦合关系以及耦合支护与围岩的相互作用,对预留刚隙柔层的支护机理做了深入的研究。据此,最后对预留刚隙柔层支护中材料及参数的选择方法给予详细的论述,为高应力软岩硐室的预留刚隙柔层支护提供了合理的设计方法参考。

  17. 基于混合建模技术的复合肥养分含量MIMO软测量模型%MIMO Soft-sensor Model of Nutrient Content for Compound Fertilizer Based on Hybrid Modeling Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅永峰; 苏宏业; 褚健

    2007-01-01

    In compound fertilizer production, several quality variables need to be monitored and controlled simultaneously. It is very difficult to measure these variables on-line by existing instruments and sensors. So, soft-sensor technique becomes an indispensable method to implement real-time quality control. In this article, a new model of multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO) soft-sensor, which is constructed based on hybrid modeling technique, is proposed for these interactional variables. Data-driven modeling method and simplified first principle modeling method are combined in this model. Data-driven modeling method based on limited memory partial least squares (LM-PLS) algorithm is used to build soft-senor models for some secondary variables; then, the simplified first principle model is used to compute three primary variables on line. The proposed model has been used in practical process; the results indicate that the proposed model is precise and efficient, and it is possible to realize on line quality control for compound fertilizer process.

  18. Effect of forming technique BixSiyOz coatings obtained by sol- gel and supported on 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Ruiz, J.; Olaya Flórez, J.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    BixSiyOz type coatings via sol-gel synthesized from bismuth nitrate pentahydrate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursors; glacial acetic acid and 2-ethoxyethanol as solvents, and ethanolamine as complexing. The coatings were supported on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate through dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The study showed that the spin-coating technique is efficient than dip-coating because it allows more dense and homogeneous films.

  19. 一种用于软组织变形仿真的支撑球弹簧模型%A SUPPORTING BALL-SPRING MODEL FOR SIMULATION OF SOFT TISSUE DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史双瑶; 沈建新; 梁春

    2013-01-01

    基于经典的质点弹簧模型原理,提出一种用于软组织变形仿真的物理模型——支撑球弹簧模型.定义一系列具有质量、惯性以及体积特征的六自由度弹性支撑球,贴近软组织面模型下表面排布,支撑球之间由弹簧连接,共同构成软组织的支撑骨架来控制软组织的整体变形.软组织面模型的网格节点通过独立的弹簧与支撑骨架相连,当支撑骨架发生变形时将带动整个软组织发生变形.将此模型运用到角膜变形仿真中,获得了快速、稳定的变形效果,可进一步用于角膜虚拟手术.理论与实践均表明,该模型简单实用,效果良好.%A supporting ball-spring model is proposed for the physics model of soft tissue simulation based on classic mass-spring model rationale. A set of 6 DOF elastic supporting balls defined with mass, inertia and volumetric properties are arranged pressing close to the lower surface of soft tissue whose centres are connected by a set of springs, they jointly compose a supporting skeleton of soft tissue to control the whole deformation of it. The mesh nodes of soft tissue surface model connect to the supporting skeleton through a number of individual springs. When the supporting skeleton deforms, the whole soft tissue will be brought to deformation as well. We have applied this model in the simulation of cornea deformation and acquired fast and stable deformation effect, which can be used in cornea virtual surgery. The model is verified to be simple and effective in both theory and practice.

  20. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  1. How well do test case prioritization techniques support statistical fault localization

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, TH; Jiang, B.; Zhang, Z; Chen, TY

    2009-01-01

    In continuous integration, a tight integration of test case prioritization techniques and fault-localization techniques may both expose failures faster and locate faults more effectively. Statistical fault-localization techniques use the execution information collected during testing to locate faults. Executing a small fraction of a prioritized test suite reduces the cost of testing, and yet the subsequent fault localization may suffer. This paper presents the first empirical study to examine...

  2. Supporting lander and rover operation: a novel super-resolution restoration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    Higher resolution imaging data is always desirable to critical rover engineering operations, such as landing site selection, path planning, and optical localisation. For current Mars missions, 25cm HiRISE images have been widely used by the MER & MSL engineering team for rover path planning and location registration/adjustment. However, 25cm is not high enough resolution to be able to view individual rocks (≤2m in size) or visualise the types of sedimentary features that rover onboard cameras might observe. Nevertheless, due to various physical constraints (e.g. telescope size and mass) from the imaging instruments themselves, one needs to be able to tradeoff spatial resolution and bandwidth. This means that future imaging systems are likely to be limited to resolve features larger than 25cm. We have developed a novel super-resolution algorithm/pipeline to be able to restore higher resolution image from the non-redundant sub-pixel information contained in multiple lower resolution raw images [Tao & Muller 2015]. We will demonstrate with experiments performed using 5-10 overlapped 25cm HiRISE images for MER-A, MER-B & MSL to resolve 5-10cm super resolution images that can be directly compared to rover imagery at a range of 5 metres from the rover cameras but in our case can be used to visualise features many kilometres away from the actual rover traverse. We will demonstrate how these super-resolution images together with image understanding software can be used to quantify rock size-frequency distributions as well as measure sedimentary rock layers for several critical sites for comparison with rover orthorectified image mosaic to demonstrate optimality of using our super-resolution resolved image to better support future lander and rover operation in future. We present the potential of super-resolution for virtual exploration to the ˜400 HiRISE areas which have been viewed 5 or more times and the potential application of this technique to all of the ESA Exo

  3. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  4. Soft Robotics: new perspectives for robot bodyware and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia eLaschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable advances of robotics in the last fifty years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others, but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more, is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control.The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation, and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments.

  5. Experimental study of a technique for load measurement of powered supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhu; Shirong Ge; Xiaolong Huang; Sumei Dai

    2004-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of mechanized coal mining, there are no convenient and accurate means available to measure the loads of powered supports. The measurement of such loads is important for monitoring mine pressure and ensuring production safety. The load-carrying features of a powered support were used to develop a method for load measurement using the magnetoelastic principle. A cross bridge-type magnetoelastic stress sensor was designed for the support structures to measure the different parts of the supports. Tests on single-body hydraulic cylinders and simulated linkages showed that an approximately linear relationship between the values of the sensor output signal and the loads borne by the hydraulic cylinders or linkages. The results were used to analyze the load-carrying measurements of powered supports with the cross bridge-type magnetoelastic stress sensor.

  6. ν-Anomica: A Fast Support Vector based Novelty Detection Technique

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we propose ν-Anomica, a novel anomaly detection technique that can be trained on huge data sets with much reduced running time compared to the...

  7. The value of remote sensing techniques in supporting effective extrapolation across multiple marine spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, James Asa; Elliott, Michael

    2017-03-15

    The reporting of ecological phenomena and environmental status routinely required point observations, collected with traditional sampling approaches to be extrapolated to larger reporting scales. This process encompasses difficulties that can quickly entrain significant errors. Remote sensing techniques offer insights and exceptional spatial coverage for observing the marine environment. This review provides guidance on (i) the structures and discontinuities inherent within the extrapolative process, (ii) how to extrapolate effectively across multiple spatial scales, and (iii) remote sensing techniques and data sets that can facilitate this process. This evaluation illustrates that remote sensing techniques are a critical component in extrapolation and likely to underpin the production of high-quality assessments of ecological phenomena and the regional reporting of environmental status. Ultimately, is it hoped that this guidance will aid the production of robust and consistent extrapolations that also make full use of the techniques and data sets that expedite this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. nu-Anomica: A Fast Support Vector Based Anomaly Detection Technique

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we propose $nu$-Anomica, a novel anomaly detection technique that can be trained on huge data sets with much reduced running time compared to the...

  9. The effect of PRF (platelet-rich fibrin) inserted with a split-flap technique on soft tissue thickening and initial marginal bone loss around implants: results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehn, Julia; Schwenk, Thomas; Striegel, Markus; Schlee, Markus

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that adequate thickness or initial augmentation of soft tissue has a positive effect on the stability of peri-implant bone. This randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the influence of augmenting soft tissue with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on crestal bone and soft tissue around implants. After randomization, 31 fully threaded titanium implants were inserted in 31 patients (16 men and 15 women) in the lower mandible using a split-flap technique. In the test group (10 patients), mucosa was treated with a PRF membrane. In the control group (21 patients), implantation was realized without soft tissue augmentation. Tissue thickness was measured at point of implant insertion (baseline) and at time of reentry after 3 months. Standardized digital radiographs were obtained for evaluation at time of implant placement, reentry after 3 months and at a 6-month follow-up. Data was analyzed by an independent examiner. After 6 months, all 31 implants were osteointegrated. Soft tissue augmentation with PRF led to a significant tissue loss. In the test group, the crestal tissue thickness dropped from 2.20 mm ± 0.48 SD at baseline to 0.9 mm ± 1.02 SD at reentry, whereas crestal mucosa in the control group showed higher stability (2.64 mm ± 0.48 SD at baseline to 2.62 mm ± 0.61 SD at reentry). For ethical reasons, the test group was terminated after 10 cases, and the remaining cases were finished within the control group. In the test group, radiographic evaluation showed a mean bone loss of 0.77 mm ± 0.42 SD/0.57 mm ± 0.44 SD (defect depth/defect width) on the mesial side and 0.82 mm ± 0.42 SD/0.62 mm ± 0.36 SD (defect depth/defect width) on the distal side. In the control group, a mean bone loss of 0.72 mm ± 0.61 SD/0.51 mm ± 0.48 mm (defect depth/defect width) on the mesial and 0.82 mm ± 0.77 SD/ 0.57 mm ± 0.58 SD (defect depth /defect width) on the distal side was

  10. Simulations as a guidance to support and optimize experimental techniques for ultrasonic non-destructive testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Delrue, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In today's rapidly growing industrial world where the requirement of reliability is increasing day by day and where newer and advanced materials are being introduced on a large scale, non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques have a very important role to play. The goal of NDT methodologies and techniques is to detect the presence of damage and inclusions, and to image components or structures to find defect locations, without destroying the material. Among the variety of non-destructive tes...

  11. Surface modification of zirconia with polydopamine to enhance fibroblast response and decrease bacterial activity in vitro: A potential technique for soft tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Zhou, Jianfeng; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Miao; Yang, Jianjun; Tan, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The quality of soft-tissue integration plays an important role in the short- and long-term success of dental implants. The aim of the present study was to provide a surface modification approach for zirconia implant abutment materials and to evaluate its influence on fibroblast behavior and oral bacteria adhesion, which are the two main factors influencing the quality of peri-implant soft-tissue seal. In this study, polydopamine (PDA)-coated zirconia was prepared and the surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, a contact-angle-measuring device, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The responses of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to PDA-coated zirconia; i.e., adhesion, proliferation, morphology, protein synthesis, and gene expression, were analyzed. Additionally, the adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans to zirconia after PDA coating was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and live/dead staining. The material surface analyses suggested the successful coating of PDA onto the zirconia surface. The PDA coating significantly increased cell adhesion and proliferation compared with pristine zirconia. HGFs exhibited a high degree of spreading and secreted a high level of collagen type I on PDA-modified disks. Upregulation of integrin α5, β1, β3 and fibronectin was noted in HGFs cultured on PDA-coated zirconia. The number of adherent bacteria decreased significantly on zirconia after PDA coating. In summary, our result suggest that PDA is able to modify the surface of zirconia, influence HGFs' behavior and reduce bacterial adhesion. Therefore, this surface modification approach holds great potential for improving soft-tissue integration around zirconia abutments in clinical application.

  12. Trans-syndesmotic fibular plating for fractures of the distal tibia and fibula with medial soft tissue injury: report of 6 cases and description of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciadini, Marcus F; Manson, Theodore T; Shah, Swapnil B

    2013-03-01

    This report presents a retrospective review of several cases of distal fractures of the tibia and fibula with significant injury to the medial soft tissues treated either primarily or in staged fashion with fixed-angle trans-syndesmotic fixation. This fixation strategy was used in an effort to minimize further surgical trauma and implant load in the zone of soft tissue injury. Ten patients were identified between September 2002 and November 2010 who presented to a level I trauma center with fractures of the distal tibia and fibula associated with open medial wounds (9 patients) or extensive closed medial degloving injury (1 patient). They were all treated with trans-syndesmotic plating of the distal fibula. Two patients were lost to follow-up after initial treatment, and an additional 2 patients had follow-up durations of only 6.5 and 3 months, respectively. This left 6 patients with an average of 23.3 months of follow-up (range: 14-36 months). Radiographs and medical records were reviewed, and clinical and radiographic results were evaluated. All 6 patients had radiographic evidence of bony healing and had resumed weight bearing. Two patients required additional bone graft surgery to encourage healing, 1 of whom also required free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair. One patient resumed weight bearing earlier than instructed and experienced mild but acceptable loss of reduction. No patients developed wound infections of either the medial traumatic or lateral surgical wounds, although, as noted above, 1 of the patients with a nonunion required medial free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair because of incompetent medial soft tissues. Trans-syndesmotic fixation has previously been described as providing enhanced fixation of diabetic and osteoporotic ankle fractures but has not, to our knowledge, been described for the treatment of higher energy traumatic injuries. Specifically, the valgus distal tibial fracture, frequently associated

  13. Self-Healing and Damage Resilience for Soft Robotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adam Bilodeau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in soft robotics will be crucial to the next generation of robot–human interfaces. Soft material systems embed safety at the material level, providing additional safeguards that will expedite their placement alongside humans and other biological systems. However, in order to function in unpredictable, uncontrolled environments alongside biological systems, soft robotic systems should be as robust in their ability to recover from damage as their biological counterparts. There exists a great deal of work on self-healing materials, particularly polymeric and elastomeric materials that can self-heal through a wide variety of tools and techniques. Fortunately, most emerging soft robotic systems are constructed from polymeric or elastomeric materials, so this work can be of immediate benefit to the soft robotics community. Though the field of soft robotics is still nascent as a whole, self-healing and damage resilient systems are beginning to be incorporated into three key support pillars that are enabling the future of soft robotics: actuators, structures, and sensors. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in damage resilience and self-healing materials and devices as applied to these three pillars. This review also discusses future applications for soft robots that incorporate self-healing capabilities.

  14. A robust localized soft sensor for particulate matter modeling in Seoul metro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-03-15

    Developing accurate soft sensors to predict and monitor the indoor air quality (IAQ) of hazardous pollutants that accumulate in underground metro systems is of key importance. The just-in-time (JIT) learning technique possesses a local feature that can track the variations in the dynamic process more effectively, which is different from the traditional soft sensor modeling methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), which models the process in an offline and global way. In this study, a robust soft sensor that combined the JIT learning technique with a least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) method, named JIT-LSSVR, was derived in order to improve the prediction performance of a PM2.5 soft sensor in a subway station. Additionally, in order to eliminate the adverse effects caused by the outliers in the process variables, an outlier detection step was integrated into the JIT-LSSVR modeling procedure. The performance evaluation results demonstrated that the proposed robust JIT-LSSVR soft sensor has the capability to model nonlinear and dynamic subway systems. The root mean square error of the JIT-LSSVR soft sensor was improved by 55% in comparison with that of the LSSVR soft sensor.

  15. Using Data Mining Techniques to Support Value Management Workshops in Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qiping; GUO Jianfeng; ZHANG Jianping; LIU Guiwen

    2008-01-01

    Problem-solving processes in value management (VM) workshops in the construction industry are experience-based, and the quality of these workshops depends very much on the experience of the team members. The efficiency and effectiveness of VM workshops can be improved by better reusing the experi-ence of previous VM cases and field knowledge. This paper describes a new approach to facilitate VM workshops in the construction industry using data mining (DM) techniques. The feasibility of integrating DM techniques with VM workshops in the construction industry is demonstrated in case studies. Examples are presented to illustrate different methods of applying DM tools in VM workshops. The results show that DM techniques can help team members in VM workshops to understand their problems more clearly and to generate more ideas for current problems.

  16. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  17. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  18. On CDR Synthetic Technique in Soft- switch Monitor System%软交换监测系统中的CDR合成技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仁明; 朱福成

    2012-01-01

    The signaling monitor system is the best powerful tool of maintaining soft -switch network and analytical telephone traffic. The synthesis of call recording CDR is the basis for telephone tragic analysis and is the core technolo- gy of the monitoring system. In this paper, the soft -switched networks is involved in the network protocol, studied the synthesis of CDR, and discussed the CDR of the association and removing reliability, respectively.%信令监测系统是做好软交换网络的维护支撑及话务分析工作的有力工具。呼叫记录CDR的合成,是进行话务分析的基础,是整个监测系统的核心技术。该文针对软交换网络中所涉及的有关网络协议,分别研究了其CDR合成技术,并探讨了CDR的关联和去重问题。

  19. Adapted Framework for Data Mining Technique to Improve Decision Support System in an Uncertain Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bahgat El Seddawy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support System (DSS is equivalent synonym as management information systems (MIS. Most of imported data are being used in solutions like data mining (DM. Decision supporting systems include also decisions made upon individual data from external sources, management feeling, and various other data sources not included in business intelligence. Successfully supporting managerial decision-making is critically dependent upon the availability of integrated, high quality information organized and presented in a timely and easily understood manner. Data mining have emerged to meet this need. They serve as anintegrated repository for internal and external data-intelligence critical to understanding and evaluating the business within its environmental context. With the addition of models, analytic tools, and user interfaces, they have the potential to provide actionable information that supports effective problem and opportunity identification, critical decision-making, and strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The proposed system will support top level management to make a good decision in any time under any uncertain environment.

  20. Adapted Framework for Data Mining Technique to Improve Decision Support System in an Uncertain Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hmed Bahgat El Seddawy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support System (DSS is equivalent synonym as management information systems (MIS. Most of imported data are being used in solutions like data mining (DM. Decision supporting systems include also decisions made upon individual data from external sources, management feeling, and various other data sources not included in business intelligence. Successfully supporting managerial decision-making is critically dependent upon the availability of integrated, high quality information organized and presented in a timely and easily understood manner. Data mining have emerged to meet this need. They serve as anintegrated repository for internal and external data-intelligence critical to understanding and evaluating the business within its environmental context. With the addition of models, analytic tools, and user interfaces, they have the potential to provide actionable information that supports effective problem and opportunity identification, critical decision-making, and strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The proposed system will support top level management to make a good decision in any time under any uncertain environment.

  1. Soft and Ultra-soft Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, William; Burdynska, Joanna; Kirby, Sam; Zhou, Yang; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei; UNC-MIRT Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric networks are attractive engineering materials utilized for various mechanically demanding applications. As such, much attention has been paid to reinforcement of polymer mechanical properties with little interest in how to make softer elastomers to address numerous biomedical applications including implants and cell differentiation. Without swelling in a solvent, it is challenging to obtain materials with a modulus below ca.105 Pa, which is dictated by chain entanglements. Here we present two methodologies for the creation of soft and ultra-soft dry elastomeric compounds. The first method utilizes polymer capsules as temperature responsive filler. Depending on volume fraction of microcapsules this method is capable of fine tuning modulus within an order of magnitude. The second technique uses the densely grafted molecular brush architecture to create solvent-free polymer melts and elastomers with plateau moduli in the range one hundred to ten hundred Pa. Such compounds may find uses in biomedical applications including reconstructive surgery and cell differentiation. National Science Foundation DMR-1122483.

  2. Supportive techniques and devices for endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nobuyuki Sakurazawa Shunji Kato Itsuo Fujita Yoshikazu Kanazawa Hiroyuki Onodera Eiji Uchida

    2012-01-01

    ... improved.However,even with these innovations,ESD remains a potentially complex procedure.One of the major difficulties is poor visualization of the submucosal layer resulting from the poor countertraction afforded during submucosal dissection.Recently,countertraction devices have been developed.In this paper,we introduce countertraction techniques and devices mainly for gastric cancer.

  3. Calculating with concepts: a technique for the development of business process support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco M.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Joosten, Stef M.M.; Evans, Andy

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the Calculating with Concepts (CC) technique, which has been developed to improve the precision of UML class diagrams and allows the formal reasoning based on these diagrams. This paper aims at showing the industrial benefits of using such a formal and rigorous approach to reas

  4. Using technique vibration diagnostics for assessing the quality of power transmission line supports repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpakov Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The considered method for assessing the quality of the repair work to restore the rack supports of transmission lines is based on the method of vibration diagnostics. Power transmission line supports with a symmetrical destruction of the protective layer of concrete in the ground in violation of the construction section were chosen as an object. Finite element modelling package Ansys was used in assessing the quality of repair work. The example of evaluating the quality of repair using the relative adhesion defective area design criteria in the analysis of natural vibration frequencies is given.

  5. Patterning Luminescent Nanocrystalline LaPO4 : Eu and CePO4 : Tb Particles Embedded in Hybrid Organosilica with Soft-Lithographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid U. Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+-doped LaPO4 and Tb3+-doped CePO4 luminescent nanoparticles embedded in hybrid organosilica were patterned by two soft lithographic techniques. The role of various parameters such as solution chemistry, thermal protocols, and modification of the mold-substrate surface energies related to pattern shape formation and adhesion to the substrates have been studied. The shrinkage of the oxide patterns and shape evolution during the process was also examined. The patterns were characterized with optical and photoluminescence (PL microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Compositional analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, low-energy ion scattering (LEIS, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS. The results indicated that the final patterns obtained with these two techniques for the same material have different shapes and adherence to the substrates.

  6. 整形外科技术在面部软组织损伤急诊处理中的应用%Clinical application of plastic surgery techniques in emergency treatment of facial soft tissue injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师军涛; 秦宏伟; 王新征

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨整形外科技术在面部软组织损伤急诊处理中应用的临床效果,以及最大限度地恢复患者面部形态及功能的整形外科方法.方法 回顾性分析2009年6月至2011年6月收治的798例面部软组织创伤患者,采用整形外科技术,根据具体伤情设计不同修复方法,严格遵守无菌无创原则,进行清创、创面修复、皮瓣修复等治疗.结果 790例患者术后Ⅰ期愈合,8例伴有轻微瘢痕,随访6个月至1年,无感染、坏死、明显瘢痕等并发症发生,面部形态及功能恢复良好.结论 在面部软组织损伤急诊处理时,尽早应用整形外科技术进行Ⅰ期修复,避免创面自然愈合后发生畸形及功能障碍,无需Ⅱ期手术整形.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application and effect of plastic surgery in emergency treatment of facial soft tissue injuries,and to explore the better plastic surgery method for facial soft tissue injuries in order to regain the patient facial morphology and function maximally.Methods The clinical data of 798 patients with facial soft tissue injuries from June 2009 to June 2011 were analyzed retrospectively.And plastic surgical techniques were applied to the early treatment of facial soft tissue injuries in this group cases,according to the size of defect and the degree of deformity of the patient,different plastic surgery treatment was chosen,such as skin flap or skin graft to repair wound surfaces.In this process,one must follow sterile noninvasive principle strictly with emphasis on the technique of plastic surgery such as entire debridement,wound healing application of skin flap and so on.Results 790 cases of facial soft tissue injuries were healed by first intention without significant complications,while 8 cases of them had mild scars.During 6 to 12 months of follow-up,neither scar,nor infections and necrosis of the wound region occurred,and the morphology and function of patients' face recovered well without the

  7. Enhancing User Support in Open Problem Solving Environments through Bayesian Network Inference Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselios, Nikolaos; Stoica, Adrian; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Avouris, Nikolaos; Komis, Vassilis

    2006-01-01

    During the last years, development of open learning environments that support effectively their users has been a challenge for the research community of educational technologies. The open interactive nature of these environments results in users experiencing difficulties in coping with the plethora of available functions, especially during their…

  8. Using Animation to Support the Teaching of Computer Game Development Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark John; Pountney, David C.; Baskett, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential use of animation for supporting the teaching of some of the mathematical concepts that underlie computer games development activities, such as vector and matrix algebra. An experiment was conducted with a group of UK undergraduate computing students to compare the perceived usefulness of animated and static…

  9. Research to support sterile-male-release and genetic alteration techniques for sea lamprey control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, review the current understanding of SMRT efficacy, and identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of the SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application. Key areas for additional research are in the sterilization process, effects of skewed sex ratios on mating behavior, enhancing attractiveness of sterilized males, techniques for genetic alteration of sea lampreys, and sources of animals to enhance or expand the use of sterile lampreys.

  10. A Technique for Producing Large Dual-Layer Pellets in Support of Disruption Mitigation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Leachman, J. W. [Washington State University; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A special single-shot pellet injection system that produces and accelerates large cryogenic pellets (~16 mm diameter and composed of D2 or Ne) to relatively high speeds (>300 and 600 m/s, respectively) was previously developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, a similar system was installed on DIII-D and used successfully in disruption mitigation experiments. To circumvent some operational issues with injecting the large Ne pellets, a technique has been developed in which a relatively thin layer (0.1 to 1.0 mm) of D2 is frozen on the inner wall of the pipe-gun barrel, followed by filling the core with solid Ne. The technique and the initial laboratory tests are described, as well as the implementation and operational issues for fusion experiments.

  11. A Bloom Filter-Powered Technique Supporting Scalable Semantic Discovery in Data Service Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Shi, R.; Bao, Q.; Lee, T. J.; Ramachandran, R.

    2016-12-01

    More and more Earth data analytics software products are published onto the Internet as a service, in the format of either heavyweight WSDL service or lightweight RESTful API. Such reusable data analytics services form a data service network, which allows Earth scientists to compose (mashup) services into value-added ones. Therefore, it is important to have a technique that is capable of helping Earth scientists quickly identify appropriate candidate datasets and services in the global data service network. Most existing services discovery techniques, however, mainly rely on syntax or semantics-based service matchmaking between service requests and available services. Since the scale of the data service network is increasing rapidly, the run-time computational cost will soon become a bottleneck. To address this issue, this project presents a way of applying network routing mechanism to facilitate data service discovery in a service network, featuring scalability and performance. Earth data services are automatically annotated in Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S) based on their metadata, semantic information, and usage history. Deterministic Annealing (DA) technique is applied to dynamically organize annotated data services into a hierarchical network, where virtual routers are created to represent semantic local network featuring leading terms. Afterwards Bloom Filters are generated over virtual routers. A data service search request is transformed into a network routing problem in order to quickly locate candidate services through network hierarchy. A neural network-powered technique is applied to assure network address encoding and routing performance. A series of empirical study has been conducted to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. The behavior of implant-supported dentures and abutments using the cemented cylinder technique with different resinous cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Aparecida de Mathias Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the behavior of implant-supported dentures and their components, made by cemented cylinder technique, using threetypes of resin cements. Methods: Fifty three patients, of whom 26 were women and 27 men, aged between 25 and 82 years. Results: With partial (54.43% and total (45.57% implant-supported dentures, of the Cone Morse, external and internal hexagon types (Neodent®, Curitiba, Brazil, totaling 237 fixations, were analyzed. The resin cements used were Panavia® (21.94%, EnForce® (58.23% and Rely X® (19.83% and the components were used in accordance with the Laboratory Immediate Loading - Neodent® sequence. The period of time of denture use ranged between 1 and 5 years. The results reported that 5(2.1% cylinders were loosened from metal structure (both belonging to Rely X group, 2(0.48% implants were lost after the first year of use, 16(6.75% denture retention screws wereloosened and 31(13.08% abutment screws were unloosened.Conclusion: The reasons for these failures probably are: metal structure internal retention failure, occlusal pattern, cementation technique and loading conditions. The cemented cylinder technique was effective when used in partial and total implant-supported rehabilitations, keeping prosthetic components stable, despite the resin cement utilized. However, further clinical studies must be conducted.

  13. [Imaging techniques in the preoperative diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. A comparison of MRT, CT, sonography, angiography and conventional x-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeren, T; Gindele, A; Grosspietsch, C; Dueck, M; Kauffmann, G W

    1992-12-01

    In a study on 51 patients with histologically confirmed soft tissue tumors (STT), we retrospectively evaluated the preoperative use of imaging procedures (MRI, CT, ultrasound, angiography, plain film) for identification of tumor size, delineation, and determination of malignancy and tissue type. The findings were correlated with intraoperative findings and histological diagnosis. The overall diagnostic method of choice for preoperative imaging of STT is MRI, followed by CT. Ultrasound, although sensitive, lacks the required specificity. Angiography and plain film can only be used for specific indications, as they generally do not make it possible to stage the tumor. Combining our results with those from the more recent literature, we propose a diagnostic algorithm according to which MRI would generally be performed for preoperative staging of STT. CT and plain film should only be used if bony infiltration is suspected; angiography is indicated for planning intraarterial chemotherapy or embolization or if vascular infiltration is probable.

  14. 1种基于遗失数据重构的软测量方法%Soft-sensor technique within the framework of missing data reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆华

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of missing data reconstruction, the paper proposes a novelty soft-sensor method:firstly, principal component model for all the variables is set up offline using principal component analysis (PCA), secondly, during field application, the real-time variables to be estimated are regarded as missing data and are estimated by missing data reconstruction. Due to these, the novelty method is more flexible than those traditional soft-sensor methods. Furthermore, when we reconstruct missing data, Euclidian distance is taken place by Mahalanobis distance which can reflect the more exact relationship among process variables, so the value by software sensor using the index can be more accurate.%提出1种遗失数据重构思想下的软测量方法:先采用主元分析(PCA)离线建立所有变量(包括难测变量)的主元模型,实际应用时,将实时的难测变量看作遗失数据,通过遗失数据重构方法估计出难测变量,增加了软测量方法的灵活性.更进一步,在重构遗失数据时,使用马氏距离取代欧几里德距离作为指标,更准确地反映了过程变量之间的相关关系,由此指标求取软测量值能够大大地改善估计精度.

  15. Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Support Vector Machine in digital image processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Hari Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of computer technologies and the ad-vent of the World Wide Web have increased the amount and the complexity of multimedia information. A content-based image retrieval (CBIR system has been developed as an ef-ficient image retrieval tool, whereby the user can provide their query to the system to allow it to retrieve the user’s desired image from the image database. However, the tradi-tional relevance feedback of CBIR has some limitations that will decrease the performance of the CBIR system, such as the imbalance oftraining-set problem, classification prob-lem, limited information from user problem, and insuffi-cient trainingset problem. Therefore, in this study, we pro-posed an enhanced relevance-feedback method to support the user query based on the representative image selection and weight ranking of the images retrieved. The support vector machine (SVM has been used to support the learn-ing process to reduce the semantic gap between the user and the CBIR system. From these experiments, the proposed learning method has enabled users to improve their search results based on the performance of CBIR system. In addi-tion, the experiments also proved that by solving the imbal-ance training set issue, the performance of CBIR could be improved.

  16. Detection of citrus canker and Huanglongbing using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and support vector machine technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Caio Bruno; Felipe de Oliveira Neves, Ruan; Belasque, José; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo

    2016-01-10

    Citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB) are citrus diseases that represent a serious threat to the citrus production worldwide and may cause large economic losses. In this work, we combined fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) and a machine learning technique to discriminate between these diseases and other ordinary citrus conditions that may be present at citrus orchards, such as citrus scab and zinc deficiency. Our classification results are highly accurate when discriminating citrus canker from citrus scab (97.8%), and HLB from zinc deficiency (95%). These results show that it is possible to accurately identify citrus diseases that present similar symptoms.

  17. Emergency response nurse scheduling with medical support robot by multi-agent and fuzzy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Shinya; Kitamura, Akira

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new co-operative re-scheduling method corresponding the medical support tasks that the time of occurrence can not be predicted is described, assuming robot can co-operate medical activities with the nurse. Here, Multi-Agent-System (MAS) is used for the co-operative re-scheduling, in which Fuzzy-Contract-Net (FCN) is applied to the robots task assignment for the emergency tasks. As the simulation results, it is confirmed that the re-scheduling results by the proposed method can keep the patients satisfaction and decrease the work load of the nurse.

  18. Retrieval technique for full-arch implant-supported fixed prosthesis: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simamoto-Júnior, Paulo César; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Neves, Flávio Domingues; Dantas, Talita Souza; Naves, Lucas Zago

    2015-02-01

    In the event of the loss of an implant and to take advantage of the preexisting structures, a rescue procedure that allows continuous use of the original fixed restoration during the restoration of the tripod support at the implant level can be used. When nonphysiological occlusion forces are avoided, the success rate of this rescue procedure is very similar to any other rehabilitation made following a conventional protocol. Furthermore, the fact that the patient has already adapted to the prosthesis position and its vertical dimension results in easier functional adaptation in the postoperative period and, consequently, greater comfort.

  19. How Soft Power Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    China Security, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2009), p. 37; Maiko Ichihara, “Making the Case for Soft Power,” SAIS Review, Vol. 26, 4 |Vuving H o w s o f t p o w...behavior signals that you are putting other people‟s interests before your own. The opposite of benignity is harmfulness, aggressiveness, and egoism ...by “beauty” (the resonance of shared norms and purposes). In some cases , it is the benignity of actual nonintervention and political support from

  20. Generalization of Soft Neutrosophic Rings and Soft Neutrosophic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend soft neutrosophic rings and soft neutrosophic fields to soft neutrosophic birings, soft neutrosophic N-rings and soft neutrosophic bifields and soft neutrosophic N-fields. We also extend soft neutrosophic ideal theory to form soft neutrosophic biideal and soft neutrosophic N-ideals over a neutrosophic biring and soft neutrosophic N-ring. We have given examples to illustrate the theory of soft neutrosophic birings, soft neutrosophic N-rings and soft neutrosophic fields and soft neutrosophic N-fields and display many properties of these.

  1. Alternative technique for implantation of biventricular support with HeartWare implantable continuous flow pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabatsch, Thomas; Stepanenko, Alexander; Schweiger, Martin; Kukucka, Marian; Ewert, Peter; Hetzer, Roland; Potapov, Evgenij

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a modification of the biventricular implantation of the HeartWare HVAD. A 28-year-old man with dilative cardiomyopathy presented with biventricular decompensation. The patient underwent implantation of two HeartWare HVADs for biventricular support. Because of low flow of the right pump (2 L/min), a right ventricular angiogram and repeated transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were done and showed that the pump was compressing the right ventricle. Operative revision was performed, resulting in removal of the right pump and placement into the right atrium, so that it was located in the right pleural cavity. The HVAD fixation ring on the free wall of the right ventricle was left in place, and the opening was closed with an individually designed titanium plug. The findings of this case are that implantation of the HeartWare HVAD for right ventricular (RV) support may be safely performed in atrial position, with individually designed plugs allowing safe and quick removal of the HeartWare pump. This might be used as a "bail-out" strategy when necessary.

  2. Using Elearning techniques to support problem based learning within a clinical simulation laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Charles; Hoy, Derek; Topp, Helena; Trinder, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the results of the first phase of a project that used eLearning to support students' learning within a simulated environment. The locus was a purpose built Clinical Simulation Laboratory (CSL) where the School's newly adopted philosophy of Problem Based Learning (PBL) was challenged through lecturers reverting to traditional teaching methods. The solution, a student-centred, problem-based approach to the acquisition of clinical skills was developed using learning objects embedded within web pages that substituted for lecturers providing instruction and demonstration. This allowed lecturers to retain their facilitator role, and encouraged students to explore, analyse and make decisions within the safety of a clinical simulation. Learning was enhanced through network communications and reflection on video performances of self and others. Evaluations were positive, students demonstrating increased satisfaction with PBL, improved performance in exams, and increased self-efficacy in the performance of nursing activities. These results indicate that an elearning approach can support PBL in delivering a student centred learning experience.

  3. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  4. Effect of kaolin particle size and loading on the characteristics of kaolin ceramic support prepared via phase inversion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khadijah Hubadillah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, low cost ceramic supports were prepared from kaolin via phase inversion technique with two kaolin particle sizes, which are 0.04–0.6 μm (denoted as type A and 10–15 μm (denoted as type B, at different kaolin contents ranging from 14 to 39 wt.%, sintered at 1200 °C. The effect of kaolin particle sizes as well as kaolin contents on membrane structure, pore size distribution, porosity, mechanical strength, surface roughness and gas permeation of the support were investigated. The support was prepared using kaolin type A induced asymmetric structure by combining macroporous voids and sponge-like structure in the support with pore size of 0.38 μm and 1.05 μm, respectively, and exhibited ideal porosity (27.7%, great mechanical strength (98.9 MPa and excellent gas permeation. Preliminary study shows that the kaolin ceramic support in this work is potential to gas separation application at lower cost.

  5. 软组织贴扎技术预防及治疗踝关节扭伤的临床应用进展%Progress in Application of Soft Tissue Taping Techniques for Ankle Sprains (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴松; 余波; 陈文华

    2015-01-01

    踝关节扭伤临床极为常见,如处理不当很容易再次扭伤,甚至发展成慢性踝关节不稳,影响人们的日常生活与运动。本文对以肌内效贴为代表的软组织贴扎技术预防及治疗踝关节扭伤的临床应用进展进行综述。作为一种非侵入性治疗手段,软组织贴扎技术可缓解踝关节扭伤症状,稳定关节,改善功能,预防踝关节扭伤反复发作,值得临床进一步研究与应用。%The ankle sprain is very common in clinic. It will be sprained again if it is not handled properly, and even develop into chron-ic ankle instability which will affect people's daily life and exercise. This paper discussed the soft tissue techniques, especially kinesio tap-ing, applied for ankle sprain in clinical. As a non-invasive therapy, soft tissue taping can relieve the symptoms of ankle sprains, stable ankle, improve ankle function and prevent recurrent ankle sprain, which is worthy of further research and application.

  6. Application of Different Statistical Techniques in Integrated Logistics Support of the International Space Station Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process to predict the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle cost spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability, and maintenance support costs. It is the objective of this report to identify the magnitude of the expected enhancement in the accuracy of the results for the International Space Station reliability and maintainability data packages by providing examples. These examples partially portray the necessary information hy evaluating the impact of the said enhancements on the life cycle cost and the availability of the International Space Station.

  7. Intelligent Adaptation and Personalization Techniques in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Demetriadis, Stavros; Xhafa, Fatos

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation and personalization have been extensively studied in CSCL research community aiming to design intelligent systems that adaptively support eLearning processes and collaboration. Yet, with the fast development in Internet technologies, especially with the emergence of new data technologies and the mobile technologies, new opportunities and perspectives are opened for advanced adaptive and personalized systems. Adaptation and personalization are posing new research and development challenges to nowadays CSCL systems. In particular, adaptation should be focused in a multi-dimensional way (cognitive, technological, context-aware and personal). Moreover, it should address the particularities of both individual learners and group collaboration. As a consequence, the aim of this book is twofold. On the one hand, it discusses the latest advances and findings in the area of intelligent adaptive and personalized learning systems. On the other hand it analyzes the new implementation perspectives for intelligen...

  8. Correlation technique and least square support vector machine combine for frequency domain based ECG beat classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Saibal; Chatterjee, Amitava; Munshi, Sugata

    2010-12-01

    The present work proposes the development of an automated medical diagnostic tool that can classify ECG beats. This is considered an important problem as accurate, timely detection of cardiac arrhythmia can help to provide proper medical attention to cure/reduce the ailment. The proposed scheme utilizes a cross-correlation based approach where the cross-spectral density information in frequency domain is used to extract suitable features. A least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier is developed utilizing the features so that the ECG beats are classified into three categories: normal beats, PVC beats and other beats. This three-class classification scheme is developed utilizing a small training dataset and tested with an enormous testing dataset to show the generalization capability of the scheme. The scheme, when employed for 40 files in the MIT/BIH arrhythmia database, could produce high classification accuracy in the range 95.51-96.12% and could outperform several competing algorithms.

  9. Operator functional state classification using least-square support vector machine based recursive feature elimination technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed two psychophysiological-data-driven classification frameworks for operator functional states (OFS) assessment in safety-critical human-machine systems with stable generalization ability. The recursive feature elimination (RFE) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) are combined and used for binary and multiclass feature selection. Besides typical binary LSSVM classifiers for two-class OFS assessment, two multiclass classifiers based on multiclass LSSVM-RFE and decision directed acyclic graph (DDAG) scheme are developed, one used for recognizing the high mental workload and fatigued state while the other for differentiating overloaded and base-line states from the normal states. Feature selection results have revealed that different dimensions of OFS can be characterized by specific set of psychophysiological features. Performance comparison studies show that reasonable high and stable classification accuracy of both classification frameworks can be achieved if the RFE procedure is properly implemented and utilized.

  10. PSO-based support vector machine with cuckoo search technique for clinical disease diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyong; Fu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Disease diagnosis is conducted with a machine learning method. We have proposed a novel machine learning method that hybridizes support vector machine (SVM), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and cuckoo search (CS). The new method consists of two stages: firstly, a CS based approach for parameter optimization of SVM is developed to find the better initial parameters of kernel function, and then PSO is applied to continue SVM training and find the best parameters of SVM. Experimental results indicate that the proposed CS-PSO-SVM model achieves better classification accuracy and F-measure than PSO-SVM and GA-SVM. Therefore, we can conclude that our proposed method is very efficient compared to the previously reported algorithms.

  11. PSO-Based Support Vector Machine with Cuckoo Search Technique for Clinical Disease Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease diagnosis is conducted with a machine learning method. We have proposed a novel machine learning method that hybridizes support vector machine (SVM, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and cuckoo search (CS. The new method consists of two stages: firstly, a CS based approach for parameter optimization of SVM is developed to find the better initial parameters of kernel function, and then PSO is applied to continue SVM training and find the best parameters of SVM. Experimental results indicate that the proposed CS-PSO-SVM model achieves better classification accuracy and F-measure than PSO-SVM and GA-SVM. Therefore, we can conclude that our proposed method is very efficient compared to the previously reported algorithms.

  12. Extended telemedical consultation using Arden Syntax based decision support, hypertext and WWW technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, D; Ekdahl, C; Wigertz, O; Shahsavar, N; Gill, H; Forsum, U

    1997-02-01

    There is an obvious need for geographic distribution of expert knowledge among several health care units without increasing the cost of on-site expertise in locations where health care is provided. This paper describes the design of a knowledge-based decision-support system for extended consultation in clinical medicine. The system is based on Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules and hypertext using World Wide Web technology. It provides advice and explanations regarding the given advice. The explanations are presented in a hypertext format allowing the user to browse related information and to verify the relevance of the given advice. The system is intended to be used in a closed local network. With special precautions regarding issues of safety and patient security, the system can be used over wider areas such as in rural medicine. A prototype has been developed in the field of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases regarding infective endocarditis.

  13. The LUPIN detector supporting least intrusive beam monitoring technique through neutron detection

    CERN Document Server

    Manessi, G P; Welsch, C; Caresana, M; Ferrarini, M

    2013-01-01

    The Long interval, Ultra-wide dynamic Pile-up free Neutron rem counter (LUPIN) is a novel detector initially developed for radiation protection purposes, specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields. The detector has a measurement capability varying over many orders of neutron burst intensity, from a single neutron up to thousands of interactions for each burst, without showing any saturation effect. Whilst LUPIN has been developed for applications in the radiation protection fields, its unique properties make it also well suited to support other beam instrumentation. In this contribution, the design of LUPIN is presented in detail and results from measurements carried out in different facilities summarize its main characteristics. Its potential use as beam loss monitor (BLM) and complementary detector for non-invasive beam monitoring purposes (e.g. to complement a monitor based on proton beam “halo” detection) in medical accelerators is then examined. In the context of its application...

  14. MULTI-VIEW FACE DETECTION BASED ON KERNEL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND KERNEL SUPPORT VECTOR TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Detecting faces across multiple views is more challenging than in a frontal view. To address this problem,an efficient approach is presented in this paper using a kernel machine based approach for learning suchnonlinear mappings to provide effective view-based representation for multi-view face detection. In thispaper Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA is used to project data into the view-subspaces thencomputed as view-based features. Multi-view face detection is performed by classifying each input imageinto face or non-face class, by using a two class Kernel Support Vector Classifier (KSVC. Experimentalresults demonstrate successful face detection over a wide range of facial variation in color, illuminationconditions, position, scale, orientation, 3D pose, and expression in images from several photo collections.

  15. Neutronics experiments, radiation detectors and nuclear techniques development in the EU in support of the TBM design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Flammini, D. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Jodlowski, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Klix, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kodeli, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kuc, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Leichtle, D. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lilley, S. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Majerle, M.; Novák, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Ostachowicz, B. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Packer, L.W. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pillon, M. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Pohorecki, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Radulović, V. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šimečková, E. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A number of experiments and tests are ongoing to develop detectors and methods for HCLL and HCPM ITER-TBM. • Experiments for measuring gas production relevant to IFMIF are also performed using a cyclotron. • A benchmark experiment with a Cu block is performed to validate copper cross sections. • Experimental techniques to measure tritium in TBM are presented. • Experimental verification of activation cross sections for a Neutron Activation System for TBM is addressed. - Abstract: The development of high quality nuclear data, radiation detectors and instrumentation techniques for fusion technology applications in Europe is supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E) and conducted in a joint and collaborative effort by several European research associations (ENEA, KIT, JSI, NPI, AGH, and CCFE) joined to form the “Consortium on Nuclear Data Studies/Experiments in Support of TBM Activities”. This paper presents the neutronics activities carried out by the Consortium. A selection of available results are presented. Among then a benchmark experiment on a pure copper block to study the Cu cross sections at neutron energies relevant to fusion, the fabrication of prototype neutron detectors able to withstand harsh environment and temperature >200 °C (artificial diamond and self-powered detectors) developed for operating in ITER-TBM as well as measurement of relevant activation and integral gas production cross-sections. The latter measured at neutron energies relevant to IFMIF (>14 MeV) and the development of innovative experimental techniques for tritium measurement in TBM.

  16. On soft topological space via semiopen and semiclosed soft sets

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces semiopen and semiclosed soft sets in soft topological spaces. The notions of interior and closure are generalized using these sets. A detail study is carried out on properties of semiopen, semiclosed soft sets, semi interior and semi closure of a soft set in a soft topological space. Various forms of soft functions, like semicontinuous, irresolute, semiopen soft functions are introduced and characterized. Further soft semicompactness,soft semiconnectedness and soft semiseparation axioms are introduced and studied.

  17. Application of a soft computing technique in predicting the percentage of shear force carried by walls in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Two new soft computing models, namely genetic programming (GP) and genetic artificial algorithm (GAA) neural network (a combination of modified genetic algorithm and artificial neural network methods) were developed in order to predict the percentage of shear force in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness. The ability of these methods to estimate the percentage of shear force was investigated. Moreover, the independent parameters' effectiveness in predicting the percentage of shear force was determined using sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the GP model demonstrated superior performance to the GAA model. A comparison was also made between the GP program determined as the best model and five equations obtained in prior research. The GP model with the lowest error values (root mean square error ((RMSE) of 0.0515) had the best function compared with the other equations presented for rough and smooth channels as well as smooth ducts. The equation proposed for rectangular channels with rough boundaries (RMSE of 0.0642) outperformed the prior equations for smooth boundaries.

  18. New operational techniques of implantation of biomaterials and titanium implants in the jaw with the atrophy of the bone and soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakov, A. L.; Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Baimurzin, D. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The research into dynamics of quality of clinical use in 2003 - 2012 of autologous and xenogeneic biomaterials at dental transplantation and implantation among 1,100 of adult patients was made. The analysis results show that at autologous bone transplantation implant survival is observed only in 72% of cases, and the "necessary" result of bone repair occurred only in 6 - 9 months. Transplantation of biomaterials of OsteoBiol® (materials "mp3", "Genos" and "Evolution") provided engraftment and bone regeneration in 100 % of cases and allowed the use of dental implantation immediately after transplantation even in case of reduction in the patient's alveolar crest down to 2.0 mm. Replace Select implants of Nobel Biocare® were used at plantation. In order to exclude Schneiderian membrane's perforation lighting of Highmore's sinus with the cold blue-violet light from inside at sinus elevation is recommended as well as deepening of dental instruments into the bone only until the blue-violet light appears under them. To exclude deficiency of soft tissue under the cervical part of the ceramic crown application of special anti-fissure technology involving biomaterial flap dissection and its laying around the implant is suggested.

  19. Novel husbandry techniques support survival of naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhonghe; Vaidya, Amita; Ascher, Jill; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole rat (NMR) is a small eusocial rodent. Because of its remarkable longevity (maximal lifespan, 32 y) and resistance to cancer, the NMR has emerged as a valuable model for aging and cancer research. However, breeding NMR can be difficult. Here, we report the successful introduction and acceptance of pups into a foreign colony with existing pups of different ages. Among the 7 NMR colonies in our satellite facility, one had a consistently poor record of pup viability, with nearly 100% preweaning mortality in multiple litters born over the course of 2 y. The queen of this colony gave birth to 18 pups in January 2013; by 2 d after parturition, it was evident that the pups were not receiving sufficient nourishment. To salvage the litter, the most vigorous pups were cross-fostered to another queen that had recently given birth. On postparturition day 1 (PD1), two pups from the poorly nourished donor litter were bathed with warm water, rolled in recipient colony bedding, and transferred to the recipient colony, which included 8 PD14 pups. The new pups were accepted by the recipient queen, who continued to produce milk in response to suckling by the donor pups well past the weaning of her own litter. This case report provides evidence of successful cross-fostering of NMR pups despite age differences between donor pups and those in the recipient litter; this technique may prove beneficial to researchers struggling with NMR breeding issues.

  20. Accelerator-based techniques for the support of senior-level undergraduate physics laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Clark, J. C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.

    2001-07-01

    Approximately three years ago, Auburn University replaced its aging Dynamitron accelerator with a new 2MV tandem machine (Pelletron) manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). This new machine is maintained and operated for the University by Physics Department personnel, and the accelerator supports a wide variety of materials modification/analysis studies. Computer software is available that allows the NEC Pelletron to be operated from a remote location, and an Internet link has been established between the Accelerator Laboratory and the Upper-Level Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory in the Physics Department. Additional software supplied by Canberra Industries has also been used to create a second Internet link that allows live-time data acquisition in the Teaching Laboratory. Our senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students perform a number of experiments related to radiation detection and measurement as well as several standard accelerator-based experiments that have been added recently. These laboratory exercises will be described, and the procedures used to establish the Internet links between our Teaching Laboratory and the Accelerator Laboratory will be discussed.

  1. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  2. Use of atom probe techniques to support thermodynamic and atomistic modelling of phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andren, Hans-Olof

    2003-07-25

    Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) gives accurate data on phase composition for all elements and has a good sensitivity and excellent spatial resolution. APFIM data have therefore been used as support for thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria and phase transformations. This paper describes a number of cases where atom probe data from Chalmers University have been used to judge the accuracy of modelling: the solubility of W and C in Co, the equilibrium volume fraction of VN in a complex chromium steel, the content of B in M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates, the growth of Laves phase during ageing of a chromium steel, and the growth of secondary NbC precipitates in a stabilised austenitic stainless steel. Atomistic modelling is now emerging as a tool for materials science, in particular for modelling of interfacial structure and energies. The status of the activities in this field at Chalmers University is described, and the role of APFIM in atomistic modelling is discussed.

  3. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  4. Study of Soft Sensor Modeling Based on Improved FIR Filter and Least Squares Support Vector Machines%基于改进LS-SVM的制粉出力软测量建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯磊华; 桂卫华; 杨锋

    2012-01-01

    针对火电厂双进双出钢球磨煤机制粉出力较难直接测量的问题,拟建立其最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)模型实现软测量.由于LS-SVM算法缺乏“稀疏性”,采用经Remez算法优化后的FIR数字滤波器与LS-SVM相结合,形成一种新的软测量建模方法-FIR-LSS-VM.仿真结果表明,经Remez优化后的FIR滤波效果更好.将该软测量方法应用于火电厂双进双出钢球磨煤机直吹式制粉系统,通过现场实验对比可知,改进的软测量模型学习速度较快且误差较小,更加适用于在线学习.%According to the problem that mill output of direct fired system with duplex inlet and outlet ball pulverizer in power plant is difficult to by direct measured, this paper proposes a soft sensor method based on the least squares support vector machines ( LS-SVM ) methods. Because of the lack of sparseness, LS-SVM is combined with optimized FIR by Remez algorithm to form a new soft sensor modeling method FIR-LSSVM. Simulation results show that the optimization effect is better. Lastly-FIR-LSSVM is used to establish the soft sensor model of mill output of direct fired system with duplex inlet and outlet ball pulverizer in power plant. The field tests show that the learning speed of FIR-LSSVM is faster and the error is smaller which indicates that FIR-LSSVM is better suitable for online learning.

  5. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  6. 中华鳖产品种类及主要加工技术研究现状%Research status of processing techniques of Chinese soft-shelled turtle products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王扬; 张海琪; 周凡; 李诗言; 陆炜

    2014-01-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtle is a kind of traditional food with high nutritional values and various health-giving effects, which is rich in protein, essential amino acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), trace elements and B vitamins, folic acid and other active substances. It can improve human immunity, promote metabolism, and enhance the ability of resistance, anti-aging effect and so on. With the rapid development of aquaculture industry, the output of Chinese soft-shelled turtle increases dramatically, so it has the important meaning of processed products to improve product added value and promote industrial development. This paper introduced the main processed products of Chinese soft-shelled turtle and their processing techniques, so as to provide insights for its development and comprehensive utilization. By some processing techniques, such as cooking, freeze-dried, fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis, the fresh turtle could be produced many types of food, such as wine, beverage, polypeptide and ready-to-eat products. It was important to make full use of whole turtle body oil, shell, bone,etc, to promote industrial development.%中华鳖富含蛋白质、人体必需氨基酸、二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)、微量元素和 B族维生素、叶酸等活性物质,具有提高人体免疫力、促进新陈代谢、增强抗病能力、延缓衰老等功效,是中国传统的滋补强身珍品,有较高的营养和药用价值。而今随着养鳖业的迅猛发展,养殖产量越来越多,甲鱼加工产品对提高产品附加值、促进产业发展具重要意义。本文介绍了目前中华鳖加工主要产品及其加工工艺,为其开发与综合利用提供思路。将鲜活甲鱼通过蒸煮、冻干、发酵、酶解等加工工艺,制成冻干粉、酒、饮料、多肽产品和即食产品等类型的食品,其全身油、壳、骨等有待进一步充分利用。

  7. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF THREE SOFT TISSUE MANIPULATION TECHNIQUES ON PAIN RESPONSE AND FLEXIBILITY IN CHRONIC PLANTAR FASCIITIS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu B.Pattanshetty

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Plantar fasciitis is a common foot disorder in which patients have pain and tenderness at the sole of the foot. Rest, exercises, orthotics, taping, cryotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrical stimulation, whirlpool bath, and iontophoresis have been widely used to relieve plantar pain. Long term use of manual therapy techniques like myofascial release technique, positional release therapy and passive stretching have been used in the past to reduce pain and improve ankle range of motion. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the immediate effectiveness of myofascial release technique, positional release therapy and passive stretching on pain response and ankle flexibility in chronic plantar fasciitis. Material and methodology: A total of 60 participants with chronic plantar fasciitis were randomly allocated to Group A (myofascial release group and Group B (positional release group and Group C (passive stretching. Therapeutic ultrasound with intensity of 1W/cm2 and frequency of 1MHz for 5 min was given for a single session to all the patients and then given the manual techniques. Visual analogue scale, range of motion of the ankle were outcome measures that were assessed pre- and immediately post-interventional. Results: The study demonstrated statistical significant reduction in pain, in all three groups (p<0.0001. Ankle range of motion showed significant improvement in Group A (MFR. Group C (passive stretching demonstrated significant improvement (p=0.001 as compared to Group B (PRT. Conclusion: All three manual techniques with therapeutic ultrasound were effective in immediate relief of pain and improving ankle range of motion in subjects with chronic plantar fasciitis.

  8. Discussion of the Rock Classification and Selection of Support Parameters for a Soft Rock Tunnel with Large Deformation%软岩大变形隧道围岩分级及支护参数适宜性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武建广; 朱洪莹

    2012-01-01

    Tunnels located in soft rock such as slate and carbonaceous slate are susceptible to large deformations, and this is true of the Lanzhou-Guangyuan section of the Lanzhou-Chongqing railway. Based on site practice and experiments, this paper analyzes the specific geological characteristics of this section and introduces the classification of the tunnel'surrounding rock and design alternatives during construction, with a focus on the standard for classification and support parameter selection process of tunnels in soft rock with large deformation.%兰渝线兰广段通过板岩、碳质板岩等软岩区段的隧道极易发生大变形.在现场工程实践和试验的基础上,文章对该区段地质条件的特殊性进行了分析,并对目前隧道围岩基本分级及在施工过程中的设计变更修正进行了阐述,着重对软岩大变形隧道的围岩分级标准和选用支护参数的适宜性进行了探讨,以期能为今后同类工程提供参考和借鉴.

  9. Research on the Prediction of Soft Soil Foundation Settlement Based on Artificial Bee Colony Support Vector Machines%基于ABC-SVM的软基沉降预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施俊; 高正夏; 徐嵚嵛

    2016-01-01

    沉降预测一直是地基工程的一个重点研究项目.软土具有天然含水量高、塑性指数大、黏粒含量高等特殊的工程特性,因此,建立在软土上的地基沉降难以预测,对于工程建设有一定的隐患.支持向量机在解决样本数量小、非线性问题上有其特有的优势.利用人工蜂群算法对支持向量机的参数进行优化后建立SVM模型,对木兰溪防洪工程的沉降问题进行预测,将其预测结果与传统的支持向量机模型以及曲线拟合预测方法结果进行对比.最终证明了ABC-SVM模型在软基沉降预测上的可用性.%The prediction of the settlement is always an important research topic in foundation engineering. Soft soil has engineering features of high moisture content,high plastic exponent and high clay content,so it is hard to predict the settlement of soft soil foundation which is dangerous to the engineering construction. The support vector machines are good at dealing with problems that are nonlinear and have little sample size. We use artificial bee colony to optimize the selection of support vector machines'parameters to build SVM model. And the model is used to predict the settlement of flood control project in Mulan stream. The predicting outcomes are used to comparing with the traditional support vector machines and the curve-fitting method's outcomes. It turns out the usability of the ABC-SVM in the prediction of soft soil foundation.

  10. The balanced two-string technique for sulcus intraocular lens implantation in the absence of capsular support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hesham A; Sabry, Heba Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe and explore an alternative approach for sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the absence of capsular support. Methods. The commonly available one-piece poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) lens is stabilized in the sulcus by two intraocular horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene suture passed through the lens dialing holes in opposite directions to achieve a mechanical balance. The horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene work as a rail track for the IOL optics, allowing some side to side lens adjustment even following wound closure. The stability of the IOL was tested in vitro. Six aphakic patients underwent in-sulcus IOL secondary implantation using the balanced two-string technique. Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. Best spectacle corrected vision was assessed. Lens centration and lens tilt were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Results. All patients had successful lens insertion. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) improved in all patients. Lens decentration ranged between 0.21 mm and 0.9 mm (average 0.53 mm). Lens tilt ranged between 1.2° and 2.8° (average 2.17°). Conclusion. The mechanically balanced two-string technique is an alternative option for sulcus IOL implantation in absence of capsular support, allowing lens centration adjustment with no additional risks.

  11. The Balanced Two-String Technique for Sulcus Intraocular Lens Implantation in the Absence of Capsular Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe and explore an alternative approach for sulcus intraocular lens (IOL implantation in the absence of capsular support. Methods. The commonly available one-piece poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA lens is stabilized in the sulcus by two intraocular horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene suture passed through the lens dialing holes in opposite directions to achieve a mechanical balance. The horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene work as a rail track for the IOL optics, allowing some side to side lens adjustment even following wound closure. The stability of the IOL was tested in vitro. Six aphakic patients underwent in-sulcus IOL secondary implantation using the balanced two-string technique. Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. Best spectacle corrected vision was assessed. Lens centration and lens tilt were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results. All patients had successful lens insertion. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA improved in all patients. Lens decentration ranged between 0.21 mm and 0.9 mm (average 0.53 mm. Lens tilt ranged between 1.2° and 2.8° (average 2.17°. Conclusion. The mechanically balanced two-string technique is an alternative option for sulcus IOL implantation in absence of capsular support, allowing lens centration adjustment with no additional risks.

  12. Soft tissue tumours: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institute Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Klijanienko, Jerzy [Institute Curie, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Vascular tumours and malformations, fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumours and pseudotumours are the most common benign soft-tissue masses observed in children, and can be treated conservatively. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumours, accounting for about half of soft tissue sarcomas. A child referred for a soft-tissue mass should ideally be managed by a multidisciplinary team and primary excision should be proscribed until a definite diagnosis has been established. Clinical examination, conventional radiography and US with Doppler represent the first-line examinations and are sometimes sufficient to make a diagnosis. In all other situations, MRI is mandatory to establish the aggressiveness and extension of the tumour. This technique provides the relevant data to guide the decision regarding tissue sampling. (orig.)

  13. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2008-01-19

    Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since many large scale parallel scientific applications use iterative linear algebra methods, the soft error vulnerability of these methods constitutes a large fraction of the applications overall vulnerability. Many users consider these methods invulnerable to most soft errors since they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show in this paper that iterative methods are vulnerable to soft errors, exhibiting both silent data corruptions and poor ability to detect errors. Further, we evaluate a variety of soft error detection and tolerance techniques, including checkpointing, linear matrix encodings, and residual tracking techniques.

  14. Laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction technique: a support for authentication of an unknown Ghirlandaio painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, E.; Benedetti, D.; Massardi, A.; Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2008-07-01

    Europe has a very rich and diversified cultural heritage of art works, including buildings, monuments and objects of all sizes, involving a great variety of materials. The continuous discovery of new art works opens the problem of their authentication. Advanced analytical techniques can be fundamental to understand the way of life, the culture and the technical and intellectual know-how of the artists. Indeed, the authentication of an art work involves the identification of the used materials, their production techniques and procedures used for the work realization. It is possible to know the origin and provenance of materials, including the location of the natural sources. Advanced analytical techniques also help one to understand degradation processes, corrosion, weathering, and preservation-conservation protocols. In this paper we present a painting attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Ghirlandaio is a well-known artist of fifteenth century who contributes to the apprenticeship of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The study of the pigments used in this painting, which belongs to a private collection, has been supported mainly by means of laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD2). The possibility to obtain information about not only the phase, but also microstructure allows one to extract interesting consideration and to obtain evidence of the painter’s style and intention.

  15. Soft nanotechnology: "structure" vs. "function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M; Lipomi, Darren J

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a perspective on "soft nanotechnology"; that is, the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the synthesis and properties of organic and organometallic nanostructures, and with nanofabrication using techniques in which soft components play key roles. It begins with a brief history of soft nanotechnology. This history has followed a path involving a gradual shift from the promise of revolutionary electronics, nanorobotics, and other futuristic concepts, to the realization of evolutionary improvements in the technology for current challenges in information technology, medicine, and sustainability. Soft nanoscience is an area that is occupied principally by chemists, and is in many ways indistinguishable from "nanochemistry". The paper identifies the natural tendency of its practitioners--exemplified by the speakers at this Faraday Discussion--to focus on synthesis and structure, rather than on function and application, of nanostructures. Soft nanotechnology has the potential to apply to a wide variety of large-scale applied (information technology, healthcare cost reduction, sustainability, energy) and fundamental (molecular biochemistry, cell biology, charge transport in organic matter) problems.

  16. Explore the Pile Foundation Construction and Supporting of the Soft Soil Foundation in the Foundation Pit Excavation%基坑开挖中软土地基的支护与桩基施工研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙永卫

    2014-01-01

    在软土地基的开挖过程中,桩体支护结构及桩基的应用非常广泛。本文主要结合两个实例,对分别对深基坑灌注桩支护工程及基坑开挖和桩基施工进行了探讨,以掌握施工程序、要点及方式等。%In the process of soft soil foundation excavation, the pile and pile foundation retaining structure have a very wi-de range of applications. This article combines with two inst-ances to discuss the deep foundation pit support engineering as wel as the foundation pit excavation and pile foundation cons-truction, in order to grasp the construction procedures, essenti-als and ways, etc.

  17. I've got a mobile phone too! Hard and soft assistive technology customization and supportive call centres for people with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Simon; Green, Jenny; Maxwell, Hazel

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the use of a mobile technology platform, software customization and technical support services by people with disability. The disability experience is framed through the participants' use of the technology, their social participation. A qualitative and interpretive research design was employed using a three-stage process of observation and semi-structured interviews of people with disability, a significant other and their service provider. Transcripts were analyzed to examine the research questions through the theoretical framework of PHAATE - Policy, Human, Activity, Assistance and Technology and Environment. The analysis revealed three emergent themes: 1. Engagement and activity; 2. Training, support and customization; and 3. Enablers, barriers and attitudes. The findings indicate that for the majority of users, the mobile technology increased the participants' communication and social participation. However, this was not true for all members of the pilot with variations due to disability type, support needs and availability of support services. Most participants, significant others and service providers identified improvements in confidence, security, safety and independence of those involved. Yet, the actions and attitudes of some of the significant others and service providers acted as a constraint to the adoption of the technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Customized mobile technology can operate as assistive technology providing a distinct benefit in terms of promoting disability citizenship. Mobile technology used in conjunction with a supportive call centre can lead to improvements in confidence, safety and independence for people experiencing disability. Training and support are critical in increasing independent use of mobile technology for people with disability. The enjoyment, development of skills and empowerment gained through the use of mobile technology facilitate the social inclusion of people with

  18. Water demand forecasting: review of soft computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehkhondabi, Iman; Ardjmand, Ehsan; Young, William A; Weckman, Gary R

    2017-07-01

    Demand forecasting plays a vital role in resource management for governments and private companies. Considering the scarcity of water and its inherent constraints, demand management and forecasting in this domain are critically important. Several soft computing techniques have been developed over the last few decades for water demand forecasting. This study focuses on soft computing methods of water consumption forecasting published between 2005 and 2015. These methods include artificial neural networks (ANNs), fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy models, support vector machines, metaheuristics, and system dynamics. Furthermore, it was discussed that while in short-term forecasting, ANNs have been superior in many cases, but it is still very difficult to pick a single method as the overall best. According to the literature, various methods and their hybrids are applied to water demand forecasting. However, it seems soft computing has a lot more to contribute to water demand forecasting. These contribution areas include, but are not limited, to various ANN architectures, unsupervised methods, deep learning, various metaheuristics, and ensemble methods. Moreover, it is found that soft computing methods are mainly used for short-term demand forecasting.

  19. Testing an advanced satellite technique for dust detection as a decision support system for the air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Femiano, Rossella; Marchese, Francesco; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio; Di Muro, Ersilia; Divietri, Mariella; Crisci, Anna Maria; Lovallo, Michele; Mangiamele, Lucia; Vaccaro, Maria Pia; Palma, Achille

    2014-05-01

    In order to correctly apply the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE), local Authorities are often requested to discriminate the possible origin (natural/anthropic) of anomalous concentration of pollutants in the air (art.20 Directive 2008/50/CE). In this framework, it's been focused on PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations and sources. In fact, depending on their origin, appropriate counter-measures can be taken devoted to prevent their production (e.g. by traffic restriction) or simply to reduce their impact on citizen health (e.g. information campaigns). In this context suitable satellite techniques can be used in order to identify natural sources (particularly Saharan dust, but also volcanic ash or forest fire smoke) that can be responsible of over-threshold concentration of PM10/2,5 in populated areas. In the framework of the NIBS (Networking and Internationalization of Basilicata Space Technologies) project, funded by the Basilicata Region within the ERDF 2007-2013 program, the School of Engineering of University of Basilicata, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of National Research Council (IMAA-CNR) and the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment of Basilicata Region (ARPAB) have started a collaboration devoted to assess the potential of the use of advanced satellite techniques for Saharan dust events identification to support ARPAB activities related to the application of the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE) in Basilicata region. In such a joint activity, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach has been assessed and tested as a decision support system for monitoring and evaluating air quality at local and regional level. In particular, RST-DUST products, derived by processing high temporal resolution data provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platforms, have been analysed together with PM10 measurements performed by the ground

  20. Artificial intelligence techniques applied to the development of a decision–support system for diagnosing celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Hummel, Anderson Diniz; Cohrs, Frederico Molina; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Pisa, Ivan Torres; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a difficult-to-diagnose condition because of its multiple clinical presentations and symptoms shared with other diseases. Gold-standard diagnostic confirmation of suspected CD is achieved by biopsying the small intestine. Objective To develop a clinical decision–support system (CDSS) integrated with an automated classifier to recognize CD cases, by selecting from experimental models developed using intelligence artificial techniques. Methods A web-based system was designed for constructing a retrospective database that included 178 clinical cases for training. Tests were run on 270 automated classifiers available in Weka 3.6.1 using five artificial intelligence techniques, namely decision trees, Bayesian inference, k-nearest neighbor algorithm, support vector machines and artificial neural networks. The parameters evaluated were accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUC was used as a criterion for selecting the CDSS algorithm. A testing database was constructed including 38 clinical CD cases for CDSS evaluation. The diagnoses suggested by CDSS were compared with those made by physicians during patient consultations. Results The most accurate method during the training phase was the averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE) algorithm (a Bayesian classifier), which showed accuracy 80.0%, sensitivity 0.78, specificity 0.80 and AUC 0.84. This classifier was integrated into the web-based decision–support system. The gold-standard validation of CDSS achieved accuracy of 84.2% and k = 0.68 (p < 0.0001) with good agreement. The same accuracy was achieved in the comparison between the physician’s diagnostic impression and the gold standard k = 0. 64 (p < 0.0001). There was moderate agreement between the physician’s diagnostic impression and CDSS k = 0.46 (p = 0.0008). Conclusions The study results suggest that CDSS could be used to help in diagnosing CD, since the algorithm tested achieved excellent

  1. Design and Application of Deep Foundation Ditch Supporting Structure in Tianjin Coastal Soft Soil Area%天津滨海软土地区深基坑支护结构的设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹骞; 潘家明

    2012-01-01

    针对天津滨海软土地区某工程深基坑的周边环境条件,分别采用双排桩(附加角支撑)、三排桩、悬臂式水泥挡土墙及开挖边坡等多种支护形式进行方案比较,重点介绍该项目深基坑支护结构的设计方法.本工程深基坑开挖的效果良好,取得较好的社会效益和经济效益,可供类似工程参考.%Based on the environmental conditions around the deep foundation ditch within Tianjin coastal soft soil area, we make comparison of design study which include two-wall piling structure (with included-angle support), three-wall piling structure, cantilever cement retaining wall, slope excavation and other supporting structures, and introduce the design of deep foundation ditch supporting structure as a key point. The engineering practice proves that the excavation of deep foundation ditch is effective, and brings us better social and economic benefits, which will provide references for similar projects.

  2. CETLs: Supporting Collaborative Activities Among Students and Teachers Through the Use of Think- Pair-Share Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nik Azlina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative system is currently underway to many organizations of the fact that it is not just a catch phrase or fad, but it is truly an essential shift in the way technology delivers value to various businesses nature. Schools are the place for handling information and knowledge and, in most developed countries, Internet has been a source of information as well as a tool for teaching and learning. Thus, it is crucial to have a transformation in our education field to allow new generations to become competent in the technology use. The purpose of this paper is to find out the technique that is able to enhance the collaborative learning process which is known as Think-Pair-Share. This study also aims at proposing a collaborative system that will apply the Think-Pair- Share technique to ease the collaborative process among teacher and students. The CETLs project is meant to address the support for collaborative learning and the establishment of shared understanding among students and teachers. This paper also introduces a collaborative framework for CETLs which adapt the use of Think-Pair-Share in a collaborative environment.

  3. Improving the vector auto regression technique for time-series link prediction by using support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Co Jan Miles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting links between the nodes of a graph has become an important Data Mining task because of its direct applications to biology, social networking, communication surveillance, and other domains. Recent literature in time-series link prediction has shown that the Vector Auto Regression (VAR technique is one of the most accurate for this problem. In this study, we apply Support Vector Machine (SVM to improve the VAR technique that uses an unweighted adjacency matrix along with 5 matrices: Common Neighbor (CN, Adamic-Adar (AA, Jaccard’s Coefficient (JC, Preferential Attachment (PA, and Research Allocation Index (RA. A DBLP dataset covering the years from 2003 until 2013 was collected and transformed into time-sliced graph representations. The appropriate matrices were computed from these graphs, mapped to the feature space, and then used to build baseline VAR models with lag of 2 and some corresponding SVM classifiers. Using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC-ROC as the main fitness metric, the average result of 82.04% for the VAR was improved to 84.78% with SVM. Additional experiments to handle the highly imbalanced dataset by oversampling with SMOTE and undersampling with K-means clusters, however, did not improve the average AUC-ROC of the baseline SVM.

  4. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  5. A Real-Time Interference Monitoring Technique for GNSS Based on a Twin Support Vector Machine Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wutao; Huang, Zhigang; Lang, Rongling; Qin, Honglei; Zhou, Kai; Cao, Yongbin

    2016-03-04

    Interferences can severely degrade the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. As the first step of GNSS any anti-interference measures, interference monitoring for GNSS is extremely essential and necessary. Since interference monitoring can be considered as a classification problem, a real-time interference monitoring technique based on Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) is proposed in this paper. A TWSVM model is established, and TWSVM is solved by the Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine (LSTWSVM) algorithm. The interference monitoring indicators are analyzed to extract features from the interfered GNSS signals. The experimental results show that the chosen observations can be used as the interference monitoring indicators. The interference monitoring performance of the proposed method is verified by using GPS L1 C/A code signal and being compared with that of standard SVM. The experimental results indicate that the TWSVM-based interference monitoring is much faster than the conventional SVM. Furthermore, the training time of TWSVM is on millisecond (ms) level and the monitoring time is on microsecond (μs) level, which make the proposed approach usable in practical interference monitoring applications.

  6. A Real-Time Interference Monitoring Technique for GNSS Based on a Twin Support Vector Machine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interferences can severely degrade the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers. As the first step of GNSS any anti-interference measures, interference monitoring for GNSS is extremely essential and necessary. Since interference monitoring can be considered as a classification problem, a real-time interference monitoring technique based on Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM is proposed in this paper. A TWSVM model is established, and TWSVM is solved by the Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine (LSTWSVM algorithm. The interference monitoring indicators are analyzed to extract features from the interfered GNSS signals. The experimental results show that the chosen observations can be used as the interference monitoring indicators. The interference monitoring performance of the proposed method is verified by using GPS L1 C/A code signal and being compared with that of standard SVM. The experimental results indicate that the TWSVM-based interference monitoring is much faster than the conventional SVM. Furthermore, the training time of TWSVM is on millisecond (ms level and the monitoring time is on microsecond (μs level, which make the proposed approach usable in practical interference monitoring applications.

  7. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  8. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  9. Soft congruence relations over rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  10. Soft Space Planning in Cities unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper analyses contemporary experiments of building governance capacity in new soft spaces in Denmark through processes of spatial strategy-making. The paper argues that new soft spaces are emerging in Danish spatial planning, which set out to promote more effective forms of strategic spatial...... of critical questions about whether the normative arguments in the soft space literature are unfounded, or whether the significance of soft spaces is simply overrated in the planning literature. Furthermore, it is argued that critical attention needs to be paid to the prevalence of soft spaces in spatial...... planning, and how their obsession with promoting economic development at the expense of wider planning responsibilities support contemporary neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning....

  11. Soft Tissue Surgical Procedures for Optimizing Anterior Implant Esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas L. Ioannou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant dentistry has been established as a predictable treatment with excellent clinical success to replace missing or nonrestorable teeth. A successful esthetic implant reconstruction is predicated on two fundamental components: the reproduction of the natural tooth characteristics on the implant crown and the establishment of soft tissue housing that will simulate a healthy periodontium. In order for an implant to optimally rehabilitate esthetics, the peri-implant soft tissues must be preserved and/or augmented by means of periodontal surgical procedures. Clinicians who practice implant dentistry should strive to achieve an esthetically successful outcome beyond just osseointegration. Knowledge of a variety of available techniques and proper treatment planning enables the clinician to meet the ever-increasing esthetic demands as requested by patients. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the implant surgeon’s rationale and techniques beyond that of simply placing a functional restoration in an edentulous site to a level whereby an implant-supported restoration is placed in reconstructed soft tissue, so the site is indiscernible from a natural tooth.

  12. Stability of coal pillar in gob-side entry driving under unstable overlying strata and its coupling support control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhang; Zhijun Wan; Fuchen Li; Changbing Zhou; Bo Zhang; Feng Guo; Chengtan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Considering the situation that it is difficult to control the stability of narrow coal pillar in gob-side entry driving under unstable overlying strata,the finite difference numerical simulation method was adopted to analyze the inner stress distribution and its evolution regularity,as well as the deformation characteristics of narrow coal pillar in gob-side entry driving,in the whole process from entry driving of last working face to the present working face mining.A new method of narrow coal pillar control based on the triune coupling support technique (TCST),which includes that high-strength prestressed thread steel bolt is used to strain the coal on the goaf side,and that short bolt to control the integrity of global displacement zone in coal pillar on the entry side,and that long grouting cable to fix anchor point to constrain the bed separation between global displacement zone and fixed zone,is thereby generated and applied to the field production.The result indicates that after entry excavating along the gob under unstable overlying strata,the supporting structure left on the gob side of narrow coal pillar is basically invalid to maintain the coal-pillar stability,and the large deformation of the pillar on the gob side is evident.Except for the significant dynamic pressure appearing in the coal mining of last working face and overlying strata stabilizing process,the stress variation inside the coal pillar in other stages are rather steady,however,the stress expansion is obvious and the coal pillar continues to deform.Once the gob-side entry driving is completed,a global displacement zone on the entry side appears in the shallow part of the pillar,whereas,a relatively steady fixed zone staying almost still in gob-side entry driving and present working face mining is found in the deep part of the pillar.The application of TCST can not only avoid the failure of pillar supporting structure,but exert the supporting capacity of the bolting structure left in the

  13. Hydrometallurgy Process Control Based on Soft Measuring of State Estimating Techniques%状态估计软测量技术在湿法冶金控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓青

    2013-01-01

    湿法冶炼过程中一些工艺参数的测量非常难于实现,这直接影响了工艺的质量控制.人们对此已探讨过许多解决方法,采用软测量技术,并结合自动清洗技术实现湿法冶炼过程中pH的检测与控制,也是一种行之有效的方法.设计一个基于状态观测器的pH软测量系统对主导变量进行估计,同时采用自动清洗技术实现对辅助变量的测量,从而构成pH自动控制系统,具有简单实用的优点.%It was difficult to measure some kind of parameters of hydrometallurgy process,and this will influence the quality control of the process.Engineers have been studied some methods to improve these situations,soft-sensing technique was one of them.Here a state estimator was designed for the estimation of the dominant variable of pH,which an automatic sampling cleaning system was designed for the measurement of auxiliary variable,and then a controller was constructed based on the state observer.Advantages of this design include simple and practical.

  14. Thin film assembly of nanosized cobalt(II) bis(5-phenyl-azo-8-hydroxyquinolate) using static step-by-step soft surface reaction technique: Structural characterization and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleim, S. M.; Hamdalla, Taymour A.; Mahmoud, Mohamed E.

    2017-09-01

    Nanosized (NS) cobalt (II) bis(5-phenyl-azo-8-hydroxyquinolate) (NS Co(II)-(5PA-8HQ)2) thin films have been synthesized using static step-by-step soft surface reaction (SS-b-SSR) technique. Structural and optical characterizations of these thin films have been carried out using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The HR-TEM results revealed that the assembled Co(II)-complex exhibited a uniformly NS structure particles in the form of nanorods with width and length up to 16.90 nm and 506.38 nm, respectively. The linear and nonlinear optical properties have been investigated. The identified energy gap of the designed thin film materials was found 4.01 eV. The refractive index of deposited Co(II)-complex thin film was identified by thickness-dependence and found as 1.9 at wavelength 1100 nm. In addition, the refractive index was varied by about 0.15 due to an increase in the thickness by 19 nm.

  15. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  16. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  17. In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-Defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Laskin, Julia

    2014-06-16

    Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.

  18. The use of decision making methods and techniques of soft computing in personnel selection El empleo de métodos de toma de decisión y técnicas de soft computing en la selección de personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lavandero García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment can be treated as a decision making problem, this is evidenced in the analysis of its definitions is done in this paper. In addition to the comparative nature and decision-making that characterizes this process, the activities as part of it is made have a high participation and reliance on human judgment, which it a process in which there is a high subjectivity in the information handled, further information can be both qualitatively and quantitatively, this can result in a process with a high level of uncertainty. That is why there is a marked tendency to give solutions to the problems of personnel selection using decision-making methods that integrate the use of soft computing techniques. In this paper an analysis of trends and methods used in solving recruitment problems. We propose a recommendation to the conditions in which the methods studied may have a better result in it application. La selección de personal puede ser tratado como un problema de toma de decisión, esto está evidenciado en el análisis de sus definiciones que se hace en el presente trabajo. Además de la naturaleza comparativa y de decisión que caracteriza este proceso, las actividades que como parte de él se realizan tienen una elevada participación y dependencia del juicio humano, lo que de él un proceso en cual existe una elevada subjetividad en la información que se maneja, información que además que puede ser tanto cualitativa como cuantitativa, esto se puede redundar en un proceso con un alto nivel de incertidumbre. Es por ello que existe una marcada tendencia a dar soluciones a los problemas de selección de personal empleando métodos de toma de decisión que integran el uso de técnicas de soft computing. En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de las tendencias y los métodos más empleados en la solución de problemas de selección de personal. Se plantea una recomendación de las condiciones en las que los métodos estudiados

  19. El empleo de métodos de toma de decisión y técnicas de soft computing en la selección de personal The use of decision making methods and techniques of soft computing in personnel selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Arza Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La selección de personal puede ser tratado como un problema de toma de decisión, esto está evidenciado en el análisis de sus definiciones que se hace en el presente trabajo. Además de la naturaleza comparativa y de decisión que caracteriza este proceso, las actividades que como parte de él se realizan tienen una elevada participación y dependencia del juicio humano, lo que de él un proceso en cual existe una elevada subjetividad en la información que se maneja, información que además que puede ser tanto cualitativa como cuantitativa, esto se puede redundar en un proceso con un alto nivel de incertidumbre. Es por ello que existe una marcada tendencia a dar soluciones a los problemas de selección de personal empleando métodos de toma de decisión que integran el uso de técnicas de soft computing. En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de las tendencias y los métodos más empleados en la solución de problemas de selección de personal. Se plantea una recomendación de las condiciones en las que los métodos estudiados pueden tener un mejor resultado en su aplicación.The recruitment can be treated as a decision making problem, this is evidenced in the analysis of its definitions is done in this paper. In addition to the comparative nature and decision-making that characterizes this process, the activities as part of it is made have a high participation and reliance on human judgment, which it a process in which there is a high subjectivity in the information handled, further information can be both qualitatively and quantitatively, this can result in a process with a high level of uncertainty. That is why there is a marked tendency to give solutions to the problems of personnel selection using decision-making methods that integrate the use of soft computing techniques. In this paper an analysis of trends and methods used in solving recruitment problems. We propose a recommendation to the conditions in which the methods

  20. Soft magnetic wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  1. Soft sensing for gas-lift wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.H.J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Sturm, W.L.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the use of extended Kalman filtering as a soft-sensing technique for gas lift wells. This technique is deployed for the estimation of dynamic variables that are not directly measured. Possible applications are the estimation of flow rates from surface and downhole pressure measu

  2. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  3. Concave soft sets, critical soft points, and union-soft ideals of ordered semigroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young Bae; Song, Seok Zun; Muhiuddin, G

    2014-01-01

    The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  4. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  5. Ilizarov technique for treatment of large tibia bone defect combined with soft tissue defect%Ilizarov骨搬移技术治疗胫骨大段骨缺损合并软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩立仁; 穆卫东; 陈志强; 张东东; 韩士章

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of Ilizarov technique in managing large tibia defects combined with soft tissue defects.Methods A total of 24 patients with large tibial defects combined with soft tissue defects caused by compound open tibial fractures were fixed with Ilizarov technique from September 2003 to September 2010.All patients belonged to open tibial fractures,including 20 patients with Gustilo type Ⅲ B and four with Gustilo type Ⅲ C.After debridement,the soft tissue defect areas was 10 cm ×6 cm and the bone defect was(8 ±4)cm.Fifteen patients with tibial defects <5 cm were treated with one stage debridement,fibula resection and tibial defect end compression.The other nine patients with tibial defect > 5 cm were managed by one stage debridement,bone transport and bone lengthening.Then,15 patients were treated with one stage debridement,wound closure or wound reduction,bone grafting treatment and second stage cleansing of the incarcerated skin and fracture end.Results All patients were followed up for average 14 months(10-24 months),which showed reconstruction of the bone defects,restoration of the limb length,fracture healing and less than 2 cm difference between health limb and contralateral limb.One patient experienced common peroneal nerve palsy after operation,but recovered three months later.Of all,19 patients recovered without extra surgery,three restored with skin graft and two received skin flap.Conclusion Ilizarov technique is an effective option for treating the tibial defects combined with soft tissue defects at one stage.%目的 探讨Ilizarov技术Ⅰ期治疗胫骨大段骨缺损合并软组织缺损的可行性.方法 2003年9月-2010年9月收治胫骨大段骨缺损合并软组织缺损患者24例,均为胫骨开放性骨折(Gustilo Ⅲ B型20例,Gustilo Ⅲ C型4例).在患肢上安放Ilizarov外固定架.清创术后小腿胫前内侧软组织缺损10 cm×6 cm,胫骨骨缺损(8±4)cm.对15例胫骨骨缺损<5 cm的患

  6. Management of health care expenditure by soft computing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, Goran; Jović, Srđan; Jovanović, Radomir; Aničić, Obrad

    2017-01-01

    In this study was managed the health care expenditure by soft computing methodology. The main goal was to predict the gross domestic product (GDP) according to several factors of health care expenditure. Soft computing methodologies were applied since GDP prediction is very complex task. The performances of the proposed predictors were confirmed with the simulation results. According to the results, support vector regression (SVR) has better prediction accuracy compared to other soft computing methodologies. The soft computing methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization in order to avoid local minimum issues.

  7. Study on Roadway Reinforcement Technique by Retractable Circular Support and Backfilling Grouting%可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书民; 孙小岩; 张丰

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the failure of traditional support by 36 U-shaped steel and wire mesh in the track dip in Changcun coal mine, it can be concluded that anchoring property is the primary cause for the low anchorage force and the poor effect of anchoring. Through analyzing the cross section of roadway and roadway reinforcement theory by backfilling grouting, roadway reinforcement technique by retractable circular support and backfilling grouting is put into effect This industrial practice demonstrates that this technique can solve the matter of deformation failure of soft rock roadway and can be used in other roadways with the similar situation in Changcun coal mine.%通过对常村煤矿轨道下山采用锚网(索)+ 36U型钢等常规支护形式失败的原因进行分析,得出巷道可锚性差是造成锚杆锚固力低和锚固效果差的主要因素;同时对巷道断面的选择和壁后充填注浆加固机理的分析,提出采用可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术.实践证明,采用可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术可有效解决软岩巷道变形的难题,为常村煤矿类似的巷道提供了一个有效的支护新途径.

  8. Soft Computing Techniques in Vision Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2012-01-01

    This Special Edited Volume is a unique approach towards Computational solution for the upcoming field of study called Vision Science. From a scientific firmament Optics, Ophthalmology, and Optical Science has surpassed an Odyssey of optimizing configurations of Optical systems, Surveillance Cameras and other Nano optical devices with the metaphor of Nano Science and Technology. Still these systems are falling short of its computational aspect to achieve the pinnacle of human vision system. In this edited volume much attention has been given to address the coupling issues Computational Science and Vision Studies.  It is a comprehensive collection of research works addressing various related areas of Vision Science like Visual Perception and Visual system, Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, Psychophysics and Ophthalmology, linguistic relativity, color vision etc. This issue carries some latest developments in the form of research articles and presentations. The volume is rich of contents with technical tools ...

  9. Study of Support Measures for Large Deformed Section of Muzhailing Tunnel in Soft Rocks%木寨岭隧道软岩大变形段支护措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国庆

    2011-01-01

    Based on the construction practices of the Muzhailing tunnel on the Lanzhou-Chongqing railway and the understanding of deformation causes and mechanism of carbonaceous slate stratum, this paper analyzestechniques for controlling deformations of tunnels in soft rock with high ground stresses. It addresses control-based principles, relative support methods, and measures of deformation control used to guarantee rapid and safeconstruction.%文章结合新建兰渝线木寨岭隧道工程实践,在了解了碳质板岩地层发生大变形的原因和机理的基础上,对高地应力条件下软岩大变形的控制技术进行了分析研究,提出了处理隧道大变形应以控制为主的原则,以及确保隧道安全施工、快速通过的支护措施和变形控制对策.

  10. Flavoured Soft Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Chee Sheng

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of flavour in ``soft leptogenesis'' (leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms). We address the question of how flavour effects can affect the region of parameters in which successful soft leptogenesis induced by CP violation in the right-handed sneutrino mixing is possible. We find that for decays which occur in the intermediate to strong washout regimes for all flavours, the produced total $B-L$ asymmetry can be up to a factor ${\\cal O}(30)$ larger than the one predicted with flavour effects being neglected. This enhancement, permits slightly larger values of the required lepton violating soft bilinear term.

  11. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  12. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  13. Soft lithography contacts to organics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W.P. Hsu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials play an increasingly important role in (optoelectronics, particularly in low-cost or flexible devices. A major challenge is the contact between the electrodes and the organic material. Processes developed for inorganic semiconductors are inapplicable because of the sensitivity of organic materials to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Deposition of metal(s through shadow masks onto organic materials is commonly used, despite problems with ill-controlled interfaces and material damage. In addition, conventional approaches restrict device size to >1 μm. Clearly, a better technique is needed. In this article, two soft lithography methods for making contacts to organic materials are reviewed: nanotransfer printing (nTP and soft-contact lamination (ScL. These new approaches produce devices that outperform those made by conventional methods. The link between better device performance and better interfacial control is explained, and nanoscale devices are described.

  14. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  15. Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In this paper...... the improved smeared plate technique is combined with the equation of motion for a doubly curved thin rectangular shell, and a solution is offered for using the smearing technique for stiffened shell structures. The developed prediction technique is validated by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes...

  16. 极高地应力软岩隧道双层支护技术%Technologies for Double-shell Support of Tunnels in Soft Rock with Extra-high Ground Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司剑钧

    2014-01-01

    Liangshui tunnel on Lanzhou-Chongqing railway is located in soft rock of carbon phyllite.The rock has extra-high ground stress,with the maximum horizontal principal stress ranging from 6.5 MPa to 11.3 MPa.In the early stage of the tunnel construction,serious deformation occurred to the primary support structure,which resulted in distorted and fractured steel arches,instability of the support structure and interference of the primary support structure into the lining clearance.Therefore,the distorted primary support structure had to be dismantled and even cracks occurred to the secondary lining at local positions.In the paper,double-shell primary support experiment and double-shell secondary lining experiment are made,so as to solve the above-mentioned problems.In the experiments,the primary support deformation,the surrounding rock pressure,the contact pressure,the steel arch stress,the steel bar stress and the concrete stress are studied.Conclusions drawn are as follows:1 )The deformation of the double-shell primary support is relatively small,the stress of the shotcrete,steel arches,secondary lining concrete and secondary lining steel bars have not exceeded the allowable stresses of these materials,and the double-shell primary support works well;2 )Due to the adoption of the double-shell primary support,the steel bar binding process can be reduced,no additional lining formwork jumbos are needed,the construction organization is more convenient,and construction efficiency is relatively high.%兰渝铁路两水隧道洞身主要通过炭质千枚岩软岩地层,隧道为极高地应力状态,最大水平主应力值为6.5~11.3 MPa。施工前期,隧道初期支护结构变形较大,部分钢拱架扭曲、断裂,支护结构失稳,初期支护结构侵入衬砌净空,拆换拱情况频繁发生,局部地段二次衬砌开裂。针对前期施工中出现的问题,分别开展双层初期支护和双层衬砌试验,对试验段初期支护

  17. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  18. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  19. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  20. Review of roadway control in soft surrounding rock under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝炯

    2003-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the soft rock roadway under the dynamic pressure are analyzed. At the same time, the three fundamental approaches for controlling the surrounding rock are proposed, which are improving the surrounding rock strength, lowering the rock mass stress and selecting the reasonable supporting technology. The research results are elucidated, including the distribution of the surrounding rock plastic zone, the movement and damage of the surrounding rock under the dynamic pressure, controlling the floor heave through reinforcing the roadway walls and corners, the new route to develop the roadway metal supporting technique, the key theory and technique for the bolt supporting in the coal roadway, the performance and prospect of the ZKD high-water-content quick-setting material, and so on. Finally, some personally views are put forward about the roadway metal supporting, bolt supporting, new material and the stress-relief under the high stress condition.

  1. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  2. Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S; van Meerbeek, Ilse M; O'Brien, Kevin W; Zhao, Huichan; Shepherd, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    Open-celled, elastomeric foams allow the simple design of fully 3D pneumatic soft machines using common forming techniques. This is demonstrated through the fabrication of simple actuators and an entirely soft, functional fluid pump formed in the shape of the human heart. The device pumps at physiologically relevant frequencies and pressures and attains a flow rate higher than all previously reported soft pumps.

  3. Soft sensor modeling of sewage disposal process based on multi-scale wavelet least square support vector regression%基于多尺度小波LSSVR的污水处理过程软测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲜芳; 朱晓霞; 吴瑞红; 郑延斌

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem that some parameters are difficult to be measured on-line in the process of waste water disposal, a soft measurement modeling method is presented base on multi-scale wavelet least square support vector machine in this Paper. Mexican-hat wavelet function is used as the support vector kernel function, and further the Multi-scale Wavelet Least square Support Vector Regression (MW-LSSVR) algorithm is presented. Build an advanced model with above SVR and characteristics between BOD&COD, predicting BOD&COD of drainage that had been treated. Through using this method in practical sewage disposal process, the result shows that this modeling method has higher precision and faster learning speed of BOD model, can make accurate predictions, can replace online measuring instrument in some expensive, provide control operation basis to the sewage treatment plant workers, and has a certain practical value.%针对污水处理中某些生物参数难以在线测量的情况,本文提出了一种基于小波核的多尺度最小二乘小波支持向量机软测量建模方法.首先,选取墨西哥草帽小波函数作为最小二乘支持向量机的核函数,进而设计出多尺度小波最小二乘支持向量回归机(MW-LSSVR).然后利用该支持向量机和出水水质参数特性建立混合软测量模型,实现对出水BOD浓度、COD浓度在线预测.通过在实际污水处理过程的应用,结果表明本建模方法具有较高的预测精度和较快的模型学习速度,能对BOD的做出准确的预测,一定程度上可以替代某些昂贵的在线测量仪表,给污水处理厂工作人员提供了控制操作依据,具有一定的实际应用价值.

  4. Soft tissue and esthetic considerations around implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann Pauline George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health of the peri – implant tissues play an important in the long term outcome of dental implants. The absence of keratinized gingiva (KG may be a risk factor for developing recession or peri –implantitis. However there is still ambiguity in the need for keratinized gingiva around dental implants. The preservation and reconstruction of soft tissue around dental implants is an integral component of dental Implantology. There is no long-term evidence whether augmented soft tissues can be maintained over time and are able to influence the peri-implant bone levels. Among the various soft tissue augmentation techniques Apically positioned flap with vestibuloplasty , Free gingival grafts and Connective tissue grafts are documented as the most predictable methods to increase the width of KG. Autogenous grafts increase the soft tissue thickness and improve aesthetics compared to non-grafted sites. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the need for KG around implants and the techniques to preserve and augment KG. It is difficult to arrive at a definitive conclusion due to scarcity of well designed studies in literature. Reliable evidence is lacking to suggest the ideal soft tissue augmentation/preservation techniques. Long term randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to provide a clearer image.

  5. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

  6. Conservative Soft Power: Liberal soft power bias and the ‘hidden’ attraction of Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Kaczmarska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    it purely as the effect of government-sponsored programs, and to focus primarily on the cultural pillar of soft power. This paper argues, alternatively, that Russia’s conservative values and illiberal governance models generate admiration and followership, even outside of what Russia claims to be its post......-Soviet sphere of influence. Crucially, this admiration and followership perform the traditional function of soft power: generating support for controversial Russian foreign policy decisions. Admitting that soft power can be based on conservative values is necessary not only to understand Russia’s foreign policy...

  7. Phase contrast imaging of cochlear soft tissue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Hwang, M.; Rau, C.; Fishman, A.; Lee, W.; Richter, C. (X-Ray Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.); (Diamond Light Source, Ltd.)

    2011-01-01

    A noninvasive technique to image soft tissue could expedite diagnosis and disease management in the auditory system. We propose inline phase contrast imaging with hard X-rays as a novel method that overcomes the limitations of conventional absorption radiography for imaging soft tissue. In this study, phase contrast imaging of mouse cochleae was performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source. The phase contrast tomographic reconstructions show soft tissue structures of the cochlea, including the inner pillar cells, the inner spiral sulcus, the tectorial membrane, the basilar membrane, and the Reissner's membrane. The results suggest that phase contrast X-ray imaging and tomographic techniques hold promise to noninvasively image cochlear structures at an unprecedented cellular level.

  8. Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dong; Xia, Younan; Whitesides, George M

    2010-03-01

    This protocol provides an introduction to soft lithography--a collection of techniques based on printing, molding and embossing with an elastomeric stamp. Soft lithography provides access to three-dimensional and curved structures, tolerates a wide variety of materials, generates well-defined and controllable surface chemistries, and is generally compatible with biological applications. It is also low in cost, experimentally convenient and has emerged as a technology useful for a number of applications that include cell biology, microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, microelectromechanical systems and flexible electronics/photonics. As examples, here we focus on three of the commonly used soft lithographic techniques: (i) microcontact printing of alkanethiols and proteins on gold-coated and glass substrates; (ii) replica molding for fabrication of microfluidic devices in poly(dimethyl siloxane), and of nanostructures in polyurethane or epoxy; and (iii) solvent-assisted micromolding of nanostructures in poly(methyl methacrylate).

  9. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  10. [Application of infrared spectroscopy technique to protein content fast measurement in milk powder based on support vector machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Cao, Fang; Feng, Shui-Juan; He, Yong

    2008-05-01

    In the present study, the JASCO Model FTIR-4 000 fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Japan) was used, with a valid range of 7 800-350 cm(-1). Seven brands of milk powder were bought in a local supermarket. Milk powder was compressed into a uniform tablet with a diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm, and then scanned by the spectrometer. Each sample was scanned 40 times and the data were averaged. About 60 samples were measured for each brand, and data for 409 samples were obtained. NIRS analysis was based on the range of 4 000 to 6 666 cm(-1), while MIRS analysis was between 400 and 4 000 cm(-1). The protein content was determined by kjeldahl method and the factor 6.38 was used to convert the nitrogen values to protein. The protein content value is the weight of protein per 100 g of milk powder. The NIR data of the milk powder exhibited slight differences. Univariate analysis was not really appropriate for analyzing the data sets. From NIRS region, it could be observed that the trend of different curves is similar. The one around 4 312 cm(-1) embodies the vibration of protein. From MIRS region, it could be determined that there are many differences between transmission value curves. Two troughs around 1 545 and 1 656 cm(-1) stand for the vibration of amide I and II bands of protein. The smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay with 3 segments and zero polynomials and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were applied for denoising. First 8 important principle components (PCs), which were obtained from principle component analysis (PCA), were the optimal input feature subset. Least-squares support vector machines was applied to build the protein prediction model based on infrared spectral transmission value. The prediction result was better than that of traditional PLS regression model as the determination coefficient for prediction (R(p)2) is 0.951 7 and root mean square error for prediction (RMSEP) is 0.520 201. These indicate that LS-SVM is a powerful tool for

  11. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  12. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  13. Multigait soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  14. Soft bioelectronics using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjae; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, soft bioelectronics has attracted significant attention because of its potential applications in biointegrated healthcare devices and minimally invasive surgical tools. Mechanical mismatch between conventional electronic/optoelectronic devices and soft human tissues/organs, however, causes many challenges in materials and device designs of bio-integrated devices. Intrinsically soft hybrid materials comprising twodimensional nanomaterials are utilized to solve these issues. In this paper, we describe soft bioelectronic devices based on graphene synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process. These devices have unique advantages over rigid electronics, particularly in biomedical applications. The functionalized graphene is hybridized with other nanomaterials and fabricated into high-performance sensors and actuators toward wearable and minimally invasive healthcare devices. Integrated bioelectronic systems constructed using these devices solve pending issues in clinical medicine while providing new opportunities in personalized healthcare.

  15. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  16. Taxing Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Bahl

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the practice of levying an excise tax on soft drinks in sub-saharan African countries, and evaluates this practice against theoretical norms for levying an excise tax. The question is whether such taxes are justified or whether they are discriminatory and impose a welfare cost on the country. The paper concludes that the sin tax justification does not hold for soft drinks, nor do income distribution justifications. Arguably the best reason for such a levy is revenue, but th...

  17. Multisensory softness perceived compliance from multiple sources of information

    CERN Document Server

    Luca, Massimiliano Di

    2014-01-01

    Offers a unique multidisciplinary overview of how humans interact with soft objects and how multiple sensory signals are used to perceive material properties, with an emphasis on object deformability. The authors describe a range of setups that have been employed to study and exploit sensory signals involved in interactions with compliant objects as well as techniques to simulate and modulate softness - including a psychophysical perspective of the field. Multisensory Softness focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the use of multiple sources of information in softness perception. D

  18. Benchtop Nanoscale Patterning Using Soft Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, Viswanathan; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Odom, Teri W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines several benchtop nanoscale patterning experiments that can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories or advanced high school chemistry curricula. The experiments, supplemented by an online video lab manual, are based on soft lithographic techniques such as replica molding, micro-molding in capillaries, and micro-contact…

  19. SOFT TISSUE BALANCING IN TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kosev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with the soft tissue balancing in total hip arthroplasty. Detailed indications, planning and surgical technique are presented. The described procedures are performed on 278 hips for a period of 6 years (2008-2014. We conclude that the outcome of a THA can be improved by balancing the stability, ROM, muscle strength and limb length equality.

  20. Effects of extending the one-more-than technique with the support of a mobile purchasing assistance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Guo-Liang; Tang, Jung-Chang; Hwang, Wu-Yuin

    2014-08-01

    The one-more-than technique is an effective strategy for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) to use when making purchases. However, the heavy cognitive demands of money counting skills potentially limit how individuals with ID shop. This study employed a multiple-probe design across participants and settings, via the assistance of a mobile purchasing assistance system (MPAS), to assess the effectiveness of the one-more-than technique on independent purchases for items with prices beyond the participants' money counting skills. Results indicated that the techniques with the MPAS could effectively convert participants' initial money counting problems into useful advantages for successfully promoting the independent purchasing skills of three secondary school students with ID. Also noteworthy is the fact that mobile technologies could be a permanent prompt for those with ID to make purchases in their daily lives. The treatment effects could be maintained for eight weeks and generalized across three community settings. Implications for practice and future studies are provided.

  1. Analysis of soft rock mineral components and roadway failure mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie

    2001-01-01

    The mineral components and microstructure of soft rock sampled from ro adway floor in Xiagou pit are determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning elec t ron microscope. Combined with the test of expansion and water softening prop erty of the soft rock, the roadway failure mechanism is analyzed, and the reason able repair supporting principle of roadway is put forward.

  2. More on neutrosophic soft rough sets and its modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Marei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce and discuss anew mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties, which is a combination of neutrosophic sets, soft sets and rough sets, namely neutrosophic soft rough set model. Also, its modification is introduced. Some of their properties are studied and supported with proved propositions and many counter examples. Some of rough relations are redefined as a neutrosophic soft rough relations. Comparisons among traditional rough model, suggested neutrosophic soft rough model and its modification, by using their properties and accuracy measures are introduced. Finally, we illustrate that, classical rough set model can be viewed as a special case of suggested models in this paper.

  3. Training Secondary School Teachers in Instructional Language Modification Techniques to Support Adolescents with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Julia; Munro, Natalie; Togher, Leanne; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of a collaborative intervention where a speech-language pathologist (SLP) trained mainstream secondary school teachers to make modifications to their oral and written instructional language. The trained teachers' uptake of techniques in their whole-class teaching practices and the impact this had on the…

  4. An evaluation of sampling methods and supporting techniques for tackling lead in drinking water in Aberta Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative project commenced in August 2013 with the aim of demonstrating a range of techniques that can be used in tackling the problems of lead in drinking water. The main project was completed in March 2014, with supplementary sampling exercises in mid-2014. It involved t...

  5. Advanced decision support techniques in combination with smart card and local operating network technologies for intelligent energy management in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolokotsa, D.; Kalaitzakis, K.; Stavrakakis, G.; Sutherland, G.; Santamouris, M.; Soultanidis, S.; Moumtzis, P.; Brunet, J.; Guillaumin, P.; Pelegrini, L.; Romiti, G.; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to present recent developments of integrated building energy manaeement system combining intelligent decision making systems and smart card technology using Local Operating Network (LON) techniques applying mainly to existing buildings and to new buildings with

  6. Using family sculpting as an experiential learning technique to develop supportive care in nursing. A contemporary issue paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Joanna M

    2014-09-01

    This article explores the use of family sculpting as an educative tool to achieve a better I-thou awareness of the patient's support needs from a family and social system approach. Ensuring we provide appropriate and effective opportunities for nurses to develop compassion when caring for patients facing ill health is a complex challenge that faces nurse education at all levels. The piece explores a sculpting exercise developed in nurse education which engages students' awareness of the complicated nature of peoples' social networks and through attitudinal learning, helps nurses to provide compassionate care that integrates family support. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soft tissue trauma and scar revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Steven R; Sjogren, Phayvanh P

    2014-11-01

    Numerous techniques and treatments have been described for scar revision, with most studies focusing on the adult population. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals a paucity of references related specifically to scar revision in children. This review describes the available modalities in pediatric facial scar revision. The authors have integrated current practices in soft tissue trauma and scar revision, including closure techniques and materials, topical therapy, steroid injection, cutaneous laser therapy, and tissue expanders.

  8. Biometrics: Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Tactical Employment of Biometrics in Support of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Intelligence Activities Biometrics-Enabled Intelligence USCG Biometrics-at-Sea: Business Rules for...Biometrics in Support of Operations Biometrics-at-Sea: Business Rules for South Florida United States...South Florida, USCG Maritime Law Enforcement Manual Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and

  9. Modeling soft sensor based on sparse least square support vector machine%基于稀疏最小二乘支持向量机的软测量建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞兰; 徐艳; 戎舟

    2015-01-01

    针对传统最小二乘支持向量机非稀疏化解问题,提出了基于遗传算法的最小二乘支持向量机稀疏化及参数优化方法,稀疏化的基本思想是给训练样本赋予一个概率值,将概率值小于0.5的样本作为测试样本,从而将总的训练样本集分成测试样本集和保留的训练样本集。定义了包括稀疏率、训练误差及测试误差在内的适应度函数。种群个体的前N维表示每个样本对应的概率,后m维表示要优化的参数。通过选择、交叉和变异操作对所有参数进行整体优化,取适应度最小的个体对应的保留的训练样本及优化参数建立最小二乘支持向量机模型。并用该方法用于PX氧化过程4-CBA含量的软测量中,工业数据仿真结果表明,用本文提出的方法稀疏化率达到87%,核参数选取自动完成,与稀疏前建立的模型相比推广能力更高。%The traditional least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is generally used to solve non-sparse problems. A sparse and parameter optimization method of LSSVM based on genetic algorithm was proposed. The basic idea of sparse was to give a probability value to each training sample, and if its probability value was less than 0.5 then the corresponding training sample was not a support vector. Samples that was not support vectors were treated as test samples. So, the set of total training samples was divided into the set of test samples and the set of training sample remained. A fitness function including sparse rate, training error and test error was defined. The first N dimensions of the population individual specified corresponding probability of each sample, the next m dimensions specified parameters to be optimized. All parameters including probabilities were optimized globally by mutation, selection, and crossover operations. A model of LSSVM was established by using the corresponding training sample remained and optimized parameters of

  10. International Conference on Soft Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in International Conference on Soft Computing Systems (ICSCS 2015) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the emerging areas of Soft Computing in Engineering and Technology. The book is organized in two volumes and discusses a wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  11. On the soft limit of tree-level string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We study the soft behavior of string scattering amplitudes at three level with massless and massive external insertions, relying on different techniques to compute 4-points amplitudes respectively with open or closed strings.

  12. The Development of a Patient-Identification-Oriented Nursing Shift Exchange Support System Using Wireless RFID PDA Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Pin-Jen; She, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Polun

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to technically testing the feasibility of combining RFID and PDA technologies in nursing care and to develop a support system for the nursing shift exchange, which featured with “Positive Patient Identification” and “Point of Care” for patient’s safety and security. The most challenging part for the future work would be to embed the system into the real workflow. Future study would be to examine the practical effectiveness of the system....

  13. Going Soft on Information Systems Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Jackson

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The way organisations do business has changed dramatically over the last twenty years and so have their information systems as they attempt to support and promote the business enterprise. The information system has a key role to play in the success or possible failure of the business yet, despite its importance, there is little evidence that the components of the information systems evaluation process have kept pace with its changing role as they tend to rely on techniques based on narrow tangible/objective methods rather than on more holistic approaches which, in addition to the more traditional methods, include social, political and cultural perspectives more in keeping with the complex interactions associated with modern organisations. The paper charts the recent progress of organisational change, the increasing role of information systems within the organisation, and the information systems evaluation processes. It concludes with a proposal as to how the evaluation process could be widened to include the views and interests of a larger range of stakeholders by drawing upon elements of the soft systems methodology.

  14. Latest progress of soft rock mechanics and engineering in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchao He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The progress of soft rock mechanics and associated technology in China is basically accompanied by the development of mining engineering and the increasing disasters of large rock deformation during construction of underground engineering. In this regard, Chinese scholars proposed various concepts and classification methods for soft rocks in terms of engineering practices. The large deformation mechanism of engineering soft rocks is to be understood through numerous experiments; and thus a coupled support theory for soft rock roadways is established, followed by the development of a new support material, i.e. the constant resistance and large deformation bolt/anchor with negative Poisson's ratio effect, and associated control technology. Field results show that large deformation problems related to numbers of engineering cases can be well addressed with this new technology, an effective way for similar soft rock deformation control.

  15. Latest progress of soft rock mechanics and engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manchao He

    2014-01-01

    The progress of soft rock mechanics and associated technology in China is basically accompanied by the development of mining engineering and the increasing disasters of large rock deformation during construction of underground engineering. In this regard, Chinese scholars proposed various concepts and classification methods for soft rocks in terms of engineering practices. The large deformation mechanism of engineering soft rocks is to be understood through numerous experiments; and thus a coupled support theory for soft rock roadways is established, followed by the development of a new support material, i.e. the constant resistance and large deformation bolt/anchor with negative Poisson’s ratio effect, and associated control technology. Field results show that large deformation problems related to numbers of engineering cases can be well addressed with this new technology, an effective way for similar soft rock deformation control.

  16. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...

  17. Introductory physics going soft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Livne, Shelly; Safran, Samuel A.; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2012-01-01

    We describe an elective course on soft matter at the level of introductory physics. Soft matter physics serves as a context that motivates the presentation of basic ideas in statistical thermodynamics and their applications. It also is an example of a contemporary field that is interdisciplinary and touches on chemistry, biology, and physics. We outline a curriculum that uses the lattice gas model as a quantitative and visual tool, initially to introduce entropy, and later to facilitate the calculation of interactions. We demonstrate how free energy minimization can be used to teach students to understand the properties of soft matter systems such as the phases of fluid mixtures, wetting of interfaces, self-assembly of surfactants, and polymers. We discuss several suggested activities in the form of inquiry projects which allow students to apply the concepts they have learned to experimental systems.

  18. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress......; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion, dress, their own or others’ body, they will have an intimate...... relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...

  19. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  20. Carbon nanotubes and graphene towards soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although silicon technology has been the main driving force for miniaturizing device dimensions to improve cost and performance, the current application of Si to soft electronics (flexible and stretchable electronics) is limited due to material rigidity. As a result, various prospective materials have been proposed to overcome the rigidity of conventional Si technology. In particular, nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are promising due to outstanding elastic properties as well as an excellent combination of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermal properties compared to conventional rigid silicon. The uniqueness of these nano-carbon materials has opened new possibilities for soft electronics, which is another technological trend in the market. This review covers the recent progress of soft electronics research based on CNTs and graphene. We discuss the strategies for soft electronics with nano-carbon materials and their preparation methods (growth and transfer techniques) to devices as well as the electrical characteristics of transparent conducting films (transparency and sheet resistance) and device performances in field effect transistor (FET) (structure, carrier type, on/off ratio, and mobility). In addition to discussing state of the art performance metrics, we also attempt to clarify trade-off issues and methods to control the trade-off on/off versus mobility). We further demonstrate accomplishments of the CNT network in flexible integrated circuits on plastic substrates that have attractive characteristics. A future research direction is also proposed to overcome current technological obstacles necessary to realize commercially feasible soft electronics.

  1. Stretchable and Soft Electronics using Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity. Liquid metals have been used for stretchable wires and interconnects, reconfigurable antennas, soft sensors, self-healing circuits, and conformal electrodes. In contrast to Hg, liquid metals based on gallium have low toxicity and essentially no vapor pressure and are therefore considered safe to handle. Whereas most liquids bead up to minimize surface energy, the presence of a surface oxide on these metals makes it possible to pattern them into useful shapes using a variety of techniques, including fluidic injection and 3D printing. In addition to forming excellent conductors, these metals can be used actively to form memory devices, sensors, and diodes that are completely built from soft materials. The properties of these materials, their applications within soft and stretchable electronics, and future opportunities and challenges are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Results on fuzzy soft topological spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, J

    2012-01-01

    B. Tanay et. al. introduced and studied fuzzy soft topological spaces. Here we introduce fuzzy soft point and study the concept of neighborhood of a fuzzy soft point in a fuzzy soft topological space. We also study fuzzy soft closure and fuzzy soft interior. Separation axioms and connectedness are introduced and investigated for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  3. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  4. Seismic Response Prediction of Buildings with Base Isolation Using Advanced Soft Computing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling response of structures under seismic loads is an important factor in Civil Engineering as it crucially affects the design and management of structures, especially for the high-risk areas. In this study, novel applications of advanced soft computing techniques are utilized for predicting the behavior of centrically braced frame (CBF buildings with lead-rubber bearing (LRB isolation system under ground motion effects. These techniques include least square support vector machine (LSSVM, wavelet neural networks (WNN, and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS along with wavelet denoising. The simulation of a 2D frame model and eight ground motions are considered in this study to evaluate the prediction models. The comparison results indicate that the least square support vector machine is superior to other techniques in estimating the behavior of smart structures.

  5. Soft n-Ary Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Prince Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties.

  6. Some properties of fuzzy soft proximity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

  7. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  8. Accuracy of land use change detection using support vector machine and maximum likelihood techniques for open-cast coal mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-08-01

    One objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based image classification technique with the maximum likelihood classification (MLC) technique for a rapidly changing landscape of an open-cast mine. The other objective was to assess the change in land use pattern due to coal mining from 2006 to 2016. Assessing the change in land use pattern accurately is important for the development and monitoring of coalfields in conjunction with sustainable development. For the present study, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of 2006 and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data of 2016 of a part of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India, were used. The SVM classification technique provided greater overall classification accuracy when compared to the MLC technique in classifying heterogeneous landscape with limited training dataset. SVM exceeded MLC in handling a difficult challenge of classifying features having near similar reflectance on the mean signature plot, an improvement of over 11 % was observed in classification of built-up area, and an improvement of 24 % was observed in classification of surface water using SVM; similarly, the SVM technique improved the overall land use classification accuracy by almost 6 and 3 % for Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images, respectively. Results indicated that land degradation increased significantly from 2006 to 2016 in the study area. This study will help in quantifying the changes and can also serve as a basis for further decision support system studies aiding a variety of purposes such as planning and management of mines and environmental impact assessment.

  9. Evaluation of Aquaponics Techniques for Enhancing Productivity and Degree of Closure of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Highfield, Eric

    A number of researchers in space bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) have advocated the inclusion of fish-rearing. Fish have relatively high feed to production ratios and can utilize some waste products from other system components. In recent years, there has been much advance in an approach to combining fish-culture with hydroponically-grown crops called “aquaponics”. Aquaponics systems vary but generally include: fish-rearing unit, settling basin, biofilter, hydroponic plant unit and sump where water is pumped back and the cycle continues. Aquaponics research and application has grown since these systems have the potential to increase overall productivity of both crops and fish. Since the fish waste is used as the growth medium of the food plants, there are environmental benefits in reduced discharge of nutrient-rich wastewater which has been one of the drawbacks of conventional aquaculture. In addition, since water use is reduced 95+% over field agriculture, since water from the hydroponic tanks is fed back to the fish tanks and water is recycled apart from evapotranspiration losses, conservation of water resources and applications in water-limited arid regions are other benefits fueling the spread of aquaponics around the world. These considerations also make utilization of aquaponic approaches desirable in BLSS for space application. This paper will examine some recent research results with aquaponics and explore how it might be utilized for food production and reduction of consumables in space life support. In addition, a review and comparison with other fish-culture options previously advanced will evaluate whether aquaponics can improve production efficiency, reduce inputs and better recycle critical resources. Finally, we will explore whether for the space environment, even more advanced aquaponics systems are possible where consumables such as fish-food can be partially or completely supplied from other subsystems of the BLSS and ET water

  10. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected: enriching interactions with soft wearables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress...... approaches impact use. Finally, we reflect on how embodied and collocated interactions might extend understanding of how to frame wearables research and development to arrive at rich interactions that are soft, embodied, situated and connected....

  11. iLift: A health behavior change support system for lifting and transfer techniques to prevent lower-back injuries in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Derek A; Wartena, Bard O; Dijkstra, Boudewijn H; Terlouw, Gijs; van T Veer, Job T B; van Dijk, Hylke W; Prins, Jelle T; Pierie, Jean Pierre E N

    2016-12-01

    Lower back problems are a common cause of sick leave of employees in Dutch care homes and hospitals. In the Netherlands over 40% of reported sick leave is due to back problems, mainly caused by carrying out heavy work. The goal of the iLift project was to develop a game for nursing personnel to train them in lifting and transfer techniques. The main focus was not on testing for the effectiveness of the game itself, but rather on the design of the game as an autogenous trigger and its place in a behavioral change support system. In this article, the design and development of such a health behavior change support system is addressed, describing cycles of design and evaluation. (a) To define the problem space, use context and user context, focus group interviews were conducted with Occupational Therapists (n=4), Nurses (n=10) and Caregivers (n=12) and a thematic analysis was performed. We interviewed experts (n=5) on the subject of lifting and transferring techniques. (b) A design science research approach resulted in a playable prototype. An expert panel conducted analysis of video-recorded playing activities. (c) Field experiment: We performed a dynamic analysis in order to investigate the feasibility of the prototype through biometric data from player sessions (n=620) by healthcare professionals (n=37). (a) Occupational Therapists, Nurses and Caregivers did not recognise a lack of knowledge with training in lifting and transferring techniques. All groups considered their workload, time pressure and a culturally determined habit to place the patient's well being above their own as the main reason not to apply appropriate lifting and transferring techniques. This led to a shift in focus from a serious game teaching lifting and transferring techniques to a health behavior change support system containing a game with the intention to influence behavior. (b) Building and testing (subcomponents of) the prototype resulted in design choices regarding players perspective

  12. Optomechanical soft metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiangjun; He, Wei; Liu, Yifan; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-06-01

    We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields.

  13. Soft condensed matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures illustrate some of the concepts of soft-condensed matter physics, taking examples from colloid physics. Many of the theoretical concepts will be illustrated with the results of computer simulations. After a brief introduction describing interactions between colloids, the paper focuses

  14. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...

  15. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s inter...

  16. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...

  17. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  18. Soft matrices on soft multisets in an optimal decision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Arzu Erdem; Aras, Cigdem Gunduz; Cakalli, Huseyin; Sonmez, Ayse

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a concept of a soft matrix on a soft multiset, and investigate how to use soft matrices to solve decision making problems. An algorithm for a multiple choose selection problem is also provided. Finally, we demonstrate an illustrative example to show the decision making steps.

  19. Mutually supportive use of stable isotope and gas chromatography techniques to understand ecohydrological interactions in dryland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Dixon, E. R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many drylands globally are experiencing extensive vegetation change. In the semi-arid Southwestern United States, this change is characterised by the encroachment of woody vegetation into environments previously dominated by grassland (Van Auken. 2009). The transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al. 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage and an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events and resulting water and sediment fluxes over six bounded plots with different vegetation coverage at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA. The experiment takes advantage of a shift in the photosynthetic pathway of dominant vegetation from C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand through a C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 shrub (Larrea tridentate). This allows for the utilisation of natural abundance tracing techniques, specifically stable 13C isotope and gas chromatography lipid biomarker analyses. Results collected during the 2010 and 2011 monsoon seasons will be presented, using biogeochemical signatures, to trace and partition fluvial soil organic matter and carbon fluxes during runoff generating rainfall events. Results show that biogeochemical signatures specific to individual plant species can be used to define the provenance of carbon, quantifying whether more Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma derived carbon is mobilised from the upland plots, or whether more Larrea tridentata carbon is lost when compared to bouteloa eripoda losses in the lowlands. Results also show that biogeochemical signatures vary with event characteristics, raising the possibility of using these tracing

  20. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  1. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  2. Understanding foods as soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Schurtenberger, Peter; Burbidge, Adam; Michel, Martin

    2005-10-01

    Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with all the complications related to real systems, the experimental and theoretical approaches of SCM physics have deepened our comprehension of their nature and behaviour, but many questions remain. In this review we discuss the current understanding of food science, by considering established SCM methods as well as emerging techniques and theoretical approaches. With their complexity, heterogeneity and multitude of states, foods provide SCM physics with a challenge of remarkable importance.

  3. [MicroRNA Target Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine Ensemble Classification Algorithm of Under-sampling Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiru; Hong, Wenxue

    2016-02-01

    Considering the low accuracy of prediction in the positive samples and poor overall classification effects caused by unbalanced sample data of MicroRNA (miRNA) target, we proposes a support vector machine (SVM)-integration of under-sampling and weight (IUSM) algorithm in this paper, an under-sampling based on the ensemble learning algorithm. The algorithm adopts SVM as learning algorithm and AdaBoost as integration framework, and embeds clustering-based under-sampling into the iterative process, aiming at reducing the degree of unbalanced distribution of positive and negative samples. Meanwhile, in the process of adaptive weight adjustment of the samples, the SVM-IUSM algorithm eliminates the abnormal ones in negative samples with robust sample weights smoothing mechanism so as to avoid over-learning. Finally, the prediction of miRNA target integrated classifier is achieved with the combination of multiple weak classifiers through the voting mechanism. The experiment revealed that the SVM-IUSW, compared with other algorithms on unbalanced dataset collection, could not only improve the accuracy of positive targets and the overall effect of classification, but also enhance the generalization ability of miRNA target classifier.

  4. Analysis of Power Laws, Shape Collapses, and Neural Complexity: New Techniques and MATLAB Support via the NCC Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Najja; Timme, Nicholas M; Bennett, Nicholas; Ripp, Monica; Lautzenhiser, Edward; Beggs, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems include interactions that occur across many scales. Two divergent methods for characterizing such interactions have drawn on the physical analysis of critical phenomena and the mathematical study of information. Inferring criticality in neural systems has traditionally rested on fitting power laws to the property distributions of "neural avalanches" (contiguous bursts of activity), but the fractal nature of avalanche shapes has recently emerged as another signature of criticality. On the other hand, neural complexity, an information theoretic measure, has been used to capture the interplay between the functional localization of brain regions and their integration for higher cognitive functions. Unfortunately, treatments of all three methods-power-law fitting, avalanche shape collapse, and neural complexity-have suffered from shortcomings. Empirical data often contain biases that introduce deviations from true power law in the tail and head of the distribution, but deviations in the tail have often been unconsidered; avalanche shape collapse has required manual parameter tuning; and the estimation of neural complexity has relied on small data sets or statistical assumptions for the sake of computational efficiency. In this paper we present technical advancements in the analysis of criticality and complexity in neural systems. We use maximum-likelihood estimation to automatically fit power laws with left and right cutoffs, present the first automated shape collapse algorithm, and describe new techniques to account for large numbers of neural variables and small data sets in the calculation of neural complexity. In order to facilitate future research in criticality and complexity, we have made the software utilized in this analysis freely available online in the MATLAB NCC (Neural Complexity and Criticality) Toolbox.

  5. In Vivo Imaging Techniques: A New Era for Histochemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, A.; Feruglio, P. Fumene; Parnigotto, P.P.; Marzola, P.; Sbarbati, A.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo imaging techniques can be integrated with classical histochemistry to create an actual histochemistry of water. In particular, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), an imaging technique primarily used as diagnostic tool in clinical/preclinical research, has excellent anatomical resolution, unlimited penetration depth and intrinsic soft tissue contrast. Thanks to the technological development, MRI is not only capable to provide morphological information but also and more interestingly functional, biophysical and molecular. In this paper we describe the main features of several advanced imaging techniques, such as MRI microscopy, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, functional MRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaging and MRI with contrast agent as a useful support to classical histochemistry. PMID:28076937

  6. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruah Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and its operations are introduced, and a few of their properties are studied. An application of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making is investigated. A similarity measure of two possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has been discussed. An application of this similarity measure in medical diagnosis has been shown.

  7. High performance of low cost soft magnetic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Josefina M Silveyra; Emília Illeková; Marco Coïsson; Federica Celegato; Franco Vinai; Paola Tiberto; Javier A Moya; Victoria J Cremaschi

    2011-12-01

    The consistent interest in supporting research and development of magnetic materials during the last century is revealed in their steadily increasing market. In this work, the soft magnetic nanocrystalline FINEMET alloy was prepared with commercial purity raw materials and compared for the first time with the generally studied high purity one. The exhaustive characterization covers several diverse techniques: X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and magnetic properties. In addition, a brief economic analysis is presented. For the alloys annealed at 813 K, the value of the grain size was 16 nm with 19.5% of Si, the coercivity was 0.30 A m-1 while the saturation was 1.2 T. These results prove that structural, magnetic and thermal properties of this material are very close to the expensive high purity FINEMET alloy, while a cost reduction of almost 98% seems highly attractive for laboratories and industry. The analysis should be useful not only for the production of FINEMETs, but for other type of systems with similar constitutive elements as well, including soft and hard magnetic materials.

  8. Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; 7th International Conference, SOCO’12

    2013-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing contains accepted papers presented at SOCO 2012, held in the beautiful and historic city of Ostrava (Czech Republic), in September 2012.   Soft computing represents a collection or set of computational techniques in machine learning, computer science and some engineering disciplines, which investigate, simulate, and analyze very complex issues and phenomena.   After a through peer-review process, the SOCO 2012 International Program Committee selected 75 papers which are published in these conference proceedings, and represents an acceptance rate of 38%. In this relevant edition a special emphasis was put on the organization of special sessions. Three special sessions were organized related to relevant topics as: Soft computing models for Control Theory & Applications in Electrical Engineering, Soft computing models for biomedical signals and data processing and Advanced Soft Computing Methods in Computer Vision and Data Processing.   The selecti...

  9. Soft matter models of developing tissues and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Guevorkian, Karine; Douezan, Stéphane; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2012-11-16

    Analogies with inert soft condensed matter--such as viscoelastic liquids, pastes, foams, emulsions, colloids, and polymers--can be used to investigate the mechanical response of soft biological tissues to forces. A variety of experimental techniques and biophysical models have exploited these analogies allowing the quantitative characterization of the mechanical properties of model tissues, such as surface tension, elasticity, and viscosity. The framework of soft matter has been successful in explaining a number of dynamical tissue behaviors observed in physiology and development, such as cell sorting, tissue spreading, or the escape of individual cells from a tumor. However, living tissues also exhibit active responses, such as rigidity sensing or cell pulsation, that are absent in inert soft materials. The soft matter models reviewed here have provided valuable insight in understanding morphogenesis and cancer invasion and have set bases for using tissue engineering within medicine.

  10. Advances in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fullér, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Soft computing, intelligent robotics and control are in the core interest of contemporary engineering. Essential characteristics of soft computing methods are the ability to handle vague information, to apply human-like reasoning, their learning capability, and ease of application. Soft computing techniques are widely applied in the control of dynamic systems, including mobile robots. The present volume is a collection of 20 chapters written by respectable experts of the fields, addressing various theoretical and practical aspects in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control. The first part of the book concerns with issues of intelligent robotics, including robust xed point transformation design, experimental verification of the input-output feedback linearization of differentially driven mobile robot and applying kinematic synthesis to micro electro-mechanical systems design. The second part of the book is devoted to fundamental aspects of soft computing. This includes practical aspects of fuzzy rule ...

  11. Cartilage and soft tissue imaging using X-rays: propagation-based phase-contrast computed tomography of the human knee in comparison with clinical imaging techniques and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Annie; Brun, Emmanuel; Mittone, Alberto; Gasilov, Sergei; Weber, Loriane; Geith, Tobias; Adam-Neumair, Silvia; Auweter, Sigrid D; Bravin, Alberto; Reiser, Maximilian F; Coan, Paola

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates high-resolution tomographic x-ray phase-contrast imaging in whole human knee joints for the depiction of soft tissue with emphasis on hyaline cartilage. The method is compared with conventional computed tomography (CT), synchrotron radiation absorption-based CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After approval of the institutional review board, 2 cadaveric human knees were examined at an synchrotron institution using a monochromatic x-ray beam of 60 keV, a detector with a 90-mm field of view, and a pixel size of 46 × 46 μm. Images of phase-contrast imaging CT were reconstructed with the filtered back projection algorithm and the equally sloped tomography method. Image quality and tissue contrast were evaluated and compared in all modalities and with histology. Phase-contrast imaging provides visualization of altered cartilage regions invisible in absorption CT with simultaneous high detail of the underlying bony abnormalities. The delineation of surface changes is similar to 3-T MRI using cartilage-dedicated sequences. Phase-contrast imaging CT presents soft tissue contrast surpassing that of conventional CT with a clear discrimination of ligamentous, muscular, neural, and vascular structures. In addition, phase-contrast imaging images show cartilage and meniscal calcifications that are not perceptible on conventional CT or on MRI. Phase-contrast imaging CT may facilitate a more complete evaluation of the human knee joint by providing concurrent comprehensive information about cartilage, the underlying subchondral bone, and their changes in osteoarthritic conditions.

  12. Auricular reconstruction by soft tissue expansion techniques without skin grafting%无需植皮的皮肤软组织扩张法耳廓再造术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉锋; 孙家明; 李小丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate a methad of auricular reconstruction by soft tissue expansion techniques without skin grafting.Methods Two tissue expanders (50 ml and 70 ml) were implanted under the skin of mastoid in 15 patients with grade Ⅱ or Ⅲ microtia. One big expander(100ml) were implanted under the skin of mastoid in 13 patients with grade Ⅰ microtia and 3 patients with grade Ⅱ or Ⅲ microtia.After skin expansion,the expanders were taken out. The autologous rib cartilage or Medpor scaffolds were implanted.The superior expanded skin flap was used to cover the frontal surface and the upper part of the back surface of the framework.The inferior expanded skin flap was transplanted to cover the lower part of the back surface of the framework.The remained expanded skin flap was transplanted to cover the wound in the lateral of head.Results No skin graft was needed in all the patients.Epidermis blister occurred at the distal part of flap in one case.No other complication was happened.A follow-up of 6 to 12 months ( mean 10.9 months) was carried out in all patients with good cosmetic result when the reconstructed ear underwent second-stage operation.The scar size on the dornor site was (5.2 ± 0.6) cm2.The satisfactory rate was 90% (28/31).Conclusions The expanded skin with this new method is enough for auricular reconstruction without skin grafting,leaving less complication and less scar at donor site.%目的 探讨一期采用大容量扩张器或双扩张器重叠扩张,二期无需植皮进行耳廓再造的方法,并评价其临床效果.方法 2006年1月至2010年1月,对15例Ⅱ或Ⅲ度小耳畸形的患者,采用一期在耳后区上、下重叠各埋植1个扩张器(50和70 ml)的重叠扩张,常规注水扩张;13例Ⅰ度小耳畸形及3例Ⅱ或Ⅲ度小耳畸形患者,采用1个100 ml扩张器,适当超量扩张.二期取出扩张器,以自体肋软骨或Medpor材料作为支架,筋膜瓣包裹支架,设计上部扩张皮瓣覆盖支架前侧及

  13. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  14. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  15. Treatment Options for Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  17. A Systematic Approach for Soft Sensor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Renaudat, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach based on robust statistical techniques for development of a data-driven soft sensor, which is an important component of the process analytical technology (PAT) and is essential for effective quality control. The data quality is obviously of essential...... significance for a data-driven soft sensor. Therefore, preprocessing procedures for process measurements are described in detail. First, a template is defined based on one or more key process variables to handle missing data related to severe operation interruptions. Second, a univariate, followed...... by a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) approach, is used to detect outlying observations. Then, robust regression techniques are employed to derive an inferential model. A dynamic partial least squares (DPLS) model is implemented to address the issue of auto-correlation in process data and thus...

  18. Soft-Collinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Larkoski, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective theory for $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be consistent. For contrast, arguments are given that chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model, are incompatible with the collinear expansion. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance -- given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions a...

  19. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  20. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  1. The Space-Borne SBAS-DInSAR Technique as a Supporting Tool for Sustainable Urban Policies: The Case of Istanbul Megacity, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Calò

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s urbanizing world, home of 28 megacities, there is a growing need for tools to assess urban policies and support the design and implementation of effective development strategies. Unsustainable practices of urbanization bring major implications for land and environment, and cause a dramatic increase of urban vulnerability to natural hazards. In Istanbul megacity, disaster risk reduction represents a challenging issue for urban managers. In this paper, we show the relevance of the space-borne Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR technique as a tool for supporting risk management, and thus contributing to achieve the urban sustainability. To this aim, we use a dataset of high resolution SAR images collected by the TerraSAR-X satellite that have been processed through the advanced (multi-temporal Small BAseline Subset (SBAS—DInSAR technique, thus producing spatially-dense deformation velocity maps and associated time-series. Results allow to depict an up-to-date picture of surface deformations occurring in Istanbul, and thus to identify urban areas subject to potential risk. The joint analysis of remotely sensed measurements and ancillary data (geological and urban development information provides an opportunity for city planners and land professionals to discuss on the mutual relationship between urban development policies and natural/man-made hazards.

  2. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  3. Some Results on Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gunduz (Aras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some important properties of fuzzy soft topological spaces. Furthermore, fuzzy soft continuous mapping, fuzzy soft open and fuzzy soft closed mappings, and fuzzy soft homeomorphism for fuzzy soft topological spaces are given and structural characteristics are discussed and studied.

  4. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2007-12-15

    Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

  5. Multi-soft theorems in Gauge Theory from MHV Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, George

    2015-01-01

    In this work we employ the MHV technique to show that scattering amplitudes with any number of consecutive soft particles behave universally in the multi-soft limit in which all particles go soft simultaneously. After identifying the diagrams which give the leading contribution we give the general rules for writing down compact expressions for the multi-soft factor of m gluons, k of which have negative helicity. We explicitly consider the cases where k equals 1 and 2. In N =4 SYM, the multi-soft factors of 2 scalars or 2 fermions forming a singlet, and m-2 positive helicity gluons are derived. The special case of the double-soft limit gives an amplitude whose leading divergence is 1/\\delta^2 and not 1/\\delta as in the case of 2 scalars or 2 fermions that do not form a singlet under SU(4). The construction based on the analytic supervertices allows us to obtain simple expressions for the triple-soft limit of 1 scalar and 2 positive helicity fermions, as well as for the quadrapole-soft limit of 4 positive helic...

  6. Interfacial structure of soft matter probed by SFG spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shen; Tong, Yujin; Ge, Aimin; Qiao, Lin; Davies, Paul B

    2014-10-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, an interface-specific technique in contrast to, for example, attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, which is only interface sensitive, has been employed to investigate the surface and interface structure of soft matter on a molecular scale. The experimental arrangement required to carry out SFG spectroscopy, with particular reference to soft matter, and the analytical methods developed to interpret the spectra are described. The elucidation of the interfacial structure of soft matter systems is an essential prerequisite in order to understand and eventually control the surface properties of these important functional materials.

  7. Hydrodynamic force between a sphere and a soft, elastic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Farzaneh; Ally, Javed; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-10-07

    The hydrodynamic drainage force between a spherical silica particle and a soft, elastic polydimethylsiloxane surface was measured using the colloidal probe technique. The experimental force curves were compared to finite element simulations and an analytical model. The hydrodynamic repulsion decreased when the particle approached the soft surface as compared to a hard substrate. In contrast, when the particle was pulled away from the surface again, the attractive hydrodynamic force was increased. The hydrodynamic attraction increased because the effective area of the narrow gap between sphere and the plane on soft surfaces is larger than on rigid ones.

  8. Construction Shortfall and Forensic Investigation on Soft Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Ibrahim, B. N.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, numerous construction activities performed on soft ground have undergone various kind of failures. Some of the failures were due to lack of understanding the nature of soft ground, inadequate site investigation data, adaptation of inappropriate type of ground improvement techniques or foundation system. Couple with inadequate desk study carried out to the historical condition of the site, chronological of activities carried out within the site prior to construction. Hence coordinated approach required to be executed for field investigation works with proper supervision would be the key to prevent any design or construction related failure in the future. This paper addresses some of shortfalls related to design and construction failures in soft ground.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN SOFT SKILL BERBASIS KARIR PADA SMK DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Utaminingsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study was to find and develop the soft skill learning model based careers on Vocational High School (SMK with Tourism Cluster through a set of tryout and validation. The soft skill development based careers was expected to improve Vocational High Schools’ graduates and fulfill the qualifications which were set by BI (Business and Industry. It was relevant to the President’s policy to improve Indonesian workers. The specific purposes of the study were: (1 to formulate the development of soft skill model design based careers on Vocational High School, (2 to find the soft skill development model based the effective careers on Vocational High Schools, (3 to compile the soft skill model guidance. This study used Research and Development approach, then continued to the field study process, developing the model design, tryout and finally, validation. At the introduction study, it was identified the values and soft skills supporting careers in business and industry. Then, those values became the foundation to (1 formulate the model design, and (2 compile the model develop the soft skills collaboratively involving the parties and stakeholders related to Vocational High Schools with Tourism Cluster, (3 create an effective model guidance. From the process of development above, it was obtained the model design and the soft skill development model guidance to improve the graduates’ careers.

  10. A decision tree for soft tissue grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Daylene Jack-Min; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2011-06-01

    Periodontal plastic surgery is commonly performed for esthetic and physiologic reasons, such as alleviating root sensitivity, root caries, and cervical abrasion and facilitating plaque control at the affected site. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding the most appropriate treatment method for the various clinical situations encountered. The aims of this paper are to review and discuss the various clinical situations that require soft tissue grafting and to attempt to provide recommendations for the most predictable technique. Using MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library, a review of all available literature was performed. Papers published in peer-reviewed journals written in English were chosen and reviewed to validate the decision-making process when planning for soft tissue grafting. A decision tree was subsequently developed to guide clinicians to choose the most appropriate soft tissue grafting procedure by taking into consideration the following clinical parameters: etiology, purpose of the procedure, adjacent interproximal bone level, and overlying tissue thickness. The decision tree proposed serves as a guide for clinicians to select the most appropriate and predictable soft tissue grafting procedure to minimize unnecessary mistakes while providing the ultimate desired treatment outcome.

  11. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  12. Dynamics and Rheology of Soft Colloidal Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho

    2015-01-20

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The linear viscoelastic (LVE) spectrum of a soft colloidal glass is accessed with the aid of a time-concentration superposition (TCS) principle, which unveils the glassy particle dynamics from in-cage rattling motion to out-of-cage relaxations over a broad frequency range 10-13 rad/s < ω < 101 rad/s. Progressive dilution of a suspension of hairy nanoparticles leading to increased intercenter distances is demonstrated to enable continuous mapping of the structural relaxation for colloidal glasses. In contrast to existing empirical approaches proposed to extend the rheological map of soft glassy materials, i.e., time-strain superposition (TSS) and strain-rate frequency superposition (SRFS), TCS yields a LVE master curve that satis fies the Kramers-Kronig relations which interrelate the dynamic moduli for materials at equilibrium. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model and literature data further support the general validity of the TCS concept for soft glassy materials.

  13. Flexidrive: a soft artificial muscle motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Tse, Tony C. H.; Inamura, Tokushu; O'Brien, Benjamin; McKay, Thomas; Gisby, Todd

    2011-04-01

    We use our thumbs and forefingers to rotate an object such as a control knob on a stereo system by moving our finger relative to our thumb. Motion is imparted without sliding and in a precise manner. In this paper we demonstrate how an artificial muscle membrane can be used to mimic this action. This is achieved by embedding a soft gear within the membrane. Deformation of the membrane results in deformation of the polymer gear and this can be used for motor actuation by rotating the shaft. The soft motors were fabricated from 3M VHB4905 membranes 0.5mm thick that were pre-stretched equibiaxially to a final thickness of 31 μm. Each membrane had polymer acrylic soft gears inserted at the center. Sectors of each membrane (60° sector) were painted on both sides with conducting carbon grease leaving gaps between adjoining sectors to avoid arcing between them. Each sector was electrically connected to a power supply electrode on the rigid acrylic frame via narrow avenues of carbon-grease. The motors were supported in rigid acrylic frames aligned concentrically. A flexible shaft was inserted through both gears. Membranes were charged using a step wave PWM voltage signal delivered using a Biomimetics Lab EAP Control unit. Both membrane viscoelasticity and the resisting torque on the shaft influence motor speed by changing the effective circumference of the flexible gear. This new soft motor opens the door to artificial muscle machines molded as a single part.

  14. Ultrasound and clinical evaluation of soft-tissue versus hardware biceps tenodesis: is hardware tenodesis worth the cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkousy, Hussein; Romero, Jose A; Edwards, T Bradley; Gartsman, Gary M; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the failure rate of soft-tissue versus hardware fixation of biceps tenodesis by ultrasound to determine if the expense of a hardware tenodesis technique is warranted. Seventy-two patients that underwent arthroscopic biceps tenodesis over a 3-year period were evaluated using postoperative ultrasonography and clinical examination. The tenodesis technique employed was either a soft-tissue technique with sutures or an interference screw technique using hardware based on surgeon preference. Patient age was 57.9 years on average with ultrasound and clinical examination done at an average of 9.3 months postoperatively. Thirty-one patients had a hardware technique and 41 a soft-tissue technique. Overall, 67.7% of biceps tenodesis done with hardware were intact, compared with 75.6% for the soft-tissue technique by ultrasound (P = .46). Clinical evaluation indicated that 80.7% of hardware techniques and 78% of soft-tissue techniques were intact. Average material cost to the hospital for the hardware technique was $514.32, compared with $32.05 for the soft-tissue technique. Biceps tenodesis success, as determined by clinical deformity and ultrasound, was not improved using hardware as compared to soft-tissue techniques. Soft-tissue techniques are equally efficacious and more cost effective than hardware techniques.

  15. Étude de la technique d'échange ionique avec compétition. Cas du dépôt de platine sur support solide acide par échange cationique Research on the Ion Exchange Technique with Competition. Case of Platinum Deposit on a Solid Acid Support by Cation Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude détaillée de la technique de dépôt de platine sur support acide par échange cationique avec compétition. Cette technique permet d'obtenir à la fois une dispersion quasi atomique et une répartition macroscopique homogène du métal sur la surface du solide. En l'absence de limitations diffusionnelles extra-granulaires, les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec les prévisions théoriques . This article is a detailed examination of the technique of depositing platinum on an acid support by cation exchange with compétition. This technique produces both a quasi-atomic dispersion and a homogeneous macroscopic distribution of the métal onthe surface of the solid. In the absence of extragranular diffusion limitations, experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  16. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    Soft matter is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field covering a range of subject areas including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and engineering. Some of the important universal features of these materials are their mesoscopic structures and their dynamics. Due to the existence of such large-scale structures, which nevertheless exhibit interactions of the order of the thermal energy, soft matter can readily be taken out of equilibrium by imposing a weak external field such as an electric field, a mechanical stress or a shear flow. The importance of the coexistence of microscopic molecular dynamics and the mesoscopic/macroscopic structures and flows requires us to develop hierarchical approaches to understand the nonlinear and nonequilibrium phenomena, which is one of the central issues of current soft matter research. This special section presents selected contributions from the 'International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010' held from 17-20 August 2010 in Nara, Japan, which aimed to describe recent advances in soft matter research focusing especially on its nonequilibrium aspects. The topics discussed cover statics and dynamics of a wide variety of materials ranging from traditional soft matter like polymers, gels, emulsions, liquid crystals and colloids to biomaterials such as biopolymers and biomembranes. Among these studies, we highlighted the physics of biomembranes and vesicles, which has attracted great attention during the last decade; we organized a special session for this active field. The work presented in this issue deals with (1) structure formation in biomembranes and vesicles, (2) rheology of polymers and gels, (3) mesophases in block copolymers, (4) mesoscopic structures in liquid crystals and ionic liquids, and (5) nonequilibrium dynamics. This symposium was organized as part of a research project supported by the Grant-in-Aid for the priority area 'Soft Matter Physics' (2006-2010) from the Ministry of Education

  17. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion or dress, they will have an intimate relationship with textiles, as they are one...... with perhaps diverse and idiosyncratic movement capabilities; openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; and consideration of wearers’ intimate relations with technology. In this paper we discuss the opportunities and challenges of designing and using soft wearables, applying notions...

  18. Multi-residue quantification of veterinary drugs in milk with a novel extraction and cleanup technique: salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2014-04-11

    A quantitative liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of more than one hundred compounds belonging to a variety of veterinary drug classes in bovine milk. Salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE), a novel extraction and cleanup technique, was introduced to ensure high extraction efficiency and good sample cleanup. The high salt (ammonium sulfate) concentration in the aqueous donor phase permits supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE) with a relative polar organic acceptor phase (acetonitrile). This is different from traditional SLE, in which the need for phase separation results in the selection of organic solvents with intermediate polarities (e.g., ethyl acetate or dichloromethane). Hence, SOSLE is more efficient in recovering polar analytes than conventional SLE. SOSLE was also compared to classical approaches like solid phase extraction, QuEChERS and ultra-filtration. The proposed technique resulted in extracts of equal or superior cleanliness and with higher average recoveries than those obtained with QuEChERS or SPE. The recovery (median for all compounds) was 73% for QuEChERS, 83% for SPE and 91% for SOSLE. The most significant improvements were observed for polar analytes (penicillines, quinolones and tetracyclines) which are hardly recovered by QuEChERS. The chromatographic separation and detection was based on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap system (Q-Exactive plus). The developed analytical method has been validated (based on the commission decision 2002/957/EC) as required for quantitative veterinary drug methods.

  19. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Soft skills and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

  1. Porous decellularized adipose tissue foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Claire; Bianco, Juares; Brown, Cody; Fuetterer, Lydia; Watkins, John F; Samani, Abbas; Flynn, Lauren E

    2013-04-01

    To design tissue-specific bioscaffolds with well-defined properties and 3-D architecture, methods were developed for preparing porous foams from enzyme-solubilized human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). Additionally, a technique was established for fabricating "bead foams" comprised of interconnected networks of porous DAT beads fused through a controlled freeze-thawing and lyophilization procedure. In characterization studies, the foams were stable without the need for chemical crosslinking, with properties that could be tuned by controlling the protein concentration and freezing rate during synthesis. Adipogenic differentiation studies with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) suggested that stiffness influenced ASC adipogenesis on the foams. In support of our previous work with DAT scaffolds and microcarriers, the DAT foams and bead foams strongly supported adipogenesis and were also adipo-inductive, as demonstrated by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme activity, endpoint RT-PCR analysis of adipogenic gene expression, and intracellular lipid accumulation. Adipogenic differentiation was enhanced on the microporous DAT foams, potentially due to increased cell-cell interactions in this group. In vivo assessment in a subcutaneous Wistar rat model demonstrated that the DAT bioscaffolds were well tolerated and integrated into the host tissues, supporting angiogenesis and adipogenesis. The DAT-based foams induced a strong angiogenic response, promoted inflammatory cell migration and gradually resorbed over the course of 12 weeks, demonstrating potential as scaffolds for wound healing and soft tissue regeneration.

  2. Self Assembly in Soft Matter

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The term “soft matter” applies to a variety of physical systems, such as liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, and granular materials. The most fascinating aspect of soft matter lies in the fact that they are not atomic or molecular in nature. They are instead macromolecular aggregates, whose spatial extent lies in the domain 1 nm to 1 micron. Some of the most important examples of soft matter are polymers, which exhibit intriguing and useful physical properties. In this...

  3. Application of Intelligent Computing Techniques for the Interpretation and Analysis of Biological and Medical Data for Various Disease diagnosis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashri Raich , P.S.Kulkarni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays computer science is getting more and more involved in medicines and health services. Various AI techniques and soft computing techniques are used for the diagnosis of particular diseases for the betterment of patient health. Various clinical decision support systems are also been devised by the help of AI. Recent development in medical diagnosis includes various soft computing techniques, information processing and data mining techniques. Today various data mining techniques are also used to extract hidden information through clinical data. The aim of this paper is to introduce various intelligent computing techniques used for the medical diagnosis ofdiseases and a brief description about Nephritis and how its diagnosis could be done.

  4. Multiple Minimum Support-Based Rare Graph Pattern Mining Considering Symmetry Feature-Based Growth Technique and the Differing Importance of Graph Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent graph pattern mining is one of the most interesting areas in data mining, and many researchers have developed a variety of approaches by suggesting efficient, useful mining techniques by integration of fundamental graph mining with other advanced mining works. However, previous graph mining approaches have faced fatal problems that cannot consider important characteristics in the real world because they cannot process both (1 different element importance and (2 multiple minimum support thresholds suitable for each graph element. In other words, graph elements in the real world have not only frequency factors but also their own importance; in addition, various elements composing graphs may require different thresholds according to their characteristics. However, traditional ones do not consider such features. To overcome these issues, we propose a new frequent graph pattern mining method, which can deal with both different element importance and multiple minimum support thresholds. Through the devised algorithm, we can obtain more meaningful graph pattern results with higher importance. We also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has more outstanding performance compared to previous state-of-the-art approaches in terms of graph pattern generation, runtime, and memory usage.

  5. Modeling Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  6. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  7. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  8. Critical issues in soft rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ground are added, with emphasis on their types of problems and solutions.

  9. Dependencies between soft proofing and prepress production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In order to save time and money, more and more printing organizations are investing in on-line customer portals to allow uploading content and giving formal approvals based on soft proofs before the final production process (plate making and printing) can be initiated. The approvals are typically made on soft proofs of pages whereas, obviously, the images used for plate making are so-called imposed flats (a combination of pages rotated in such a way that the printed matter can be obtained after folding and cutting). The main goal of a soft proof of a page is to simulate accurately on a display device how the page will be finally printed. The quality expectations of a soft proof are very high since a formal approval implies contractual obligations from the printing organization. This quality, however, can be influenced by many parameters. By definition, soft proofs will be displayed on a monitor (being a light emitting device), whereas a print on paper can only be seen as the reflection of a light source. As a consequence, monitors can be described by an additive color model whereas printers or presses will be modeled by a subtractive color model. Other differences relate to how the image is generated: presses can only output binary information (ink or no ink) and continuous tones are simulated by using screening techniques whereas, on a monitor, a multi-level signal can generate different shades of a specific color. The differences described above are addressed by many color management systems available on the market today. An upcoming requirement in this area is that people do not only expect the color management software to behave well but also expect this software to validate its behavior. Another range of problems with soft proofs relates to the rendering (converting vector-based page data into bitmaps) and separation process. These can be divided in two classes: spatial issues (related to resolution differences, high-frequency patterns, aliasing problems etc

  10. Review of soft tissue augmentation in the face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available James NewmanFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CAFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: A primary pillar of facial rejuvenation is the replacement of soft tissue atrophy via a variety of augmentation techniques. The techniques can be classified into three categories, skeletal onlay grafts, subcutaneous volumizers, and dermal fillers. While onlay grafts and subcutaneous volumizers have the most persistent results, the emergence of improved dermal fillers in the past 5 years has become increasingly popular. An accurate diagnosis of the level(s of soft tissue atrophy in the face needs to be made prior to selection of the category or combination of techniques. In the younger patient, the selection of a dermal filler or combination of fillers can be adequate for treatment. A comparison of the composition and characteristics of the available dermal fillers are discussed in detail to assist the clinician in understanding the actual mechanism of soft tissue augmentation. In the more advanced aging face, a combination of the three categories may be necessary to produce optimal results. Just as dermal fillers have become more differentiated to increase their longevity, the non-injectible long-lasting implants are becoming more developed to mimic accurate viscoelastic properties of the facial soft tissues. All three classes of augmentation techniques can provide patients with very satisfactory results as part of overall facial rejuvenation.Keywords: soft tissue, dermal fillers, facial implants, facial augmentation

  11. Bubbles Rising Through a Soft Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mestre, Robin; MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Sungyon

    2016-11-01

    Bubble migration through a soft granular material involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This is relevant to a variety of natural processes such as gas venting from sediments and gas exsolution from magma. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air bubbles into a quasi-2D packing of soft hydrogel beads and measuring the size, speed, and morphology of the bubbles as they rise due to buoyancy. Whereas previous work has focused on deformation resisted by intergranular friction, we focus on the previously inaccessible regime of deformation resisted by elasticity. At low confining stress, the bubbles are irregular and rounded, migrating via local rearrangement. At high confining stress, the bubbles become unstable and branched, migrating via pathway opening. The authors thank The Royal Society for support (International Exchanges Ref IE150885).

  12. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  13. Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Jang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.

  14. Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David A; Bain, Colin D

    2014-02-28

    Total internal reflection (TIR) spectroscopy is a widely used technique to study soft matter at interfaces. This tutorial review aims to provide researchers with an overview of the principles, experimental design and applications of TIR spectroscopy to enable them to understand how this class of techniques might be used in their research. It also highlights limitations and pitfalls of TIR techniques, which will assist readers in critically analysing the literature. Techniques covered include attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), TIR fluorescence, TIR Raman scattering and cavity-enhanced techniques. Other related techniques are briefly described.

  15. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  16. Soft tissue lipoleiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurry, J P; Carey, M P; Targett, C S; Dowling, J P

    1991-10-01

    A primary tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and smooth muscle occurring in the anterior abdominal wall of a 46 yr old Filipino woman is described. The tumor was not attached to the uterus, but had an appearance similar to a uterine lipoleiomyoma. It appeared as a soft, rubbery, encapsulated 11 cm ovoid mass with a uniform, white cut surface. Histologically, there were long intersecting bundles of bland smooth muscle mixed with nests of mature fat cells. The presence of differentiated smooth muscle was confirmed by fuchsinophilia, desmin positivity and electron microscopy. The patient also had 6 intramural leiomyomas, an area of adenomyosis, a subcutaneous lipoma of the subscapular region and chronic schistosomiasis of the appendix and left adnexa.

  17. Myoepithelioma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mukhta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors involving deep subcutaneous and subfascial soft tissues of limb or limb girdle are rare lesions as against salivary lesions that are well established conditions. Here, we report a 22-year-old female who presented with painful hard swelling in the left gluteal region of 1½ year duration. MRI showed a large ill-defined heterogeneous mass lesion measuring about 7-8 cm. in the left sacral region eroding the left sacroiliac region and left sacroiliac joint. With a clinical diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, the tumor with the surrounding tissue was resected in segments at surgery. Histomorphology revealed nests, sheets and cords of round to spindled cells with extensive squamous metaplasia in a myxoid to fibrous stroma. These cells extensively infiltrated muscle and bone. The tumor cells expressed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and S-100.

  18. Electrostatic interaction of soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Theories of the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles (i.e., particles covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes) in an electrolyte solution are reviewed. Interactions of soft particles after contact of their surface layers are particularly discussed. Interaction in a salt-free medium and the discrete-charge effect are also treated.

  19. Fuzzy Soft Compact Topological Spaces

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    Seema Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied compactness in fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a generalization of the corresponding concept by R. Lowen in the case of fuzzy topological spaces. Several basic desirable results have been established. In particular, we have proved the counterparts of Alexander’s subbase lemma and Tychonoff theorem for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284